Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.

Sequence of the genomic RNA of nudaurelia beta virus (Tetraviridae) defines a novel virus genome organization. (1/491)

The monopartite genome of Nudaurelia beta virus, the type species of the Betatetravirus genus of the family Tetraviridae, consists of a single-stranded positive-sense RNA (ss+RNA) of 6625 nucleotides containing two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5' proximal ORF of 5778 nucleotides encodes a protein of 215 kDa containing three functional domains characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of ss+RNA viruses. The 3' proximal ORF of 1836 nucleotides, which encodes the 66-kDa capsid precursor protein, overlaps the replicase gene by more than 99% (1827 nucleotides) and is in the +1 reading frame relative to the replicase reading frame. This capsid precursor is expressed via a 2656-nucleotide subgenomic RNA. The 3' terminus of the genome can be folded into a tRNA-like secondary structure that has a valine anticodon; the tRNA-like structure lacks a pseudoknot in the aminoacyl stem, a feature common to both genera of tetraviruses. Comparison of the sequences of Nudaurelia beta virus and another member of the Tetraviridae, Helicoverpa armigera stunt virus, which is in the genus Omegatetravirus, shows identities of 31.6% for the replicase and 24.5% for the capsid protein. The viruses in the genera Betatetravirus and Omegatetravirus of the Tetraviridae are clearly related but show significant differences in their genome organization. It is concluded that the ancestral virus with a bipartite genome, as found in the genus Omegatetravirus, likely evolved from a virus with an unsegmented genome, as found in the genus Betatetravirus, through evolution of the subgenomic RNA into a separate genomic component, with the accompanying loss of the capsid gene from the longer genomic RNA.  (+info)

Circular configuration of the genome of ascoviruses. (2/491)

A circular configuration of genomic DNA was observed in ascoviruses isolated from two species of insects of the family Noctuidae [fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea)] using restriction endonuclease (REN) digestion, conventional gel electrophoresis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization analysis. This circular configuration of ascovirus genomic DNA was established based on the difference between linear and circular DNA in the numbers of fragments resolved on agarose gel electrophoresis after single and double REN digestion. Genomic DNA of ascoviruses was found to be sheared after purification.  (+info)

The nucleotide sequence of sacbrood virus of the honey bee: an insect picorna-like virus. (3/491)

We have determined the nucleotide sequence of sacbrood virus (SBV), which causes a fatal infection of honey bee larvae. The genomic RNA of SBV is longer than that of typical mammalian picornaviruses (8832 nucleotides) and contains a single, large open reading frame (179-8752) encoding a polyprotein of 2858 amino acids. Sequence comparison with other virus polyproteins revealed regions of similarity to characterized helicase, protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains; structural genes were located at the 5' terminus with non-structural genes at the 3' end. Picornavirus-like agents of insects have two distinct genomic organizations; some resemble mammalian picornaviruses with structural genes at the 5' end and non-structural genes at the 3' end, and others resemble caliciviruses in which this order is reversed; SBV thus belongs to the former type. Sequence comparison suggested that SBV is distantly related to infectious flacherie virus (IFV) of the silk worm, which possesses an RNA of similar size and gene order.  (+info)

A highly membrane-active peptide in Flock House virus: implications for the mechanism of nodavirus infection. (4/491)

BACKGROUND: Nodaviruses are among the simplest animal viruses, and are therefore attractive systems for deconvoluting core viral processes such as assembly, infection and uncoating. Membrane translocation of the single-stranded RNA genome of nodaviruses has been proposed to be mediated by direct lipid-protein interactions between a post-assembly autocatalytic cleavage product from the capsomere and the target membrane. To probe the validity of this hypothesis, we have synthesized a 21-residue Met-->Nle (norleucine) variant of the amino-terminal helical domain (denoted here as gamma1) of the cleavage peptide in Flock House nodavirus (FHV) and studied its ability to alter membrane structure and function. RESULTS: The synthetic peptide gamma1 increases membrane permeability to hydrophilic solutes, as judged by fluorescence experiments with liposome-encapsulated dyes and ion-conductance measurements. Furthermore, peptide orientation and location within lipid bilayers was determined using tryptophan-fluorescence-quenching experiments and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The helical domain of the FHV cleavage product partitions spontaneously into lipid bilayers and increases membrane permeability, consistent with the postulated mechanism for viral genome translocation. The existence of a membrane-binding domain in the FHV cleavage sequence suggests peptide-triggered disruption of the endosomal membrane as a prelude to viral uncoating in the host cytoplasm. A model for this interaction is proposed.  (+info)

A novel capsid expression strategy for Thosea asigna virus (Tetraviridae). (5/491)

This paper presents evidence that Thosea asigna virus (TaV) has a unique capsid expression strategy and is a member of the Nudaurelia beta-like genus of the Tetraviridae. Electron microscopy of TaV particles indicated a 38 nm, T = 4 icosahedral capsid similar in structure to that of Nudaurelia beta virus (NbetaV). TaV particles have a buoyant density of 1.296 g/cm3 in CsCl and consist of two capsid proteins of 56 and 6 kDa. The virus genome contains a genomic RNA molecule of 6.5 kb and a subgenomic molecule of 2.5 kb. Northern blotting of TaV RNA indicated a genomic organization similar to that of NbetaV. The capsid gene of TaV is carried on both the genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, while the RNA polymerase gene is present only on the genomic RNA. Cloning and sequencing of the TaV capsid gene identified an open reading frame that could potentially encode a capsid precursor protein of up to 82.5 kDa. The N-terminal sequences of the capsid proteins were compared with the nucleotide sequence of the capsid open reading frame. The sequences indicate that the pre-protein is cleaved at two positions to produce the 56 and 6 kDa capsid proteins as well as a predicted third protein that was not detected in the mature virion. Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid proteins indicated that TaV is more closely related to NbetaV than to the Nudaurelia omega-like viruses. The eight beta-sheets that make up a jelly roll structure in the TaV capsid protein were identified by computer analysis.  (+info)

Induction and maintenance of autonomous flock house virus RNA1 replication. (6/491)

The nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) has a bipartite, positive-sense, RNA genome that encodes the catalytic subunit of the RNA replicase and the viral capsid protein precursor on separate genomic segments (RNA1 and RNA2, respectively). RNA1 can replicate autonomously when transfected into permissive cells, allowing study of the kinetics of RNA1 replication in the absence of either RNA2 or capsid proteins. However, RNA1 replication ceases ca. 3 days after transfection despite the presence of replication-competent RNA. We examined this inhibition by inducing the expression of RNA1 in cells from a cDNA copy that was under the control of a hormone-regulated RNA polymerase II promoter. This system reproduced the shutoff of RNA replication when DNA-templated primary transcription was turned off. Continued primary transcription partially alleviated the shutoff and maintained the rate of RNA replication for several days at a steady-state level approximately one-third that of the peak rate. After shutoff, RNA replication could be restored by transferring the resulting intracellular RNA to fresh cells or by reinducing primary transcription, indicating that cessation of replication occurred despite the competence of both the viral RNA and the cytoplasmic environment. These data suggest that there is a mechanism by which replication is shut off at late times after transfection, which may reflect the natural endpoint of the replicative cycle.  (+info)

Methionine-independent initiation of translation in the capsid protein of an insect RNA virus. (7/491)

Protein synthesis is believed to be initiated with the amino acid methionine because the AUG translation initiation codon of mRNAs is recognized by the anticodon of initiator methionine transfer RNA. A group of positive-stranded RNA viruses of insects, however, lacks an AUG translation initiation codon for their capsid protein gene, which is located at the downstream part of the genome. The capsid protein of one of these viruses, Plautia stali intestine virus, is synthesized by internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Here we report that methionine is not the initiating amino acid in the translation of the capsid protein in this virus. Its translation is initiated with glutamine encoded by a CAA codon that is the first codon of the capsid-coding region. The nucleotide sequence immediately upstream of the capsid-coding region interacts with a loop segment in the stem-loop structure located 15-43 nt upstream of the 5' end of the capsid-coding region. The pseudoknot structure formed by this base pair interaction is essential for translation of the capsid protein. This mechanism for translation initiation differs from the conventional one in that the initiation step controlled by the initiator methionine transfer RNA is not necessary.  (+info)

Characterization and construction of functional cDNA clones of Pariacoto virus, the first Alphanodavirus isolated outside Australasia. (8/491)

Pariacoto virus (PaV) was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). PaV particles are isometric, nonenveloped, and about 30 nm in diameter. The virus has a bipartite RNA genome and a single major capsid protein with a molecular mass of 39.0 kDa, features that support its classification as a Nodavirus. As such, PaV is the first Alphanodavirus to have been isolated from outside Australasia. Here we report that PaV replicates in wax moth larvae and that PaV genomic RNAs replicate when transfected into cultured baby hamster kidney cells. The complete nucleotide sequences of both segments of the bipartite RNA genome were determined. The larger genome segment, RNA1, is 3,011 nucleotides long and contains a 973-amino-acid open reading frame (ORF) encoding protein A, the viral contribution to the RNA replicase. During replication, a 414-nucleotide long subgenomic RNA (RNA3) is synthesized which is coterminal with the 3' end of RNA1. RNA3 contains a small ORF which could encode a protein of 90 amino acids similar to the B2 protein of other alphanodaviruses. RNA2 contains 1,311 nucleotides and encodes the 401 amino acids of the capsid protein precursor alpha. The amino acid sequences of the PaV capsid protein and the replicase subunit share 41 and 26% identity with homologous proteins of Flock house virus, the best characterized of the alphanodaviruses. These and other sequence comparisons indicate that PaV is evolutionarily the most distant of the alphanodaviruses described to date, consistent with its novel geographic origin. Although the PaV capsid precursor is cleaved into the two mature capsid proteins beta and gamma, the amino acid sequence at the cleavage site, which is Asn/Ala in all other alphanodaviruses, is Asn/Ser in PaV. To facilitate the investigation of PaV replication in cultured cells, we constructed plasmids that transcribed full-length PaV RNAs with authentic 5' and 3' termini. Transcription of these plasmids in cells recreated the replication of PaV RNA1 and RNA2, synthesis of subgenomic RNA3, and translation of viral proteins A and alpha.  (+info)

Insect viruses, also known as entomoviruses, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate in insect hosts. These viruses can be found in various insect species, including those of medical and agricultural importance. Insect viruses can cause diseases in insect populations, leading to significant impacts on their growth, development, and survival. Some insect viruses have been studied as potential biological control agents for managing pest insects that affect crops or transmit diseases. Examples of insect viruses include Baculoviridae, Reoviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Ascoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect and replicate in the cells of lepidopteran insects (moths and butterflies). The name "ascovirus" comes from the characteristic inclusion bodies, called ascus, that these viruses form within the infected host cells. Ascoviruses are unique among animal viruses because they have a complex life cycle involving both sexual and asexual reproduction. They are transmitted horizontally between hosts through the ingestion of virus-infected insect eggs or larvae, and can also be vertically transmitted from infected female moths to their offspring. Ascoviruses cause diseases that can lead to significant mortality in insect populations, particularly in agricultural settings where they can impact pest control efforts. However, due to their narrow host range and complex life cycle, ascoviruses are not considered a threat to human or animal health.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Moths" are not a medical term, but rather they are a group of insects closely related to butterflies. They belong to the order Lepidoptera and are characterized by their scales covering their wings and body. If you have any questions about moths or if you meant to ask something else, please let me know!

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Baculoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect arthropods, particularly insects. The virions (virus particles) are enclosed in a rod-shaped or occlusion body called a polyhedron, which provides protection and stability in the environment. Baculoviruses have a wide host range within the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants), and Diptera (flies). They are important pathogens in agriculture and forestry, causing significant damage to insect pests.

The Baculoviridae family is divided into four genera: Alphabaculovirus, Betabaculovirus, Gammabaculovirus, and Deltabaculovirus. The two most well-studied and economically important genera are Alphabaculovirus (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses or NPVs) and Betabaculovirus (granulosis viruses or GVs).

Baculoviruses have a biphasic replication cycle, consisting of a budded phase and an occluded phase. During the budded phase, the virus infects host cells and produces enveloped virions that can spread to other cells within the insect. In the occluded phase, large numbers of non-enveloped virions are produced and encapsidated in a protein matrix called a polyhedron. These polyhedra accumulate in the infected insect's tissues, providing protection from environmental degradation and facilitating transmission to new hosts through oral ingestion or other means.

Baculoviruses have been extensively studied as models for understanding viral replication, gene expression, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology and pest control, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy vectors, and environmentally friendly insecticides.

"Spodoptera" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the insect family Noctuidae. It includes several species of moths commonly known as armyworms or cutworms due to their habit of consuming leaves and roots of various plants, causing significant damage to crops.

Some well-known species in this genus are Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm), Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm), and Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). These pests can be a concern for medical entomology when they transmit pathogens or cause allergic reactions. For instance, their frass (feces) and shed skins may trigger asthma symptoms in susceptible individuals. However, the insects themselves are not typically considered medical issues unless they directly affect human health.

Sequence homology is a term used in molecular biology to describe the similarity between the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of two or more genes or proteins. It is a measure of the degree to which the sequences are related, indicating a common evolutionary origin.

In other words, sequence homology implies that the compared sequences have a significant number of identical or similar residues in the same order, suggesting that they share a common ancestor and have diverged over time through processes such as mutation, insertion, deletion, or rearrangement. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more closely related the sequences are likely to be.

Sequence homology is often used to identify similarities between genes or proteins from different species, which can provide valuable insights into their functions, structures, and evolutionary relationships. It is commonly assessed using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms, such as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool), Clustal Omega, and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) methods.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

Measles virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. It is the causative agent of measles, a highly contagious infectious disease characterized by fever, cough, runny nose, and a red, blotchy rash. The virus primarily infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body via the bloodstream.

The genome of the measles virus is approximately 16 kilobases in length and encodes for eight proteins: nucleocapsid (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), hemagglutinin (H), large protein (L), and two non-structural proteins, V and C. The H protein is responsible for binding to the host cell receptor CD150 (SLAM) and mediating viral entry, while the F protein facilitates fusion of the viral and host cell membranes.

Measles virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals. The virus can remain airborne for up to two hours in a closed space, making it highly contagious. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which has led to significant reductions in the incidence of the disease worldwide.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the nervous system of mammals, including humans. It's caused by the rabies virus (RV), which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus has a bullet-shaped appearance under an electron microscope and is encased in a lipid envelope.

The rabies virus primarily spreads through the saliva of infected animals, usually via bites. Once inside the body, it travels along nerve fibers to the brain, where it multiplies rapidly and causes inflammation (encephalitis). The infection can lead to symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, paralysis, coma, and ultimately death if left untreated.

Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but prompt post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes vaccination and sometimes rabies immunoglobulin, can prevent the disease from developing when administered after an exposure to a potentially rabid animal. Pre-exposure vaccination is also recommended for individuals at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians and travelers visiting rabies-endemic areas.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

"Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes respiratory illness and is known to circulate in humans and animals, including birds and pigs. The "H3N2" refers to the two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H protein is of the H3 variety and the N protein is of the N2 variety. This subtype has been responsible for several influenza epidemics and pandemics in humans, including the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic. It is one of the influenza viruses that are monitored closely by public health authorities due to its potential to cause significant illness and death, particularly in high-risk populations such as older adults, young children, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is an Flavivirus, which is a type of virus that is spread by mosquitoes. It was first discovered in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937 and has since been found in many countries throughout the world. WNV can cause a mild to severe illness known as West Nile fever.

Most people who become infected with WNV do not develop any symptoms, but some may experience fever, headache, body aches, joint pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or a rash. In rare cases, the virus can cause serious neurological illnesses such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord). These severe forms of the disease can be fatal, especially in older adults and people with weakened immune systems.

WNV is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, but it can also be spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no specific treatment for WNV, and most people recover on their own with rest and supportive care. However, hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites by using insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito activity hours.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Respiratory Syncytial Viruses (RSV) are a common type of virus that cause respiratory infections, particularly in young children and older adults. They are responsible for inflammation and narrowing of the small airways in the lungs, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms associated with bronchiolitis and pneumonia.

The term "syncytial" refers to the ability of these viruses to cause infected cells to merge and form large multinucleated cells called syncytia, which is a characteristic feature of RSV infections. The virus spreads through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes, and it can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making transmission easy.

RSV infections are most common during the winter months and can cause mild to severe symptoms depending on factors such as age, overall health, and underlying medical conditions. While RSV is typically associated with respiratory illnesses in children, it can also cause significant disease in older adults and immunocompromised individuals. Currently, there is no vaccine available for RSV, but antiviral medications and supportive care are used to manage severe infections.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Viral activation, also known as viral reactivation or virus reactivation, refers to the process in which a latent or dormant virus becomes active and starts to replicate within a host cell. This can occur when the immune system is weakened or compromised, allowing the virus to evade the body's natural defenses and cause disease.

In some cases, viral activation can be triggered by certain environmental factors, such as stress, exposure to UV light, or infection with another virus. Once activated, the virus can cause symptoms similar to those seen during the initial infection, or it may lead to new symptoms depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response.

Examples of viruses that can remain dormant in the body and be reactivated include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). It is important to note that not all viruses can be reactivated, and some may remain dormant in the body indefinitely without causing any harm.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus (VSIV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae and genus Vesiculovirus. It is the causative agent of vesicular stomatitis (VS), a viral disease that primarily affects horses and cattle, but can also infect other species including swine, sheep, goats, and humans.

The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their saliva, as well as through insect vectors such as black flies and sandflies. The incubation period for VS ranges from 2 to 8 days, after which infected animals develop fever, lethargy, and vesicular lesions in the mouth, nose, and feet. These lesions can be painful and may cause difficulty eating or walking.

In humans, VSIV infection is typically asymptomatic or causes mild flu-like symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and headache. Occasionally, individuals may develop vesicular lesions on their skin or mucous membranes, particularly if they have had contact with infected animals.

Diagnosis of VSIV infection is typically made through virus isolation from lesion exudates or blood, as well as through serological testing. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at relieving symptoms, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for VS. Prevention measures include vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control, and biosecurity measures to prevent the spread of infection between animals.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Virus latency, also known as viral latency, refers to a state of infection in which a virus remains dormant or inactive within a host cell for a period of time. During this phase, the virus does not replicate or cause any noticeable symptoms. However, under certain conditions such as stress, illness, or a weakened immune system, the virus can become reactivated and begin to produce new viruses, potentially leading to disease.

One well-known example of a virus that exhibits latency is the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox in children. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains dormant in the nervous system for years or even decades. In some cases, the virus can reactivate later in life, causing shingles, a painful rash that typically occurs on one side of the body.

Virus latency is an important concept in virology and infectious disease research, as it has implications for understanding the persistence of viral infections, developing treatments and vaccines, and predicting the risk of disease recurrence.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

'Insect control' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to the methods and practices used to manage or reduce the population of insects that can be harmful or disruptive to human health, food supply, or property. This can include various strategies such as chemical pesticides, biological control agents, habitat modification, and other integrated pest management techniques.

In medical terms, 'vector control' is a more relevant concept, which refers to the specific practices used to reduce or prevent the transmission of infectious diseases by insects and other arthropods that act as disease vectors (such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas). Vector control measures may include the use of insecticides, larvicides, biological control agents, environmental management, personal protection methods, and other integrated vector management strategies.

Oncogenic viruses are a type of viruses that have the ability to cause cancer in host cells. They do this by integrating their genetic material into the DNA of the infected host cell, which can lead to the disruption of normal cellular functions and the activation of oncogenes (genes that have the potential to cause cancer). This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Examples of oncogenic viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is important to note that only a small proportion of viral infections lead to cancer, and the majority of cancers are not caused by viruses.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemiptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order in the classification of living things, also known as "true bugs." This group includes species such as cicadas, aphids, and bedbugs. If you have a medical term in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) is a retrovirus that primarily infects African non-human primates and is the direct ancestor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2). It is similar to HIV in its structure, replication strategy, and ability to cause an immunodeficiency disease in its host. SIV infection in its natural hosts is typically asymptomatic and non-lethal, but it can cause AIDS-like symptoms in other primate species. Research on SIV in its natural hosts has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis and potential strategies for prevention and treatment of AIDS.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lepidoptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order that includes moths and butterflies, which are insects known for their distinctive wing scales. This term is used in the field of biology, not medicine.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological and behavioral processes in insects. They are produced and released by endocrine glands and organs, such as the corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and neurosecretory cells located in the brain. Insect hormones play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, diapause (a state of dormancy), metamorphosis, molting, and other vital functions. Some well-known insect hormones include juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids (such as 20-hydroxyecdysone), and neuropeptides like the brain hormone and adipokinetic hormone. These hormones act through specific receptors, often transmembrane proteins, to elicit intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or organ function. Understanding insect hormones is essential for developing novel strategies for pest management and control, as well as for advancing our knowledge of insect biology and evolution.

Mosaic viruses are a group of plant viruses that can cause mottled or mosaic patterns of discoloration on leaves, which is why they're named as such. These viruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like tobacco, tomatoes, and cucumbers. The infection can lead to various symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf deformation, reduced yield, or even plant death.

Mosaic viruses are typically spread by insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants and then transmit the virus to healthy plants. They can also be spread through contaminated seeds, tools, or contact with infected plant material. Once inside a plant, these viruses hijack the plant's cellular machinery to replicate themselves, causing damage to the host plant in the process.

It is important to note that mosaic viruses are not related to human or animal health; they only affect plants.

The Mumps virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and Rubulavirus genus. It is the causative agent of mumps, an acute infectious disease characterized by painful swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands.

The Mumps virus has a spherical or pleomorphic shape with a diameter of approximately 150-250 nanometers. It is surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane derived from the host cell, which contains viral glycoproteins that facilitate attachment and entry into host cells.

The M protein, located beneath the envelope, plays a crucial role in virus assembly and budding. The genome of the Mumps virus consists of eight genes encoding nine proteins, including two major structural proteins (nucleocapsid protein and matrix protein) and several non-structural proteins involved in viral replication and pathogenesis.

Transmission of the Mumps virus occurs through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected saliva. After infection, the incubation period ranges from 12 to 25 days, followed by a prodromal phase characterized by fever, headache, malaise, and muscle pain. The characteristic swelling of the parotid glands usually appears 1-3 days after the onset of symptoms.

Complications of mumps can include meningitis, encephalitis, orchitis, oophoritis, pancreatitis, and deafness. Prevention relies on vaccination with the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is highly effective in preventing mumps and its complications.

Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human (HPIV-1) is a type of respiratory virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Respirovirus. It is one of the four serotypes of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), which are important causes of acute respiratory infections in children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

HPIV-1 primarily infects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and fever. However, it can also cause lower respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, particularly in young children and infants.

HPIV-1 is transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected individuals. The incubation period for HPIV-1 infection ranges from 2 to 7 days, after which symptoms can last for up to 10 days. There is no specific antiviral treatment available for HPIV-1 infections, and management typically involves supportive care such as hydration, fever reduction, and respiratory support if necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and practicing cough etiquette. Vaccines are not currently available for HPIV-1 infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

A genome in the context of insects refers to the complete set of genetic material, including all of the DNA and RNA, that is present in the cells of an insect. The genome contains all of the genes that provide the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the insect. It also includes non-coding regions of DNA that may have regulatory functions or may be the result of historical processes.

The genome of an insect is typically divided into several chromosomes, which are structures in the cell's nucleus that contain long stretches of DNA. The number and appearance of these chromosomes can vary between different species of insects. For example, some insects may have a diploid number of two sets of chromosomes (one set from each parent), while others may have a haploid number of a single set of chromosomes.

The genome size of insects can also vary significantly, with some species having genomes that are only a few hundred million base pairs in length, while others have genomes that are several billion base pairs long. The genome sequence of an insect can provide valuable insights into its evolutionary history, as well as information about the genes and regulatory elements that are important for its biology and behavior.

Insect repellents are substances that are applied to the skin, clothing, or other surfaces to deter insects from landing or crawling on that surface. They work by masking the scents that attract insects or by repelling them with unpleasant odors. Insect repellents can be chemical-based, such as those containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), picaridin, or IR3535, or they can be natural, such as those containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or citronella. These substances work by interfering with the insect's ability to detect human scent, making it less likely that they will come into contact with the person using the repellent. Insect repellents are an important tool in preventing insect-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, West Nile virus, and Zika virus.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the causative agent of hepatitis A, a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family and Hepatovirus genus. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water, or close contact with an infected person. After entering the body, HAV infects hepatocytes in the liver, leading to liver damage and associated symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and nausea. The immune system eventually clears the infection, providing lifelong immunity against future HAV infections. Preventive measures include vaccination and practicing good hygiene to prevent transmission.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Avian sarcoma viruses (ASVs) are a group of retroviruses that primarily infect birds and cause various types of tumors, particularly sarcomas. These viruses contain an oncogene, which is a gene that has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. The oncogene in ASVs is often derived from cellular genes called proto-oncogenes, which are normally involved in regulating cell growth and division.

ASVs can be divided into two main types: non-defective and defective. Non-defective ASVs contain a complete set of viral genes that allow them to replicate independently, while defective ASVs lack some of the necessary viral genes and require assistance from other viruses to replicate.

One well-known example of an avian sarcoma virus is the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which was first discovered in chickens by Peyton Rous in 1910. RSV causes a highly malignant form of sarcoma in chickens and has been extensively studied as a model system for cancer research. The oncogene in RSV is called v-src, which is derived from the normal cellular gene c-src.

Avian sarcoma viruses have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and have provided valuable insights into the role of oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious agent that causes Bluetongue disease, a non-contagious viral disease affecting sheep and other ruminants. It is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. The virus is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species and can infect various animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants.

The virus has a double-stranded RNA genome and consists of ten segments that encode seven structural and four non-structural proteins. The clinical signs of Bluetongue disease in sheep include fever, salivation, swelling of the head and neck, nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, which can be severe or fatal. In contrast, cattle usually show milder symptoms or are asymptomatic, although they can serve as reservoirs for the virus.

Bluetongue virus is an important veterinary pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the global sheep industry. The disease is prevalent in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, but has also spread to temperate areas due to climate change and the movement of infected animals. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, insect control, and restricting the movement of infected animals.

BK virus, also known as BK polyomavirus, is a type of virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of a patient in whom the virus was first isolated. The BK virus is a common infection in humans and is typically acquired during childhood. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the body, often found in the urinary tract and kidneys.

In immunocompetent individuals, the virus usually does not cause any significant problems. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation or have HIV/AIDS, BK virus can lead to severe complications. One of the most common manifestations of BK virus infection in immunocompromised individuals is hemorrhagic cystitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and bleeding in the bladder. In transplant recipients, BK virus can also cause nephropathy, leading to kidney damage or even failure.

There is no specific treatment for BK virus infection, but antiviral medications may be used to help control the virus's replication in some cases. Maintaining a strong immune system and monitoring viral load through regular testing are essential strategies for managing BK virus infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Viruses, Unclassified" is not a recognized medical or scientific category. Generally, viruses are classified based on various characteristics such as genome structure, mode of replication, host range, and symptoms they cause. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) is the organization responsible for the formal classification of viruses.

If you have any specific questions about certain unclassified viral entities or phenomena, I'd be happy to help if I can! Please provide more context so I can give a more accurate and helpful response.

The JC (John Cunningham) virus, also known as human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2), is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of the patient in whom it was first identified.

JC virus is a ubiquitous virus, meaning that it is commonly found in the general population worldwide. Most people get infected with JC virus during childhood and do not experience any symptoms. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the kidneys and other organs of the body.

However, in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation, JC virus can reactivate and cause a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the white matter of the brain, causing cognitive decline, weakness, and paralysis.

There is currently no cure for PML, and treatment is focused on managing the underlying immune deficiency and controlling the symptoms of the disease.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily affects chickens and other birds. It is responsible for a group of diseases known as avian leukosis, which includes various types of tumors and immunosuppressive conditions. The virus is transmitted horizontally through the shedder's dander, feathers, and vertical transmission through infected eggs.

There are several subgroups of ALV (A, B, C, D, E, and J), each with different host ranges and pathogenicity. Some strains can cause rapid death in young chickens, while others may take years to develop clinical signs. The most common form of the disease is neoplastic, characterized by the development of various types of tumors such as lymphomas, myelomas, and sarcomas.

Avian leukosis virus infection can have significant economic impacts on the poultry industry due to decreased growth rates, increased mortality, and condemnation of infected birds at processing. Control measures include eradication programs, biosecurity practices, vaccination, and breeding for genetic resistance.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which are the causative agents of flu in humans and animals. These viruses are enveloped, meaning they have a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, and have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. The genome is segmented, meaning it consists of several separate pieces of RNA, which allows for genetic reassortment or "shuffling" when two different strains infect the same cell, leading to the emergence of new strains.

The viral envelope contains two major glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein is responsible for binding to host cells and facilitating entry into the cell, while NA helps release newly formed virus particles from infected cells by cleaving sialic acid residues on the host cell surface.

Orthomyxoviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, with influenza A viruses being the most virulent and capable of causing pandemics. Influenza B viruses typically cause less severe illness and are primarily found in humans, while influenza C viruses generally cause mild upper respiratory symptoms and are also mainly restricted to humans.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans. Orthomyxoviridae infections are typically characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue.

Influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur mainly during the winter months in temperate climates. Influenza A viruses can also cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks of disease that occur when a new strain of the virus emerges to which there is little or no immunity in the human population.

Influenza C viruses are less common and typically cause milder illness than influenza A and B viruses. They do not cause epidemics and are not usually included in seasonal flu vaccines.

Orthomyxoviridae infections can be prevented through vaccination, good respiratory hygiene (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), hand washing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat influenza A and B infections, particularly for people at high risk of complications, such as older adults, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Miller, L.K.; Ball, L.A. (2012). The Insect Viruses. The Viruses. Springer US. ISBN 978-1-4615-5341-0. Retrieved 2016-05-13. " ... The virus only shares a significant portion of the same amino acid sequence with the Nodamura virus, which is a similar ... Still a very rare virus, Boolarra virus can only be found in a very small population of moths that is endemic to the region of ... Boolarra virus typically measures around 30 nano-meters and is approximately 21 percent RNA. Boolarra virus is characterized by ...
... common for insect genes but rare for viruses) and a low coding density the genome of each virus is integrated into the host ... and the virus. The full genome of the virus is endogenous, dispersed among the genome of the wasp. The virus only replicates in ... The Insect Viruses. Plenum Publishing Corporation. pp. 105-139. Strand, MR; Burke, GR (May 2015). "Polydnaviruses: From ... The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts for the virus, and Lepidoptera serve as ...
Polydnaviruses are a unique group of insect viruses that have a mutualistic relationship with some parasitic wasps. The ... ISBN 978-1-118-84615-5. Miller, Lois K.; Ball, Laurence Andrew (1998). The insect viruses. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-45881-1. ... Roossinck, M. J. (2011). "Changes in population dynamics in mutualistic versus pathogenic viruses". Viruses. 3 (12): 12-19. doi ... The Insect Viruses. Springer, Boston, MA. pp. 105-139. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-5341-0_5. ISBN 9781461374374. ...
Because the virus only infects L. dispar, it has proven safe for use with other insects including ants, bees and non-target ... The appearance is listed as, "dried insect body parts and virus polyhedral" and has a musty odor. For handlers and mixers, ... The virus instead drives the larva to the canopy of the tree and die. The exact mechanism for how the virus induces the larva ... Due to the virus' effect on the infected larvae, various reports of zombie caterpillars popularized the virus at the time of ...
1977). John Wiley & Sons, New York, ISBN 0-471-24520-8 Esau, Katherine (1961). Plants, Viruses, and Insects. Harvard University ... After that company failed, Esau worked for the Spreckels Sugar Company on sugar beet resistance to curly top virus.: 33-34 In ... Her early work in plant anatomy focused on the effect of viruses on plants, specifically on plant tissue and development. Her ... She soon discovered that the virus spread through the plants along the phloem. She began applying electron microscopy to her ...
Vision (7 August 2012). "Uganda's Top Expert on Insect Viruses". New Vision. Kampala. Retrieved 31 October 2016. Musasizi, ... Upon graduation from the MMed program, he joined the East African Virus Research Institute (EAVRI), a department of the East ... African Community, which is now known as the Uganda Virus Research Institute. He served as a research officer before becoming ...
The potentiated viruses kill the insects faster, resulting in less damage to the crops. Loret EP, Martin-Eauclaire MF, ... Baculoviruses are themselves insect-specific viruses; they can be potentiated if they express the AaHIT gene. ... The insect-specific trait most likely derives from the presence of a specific structured loop in the insect VGSCs. In spite of ... Four different insect toxins, namely AaHIT1, AaHIT2, AaHIT4 and AaHIT5, can be distinguished. It targets insects, except AaHIT4 ...
1-4. Wang, Xiao-Wei; Blanc, Stéphane (2021-01-07). "Insect Transmission of Plant Single-Stranded DNA Viruses". Annual Review of ... Wikispecies has information related to Banana bunchy top virus. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Banana bunchy top virus ... Acquisition of the virus by the banana aphid requires about 18 hours of feeding and then the aphid can retain the virus for ... Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a plant pathogenic virus of the family Nanoviridae known for infecting banana plants and ...
"Interaction of Viruses with the Insect Intestine". Annual Review of Virology. 8 (1): 115-131. doi:10.1146/annurev-virology- ... act as strong oxidizers in insects. Although this oxidizing agent is safe in vertebrates, it is very damaging to insects. ... For example, some insects that are resistant to the insecticide DDT shed large amounts of the toxin in the peritrophic matrix. ... However, heme groups ingested in a blood meal bind to proteins on the peritrophic matrix, enabling insects to safely feed on ...
Chiu, E; Coulibaly, F; Metcalf, P (2012). "Insect virus polyhedra, infectious protein crystals that contain virus particles". ... Chiu E.; Coulibaly F.; Metcalf P. (April 2012). "Insect virus polyhedra, infectious protein crystals that contain virus ... The virus is unable to infect humans in the way it does insects, because human stomachs are acid-based and NPV requires an ... Viruses portal Cypovirus BacMam The Cobra Event Pancrustacea - clade including natural hosts of the viruses Early 35 kDa ...
"A Crystallizable Insect Virus" was published in the journal Nature. Known as the Tipula Iridescent Virus, from both square and ... Williams, Robley C.; Smith, Kenneth M. (1957). "A Crystallizable Insect Virus". Nature. 179 (4551): 119-20. Bibcode:1957Natur. ... these virus particles often organized themselves into highly ordered arrays. Rod-shaped particles in the tobacco mosaic virus ... The discovery by W.M. Stanley of the crystalline forms of the tobacco and tomato viruses provided examples of this. Using X-ray ...
Harris, K. F.; Smith, O. P.; Duffus, J. E. (2001). Virus-insect-plant interactions. Elsevier BV. ISBN 9780123276810. Crowe, A ... Cucumber mosaic virus is a virus that has been infecting the C. paniculata plants in the lowland forests near Dunedin. The ... This is what makes Cucumber mosaic virus so detrimental to crops, as the aphid can quickly and easily spread it from one plant ... The virus causes localised lesions, chlorotic spots rings and ringspot lesions, necrosis, premature leaf fall and leaf ...
Picornalike Viruses of Insects, in: Miller, Lois K. et al. (1998). The Insect Virus. Springer. ISBN 0-306-45881-0. Fabre, Jean- ... Honey bees suffer from two related but different viruses - acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and chronic bee paralysis virus ( ... The virus was first isolated in Australia around 1970. The worst outbreak in Europe occurred in 2002. The cosmopolitan virus is ... 1996). Insect Musicians & Cricket Champions: A Cultural History of Singing Insects in China and Japan. China Books. ISBN 0-8351 ...
The viruses are transmitted by insects. The genus was first proposed in the first report of the ICTV in 1971, as the 'Carnation ... Phlox virus B Phlox virus M Phlox virus S Poplar mosaic virus Potato latent virus Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P ... virus Butterbur mosaic virus Cactus virus 2 Caper latent virus Carnation latent virus Chrysanthemum virus B Cole latent virus ... Potato virus S Red clover vein mosaic virus Sambucus virus C Sambucus virus D Sambucus virus E Shallot latent virus Sint-Jan ...
"Insect Vector Interaction with Persistently Transmitted Viruses" (PDF). Annual Review of Phytopathology. 46: 327-359. doi: ... Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members ... is a plant pathogenic virus of soybeans (Glycine max). SVNV is a relatively new virus, which was discovered in Tennessee in ... which is the only genus within this virus family that infects plants. Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is ...
The virus is named after Palm Creek, near Darwin, from where it was originally isolated. PCV is the first insect-specific virus ... Palm Creek virus (PCV) is an insect virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. It was discovered in ... "The insect-specific Palm Creek virus modulates West Nile virus infection in and transmission by Australian mosquitoes". ... A report indicates that the virus is also closely related to Assam virus, discovered in Assam, India, in 2015. The complete ...
... this virus has become one of the most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet. The virus causes stunted ... Animal viruses are viruses that infect animals. Viruses infect all cellular life and although viruses infect every animal, ... Humans cannot be infected by plant or insect viruses, but they are susceptible to infections with viruses from other ... Chen, Y. P.; Siede, R. (2007). "Honey Bee Viruses". Advances in Virus Research Volume 70. Advances in Virus Research. Vol. 70. ...
Turnbull, M. W.; Volkoff, A.-N.; Webb, B. A.; Phelan, P. (2005). "Functional gap-junction genes are encoded by insect viruses ... When the virus genome is expressed in a cell the vinnexin gene from the virus is made into a functioning protein by the ... Zhang, Peng; Turnbull, Matthew W. (9 August 2018). "Virus innexin expression in insect cells disrupts cell membrane potential ... The virus and wasp are obligately associated. While the virus genes are expressed in the caterpillar the viral DNA including ...
Therefore, it can also be used to study the basis of plant virus transmission, host plant selection by insects and the way in ... Plant Viruses Epidemiology Aphididae Insect Tjallingii, W.F. (1988). Electrical recording of stylet penetration activities. In ... correlating with different insect/plant interaction events. The circuit connects to the insect via a 20 μm gold or platinum ... The electrical penetration graph or EPG is a system used by biologists to study the interaction of insects such as aphids, ...
"Functional gap junction genes are encoded by insect viruses". Current Biology. 15 (13): R491-R492. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2005.06. ... Hamel, W; Magnelli, L; Chiarugi, VP; Israel, MA (June 1996). "Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir-mediated ... to aid its transmission between the virus's hosts. As we learn more the term "Gap Junction" cannot be defined by a single ... "Bystander killing of cancer cells by herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene is mediated by connexins". Proceedings of the ...
Dietzgen, Ralf G (2016). "Plant Virus-Insect Vector Interactions: Current and Potential Future Research Directions". Viruses. 8 ... Virus in seeds remains infective for a long period of time and viable virus can be recovered from seeds that no longer have ... Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is a member of the plant virus genus Potyvirus (family Potyviridae). It infects mainly plants ... Mottling does not indicate that the virus is present in seeds as not all mottled seeds contain virus and not all seeds from ...
"Oldest Viruses Infected Insects 300 Million Years Ago". Live Science. 12 September 2011. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 ... The wasp injects one or more eggs into its lepidoptera host along with a quantity of virus. The virus does not replicate inside ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2022 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2023. Retrieved 15 August 2023. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2023. ...
"NGS Investigations for Novel Viruses in Insect Cell Substrates" (PDF). Retrieved June 9, 2015. "Some of the Active NGS ... and quite a few virus genomes. CD Genomics, is a next-generation sequencing provider that was established in 2004. Equipped ...
"Insect virus creeps into North America, shuts down Portage commercial cricket grower". Mlive.com. 2010-08-15. "Virus kills ... "The biology and ecology of strains of an insect small RNA virus complex". Advances in Virus Research 26: 117-141. Scotti, P.D ... CrPV has one of the widest host-ranges of any virus, insect or not. The potential for the use of CrPV as a biological control ... CrPV was the first insect virus to have its crystal structure determined. Early studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s showed ...
He rose to the position of Chief Scientific Officer; much of his work was in the field of insect viruses. In 1984 Kelly joined ... Kelly joined the Insect Pathology Unit at the University of Oxford in 1968, while a student of Linacre College. In 1971 he ... Kelly, D. C. (February 1976). ""Oryctes" virus replication: Electron microscopic observations on infected moth and mosquito ... received his doctorate in microbiology; his thesis was "The Replication of Some Iridescent Viruses in Cell Cultures". In the ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release ... Description of Plant Viruses Pringle CR. Virus Taxonomy - San Diego 1998. Virus Division News Arch Virol 143/7 (1998) p. 1453 ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral ... Viruses in Macluravirus are non-enveloped, with flexuous and Filamentous geometries. The diameter is around 12-15 nm, with a ...
The virus is transmitted by an insect vector. The particular species linked to the virus are the biting midges Culicoides ... Chang, C. J.; Shih, W. L.; Yu, F. L.; Liao, M. H.; Liu, H. J. (2004). "Apoptosis Induced by Bovine Ephemeral Fever Virus". ... The virus has been found in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and through eastern Australia. It is not found in ... The virus can be isolated from blood and can be identified by immunofluorescence and immunostaining. Rising levels of ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2022 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2023. Retrieved 10 August 2023. ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Alfalfa enamovirus 1 Birdsfoot trefoil enamovirus 1 Citrus vein enation virus Grapevine enamovirus 1 Pea enation mosaic virus 1 ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. Kreuze, JF; Vaira, AM; Menzel, ... Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning. The virus ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021. "ICTV ... Alphaflexiviridae is a family of viruses in the order Tymovirales. Plants and fungi serve as natural hosts. There are 65 ...
Other forms of diseases include sarcocystis and iridovirus in reptiles and amphibians; granulosus virus, chagas disease, and ... microsporidia in insects; stained prawn disease, white pot syndrome, helminthes and tapeworms in crustaceans and fish. ...
A caterpillar: The discovery of the virus, later named Spodoptera litura male-killing virus or SLMKV, all happened accidentally ... accidentally discovered a virus that only targets male insects, a discovery that could, one day, potentially help control the ... Instead of properly disposing of the intruder, Misato decided to bring the caterpillar to the universitys insect physiologist ... Yoshinori Shintani, who thought that it would be a good feeder for the other insects. ...
Many aphids form symbiotic and mutualistic relationships with viruses, an aspect of plant disease that has not been well ... are virus carriers responsible for significant economic losses in many crops worldwide. ... Citation: Symbiotic viruses help host insects override the plants defenses (2020, February 3) retrieved 11 December 2023 from ... Symbiotic viruses help host insects override the plants defenses. by American Phytopathological Society ...
The Insect Allies programme aims to use bugs to disperse genetically modified (GM) viruses to crops. ... US military plan to spread viruses using insects could create new class of biological weapon, scientists warn. Agency says it ... US military plan to spread viruses using insects could create new class of biological weapon, scientists warn ... who say the plan is simply dangerous and that insects loaded with synthetic viruses will be difficult to control. ...
Peony - Ringspot Virus. Peony - Ringspot Virus Symptoms. Peony Ringspot Virus. Return to Plant Disease Images List ... Cooperative Extension: Insect Pests, Ticks and Plant Diseases * Cooperative Extension: Insect Pests, Ticks and Plant Diseases * ... Cooperative Extension: Insect Pests, Ticks, and Plant Diseases 17 Godfrey Drive Orono, Maine 04473 ...
Gnat and pest, spreading viruses and diseases, gnats flock, repellent or spray promo poster vector concept. Malaria mosquito ... Flying mosquito insects. Gnat and pest, spreading viruses and diseases, gnats flock, repellent or spray promo poster vector ...
We present the first experiment to measure genome-wide gene expression in an insect after infection with a natural DNA virus. ... We then tested for differential gene expression between moths that were exposed to the virus and controls. We found 51 genes ... proportion of genes that were downregulated after viral exposure suggests that this virus is actively manipulating the insect ... Our results indicate that cuticle proteins might be key genes underpinning the response to DNA viruses. Furthermore, the large ...
We challenged insects with a low or high effective dose of virus, alone or combined with a single dose of fungus. We ... Dataset: Resource limitation has a limited impact on the outcome of virus-fungus co-infection in an insect host. Deschodt, ... Resource limitation has a limited impact on the outcome of virus-fungus co-infection in an insect host [Dataset]. Dryad. https ... We used the generalist cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni and two of its pathogens, the DNA virus T. ni nucleopolyhedrovirus ( ...
Next pandemic may be caused by insect-borne pathogens, as per the World Health Organization. They seem to be posing a great ... Next pandemic may be caused by insect-borne pathogens, as per the World Health Organization. They seem to be posing a great ... Insect-borne pathogens may lead to next pandemic (representative image). Photograph:(Reuters) ... The initiative looked to bring together work to tackle insect-borne threats under one-roof. ...
Yada yada virus. N/A. [24]. 1 The host range of insect-specific viruses identified up to date. N/A the vector species of ISV ... insect-specific viruses Mosquito-specific viruses Flaviviruses Host-restriction Mosquitoes biocontrol agents ... Recently, there has been substantial attention for a novel group of viruses, referred to as insect-specific viruses (ISVs) ... Exploiting insect-specific viruses as a novel strategy to control vector-borne disease. Current Opinion in Insect Science 2020 ...
KW - Physiochemical properties-of insect viruses. KW - Viruses of insects-insects, overcoming array of viruses in their life ... Physiochemical properties-of insect viruses, Viruses of insects-insects, overcoming array of viruses in their life cycle", ... title = "Viruses of Insects",. keywords = "Honeybee virus ecology, picorna-like single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses- ... Viruses of insects-insects, overcoming array of viruses in their life cycle ...
... * By Steinar Brandslet Published 15.10.19 ... How you can help the insect world Many insect species are struggling. But all of us can help them, whether we live in an ... You may also like: How you can help the insect world. Cell walls arent just dead material. Decades ago, biologists regarded ... Most plants have plenty of enemies, from insects and other grazing creatures to various diseases, droughts and many other ...
"Insect Repellants During Pregnancy in the Era of the Zika Virus" 128, no. 5 (2016). Wylie, Blair J. et al. "Insect Repellants ... Title : Insect Repellants During Pregnancy in the Era of the Zika Virus Personal Author(s) : Wylie, Blair J.;Hauptman, Marissa; ... 2016). Insect Repellants During Pregnancy in the Era of the Zika Virus. 128(5). Wylie, Blair J. et al. " ... Animals Article Culicidae DEET Female Humans Insect Bites And Stings Insect Repellents Permethrin Pregnancy Pregnancy ...
Miller, L.K.; Ball, L.A. (2012). The Insect Viruses. The Viruses. Springer US. ISBN 978-1-4615-5341-0. Retrieved 2016-05-13. " ... The virus only shares a significant portion of the same amino acid sequence with the Nodamura virus, which is a similar ... Still a very rare virus, Boolarra virus can only be found in a very small population of moths that is endemic to the region of ... Boolarra virus typically measures around 30 nano-meters and is approximately 21 percent RNA. Boolarra virus is characterized by ...
Studies on relationship of three nuclear polyhedrosis virus genomes from noctuid insects. * * LIANG Bu-Feng , ... Studies on relationship of three nuclear polyhedrosis virus genomes from noctuid insects .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 1997, 12(3) : 278 ... Studies on relationship of three nuclear polyhedrosis virus genomes from noctuid insects. ... LIANG Bu-Feng, LIU Meng-Fu, WANG Xiao-Rong.Studies on relationship of three nuclear polyhedrosis virus genomes from noctuid ...
Viruses transmitted by insects could be next global pandemic WHO believes. *Pathogens like Zika virus are spread by arthropods ... Insect-borne viruses like Zika and Dengue could be the cause of the next pandemic, WHO warns. 1 year ago ... Insect-borne viruses like Zika and Dengue could be the cause of the next pandemic, world health chiefs warn. * ... Insect-borne pathogens pose an increasing risk and could lead to the next pandemic according to the World Health Organization ...
How toxic is DEET? Zika virus less harmful than the insect repellent fighting it. 8/24/2016 - First discovered in 1953, DEET ... The Zika virus hysteria is no different: it was all engineered from the start for a specific purpose, and this article explains ... 8/14/2016 - Have you ever felt sick after flying, only to assume its jetlag or a virus you picked up from another passenger? ... Its marketed as an effective way to ward off disease-carrying mosquitoes, and though it does keep insects at bay, it also ...
Looking Through the Lens of Omics Technologies: Insights Into the Transmission of Insect Vector-borne Plant Viruses. by AJ ...
Purification and Characterization of Nipah Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Produced in Insect Cells.pdf Download (85kB) , Preview ... Purification and Characterization of Nipah Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Produced in Insect Cells. Journal of Clinical ... Purification and Characterization of Nipah Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Produced in Insect Cells ... The nucleocapsid (N)protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a major constituent of the viral proteins which play a role in ...
Chapter 2. How to Write The Names of Virus Species * Chapter 3. Genes Involved in Insect-Mediated Transmission of Plant Viruses ... Use Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens to enhance your knowledge of: * current virus taxonomy ... Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens is the only book to bring you all of this information--22 chapters--in a single volume, ... Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens By Jawaid A. Khan, Jeanne Dijkstra Copyright 2001 ...
Vacinas Virais; Infecção por Zika virus; Zika virus; Humanos; Animais; Camundongos; Chlorocebus aethiops; Zika virus/genética; ... Zika virus / Infecção por Zika virus Limite: Animais / Humanos Idioma: Inglês Revista: Sci Rep Ano de publicação: 2023 Tipo de ... Zika virus / Infecção por Zika virus Limite: Animais / Humanos Idioma: Inglês Revista: Sci Rep Ano de publicação: 2023 Tipo de ... Exploring the immunogenicity of an insect-specific virus vectored Zika vaccine candidate. ...
Chapter 4: Baculoviruses and other occluded insect viruses (Book / Chapter) (4-Jul-11) ... Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and insect toxic related strains from forest soil (Peer Reviewed Journal) (16-Aug-11) ...
Hytrosaviridae: a proposal for classification and nomenclature of a new insect virus family.. Title. Hytrosaviridae: a proposal ... Animals, Diptera, DNA, Circular, DNA, Viral, Insect Viruses, Salivary Glands, Terminology as Topic, Virion. ... we propose that the two viruses are members of a new virus family named Hytrosaviridae. This proposed family currently ... domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, and a tentative unassigned species, M. equestris salivary gland hypertrophy virus. ...
p>Information on Zika virus. Provided by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Q: How should insect repellents be used on children to prevent mosquito bites and the viruses that some mosquitoes can spread? ... How should insect repellents be used on children to prevent mosquito bites and the viruses that some mosquitoes can spread? ... A: Zika virus disease is caused by the Zika virus, which is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito ...
Virus-like particles (VLPs) enable the construction of promising platforms in the field of vaccine development. Here, we ... Mi, Y. et al. Production of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles in insect cells. Vaccines 9, 554 (2021). ... Various VLPs such as bluetongue virus (BTV)6, HPV7, hepatitis B core antigens (HBcAg)8,9,10, Norovirus (NV)11, Dengue virus12 ... Zahmanova, G. et al. Efficient production of chimeric hepatitis B virus-like particles bearing an epitope of hepatitis E virus ...
The insect cell-baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS) has emerged as a mainstream platform for the scalable production ... Since the first report of baculovirus-induced production of rAAV vector in insect cells in 2002, this platform has undergone ... The one baculovirus system consisting of an inducible packaging insect cell line was further improved to enhance the AAV vector ... scalable high-yield production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is still one of the critical bottlenecks the manufacturing ...
Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease ... Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease ...
Fortunately for patients who use this procedure, the viruses found to be transmitted in this study appear to be harmless to ... Communities of viruses can be transferred during fecal transplants, according to a study. ... Hundreds of Novel Viruses Discovered in Insects. Jan. 8, 2020 New viruses which cause diseases often come from animals. Well- ... known examples of this are the Zika virus transmitted by mosquitoes, bird flu viruses, as well as the MERS virus which is ...
Is the virus transmitted via insect bites?. TREVOR: Yes. Thank you for that question. We have no evidence at this time that ... This is a depiction of how a virus and a bat can infect humans. In bats who carry the virus bats can spread the virus in their ... Ebola virus can be found in all bodily fluids of someone who is contaminated with the virus. So it can be found in the blood, ... Ebola virus disease is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the six viruses within the genus ebolavirus. ...
Insect-Specific Viruses Detected in Laboratory Mosquito Colonies and Their Potential Implications for Experiments Evaluating ... SALIVARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY AND VIRUS TRANSMISSION DURING LONG-TERM CYTOPATHOLOGIC WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION IN CULEX MOSQUITOES ... WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION OF PRIMARY MOUSE NEURONAL AND NEUROGLIAL CELLS: THE ROLE OF ASTROCYTES IN CHRONIC INFECTION ... EXPERIMENTAL YELLOW FEVER VIRUS INFECTION IN THE GOLDEN HAMSTER (MESOCRICETUS AURATUS) III. CLINICAL LABORATORY VALUES ...
  • A group of scientists from Minami Kyushu University in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, accidentally discovered a virus that only targets male insects, a discovery that could, one day, potentially help control the populations of disease vectors like mosquitoes. (yahoo.com)
  • These viruses are characterized by their competency to replicate in their vectors, while their replication are restricted in vertebrate cells. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The occurrence and distribution of the economically important viruses and associated insect vectors is however not known for Rwanda and Burundi, where potato is an important food security and income crop. (cipotato.org)
  • We surveyed 194 potato fields for viruses and insect vectors. (cipotato.org)
  • EIA is considered endemic in the municipalities studied, due to the ecology of the region with a high numbered population of bloodsucking insect vectors and the absence of official measures for the control of the disease. (scielo.br)
  • These vectors also transmit dengue and chikungunya virus and are found throughout much of the Americas, including parts of the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Gnat and pest, spreading viruses and diseases, gnats flock, repellent or spray promo poster vector concept. (adobe.com)
  • Use insect repellent when mosquitoes are active. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Don't let young children get insect repellent on their hands, as they might get it in their mouths. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Wearing insect repellent could have prevented me from catching West Nile virus, but the fact that I almost died from it was just as much of a fluke as anything else. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to personal health products such as water purification tablets, hand sanitizer and sunscreen, include an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent in your emergency supplies kit. (cdc.gov)
  • Research your EPA-registered insect repellent options. (cdc.gov)
  • Find an insect repellent that meets your needs and contains one of the following active ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, para-menthane-diol, or 2-undecanone. (cdc.gov)
  • We used the generalist cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni and two of its pathogens, the DNA virus T. ni nucleopolyhedrovirus (TniSNPV) and the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana to examine how nutrient reduction affected the outcome of mixed pathogen infection. (datadryad.org)
  • Insect-borne pathogens may lead to next pandemic (representative image). (wionews.com)
  • Next pandemic may be caused by insect-borne pathogens, as per the World Health Organization. (wionews.com)
  • Insect-borne pathogens pose an 'increasing' risk and could lead to the next pandemic according to the World Health Organization. (todayheadline.co)
  • Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens is the only book to bring you all of this information--22 chapters--in a single volume, compiled by specialists around the globe! (routledge.com)
  • With helpful illustrations, photos, figures, models that explain viral mechanisms, and easy-to-understand reference tables, Plant Viruses As Molecular Pathogens will stimulate your thinking on this fascinating area of plant science! (routledge.com)
  • A mosquito sample collected three decades ago in Israel's Negev Desert has yielded an unexpected discovery: a previously unknown virus that's closely related to some of the world's most dangerous mosquito-borne pathogens but, curiously, incapable of infecting non-insect hosts. (scienceblog.com)
  • Researchers believe this attribute could make the Eilat virus a uniquely useful tool for studying other alphaviruses, a genus of largely mosquito-borne pathogens that includes the viruses responsible for chikungunya, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis and eastern equine encephalitis. (scienceblog.com)
  • ISVs are also refereed to as mosquito-specific viruses as they are generally identified and discovered in mosquitoes. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • [ 28 ] In addition, ISVs such as Eilat virus (EILV) and Negev virus could be experimentally transmitted to adult mosquitoes via a high-titer of an infectious blood meal. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • There have been dozens of Zika virus outbreaks since 2016, it is an infection spread mainly by mosquitoes and can be harmful to pregnant women. (todayheadline.co)
  • This virus is unique - it's related to all of these mosquito-borne viruses that cause disease and cycle between mosquitoes and animals, and yet it is incapable of infecting vertebrate cells," said University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston graduate student Farooq Nasar, lead author of a paper on the virus now online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (scienceblog.com)
  • Infected mosquitoes can spread West Nile virus, Zika virus, and the viruses that cause malaria, yellow fever and some types of brain infection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Mosquitoes can carry the viruses that cause certain diseases, such as West Nile virus and the viruses that cause malaria, yellow fever and dengue fever. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. (who.int)
  • Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The best way to avoid getting any mosquito-borne virus is to avoid getting bitten by mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
  • It turns out that American mosquitoes and American birds are just as susceptible to the virus as those in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2009 we had the first transmission of the dengue virus in Florida in more than 70 years, and the mosquitoes that transmit dengue are the same ones who would transmit Chikungunya. (cdc.gov)
  • Mosquitoes and their breeding sites pose a significant risk factor for Zika virus infection. (who.int)
  • Zika virus continues to spread geographically to areas where mosquitoes are present that can transmit the virus. (who.int)
  • Title : Insect Repellants During Pregnancy in the Era of the Zika Virus Personal Author(s) : Wylie, Blair J.;Hauptman, Marissa;Woolf, Alan D.;Goldman, Rose H. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus ( ZIKV ) is an important re-emerging flavivirus that presents a significant threat to human health worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
  • Zika virus disease is caused by the Zika virus, which is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito ( Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly and other severe brain defects. (cdc.gov)
  • however, only a small proportion of people with recent Zika virus infection get GBS. (cdc.gov)
  • Q: What are the symptoms of Zika virus disease? (cdc.gov)
  • There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that pregnant women do not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common symptoms of Zika virus are headache, muscle and joint pain, mild fever, rash, and inflammation of the underside of the eyelid. (who.int)
  • CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. (cdc.gov)
  • Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online ( http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/ ). (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. (cdc.gov)
  • Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. (cdc.gov)
  • An estimated 80% of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported in patients following suspected Zika virus infection ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnant women can be infected with Zika virus in any trimester ( 4 , 7 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The incidence of Zika virus infection in pregnant women is not currently known, and data on pregnant women infected with Zika virus are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • No evidence exists to suggest that pregnant women are more susceptible to Zika virus infection or experience more severe disease during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented throughout pregnancy ( 4 , 7 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although Zika virus RNA has been detected in the pathologic specimens of fetal losses ( 4 ), it is not known if Zika virus caused the fetal losses. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus infections have been confirmed in infants with microcephaly ( 4 ), and in the current outbreak in Brazil, a marked increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly has been reported ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, it is not known how many of the microcephaly cases are associated with Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies are under way to investigate the association of Zika virus infection and microcephaly, including the role of other contributory factors (e.g., prior or concurrent infection with other organisms, nutrition, and environment). (cdc.gov)
  • The full spectrum of outcomes that might be associated with Zika virus infections during pregnancy is unknown and requires further investigation. (cdc.gov)
  • Because there is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection, CDC recommends that all pregnant women consider postponing travel to areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • If a pregnant woman travels to an area with Zika virus transmission, she should be advised to strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites ( 11 , 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Zika virus occurs in tropical areas with large mosquito populations, and is known to circulate in Africa, the Americas, Southern Asia and Western Pacific. (who.int)
  • People catch Zika virus by being bitten by an infected Aedes mosquito - the same type of mosquito that spreads dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever. (who.int)
  • The rise in the spread of Zika virus in Brazil has been accompanied by an unprecedented rise in the number of children being born with unusually small heads-identified as microcephaly. (who.int)
  • and that Zika virus is a trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (who.int)
  • How do people catch Zika virus? (who.int)
  • Zika virus is primarily transmitted to people through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito, which can also transmit chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever. (who.int)
  • Zika virus can also be transmitted through sex and has been detected in semen, blood, urine, amniotic fluids, saliva as well as body fluids found in the brain and spinal cord. (who.int)
  • Zika virus may present a risk to blood safety. (who.int)
  • People who have donated blood are encouraged to report to the blood transfusion service if they subsequently get symptoms of Zika virus infection, or if they are diagnosed with recent Zika virus infection within 14 days after blood donation. (who.int)
  • Zika virus usually causes mild illness. (who.int)
  • An unusual CNS involvement leading to microcephaly due to infection of pregnant women by Zika virus has also been recently reported and highlights the constant need to look for new types of neurological manifestations of viral infections in humans. (medscape.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency regulates insect repellents and requires companies to submit data to verify their claims of repellency. (ewg.org)
  • An insecticide is a substance used by humans to gain some advantage in the struggle with various insects that are considered pests. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The abundance and effects of almost all insect pests can be managed through the judicious use of insecticides. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The insects, weeds and other pests that thrive in more humid settings are different from those you find during drought," Brummer said. (ucdavis.edu)
  • We were surprised to know symbiotic viruses can function outside hosts, which is quite different from symbiotic bacteria in the gut," said plant pathologist Feng Cui. (phys.org)
  • Further, VLPs have the advantage that, contrary to inactivated or attenuated viruses that must be prepared in mammalian cell lines, they can be produced in heterologous systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, insect cells, or plants. (nature.com)
  • Fecal transplants are widely used in medicine now and they work, but you might ask what viruses are moved along with the desirable bacteria? (sciencedaily.com)
  • Examples of bioaerosols encountered in occupational environments include plant pollen, algae, fungal spores, bacteria such as actinomycetes, droplets produced during coughing and sneezing that may contain bacteria and viruses, dust containing insect excreta, animal dander, and fragments derived from each of these sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Sexually transmitted infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many infectious organisms-from tiny viruses, bacteria, and parasites to visible insects (such as lice)-can be spread through sexual contact. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ronald Rosenberg] First, I should explain that a vector is a blood feeding insect or tick that carries a pathogen, and a pathogen is a virus, bacteria, or parasite. (cdc.gov)
  • Without the virus infection, phagocytic hemocytes (blood cells) will encapsulate and kill the wasp egg and larvae, but the immune suppression caused by the virus allows survival of the wasp egg and larvae, leading to hatching and complete development of the immature wasp in the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection Neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1 were not detected. (cdc.gov)
  • Ebola virus disease is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the six viruses within the genus ebolavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • If a Leishmania parasite is carrying this virus, there's more severe disease, higher numbers of parasites, and the infection is more likely to metastasize. (wustl.edu)
  • Overview of Acute Viral Hepatitis Acute viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, generally meaning inflammation caused by infection with one of the five hepatitis viruses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In addition to acute viral encephalitis, other less established and more unusual manifestations of viral infections include progressive neurologic disorders, such as postinfectious encephalomyelitis (such as may occur after measles or Nipah virus encephalitis) and conditions such as postpoliomyelitis syndrome, which has been considered by some to be as a persistent manifestation of poliovirus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Aphids, small sap-sucking insects, are virus carriers responsible for significant economic losses in many crops worldwide. (phys.org)
  • Many aphids form symbiotic and mutualistic relationships with viruses, an aspect of plant disease that has not been well explored. (phys.org)
  • Importantly, the survival rate of aphids on new plants increases if the aphid carries APV because the virus suppresses the plant's insect defense hormones. (phys.org)
  • This research provides us with the possibility of interrupting aphid-host plant alterations or influencing the dispersal of aphids through the manipulation of these symbiotic viruses. (phys.org)
  • Experiments are reportedly already underway using insects such as aphids and whiteflies to treat corn and tomato plants. (independent.co.uk)
  • Mpox (Monkeypox) Mpox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which is related to the smallpox virus and causes a similar, but usually milder, illness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Mpox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which is related to the. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There's a virus with a very long name, Chikungunya virus, that caused a huge epidemic in the countries bordering the Indian Ocean during 2007 and 2008. (cdc.gov)
  • Tanya Johnson] Are you saying that Chikungunya virus could emerge in the US? (cdc.gov)
  • Now, an evolutionary survey of the viruses in related parasites suggests that Leishmania's viruses may have helped it make the jump from infecting insects to infecting vertebrates. (wustl.edu)
  • Along with longtime collaborator Nicolas Fasel, PhD, of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, and other colleagues, Beverley discovered that Leishmania parasites infected with a virus - dubbed Leishmaniavirus - cause significantly worse disease than those without a virus. (wustl.edu)
  • Other researchers later showed that viruses in related parasites such as Trichomonas , which causes vaginal infections, and potentially Cryptosporidium , which causes diarrhea, also may exacerbate disease. (wustl.edu)
  • It's long been known that parasites, like every other creature, have their share of viruses. (wustl.edu)
  • What we think happens is that immune cells kill some invading parasites, releasing the virus. (wustl.edu)
  • We've found some antiviral compounds that work great in a culture dish, and we're evaluating whether they can get rid of virus that is inside parasites that are inside animals - and, potentially, that are inside people. (wustl.edu)
  • Leishmania is descended from parasites that infect insects, and only late in evolution did it learn how to infect vertebrates and then humans, and become a problem for us. (wustl.edu)
  • This study started as a survey of a family of insect parasites related to Leishmania , which we performed in collaboration with a team led by Vyacheslav Yurchenko in the Czech Republic. (wustl.edu)
  • Mosquito bites can cause severe illnesses if the insects carry certain viruses or parasites. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Smallpox is an acute, contagious disease caused by the variola virus, a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus , in the Poxviridae family (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • It is defined as the ability of a particular virus to productively infect and replicate in a specific cell type, tissue, or species. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • This is a depiction of how a virus and a bat can infect humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Beverley talked about the nascent field of parasite virology and his newest paper, an evolutionary study that suggests that Leishmania 's viruses may have helped the parasite infect vertebrates. (wustl.edu)
  • We could see bacterial viruses moving between humans and we were able to learn some things about transmission, but we did not see any viruses that grow on animal cells that may be of concern for infecting and harming patients," said Dr. Bushman. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Our goal is to identify additional aphidicides with the potential to manage potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and/or potato virus Y (PVY) transmission by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) in potatoes. (usda.gov)
  • Viruses are particularly well suited for such host population dynamics, due to their supreme ability to adapt to changing transmission criteria. (mdpi.com)
  • Most plants have plenty of enemies, from insects and other grazing creatures to various diseases, droughts and many other stressors. (norwegianscitechnews.com)
  • Its production is however constrained by several virus diseases. (cipotato.org)
  • How do parasite viruses worsen parasitic diseases? (wustl.edu)
  • These malaria cases appear amid rising rates of other diseases transmitted by ticks and insects, which can cause serious health problems, even death. (ewg.org)
  • To investigate the use of a fusion system to aid the purification of the recombinant N protein for structural studies and potential use a diagnostic reagent, the NiV n gene was cloned into the pFastBacHT vector and and his tagged fusion protian was expressed in Sf9 insect cells by recombinant baculovirus. (upm.edu.my)
  • While recombinant DNA technology has significantly contributed to our understanding of plant viruses, new findings are being accumulated every day as reported in various publications. (routledge.com)
  • The insect cell-baculovirus expression vector system (IC-BEVS) has emerged as a mainstream platform for the scalable production of recombinant proteins with clinically approved products for human use. (mcgill.ca)
  • It instead relies on recombinant DNA technology and an insect virus expression system, making Flublok the first of its kind, according to the FDA. (medscape.com)
  • Flublok contains 3 recombinant HA proteins to protect against 2 influenza A virus strains - A(H3N2) and 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) - and one influenza B virus strain. (medscape.com)
  • Classification of some insect-specific viruses. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Hytrosaviridae: a proposal for classification and nomenclature of a new insect virus family. (umass.edu)
  • Over one hundred vaccines using varied approaches including protein subunit, viral vector, RNA, DNA, inactivated virus, attenuated virus, and virus like particles (VLPs) platforms are in clinical trials. (nature.com)
  • Since the first report of baculovirus-induced production of rAAV vector in insect cells in 2002, this platform has undergone significant improvements, including enhanced stability of Bac-vector expression and a reduced number of baculovirus-coinfections. (mcgill.ca)
  • The one baculovirus system consisting of an inducible packaging insect cell line was further improved to enhance the AAV vector quality and potency. (mcgill.ca)
  • Insect -specific flaviviruses (ISFVs) have recently garnered attention as an antigen presentation platform for vaccine development and diagnostic applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Poxviridae consists of 2 subfamilies: Chordopoxvirinae, which infects vertebrates, and Entomopoxvirinae, which infects insects. (medscape.com)
  • Fortunately for patients who use this procedure, the viruses found to be transmitted in this study appear to be harmless to humans. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Bats can then transmit the virus to humans in several different ways. (cdc.gov)
  • Cowpox virus "scarification" by Jenner, used to induce protective immunity against smallpox, is not a single species but a group of up to 5 virus species that infects cows, humans, and other animals. (medscape.com)
  • Eilat's inability to grow in animal cells - even its genetic material cannot replicate in them - makes it unique among alphaviruses, and it also makes it likely that the virus could be uniquely valuable to researchers who study alphaviruses and work to protect humans and domestic animals from them. (scienceblog.com)
  • The common and most health concern for humans is the West Nile virus transmitted through mosquito bites. (scienceblog.com)
  • Since a plant-derived antibody cocktail to Ebola virus in 2014 had been shown to be effective 5 , more studies and cases have been reported. (nature.com)
  • The natural reservoir host for Ebola viruses are unknown, but bats are the most likely reservoir. (cdc.gov)
  • More recently, provocative studies have found high antibody seroprevalence to viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Lyssa viruses in multiple African countries, indicating the presence of a high number of undiagnosed cases every year, including high neutralizing titers of antibodies to rabies virus in 11% of a small cohort of asymptomatic Peruvians living in the Amazon with prior exposure to bats. (medscape.com)
  • Exploring the immunogenicity of an insect-specific virus vectored Zika vaccine candidate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) enable the construction of promising platforms in the field of vaccine development. (nature.com)
  • For example, the UTMB researchers say, Eilat could be transformed into a vaccine against one of its dangerous relatives by making changes to the genes that produce its envelope proteins, which are exposed on virus particle surfaces and stimulate the critical parts of the immune response. (scienceblog.com)
  • The manufacturing process for Flublok , indicated for adults ages 18 through 49, dispenses with eggs as well as influenza viruses, dispelling any fears of catching the flu from the vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The new technology offers the potential for faster start-up of the vaccine manufacturing process in the event of a pandemic because it is not dependent on an egg supply or on availability of the influenza virus," said Karen Midthun, MF, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in a press release today. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: FDA Okays Novel Flu Vaccine Made Without Eggs, Viruses - Medscape - Jan 16, 2013. (medscape.com)
  • LIANG Bu-Feng, LIU Meng-Fu, WANG Xiao-Rong.Studies on relationship of three nuclear polyhedrosis virus genomes from noctuid insects .VIROLOGICA SINICA, 1997, 12(3): 278. (virosin.org)
  • The available information on the complete genome sequence of GpSGHV and MdSGHV indicates significant co-linearity between the two viral genomes, whereas no co-linearity was observed with baculoviruses, ascoviruses, entomopoxviruses, iridoviruses and nudiviruses, other large invertebrate DNA viruses. (umass.edu)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of 14 complete viral genomes determined by sRSA suggested multiple introductions of viruses into the region. (cipotato.org)
  • There are also insecticides based on nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) and insect hormones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • That gives us viruses that we can grow in insect cells that can't do anything in vertebrate cells at all, but still produce immunity against eastern equine encephalitis -they can be used to vaccinate animals, and hopefully someday people. (scienceblog.com)
  • Abstract Despite rapid progress in the field, scalable high-yield production of adeno-associated virus (AAV) is still one of the critical bottlenecks the manufacturing sector is facing. (mcgill.ca)
  • Insects could be turned into "a new class of biological weapon " using new US military plans, experts have warned. (independent.co.uk)
  • Making their case in the journal Science , the team noted that if Insect Allies' research cannot be justified, it could be perceived as breaching the UN's Biological Weapons Convention. (independent.co.uk)
  • MbNPV ,SeNPV and SINPV are important biological agents for three noctuid insects Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura, respectively. (virosin.org)
  • These viruses are part of a unique biological system consisting of an endoparasitic wasp (parasitoid), a host (usually lepidopteran) larva, and the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the available morphological, (patho)biological, genomic and phylogenetic data, we propose that the two viruses are members of a new virus family named Hytrosaviridae. (umass.edu)
  • Eilat was discovered in a virus sample that Joseph Peleg of Hebrew University sent to UTMB's Dr. Robert Tesh, an author of the PNAS paper and director of the World Reference Center for Emerging Viruses and Arboviruses. (scienceblog.com)
  • One virus killed insect cells, and the other - Eilat virus - infected them without doing any harm. (scienceblog.com)
  • We were extraordinarily lucky to have that other virus in our sample, because without the cell death it caused, we never would have done the work that led us to Eilat," Nasar said. (scienceblog.com)
  • A variety of Eilat-based "chimeric viruses" - viruses made by combining genetic material from other viruses - could be used to study the interactions between host cells and dangerous alphaviruses, leading to the development of antiviral drugs. (scienceblog.com)
  • The first ISV identified is cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV), which was isolated from an Aedes aegypti ( Ae . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • These protein subunits can assemble into virus particles without viral RNA genome in mammalian cells to study virus-cell entry 2 and to develop vaccines 3 . (nature.com)
  • Insect Virus: Assays for Viral Replication and Persistence in Mammalian Cells. (epa.gov)
  • How do insects survive on a sugary diet? (phys.org)
  • [ 4 ] The virus can survive in the environment for a short period, and it is most stable at low temperatures and low humidity. (medscape.com)
  • The virus is injected along with the wasp egg into the body cavity of a lepidopteran host caterpillar and infects cells of the caterpillar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, in vitro coinfection studies of ZIKV with Aripo virus (ARPV) and ARPV/ ZIKV in African green monkey kidney cells (i.e. (bvsalud.org)
  • Feb. 10, 2020 A study of cultured bat cells shows that their strong immune responses, constantly primed to respond to viruses, can drive viruses to greater virulence. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Unlike other DNA viruses, the variola virus multiplies in the cytoplasm of parasitized host cells. (medscape.com)
  • All the researchers knew about Peleg's specimen was that it killed insect cells while leaving animal cells untouched, a very unusual behavior. (scienceblog.com)
  • The process can quickly produce large quantities of an influenza virus protein called hemagglutinin (HA), the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that makes it possible for the virus to enter cells. (medscape.com)
  • Bluetongue Virus of sampling) on risk for seropositivity, we used a multivari- in Wild Deer, ate logistic regression model. (cdc.gov)
  • Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) spread through- 54.78%), and 33.95% (95% CI 31.64%-36.26%) for red out western Europe in 2006. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus and wasp are in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship: expression of viral genes prevents the wasp's host's immune system from killing the wasp's injected egg and causes other physiological alterations that ultimately cause the parasitized host to die. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleocapsid (N)protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a major constituent of the viral proteins which play a role in encapsidation, regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. (upm.edu.my)
  • The researchers purified viral particles from the poop of the donor and the recipients and conducted deep genomic sequencing to determine whether any viruses were transferred. (sciencedaily.com)
  • These latent viruses can induce during times of stress, burst the cell, and liberate new viral particles into the environment. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Clinically relevant involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by viruses is an uncommon event, considering the overwhelming number of individuals affected by the different human viral infections. (medscape.com)
  • In bats who carry the virus bats can spread the virus in their saliva, in the urine, and in the droppings. (cdc.gov)
  • We will use two approaches: controlled assays which will test the direct impact of the insecticide on the physiological acquisition of the virus, and a no-choice arena to test the behavioral effects of insecticide treatments on aphid settling on potato plants, as this behavior has a strong influence on virus spread within a field. (usda.gov)
  • There have also been reports that the virus has spread through blood transfusions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) have been identified from different dipteran species, such as the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes (GpSGHV), the housefly Musca domestica (MdSGHV) and the narcissus bulbfly Merodon equestris (MeSGHV). (umass.edu)
  • This proposed family currently comprises two unassigned species, G. pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus and M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, and a tentative unassigned species, M. equestris salivary gland hypertrophy virus. (umass.edu)
  • This virus is usually transmitted by one species of mosquito but the virus mutated to be transmitted by a more common mosquito, and as a result many more people became exposed and were infected. (cdc.gov)
  • Poxviridae are linear, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence identities between ISVs and other mosquito-borne viruses suggest strong evidence that ISVs may be ancestral to arboviruses. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • We speculate that the temperate replication style exists, in part, to promote virus dispersal, to allow viruses to reach new environments where they can flourish," said Dr. Bushman. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts for the virus, and Lepidoptera serve as hosts for these wasps. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists based in Beijing, China, studied how one symbiotic virus, Acyrthosiphon pisum virus (APV), actually helps its host aphid adapt to new plants. (phys.org)
  • To learn more about this unique research into symbiotic viruses, read "A Symbiotic Virus Facilitates Aphid Adaptation to Host Plants by Suppressing Jasmonic Acid Responses" in the January issue of Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (MPMI) . (phys.org)
  • Hong Lu et al, A Symbiotic Virus Facilitates Aphid Adaptation to Host Plants by Suppressing Jasmonic Acid Responses, Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2019). (phys.org)
  • Testing by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for six potato viruses identified five viruses: potato leafroll virus (PLRV), potato virus X, S, M and Y (PVX, PVS, PVM, PVY) in Rwanda and two viruses (PLRV and PVS) in Burundi. (cipotato.org)
  • Antibodies against virus protein 7 were detected by and 2008 (17/21). (cdc.gov)
  • While the people infected by the virus will not have any signs or symptoms, 1 out of 160 people bite by a West Nile virus infected mosquito will experience symptoms. (scienceblog.com)
  • However, the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency ( Darpa ), which is responsible for developing military technologies in the US, says it is merely trying to alter crops growing in fields by using viruses to transmit genetic changes to plants. (independent.co.uk)
  • Orthopteran insects have high reproductive rates leading to boom-bust population dynamics with high local densities that are ideal for short, episodic disease epidemics. (mdpi.com)
  • The discovery of the virus, later named Spodoptera litura male-killing virus or SLMKV, all happened accidentally after Misato Terao, a research technician at the university, found a green caterpillar, identified as a tobacco cutworm, eating impatiens inside the campus greenhouse, according to The New York Times . (yahoo.com)
  • With this new information, Yoshinori and his colleague, Daisuke Kageyama, a researcher at the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization in Japan , believed that they had discovered a "male killer" among their insects. (yahoo.com)
  • Virus Research. (cipotato.org)
  • It is very much easier to kill or sterilise a plant using gene editing than it is to make it herbicide or insect-resistant," explains Reeves. (independent.co.uk)
  • In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. (wikipedia.org)