Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of RNA plant viruses as yet unassigned to any family. Plant hosts are all in the family Poaceae. Each species is transmitted by a particular species of planthopper. The type species is Rice stripe virus.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Diseases of plants.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
The type species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SPIROPLASMA, family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, causing citrus stubborn disease.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Vinca rosea has been changed to CATHARANTHUS roseus.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.

Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? (1/3745)

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (2/3745)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (3/3745)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in Hokkaido, Japan. (4/3745)

To determine the vertebrate host of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan, virus isolation was performed using spleens from small mammals captured in the area. Two virus strains were isolated, one strain from Apodemus speciosus and another from Clethrionomys rufocanus. Virus isolates were inoculated onto baby hamster kidney cell monolayers and antigen slides were prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Two isolates were identified as TBE viruses by monoclonal antibody reactions. To specify the TBE-endemic area in Hokkaido, rodent, horse, and dog sera collected from 1992 to 1997 were tested for neutralization antibody against TBE virus previously isolated from a dog. The positive cases were distributed in four districts in the southern part of Hokkaido.  (+info)

Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. (5/3745)

Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides.  (+info)

Replication of dengue type 2 virus in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). (6/3745)

We were able to infect Culex quinquefasciatus by the parenteral route with dengue virus type 2. The percentage of mosquitoes infected was dose dependent and we obtained a rate of 45.6% infected Cx. quinquefasciatus when a 10(5.9) MID50 (mosquito infectious dose for 50% of the individuals as measured in Aedes aegypti) of dengue virus type 2 per mosquito was used. Infection was detected by an immunofluorescent assay performed on mosquito head squashes 14 days after infection. The replication of dengue virus in Cx. quinquefasciatus was either at a very low level of magnitude or generated a large number of noninfectious particles since the triturated bodies of infected Cx. quinquefasciatus did not infect Ae. aegypti mosquitoes when inoculated parenterally. We were unable to infect Cx. quinquefasciatus females orally with an artificial meal that infected 100% of Ae. aegypti females. These findings lead us to agree with the consensus that Cx. quinquefasciatus should not be considered a biological vector of dengue viruses.  (+info)

Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. (7/3745)

The development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. Immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. The first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granular spots, were found in the epithelial cells of the midgut, mainly restricted to the anterior region. The virus subsequently spread to the circular and longitudinal midgut muscle tissues, a process which occurred late in the larval stage. In the adult stage, the infection occurred in the visceral muscle tissues, covering the whole midgut and foregut, and was abolished in the midgut epithelium. The infection of the salivary glands was first observed 72 h post-acquisition, and simultaneously in the ligaments connecting the midgut with these glands. The salivary glands of transmitting individuals appeared heavily or completely infected, while no or only a low level of infection was found in the glands of non-transmitting individuals. Moreover, the development of an age-dependent midgut barrier against virus infection was observed in second instar larvae and adults. The results show that the establishment of TSWV infection in the various tissues and the potential of transmission seems to be regulated by different barriers and processes related to the metamorphosis of thrips.  (+info)

A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (8/3745)

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

The terms intrinsic incubation period and extrinsic incubation period are used in vector-borne diseases. The intrinsic incubation period is the time taken by an organism to complete its development in the definitive host. The extrinsic incubation period is the time taken by an organism to develop in the intermediate host. For example, once ingested by a mosquito, malaria parasites must undergo development within the mosquito before they are infectious to humans. The time required for development in the mosquito ranges from 10 to 28 days, depending on the parasite species and the temperature. This is the extrinsic incubation period of that parasite. If a female mosquito does not survive longer than the extrinsic incubation period, then she will not be able to transmit any malaria parasites. But if a mosquito successfully transfers the parasite to a human body via a bite, the parasite starts developing. The time between the injection of the parasite into the human and the development of the ...
Transmission dynamics of arboviruses like Zika virus are often evaluated by vector competence (the proportion of infectious vectors given exposure) and the extrinsic incubation period (EIP, the time it takes for a vector to become infectious), but vector age is another critical driver of transmission dynamics. Vectorial capacity (VC) is a measure of transmission potential of a vector-pathogen system, but how these three components, EIP, vector competence and vector age, affect VC in concert still needs study. The interaction of vector competence, EIP, and mosquito age at the time of infection acquisition (Ageacquisition) was experimentally measured in an Aedes aegypti-ZIKV model system, as well as the age-dependence of probability of survival and the willingness to bite. An age-structured vectorial capacity framework (VCage) was then developed using both EIPMin and EIPMax, defined as the time to first observed minimum proportion of transmitting mosquitoes and the time to observed maximum proportion of
More than 70 detailed vector insects. Set was created from vector set shared by Dark Lord. It include wide variety of insects: bugs, ants, fly, grasshoppers, spiders, cocoon, moth, bee, locust, cockroach, centipede, mosquito, gnat, and more.. All that silhouette are ready to use in your amazing designs, creating eye catching graphics, print design, motion graphics, 3d rendering. b-cars, flayers, posters. Most of silhouettes unique and hand drawn! Available for personal & commercial use. My vector clip art silhouettes better to edit with Adobe Illustrator CS or Adobe Photoshop CS. Other Graphics Software (Such as Corel Draw or Freehand) can be used for editing my files, but I cant guarantee that everything will be 100% correct.. Download free vector insects.. ...
Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are an important tool for malaria control. ITNs are effective because they work on several parts of the mosquito feeding cycle, including both adult killing and repelling effects. Using an elaborated description of the classic feeding cycle model, simple formulas have been derived to describe how ITNs change mosquito behaviour and the intensity of malaria transmission, as summarized by vectorial capacity and EIR. The predicted changes are illustrated as a function of the frequency of ITN use for four different vector populations using parameter estimates from the literature. The model demonstrates that ITNs simultaneously reduce mosquitoes lifespans, lengthen the feeding cycle, and by discouraging human biting divert more bites onto non-human hosts. ITNs can substantially reduce vectorial capacity through small changes to all of these quantities. The total reductions in vectorial capacity differ, moreover, depending on baseline behavior in the absence of ITNs. Reductions
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Recent findings on new settlements of Aedes aegypti, the main vector species of dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever, call for strengthening surveillance and vector control activities preparedness for mosquito-borne diseases. ...
Well, there is that niggling 60-year history of contraceptive testing on poor, mostly black women in developing countries. Practically every contraceptive ever marketed to Western women was first tried out on some unsuspecting and undereducated poor women, often without access to running water, let alone basic healthcare or a lawyer. From the revolutionary first birth control pill, experimented on Haitian and Puerto Rican women in the 1950s (who suffered blood clots and strokes while the researchers adjusted the doses to make it saleable), through the now-shelved hormone-leaking Norplant rods inserted in the arms of Bangladeshi slum women in the early 1980s, some of whom, going blind or endlessly bleeding, were refused when they begged to have the things removed, to the women and girls in rural Ghana who were part of the Navrongo Experiment between 1994 and 2006 and, according to black activists, left conveniently unaware of the FDAs Black Box Warning about life-threatening potential side ...
Escondido mobile home park residents Monday presented the city clerk with more than 11,000 signatures on petitions seeking to roll back rents to the levels of two years ago and impose rent controls
Microorganisms (including fungi, bacteria, and viruses) and insect vectors are both key model systems for genomics and important organisms for clinical medicine. Scientists in the Broad community are sequencing and analyzing the genomes of a wide range of insects and microorganisms to understand their genetic regulation, population variation, and specialized genomic mechanisms.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder affecting 2% of all babies born in Ghana. SCD is the commonest genetic condition of clinical and epidemiological importance in Africa, and over 95% of children born with ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder affecting 2% of all babies born in Ghana. SCD is the commonest genetic condition of clinical and epidemiological importance in Africa, and over 95% of children born with ...
Light traps are useful collecting devices to sample large numbers and species of insects, but they may also mask infestations of some insect-borne illnesses and expose humans to disease vectors.
Since the quake, WHO has helped establish more than 50 sentinel sites to detect cases of infectious diseases. Expanding the disease early warning system, along with providing mosquito nets to prevent malaria, dengue and other vector-borne disease control activities, are required. ...
H.R. 1310. To support programs for mosquito-borne and other vector-borne disease surveillance and control. In GovTrack.us, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
Combatting vector-borne disease is likely to become an increasing challenge in coming years, according to a new white paper out from the International Federation for Animal Health. Mosquitoes and ticks, for example, are common insect vectors, carrying diseases including malaria and dengue that affect humans and other pathogens that affect domesticated animals.. The report anticipates the effects of the increasing incidence of vector-borne diseases and looks to moving forward on several fronts, including building resilience in animals. It also looks to a One Health approach that recognizes animal, environmental and human health are interdependent.. ...
Abstract: Conditions are presented under which the relative index of a critical set realizing a local minimum of a nonsmooth functional coincides with the Euler-Poincaré characteristic of this set. An analogous result is obtained for the index of a functional increasing at $\infty$ ...
Abstract Sporogonic development of cultured Plasmodium falciparum was compared in six species of Anopheles mosquitoes. A reference species, A. gambiae, was selected as the standard for comparison. Estimates of absolute densities were determined for each lifestage. From these data, four aspects of parasite population dynamics were analyzed quantitatively: 1) successive losses in abundance as parasites developed from gametocyte to ookinete to oocyst stages, 2) oocyst production of sporozoites, 3) correlation between various lifestage parameters, and 4) parasite distribution. Parasite populations in A. gambiae incurred a 316-fold loss in abundance during the transition from macrogametocyte to ookinete stage, a 100-fold loss from ookinete to oocyst stage, yielding a total loss of approximately 31,600-fold (i.e., losses are multiplicative). Comparative susceptibilities in order were A. freeborni ≫ A. gambiae, A. arabiensis, A. dirus > A. stephensi, A. albimanus. The key transition(s) determining overall
PAULA, Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de et al. Primeiro encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG, concomitante com o relato de primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral humana. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 2008, vol.41, n.3, pp.304-305. ISSN 0037-8682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822008000300016.. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do vetor da leishmaniose visceral, Lutzomyia longipalpis, na área urbana de Uberlândia, estado de Minas Gerais e o primeiro caso de leishmaniose visceral humana autóctone no município, notificado ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, por meio da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Discute-se a importância deste encontro na transmissão da doença nessa área.. Keywords : Leishmaniose visceral; Transmissão; Ecologia de vetores; Lutzomyia longipalpis. ...
ealth Center -TR90-1 March 1^ VECTOR CONTROL ACTIVITIES FOLLOWING HURRICANE HUGO 1989 NEHC TECHNICAL REPORT Reviewed and approved accordance with SECNAVINST A K)0^U^ CAPTAIN J.J. EDWARDS, MC, USN
The gonococcal isolates from 15 contact pairs and three large contact groups were examined using various methods to assess the stability of different typing markers. With the exception of one contact group which showed variable proline requirements, the auxotypes were stable during natural transmission. Serogrouping using the coagglutination method to detect W and M antigens was undertaken. The lipopolysaccharide M antigens were readily lost and gained during transmission whereas the protein W antigens represented stable markers and are thus useful for epidemiological studies.. ...
Native Bacillus strains from infected insects: a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.
Abstract The genetic qualities of laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies have not been compared with field specimens despite 1) probable genetic shifts due to the colonization process and 2) the problems associated with the extrapolation of experimental data derived from colonized organisms to field populations. The present study compared the genetic profiles of five laboratory colonies of geographic strains of the New World sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and contrasted them with field populations. The profiles were based on the variability exhibited with polyacrylamide gels at 14 enzyme loci. A general pattern of a loss of infrequent alleles and decreased heterozygosity emerged as an apparent consequence of colonization. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.2 to 1.6, and the average heterozygosity ranged from 4% to 11%. The field collection from Lapinha Caves (near Belo Horizonte, Brazil) averaged 2.1 alleles with a heterozygosity of 16%. In contrast, the LAPINHA laboratory
Such a high economic cost drives many attempts to find a solution; while dengue vaccines are being developed, most countries focus on vector control. This involves studying the biology and physiology of the vector, in this case, Ae. albopictus, in the hopes of understanding ways to control or limit the spread of the vector, and hence, any associated zoonotic diseases. In Singapore, many studies 49 43 45 50 have been funded to understand Ae. albopictus. This increased understanding of the various mosquito vectors in our environment in turn enables better policy-making, to better combat this public health issue. However, this is not a process that is close to completion. New emerging infectious diseases are always on the horizon; zika virus (ZIKV) is one of these potential new arboviruses 51 . While zika virus is usually spread by Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus has recently been proven to have potential to spread ZIKV 51 . Dengue control plans already in place in Singapore may mitigate the threat of ...
Such a high economic cost drives many attempts to find a solution; while dengue vaccines are being developed, most countries focus on vector control. This involves studying the biology and physiology of the vector, in this case, Ae. albopictus, in the hopes of understanding ways to control or limit the spread of the vector, and hence, any associated zoonotic diseases. In Singapore, many studies 49 43 45 50 have been funded to understand Ae. albopictus. This increased understanding of the various mosquito vectors in our environment in turn enables better policy-making, to better combat this public health issue. However, this is not a process that is close to completion. New emerging infectious diseases are always on the horizon; zika virus (ZIKV) is one of these potential new arboviruses 51 . While zika virus is usually spread by Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus has recently been proven to have potential to spread ZIKV 51 . Dengue control plans already in place in Singapore may mitigate the threat of ...
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association publishes works containing research in the areas of mosquito and vector biology, systematics, and control.
Until mid-century climate change will act mainly by exacerbating health problems that already exist. New conditions may emerge under climate change, and existing diseases may extend their range into areas that are presently unaffected, the report said.. Gourbiere agrees with Agard and other regional researchers that there is need for solutions that are primarily focused on vector controls: eradication and effective controls of the Aedes aegypti could also eliminate the diseases they spread.. The failure of the newest vector control strategies also forced health professionals to revisit the old, but proven techniques developed with the guidance of researchers like Chadee, whose work on dengue and yellow fever, malaria and most recently the Zika virus had helped to guide the development of mosquito control, surveillance and control strategies in the Caribbean.. And while Zika brought with it several other serious complications like microcephaly, which affects babies born to women infected by the ...
1. Only the female Aedes mosquito bites as it needs the protein in blood to develop its eggs.. 2. The mosquito becomes infective approximately seven days after it has bitten a person carrying the virus. This is the extrinsic incubation period, during which time the virus replicates in the mosquito and reaches the salivary glands.. 3. Peak biting is at dawn and dusk.. 4. The average lifespan of an Aedes mosquito in Nature is two weeks.. 5. The mosquito can lay eggs about three times in its lifetime, and about 100 eggs are produced each time.. 6. The eggs can lie dormant in dry conditions for up to about nine months, after which they can hatch if exposed to favourable conditions, i.e. water and food.. ...
Suppression of dengue and malaria through releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes might soon become feasible. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying a conditionally lethal transgene have recently been used to suppress local vector populations in small-scale field releases. Prior to releases of transgenic insects on a wider scale, however, most regulatory authorities will require additional evidence that suppression will be effective in natural heterogeneous habitats. We use a spatially explicit stochastic model of an Ae. aegypti population in Iquitos, Peru, along with an uncertainty analysis of its predictions, to quantitatively assess the outcome of varied operational approaches for releases of transgenic strains with conditional death of females. We show that population elimination might be an unrealistic objective in heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate that substantial suppression can nonetheless be achieved if releases are deployed in a uniform spatial pattern using strains combining multiple
The EliminateMalaria site is managed by URC who has over 50 years experience helping clients expand the coverage and quality of high-impact, evidence-based health and social services through management of large, complex grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements in over 50 developing and middle-income countries on behalf of USAID, the World Bank (WB), World Health Organization (WHO), Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), and other donors. URCs involvement in malaria prevention and control spans more than three decades in over a dozen countries. Projects have focused on vector control efforts, improving early diagnosis and treatment, capacity building of malaria staff at all levels ranging from improved supportive supervision to increased laboratory capacity, and increasing the collection, reporting and use of strategic information for malaria programming including surveillance of drug-resistance, entomological studies, and diagnostic and treatment studies.. © 2019 Eliminate Malaria ...
Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase) in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a
Background: Climate change is likely to alter significantly the landscape of vector-borne diseases, as development of the vector as well as the pathogen is temperature-dependent [1]. In addition, temperature can alter vector competence, the ability of a vector to acquire, maintain and transmit a pathogen [2, 3]. However, the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. The insect immune system is a likely player at the intersection of temperature, insect physiology and vectorial capacity. Not only can the immune system of a given insect species reduce its competence to vector particular pathogens [4, 5]- it also is required for the individuals survival [6, 7] and influences fitness [8, 9]. The insect immune system is affected by a number of environmental factors including nutrition [10, 11], and temperature [12, 13]. However, surprisingly few studies have explored the consequences of temperature fluctuations and seasonality on the immune system of important insect vector species [14]. ...
Abstract: Identifying important nodes for disease spreading is a central topic in network epidemiology. We investigate how well the position of a node, characterized by standard network measures, can predict its epidemiological importance in any graph of a given number of nodes. This is in contrast to other studies that deal with the easier prediction problem of ranking nodes by their epidemic importance in given graphs. As a benchmark for epidemic importance, we calculate the exact expected outbreak size given a node as the source. We study exhaustively all graphs of a given size, so do not restrict ourselves to certain generative models for graphs, nor to graph data sets. Due to the large number of possible nonisomorphic graphs of a fixed size, we are limited to 10-node graphs. We find that combinations of two or more centralities are predictive ($R^2$ scores of 0.91 or higher) even for the most difficult parameter values of the epidemic simulation. Typically, these successful combinations ...
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Despite centuries of control efforts, mosquito-borne diseases are flourishing worldwide. With a disproportionate effect on children and adolescents, these conditions are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality. Malaria kills more than 1 million children annually, chiefly in sub-Sa …
The San Gabriel Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District is a public health agency that is committed to providing ongoing vector control for…
A vector in biology is an animal on or in which a small living thing gets transported. The vector gets no benefit and sometimes loses fitness by the arrangement. The term is most used for the transport of parasites and agents of disease. So, deadly diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are carried by some mosquitoes. The study of vectors gives us knowledge about the life cycle of parasitic diseases, and this helps us control those diseases. ...
The importance of working together to prevent mosquito-borne diseases will be highlighted during an upcoming University of Otago-organised event.
|p||i|Parasites & Vectors|/i| focusses on all aspects of the biology of parasites, parasitic diseases, intermediate hosts, vectors and vector-borne pathogens. Broader issues, for example economics, social sciences and global climate change in relation to parasites, are also covered. The journal hosts the BugBitten blog and awards the Odile Bain Memorial Prize annually for outstanding contributions by early-career scientists to medical and veterinary parasitology. |i|Parasites & Vectors |/i|also publishes a wide range of collections of related articles, from the pharmaceutical industry, academia and others.|/p|
by Roger Mason. People have been asking me about hepatitis-C because two per cent of the American population is infected with it. This is in ADDITION to all the other types of hepatitis.. Even worse, four per cent- one in twenty five- people in the world have hepatitis-C. Thats right, we have about 250 million people in the world with hepatitis-C, plus all the other six types we know about so far.. There is four times as much hepatitis-C as AIDS, yet AIDS gets all the press, all the attention and most all the research money due to political influence. We cannot even define what a virus is much less treat a virus. Thats right, we have almost no anti-viral drugs and were in the Dark Ages regarding knowledge and treatment of viruses of any type. It was only identified in 1989 and blood transfusions were the main cause as no one could test for the virus.. We just dont know the actual statistics in most countries, but we can estimate the minimum infection rate. It is estimated that ten per cent ...
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the wild. >(8 min 35 sec) Learn the process by which a line of genetically modified mosquitoes was engineered to reduce populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the wild. ...
Documents : WHO/Mal/486.65 (‎WHO/VectorControl/107.65 - WHO/VDT/RES/68.65)‎, WHO/Mal/487.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/111.65)‎, WHO/Mal/488.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/106.65)‎, WHO/Mal/489.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/108.65)‎, WHO/Mal/490.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/109.65)‎, WHO/Mal/491.65-492.65, WHO/Mal/493.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/115.65)‎, WHO/Mal/494.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/117.65)‎, WHO/Mal/495.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/119.65)‎, WHO/Mal/496.65-497.65, WHO/Mal/498.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/124.65)‎, WHO/Mal/499.65-513.65, WHO/Mal/514.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/175.65)‎, bound in 1 ...
The Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) announced today (August 25) that the monthly ovitrap index for Aedes albopictus for July rose slightly to 10.6 per cent from 10.2...
Say, suggesting that it could be used to clone fragments of this gene in a number of other mosquito species. Primers were also designed to specifically amplify rp49 cDNA fragments in An. aquasalis and Ae. aegypti, showing that rp49 could be used as a good constitutive control in gene expression studies of these and other vectorially important mosquito species ...
To better understand how opinions affect the success of a control campaign, researchers coupled a mathematical model of the spread of a disease with a model of human behaviour that incorporates findings from a survey of growers.. To successfully combat a crop-threatening disease, it may be more important to educate growers about the effectiveness of control strategies than to emphasise the risk posed by the disease, according to new research by Alice Milne of Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, U.K., and colleagues.. Disease-control campaigns help to combat plant pathogens that threaten to spread among crops, but are only successful if they are sufficiently well coordinated and if enough growers and other stakeholders comply, the researchers suggested. However, most mathematical models of disease control are said to have neglected how peoples opinions about disease-control strategies influence their decision to participate.. To better understand how opinions affect the success of a control ...
A GMO plant can be grown organically, but that wouldnt immediately change the DNA/RNA. Over generations if whatever changes were made fail to pass on, then yes the plants offspring could return to a non-modified state. Its depends on how much has been changed too. But considering there are vectors that can swap and move DNA/RNA; you can not safely depend on GMO factors failing to breed out.. If there are vectors swapping DNA/RNA anyways, then why is it a problem? Usually the vectors only have a select group of related species that they host/prey on; limiting what gene pools are getting DNA swapped. GMO products use genes from wildly different species (i.e. jellyfish and cats), and so far we know DNA/RNA are very delicately sequenced and ordered to make an organism function well. Because GMO products are often rushed to production before being thoroughly tested and they could be introducing very harmful genes that are otherwise not present in that species gene pool. The irony is plants that ...
Hamer, Gabriel - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar profile, educations, publications, research, grants, awards, courses, concepts, and topics. Research in the Hamer Lab broadly investigates the ecology of infectious diseases of humans, wild animals, and domestic animals, with particular attention to those transmitted by arthropod vectors (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, kissing bugs). We have focused primarily on vector-host interactions that lead to parasite amplification and increased disease risk. We utilize multidisciplinary tools to studying these complex disease systems, including molecular biology, landscape epidemiology, eco-immunology, and ecological modeling. A goal of our research is to elucidate mechanisms of transmission across space and time that facilitate ecological management of diseases with effective intervention and preventative strategies.
This course is the study of arthropods that affect the health of man and animals. The study includes a brief account of introductory entomology and that of the ticks, insects, and sites of medical importance, both as vectors and as the causal agents of pathological conditions. Seeks understanding of the principle of the vector-host relationship. Since this course also is offered for graduate credit, a differentiation of requirements will be made.. ...
This week the Senate has unleashed a damage control campaign, sending out numerous e-mails to those who have been complaining over the past few weeks. The goal of these letters is to calm apprehensions about dietary supplements and seek to convince everyone that dietary supplements are not in any danger. I thank those of you who have sent me your Senators spin, and no letter was better than the one I received from my Senator, Norm Coleman (R-MN). I am taking the liberty of answering his form letter publicly, as it is reflective of the arguments the Senate is using to confuse and pacify the American public. The following Coleman statements are extracted from his e-mail. Coleman: I am very concerned with the Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) efficiency in reviewing prescriptions drugs as well as its track record on appropriate enforcement. Richards: Then why didnt you vote for the Grassley and Durbin amendments that would have given some real meaning to drug safety at the FDA? And why didnt ...
Aedes albopictus larvae cells (C6/36). Need Help, please. - posted in Cell Biology: Hi, everyone, I have a problem with my C636 cells, today all of them seemed dead. Well, Im using Leibovitz - 15 medium with no buffer system. Incubation at 28 °C with no CO2. And additional of conjugated Penicillin/Streptomycin and Anfotericin B. I dont know what happened, the cells was just fine in one bottle, and then, after subculture to 2 new flasks: all dead. Beside...
Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, New York, identified six patients who were infected by a newly identified bacteria they named Borrelia mayonii.
The Clackamas County Vector Control District is responsible for control of flies and mosquitoes within Clackamas County. Control of these vectors is not intended to be total eradication since the concept of total eradication is unachievable and environmentally unsound, requiring unacceptable quantities of pesticide. The goals of the District, therefore, are to limit the number of vectors thus reducing annoyance and the likelihood of vector borne disease for persons living in the District.. ...
Free Essays from Cram | Aedes aegypti is holometabolous, this type of development stages includes the egg, lava, pupa, and the adult stage. The distinct...
Global Viral Vector and Plasmid Manufacturing Market to Reach $5.86 Billion by 2030 Market Report Coverage - Viral Vector and Plasmid Manufacturing Market Segmentation • ...
The biophysical environment plays an important role in the spatio-temporal abundance and distribution of mosquitoes. This has implications for the spread of vectors and diseases they cause across diverse landscapes. Here, we assessed vector mosquito abundances in relation to large water bodies, from three malaria districts in a semi-arid environment. ...
Q10 If vector {a} = ( {i}+2 hat{j}-3 hat{k} ) and vector {b} = ( 3 {i} - hat{j}+2 hat{k} ) then the angle between ( vector {a} + vec{b} ) and ( vector
ATCC offers a wide selection of vectors including classical cloning vectors, shuttle expression vectors, and vectors for marker swap and gene disruption in yeasts.
ATCC offers a wide selection of vectors including classical cloning vectors, shuttle expression vectors, and vectors for marker swap and gene disruption in yeasts.
AggregateInto(U) Method (Vector(U), Int32[], Vector(T)) (AggregateInto Method Overloads, Methods, AggregatorGroup(T) Class, Extreme.DataAnalysis, Reference) documentation.
AggregateInto(T) Method (Vector(T), IGrouping, Vector(T)) (AggregateInto Method Overloads, Methods, TypePreservingAggregatorGroup Class, Extreme.DataAnalysis, Reference) documentation.
Algorithm design can feel technical and abstract. They are anything but, as they can be major vectors for bias to creep into algorithms.
1] M.F. Atiyah: Vector Bundles over an Elliptic Curve. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 7 (1957) 414-452. , MR 131423 , Zbl 0084.17305 [2] D. Gieseker: On the Moduli of Vector Bundles on an Algebraic Surface, preprint. , MR 466475 , Zbl 0381.14003 [3] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 4. Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 24, 1965. , Numdam , MR 199181 , Zbl 0135.39701 [4] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algebrique, 2. Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 8, 1961. , Numdam [5] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 2. , Numdam , Zbl 0227.14001 [6] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 3. Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 17, 1963. , Numdam , MR 163911 , Zbl 0122.16102 [7] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 4, Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 28, 1966. , Numdam , MR 217086 , Zbl 0144.19904 [8] A. Grothendieck: Sur la classification des fibrés holomorphes sur la sphère de Riemann. ...
Vectorbuilder is a top custom cloning company, offering a wide selection of DNA vectors. Search for popular vector designs expressing your genes of interest.
Vectorbuilder is a top custom cloning company, offering a wide selection of DNA vectors. Search for popular vector designs expressing your genes of interest.
Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the main vectors of Lyme disease (also the vector for Babesia).[54] Most infections ... Nguyen QD, Vu MN, Hebert AA (November 2018). "Insect repellents: an updated review for the clinician". J Am Acad Dermatol. doi: ... In Europe, the vector is Ixodes ricinus, which is also called the sheep tick or castor bean tick.[63] In China, Ixodes ... "Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 7 (1): 42-9. doi:10.1089/vbz.2006.0548. PMC 4128253. PMID 17417956.. ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insects). Transmission routes are vector and mechanical. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved ...
... even though they may depend on transmission by insects or other vectors. ... referred to as a vector), which carry the disease pathogen without getting sick. When humans infect other animals, it is called ...
Syed, Z (2015). "Chemical ecology and olfaction in arthropod vectors of diseases". Current Opinion in Insect Science. 10: 83-89 ... Insects[edit]. Main article: Insect olfaction. Insect olfaction refers to the function of chemical receptors that enable ... In insects, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the chemosensory sensilla, which are present in insect antenna, ... it is the most important sensation for insects.[51] Most important insect behaviors must be timed perfectly which is dependent ...
... s can overwinter in insect vectors or perennial plants. Phytoplasmas can have varying effects on their insect hosts ... "Interactions between a membrane protein of a pathogen and insect microfilament complex determines insect vector specificity". ... They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both ... Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant ...
Weintraub, Phyllis G.; Beanland, Leann (2006). "Insect Vectors of Phytoplasmas". Annual Review of Entomology. 51: 91-111. doi: ... They are parasites or commensals of vertebrates, insects, or plants; some are saprophytes. Phytoplasmas colonize the phloem ... They are transmitted by sap-sucking insects (primarily leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids ), living in the gut, haemolymph ... non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects Archived 2009-05-03 at the Wayback Machine; Int J Syst Evol ...
Hogenhout, Saskia; Ammar, El-Desouky; Whitfield, Anna; Redinbaugh, Margaret (2008). "Insect Vector Interaction with ... It is important to keep in mind with this pathogen, as with all vectored pathogens, that behavior of the vector can contribute ... This pathogen is an arbovirus, and therefore must be transmitted by a vector. A known vector of the virus is Sericothrips ... In the type member of the Tospovirus genus (TSWV), acquisition of the virus by the thrips vector can only occur during the ...
Phytoplasma and Spiroplasma are plant pathogens associated with insect vectors. Whereas formerly the trivial name "mycoplasma" ...
The vectors are insects of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; green peach aphids (Myzus persicae) and at least 14 other ...
... they serve as vectors of bacteria, fungi and viruses which cause plant diseases. As female scale insects are unable to move, ... Further information: Vector (epidemiology). Vector-transmitted parasites rely on a third party, an intermediate host, where the ... Insects[edit]. Leaf spot on oak. The spread of the parasitic fungus is limited by defensive chemicals produced by the tree, ... Plant-eating insects such as scale insects, aphids, and caterpillars are much like ectoparasites, attacking much larger plants ...
... they serve as vectors of bacteria, fungi and viruses which cause plant diseases. As female scale-insects cannot move, they are ... Insects[edit]. Leaf spot on oak. The spread of the parasitic fungus is limited by defensive chemicals produced by the tree, ... Anopheles mosquito vector, attracted by odour of infected human host[35]. - Variations[edit]. Among the many variations on ... Plant-eating insects such as scale insects, aphids, and caterpillars closely resemble ectoparasites, attacking much larger ...
Vectors and medical and veterinary entomology. 3: 14-21. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2014.07.002. PMC 4190037. PMID 25309850. MeSH ... Hillyer JF, Strand MR (September 2014). "Mosquito hemocyte-mediated immune responses". Current Opinion in Insect Science. ...
There are no known insect vectors; however, humans can be considered the main vector for this pathogen. This virus is ... the transmittance of this plant virus to humans has created a discussion on the viability of humans as vectors for plant ...
Triatoma/Reduviidae - "kissing bug" insect vector, feeds at night Helminths (worms)[edit]. Helminth organisms (also called ... Transmission/Vector Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis; Clonorchis viverrini gall bladder ducts and inflammation of liver East ... insect River blindness, onchocerciasis Onchocerca volvulus skin, eye, tissue bloodless skin snip Africa, Yemen, Central and ... Transmission/Vector Ancylostomiasis/Hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus lungs, small intestine, blood stool ...
Non-lytic insect cell expression is an alternative to the lytic baculovirus expression system. In non-lytic expression, vectors ... Kost TA, Condreay JP (October 1999). "Recombinant baculoviruses as expression vectors for insect and mammalian cells". Current ... "combination of an expression vector, its cloned DNA, and the host for the vector that provide a context to allow foreign gene ... "Baculovirus as versatile vectors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells". Nature Biotechnology. 23 (5): 567-75. ...
vector borne transmission - carried by insects or other animals.. Yersinia pestis circulates in animal reservoirs, particularly ... This species of flea is the primary vector for the transmission of Yersinia pestis, the organism responsible for bubonic plague ... There are bumps on the skin that look somewhat like insect bites; these are usually red, and sometimes white in the center. ... overcoming the problem of the explosive killing the infected animal and insect by the use of a ceramic, rather than metal, ...
"Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors". Insects. 3 (1): 91-119. doi ... A polydnavirus /pɒˈlɪdnəvaɪərəs/ (PDV) is a member of the family Polydnaviridae of insect viruses. There are currently 53 ... The Insect Viruses. Plenum Publishing Corporation. pp. 105-139.. *^ Roossinck, M. J. (2011). "Changes in population dynamics in ... "The Campoletis sonorensis ichnovirus vankyrin protein P-vank-1 inhibits apoptosis in insect Sf9 cells". INSECT MOLECULAR ...
Phytoplasma infection also spreads through insect vectors; it is, therefore, important to control them. General field ... Oligonucleotide as Hybridization probes to Localize Phytoplasmas in Host Plants and Insect Vectors. (1998). Phytopathology. 89 ... Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). ... 91:1413-1418.[1]. Rao, G. P. and Ford, R. E. (2000) Vectors of virus and Phytoplasma diseases of Sugarcane: An Overview. In: ...
This disease is spread by insect vectors. The biological vector of the virus is the Culicoides (midges) species. However, this ... AHS is not directly contagious, but is known to be spread by insect vectors. AHS virus was first recorded south of the Sahara ... This disease can also be prevented by destroying the insect vector habitats and by using insecticides.[citation needed] African ... where cyclic disease outbreaks coincide with high numbers of competent vectors. The most important vector for AHS in endemic ...
R. prolixus is an important insect vector of Chagas disease that is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. The strategy was to engineer R ... A future direction on vector paratransgenesis is within the natural insect populations and it has not been determined if ... It can also cause mortality for humans from insect-borne diseases. Preventive methods and current controls against vector-borne ... Sinkins SP, Gould F (June 2006). "Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 7 (6): 427-35. doi: ...
In some insect groups, these endosymbionts live in specialized insect cells called bacteriocytes (also called mycetocytes), and ... "Prospects for control of African trypanosomiasis by tsetse vector manipulation". Trends Parasitol. 17 (1): 29-35. doi:10.1016/ ... As with endosymbiosis in other insects, the symbiosis is obligate in that neither the bacteria nor the insect is viable without ... Insect Mol Biol. 4, 15-22. Welburn, S.C., Maudlin, I. & Ellis, D.S. 1987. In vitro cultivation of rickettsia-like-organisms ...
The green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) has been found to be most effective in its role as viral vector, but others such as ... Radcliffe, E.B. (1982). Insect pests of potato. Ann. R. Ento., 27: 173-204. Ragsdale, D.W., Radcliffe, E.B., DiFonzo, C.D. ( ... PVY is transmissible by aphid vectors but may also remain dormant in seed potatoes. This means that using the same line of ... Their lower efficiency as PVY vector is cancelled out by the sheer numbers in which they occur. Because of this, all aphids ...
The virus is transmitted via a vector (insect aphid, leafhopper, planthopper, and insect). Transmission routes are vector. " ...
The disease is spread through an insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid was previously introduced into Florida in ... Vector control of the psyllid, which is the sole means for citrus greening to spread is now done routinely. Before citrus ... Vector control of citrus greening began when the disease was first introduced in 2005. All commercial citrus growers are ... The spraying of pesticides is the only method of control for the citrus greening vector, the psyllid. It is impossible to kill ...
These are normally insects, but some fungi, nematode worms, and single-celled organisms have been shown to be vectors. When ... and insect vectors such as mosquitoes penetrate the skin of a host, e.g., dengue. The rate or speed of transmission of viral ... viruses in animals can be carried by blood-sucking insects. These disease-bearing organisms are known as vectors. Influenza ... Plant Viral Vectors for Protein Expression.. *^ Jefferson, A; Cadet, V. E.; Hielscher, A (2015). "The mechanisms of genetically ...
Insects[edit]. The mosquito Anopheles stephensi is among the blood-feeding insects that can be infected by a species of ... Enhanced Attraction of Mosquito Vectors". Trends in Parasitology. 33 (12): 961-973. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2017.08.010. PMID 28942108 ... Insect hosts are most frequently mosquitoes of the genera Culex and Anopheles. Vertebrate hosts include reptiles, birds, and ... Different species affect their insect hosts differently. Sometimes, insects infected with Plasmodium have reduced lifespan and ...
The adult female mites are mostly parasitic on insects. Their host range includes many holometabolous insects such as honeybees ... Some species are the vectors of pathogenic fungi. O'Connor, B.; Klimov, Pavel B. (1 May 2012). "Family Pyemotidae Oudemans, ... Pyemotidae is a family of mostly parasitic mites that feed on the larvae and other developmental stages of various insects but ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Resh, Vincent H.; Cardé, Ring T. (2009). Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. p. ...
"Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors" (PDF). Nature Reviews Genetics. 7 (6): 427-435. doi:10.1038/nrg1870. PMID ... Male-killing occurs in many insects. In the case of male embryo death, a variety of bacteria have been implicated, including ...
Hemingway is distinguished as the international authority on insecticide resistance in insect vectors of disease. She was first ... Hemingway, J.; Ranson, H. (2000). "Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Human Disease". Annual Review of Entomology. 45 ... Awarded Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for services to the Control of Tropical Disease Vectors in the ... Janet Hemingway CBE FRS FMedSci FRCP (born 1957) is a British entomologist, Professor of Insect Molecular Biology and Director ...
There are no insect vectors for this disease.[citation needed] This means that using insecticides has no effect on the spread ...
১] The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene "Vector surveillance and control: Bed bug fact sheet" 12 January ... ইংরেজী উইকিসংকলনে ১৯১১ খ্রিস্টাব্দের এনসাইক্লোপিডিয়া ব্রিটানিকায় Bug (insect) নিবন্ধ তথ্য রয়েছে।. *'Bedbugs under various ...
Insects may visit them to collect pollen; there are some examples of flowers which are both wind and insect pollinated. ... Pollen vector wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil. ... Honey guides, nectar guides or floral guides are markings on flowers which tell insects where to go for nectar (many insects ... On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilised by insects. Murray, London ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... Use insect repellent when outdoors such as those containing DEET, picaridin, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535), or oil ... The main vector (A. aegypti) also occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Australia, but yellow ... People who become infected in the jungle can carry the virus to urban areas, where A. aegypti acts as a vector. Because of this ...
In other words, ticks are the vector which transmits the disease. It is the most common tick-borne infection in the United ...
Introduced birds (e.g. pigeons), rodents and insects (e.g. mosquito, flea, louse and tsetse fly pests) can serve as vectors and ... VectorsEdit. Non-native species have many vectors, including biogenic vectors, but most invasions are associated with human ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Invasive plant pathogens and insect vectors for plant diseases can also suppress agricultural yields and nursery stock. Citrus ...
... s also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), viroplasms improve the virus transmission by the aphid vector. ... Virus factories of Cauliflower mosaic virus are virion reservoirs that engage actively in vector-transmission. 2013 journal of ...
... plants are very liable to infestation by aphids, whitefly, and scale insects (e.g. California red scale). Also rather ... important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus ... The Asian citrus psyllid is an aphid-like insect that feeds on the leaves and stems of citrus trees and other citrus-like ...
Almost all adult arachnids have eight legs, and arachnids may be easily distinguished from insects by this fact, since insects ... Several mites are external parasites, and some of them are carriers of disease (vectors). ... Arachnids are mostly carnivorous, feeding on the pre-digested bodies of insects and other small animals. Only the harvestmen ...
"Flowers set more seeds when visited by wild insects, and the more plants that were visited by wild insects, the more likely ... Both G. mellonella adults and larvae are possible vectors for pathogens that can infect bees, including the Israeli acute ... "Journal of Insect Behavior. 23 (6): 459-471. doi:10.1007/s10905-010-9229-5. ISSN 0892-7553. PMC 2955239. PMID 21037953.. ... A honey bee (or honeybee) is a eusocial, flying insect within the genus Apis of the bee clade. They are known for construction ...
As a vectorEdit. Fleas are vectors for viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases of humans and other animals, as well as of ... "Wiley: The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, 5th Edition - Gullan, P.J.; Cranston, P.S." www.wiley.com. Retrieved 11 November ... The oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is a vector of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium which causes bubonic plague. The ... He discovered and named the plague vector flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, also known as the oriental rat flea, in 1903.[44] Using ...
The chosen insect vector of a plant virus will often be the determining factor in that virus's host range: it can only infect ... Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are surrounded ... Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a vector, most often insects such as leafhoppers. One class of viruses, the ... Propagative viruses are able to replicate in both the plant and the insect (and may have originally been insect viruses), ...
Sterile insect techniqueEdit. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a form of pest control that uses ionizing radiation (gamma ... Disease hosts and vectorsEdit. The tsetse-vectored trypanosomiases affect various vertebrate species including humans, ... Technically, these insects undergo the standard development process of insects, which consists of oocyte formation, ovulation, ... Glossina vectors. Sleeping sickness - chronic form. humans. T. brucei gambiense. Western Africa. G. palpalis. G. tachinoides. G ...
A study of potential vectors in Malayasia suggests that Anopheles cracens may be an important vector of P. knowlesi.[27] ... The known vectors belong to the genus Anopheles, subgenus Cellia, series Neomyzomyia and group Leucosphyrus.[4] Mosquitoes of ... "Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11 (2): 131-5. doi:10.1089/vbz.2010.0024. PMC 3033207. PMID 20586605.. ... Wharton RH, Eyles DE (1961). "Anopheles hackeri, a vector of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaya". Science. 134 (3474): 279-80. doi: ...
... as a vector in addition to the more strictly tropical main vector, Aedes aegypti.[75] Enhanced transmission of Chikungunya ... Vaporized pyrethroids (for example in mosquito coils) are also insect repellents. As infected mosquitoes often feed and rest ... Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 43 (4): 151-60. PMID 17175699. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013.. ... Chikungunya is spread through bites from Aedes mosquitoes, and the species A. aegypti was identified as the most common vector ...
Market economy is similar to insect-like swarm intelligence. There are autonomous agents in a distributed environment, but each ... owners of the vectors of information) in his book A Hacker Manifesto [2004] ...
Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial ' ... Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, mycobacteriosis (avian ... Many birds glean for insects, invertebrates, fruit, or seeds. ... bird nests as a protection against blood-sucking flying insects ...
Insects. Most microbats, especially in temperate areas, prey on insects.[128] The diet of an insectivorous bat may span many ... Mehlhorn, H. (2013). Bats (Chiroptera) as Vectors of Diseases and Parasites: Facts and Myths. Springer. pp. 2-27. ISBN 978-3- ... Small insect-eating bats can have as many as 38 teeth, while vampire bats have only 20. Bats that feed on hard-shelled insects ... Bats consume insect pests, reducing the need for pesticides and other insect management measures. They are sometimes numerous ...
Chouinard, A.; Filion, L. (2005), "Impact of Introduced White-Tailed Deer and Native Insect Defoliators on the Density and ... of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Host-Specific Symptom Determinants by Expression of Individual Genes from a Potato Virus X Vector ...
Others use biotic vectors including insects (entomophily), birds (ornithophily), bats (chiropterophily) or other animals. Some ... Flowers that are insect-pollinated are called entomophilous; literally "insect-loving" in Greek. They can be highly modified ... Pollen may be transferred between plants via a number of 'vectors'. Some plants make use of abiotic vectors - namely wind ( ... Many flowers, for example, attract only one specific species of insect, and therefore rely on that insect for successful ...
... eating insects, smaller tadpoles and fish. Young of the Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) can occasionally be ... ArchéoZooThèque : Amphibians skeletons drawings : available in vector, image and PDF formats. *Amphibian Specialist Group ... preying on the large insects of the period and the many types of fish in the water. They still needed to return to water to lay ...
Courtship is often facilitated through forming groups, called leks, in flies and many other insects. For example, male ... "Demonstration of genetic exchange during cyclical development of Leishmania in the sand fly vector". Science. 324 (5924): 265- ... In some terrestrial arthropods, including insects representing basal (primitive) phylogenetic clades, the male deposits ... In advanced groups of insects, the male uses its aedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to ...
... use of pesticides to control psyllid vectors in the citrus crop, and biological control of psyllid vectors in non-crop ... The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects. One of them is the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri ... In 1888, the USDA sent Alfred Koebele to Australia to study this scale insect in its native habitat. He brought back with him ... Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness, or mushy condition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, ...
To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted ... This includes biotechnology-based approaches for the control of harmful insects, the characterisation and utilisation of active ... It has also been used to refer to biotechnology applied to insects. ... ingredients or genes of insects for research, or application in agriculture and medicine and various other approaches.[29] ...
In 1997, the Russian government announced that all of its remaining smallpox samples would be moved to the Vector Institute in ... Smallpox was not known to be transmitted by insects or animals and there was no asymptomatic carrier state.[23] ... and Russia's State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR.[110] ...
The world has heard much of the triumphant war against disease through the control of insect vectors of infection, but it has ... Because of insects' very short breeding cycle and large number of offspring, the most resistant insects survive and pass on ... making them useless in eliminating the target insect populations: No responsible person contends that insect-borne disease ... and the insects and diseases and vermin would once again inherit the earth".[1] Others attacked Carson's personal character and ...
The Impertinent Insect is a group of five fables, sometimes ascribed to Aesop, concerning an insect, in one version a fly, ... Förster M, Klimpel S, Sievert K (March 2009). "The house fly (Musca domestica) as a potential vector of metazoan parasites ... Gullan PJ, Cranston PS (2010). The Insects: An Outline of Entomology (4th ed.). Wiley. pp. 41, 519. ISBN 978-1-118-84615-5. .. ... Lockwood JA (2012). "Insects as weapons of war, terror, and torture". Annual Review of Entomology. 57: 205-27. doi:10.1146/ ...
Strategies of controlling the disease are mostly focused on eliminating the insect vector, and on preventing contamination from ...
Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... Infravec2 new insect vector research tools: no-cost resources for scientists fighting mosquito-transmitted diseases ... Infravec2 new insect vector research tools: no-cost resources for scientists fighting mosquito-transmitted diseases ...
Whether and how vector insects respond to invading protozoan parasites so far has remained elusive. Mosquitoes, in particular, ... susceptibility in insect vector strains is certainly one of the golden apples of the Hesperides. ... Not surprisingly therefore, insects have developed efficient host defense mechanisms. The current view is that the insect host ... the major African vector of human malaria. The markers include the well established antibacterial peptide insect defensin, a ...
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  • Insects and other arthropods are the most important vectors of plant pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • The majority of plant pathogens are disseminated by arthropod vectors such as aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, planthoppers, thrips and whiteflies. (mdpi.com)
  • Transmission of plant pathogens and the challenges in managing insect vectors due to insecticide resistance are factors that contribute to major food losses in agriculture. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) was recently suggested as a promising strategy for controlling insect pests, including those that serve as important vectors for plant pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • This review will focus on summarizing success cases in which RNAi was used for silencing genes in insect vector for plant pathogens, and will be particularly helpful for vector biologists. (mdpi.com)
  • The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite recent progress for understanding the biology and for the control of insect-vectored pathogens, vector-borne diseases continue to exert a major toll on humanity. (virology.net)
  • Recent outbreaks of vector-borne diseases illustrate that no nation is immune to potentially serious consequences from emerging and re-emerging pathogens. (virology.net)
  • The Center for Disease Vector Research and the School of Medicine at U.C. Riverside include faculty utilizing interdisciplinary approaches to study vectors and their associated pathogens, and to ameliorate suffering from diseases caused by the insect-vectored pathogens. (virology.net)
  • Ten vector-borne pathogens were newly identified in the United States in the past 13 years, including chikungunya, Zika, and six tickborne pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Because these pathogens interact with their vectors on the cellular and organismal levels, potential changes at the biochemical level might occur. (asm.org)
  • These findings increase our knowledge of insect transmission of the persistent-circulative-propagative type of plant pathogens vectored by insects. (asm.org)
  • Insect vectors transmit a variety of pathogens to a wide range of animal and plant hosts ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Biotechnology ReportsAuthor(s): Rafael J. Vivero, Gustavo Bedoya Mesa, Sara M. Robledo, Claudia Ximena Moreno Herrera, Gloria Cadavid-RestrepoAbstractKnowledge regarding new compounds, peptides, and/or secondary metabolites secreted by bacteria isolated from the intestine of phebotominae has the potential to control insect vectors and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) transmitted by them. (medworm.com)
  • Rickettsial pathogens are highly specialized for obligate intracellular survival in both the vertebrate host and the invertebrate vector. (cdc.gov)
  • a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. (answers.com)
  • This course presents current information on insect, other arthropod and nematode vectors of plant pathogens, and the role and management of these vectors in agricultural and environmental areas. (ufl.edu)
  • The material discussed in this course deals with the identification and morphology of important vectors and how these features affect transmission of plant pathogens. (ufl.edu)
  • By the end of the semester you should be more comfortable with this higher-level inquiry-based learning approach (that is expected from graduate students and research scientists) and that you have a new appreciation for insects as vectors of plant pathogens. (ufl.edu)
  • Border patrol, and the use of insect vectored plant pathogens. (ufl.edu)
  • Toward this goal, insecticides play a major role in controlling major disease vectors-the arthropods that pass pathogens to humans. (nap.edu)
  • Vectors are mediums with which any pathogens are transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mosquitoes, in particular, have not been the subject of molecular and genetic investigations in this area until very recently, although they are the principal vectors for several major diseases affecting humans and lifestock, such as malaria and sleeping sickness. (pnas.org)
  • Able to repel and kill ticks and insects, including mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common biting insects are mosquitoes and ants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bites from common insects such as mosquitoes and ticks can spread a number of viral and bacterial illnesses. (requestatest.com)
  • To protect yourself against diseases spread by mosquitoes, CDC and EPA recommend using an EPA-registered insect repellent. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we discuss the salient advances in the prevention and control strategies to combat ZIKV with a focus on highlighting various intervention approaches against the vector mosquitoes of this viral pathogen along with presenting an overview regarding human intervention measures to counter other modes of ZIKV transmission and spread. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mosquitoes are the vectors for malaria. (answers.com)
  • The control of diseases vectors and nuisance insects such as mosquitoes, black flies, house flies, and sand flies is an important part of any public health program. (dynafog.com)
  • Aedes mosquitoes are vectors of avian malaria , dengue fever , yellow fever and chikungunya (a viral disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, resistance to insecticides has appeared in every major species of arthropod vectors- including mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, lice, and sand flies-and various vectors have developed resistance to every class of pesticide. (nap.edu)
  • The large-scale land use changes observed in the region are likely to impact the ecology, behavior and transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes as vectors of zoonotic malaria 13 . (nature.com)
  • The increase in temperature creates the right conditions for the growth and spread of vectors such as mosquitoes. (exeley.com)
  • Viruses and diseases spreading medical vector concept. (shutterstock.com)
  • The MOOC Medical entomology focuses on the insects and arthropods that impact human health as well as the associated diseases, such as malaria, dengue, Zika, Lyme borreliosis, Chagas disease… This MOOC will begin on february 6, 2017, for six weeks. (pasteur.fr)
  • At a recent workshop, experts discussed the benefits, risks, and research priorities associated with using genetically manipulated insects in the control of vector-borne diseases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sebastian Gourbiere, the researcher who led the Chagas study, pointed to the need for regional governments to re-examine their vector control methods if they are to effectively fight these diseases. (ipsnews.net)
  • Gourbiere agrees with Agard and other regional researchers that there is need for solutions that are primarily focused on vector controls: eradication and effective controls of the Aedes aegypti could also eliminate the diseases they spread. (ipsnews.net)
  • The University of California, Riverside seeks outstanding candidates for four faculty positions in various aspects of insect-vectored diseases and mosquito ecology to be filled at the Assistant or Associate Professor rank. (virology.net)
  • This cluster hire currently seeks collaborative scientists examining issues related to (1) human pathogen-insect vector interactions (Assistant rank), (2) mosquito ecology/evolution (Assistant rank), (3) infection and immunity in a mammalian system against vector-borne diseases (Assistant or Associate rank) and (4) bioinformatics and computational biology of human vector-borne diseases and their insect hosts (Assistant rank). (virology.net)
  • In tropical countries, insect-borne diseases claim more than a million lives per year and impart a huge cost on often fragile economies. (virology.net)
  • We seek to add highly motivated and talented faculty to synergize ongoing research activities and promote the development of innovative control strategies for both vectors and diseases they cause. (virology.net)
  • Questions regarding this position should be directed to Dr. William Walton, Chair of the Insect Vectored Diseases and Mosquito Ecology Cluster Hire Search Committee at [email protected] (virology.net)
  • Senior applicants for the infection and immunity in a mammalian system against vector-borne diseases position should apply through (https://aprecruit.ucr.edu/apply/JPF00705). (virology.net)
  • Every state and US territory is at risk for vector-borne diseases (VBD). (cdc.gov)
  • Blood testing from our Vector Borne Diseases category can help you take charge and protect your health. (requestatest.com)
  • Integrated Management of Insects Vectoring Plant Diseases in Indonesia. (harper-adams.ac.uk)
  • Human vector-borne diseases account for more than 17% of the total infectious diseases every year ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Malaria and yellow fever are two main diseases, which are transmitted by insects. (essaytown.com)
  • Media coverage of insect-vectored diseases such as West Nile virus and Zika virus have Texas on alert lately. (tamu.edu)
  • Vector-borne diseases impose enormous health and economic burdens and additional methods to control vector populations are clearly needed. (org.in)
  • Insect or rodent borne human diseases have recently been reappearing in Europe. (youris.com)
  • These last years, insect or rodent borne human diseases have been reappearing in Europe. (youris.com)
  • EDEN's goal is to identify the ecosystems most likely to harbor the vectors of these diseases. (youris.com)
  • West Nile is a very interesting virus, it's a virus of nature" explains Paul Reiter, head of the "Insects and Infectuous Diseases" department at the Institut Pasteur. (youris.com)
  • Control of vector-borne diseases -- IX. (cdc.gov)
  • Vectors play very important role in spread of many diseases. (answers.com)
  • Malaria and plague are two important vector born diseases. (answers.com)
  • Well, the vectors do contract the disease, some human diseases seem to not affect the vector and others will affect the vector especially behavorally (look at rabies). (answers.com)
  • Trash build-up, dam building, deforestation and global warming each contribute to the spread of Zika and other insect-borne diseases around the world. (emagazine.com)
  • This Network is for anyone who studies the ability of insects to transmit viruses and diseases to plants. (esanetworks.org)
  • The study of vectors gives us knowledge about the life cycle of parasitic diseases, and this helps us control those diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphids are the vectors of many viral diseases in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus of this session of the workshop was an examination of the role that vectors play in a variety of diseases and how management efforts are being used to better control vector populations. (nap.edu)
  • Such diseases were originally thought to be caused by viruses, which, like phytoplasmas, require insect vectors, and cannot be cultured. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Anopheles mosquito, the vector of Plasmodium and various different viruses, is studied together with the tsetse fly, the vector of Trypanosoma brucei . (pasteur.fr)
  • With the marked exception of the seas, insects occupy nearly all ecological niches on earth and hence are confronted to innumerable potential pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan and helminth parasites. (pnas.org)
  • Microorganisms (including fungi, bacteria, and viruses) and insect vectors are both key model systems for genomics and important organisms for clinical medicine. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The study adds to the growing body of work suggesting that bacteria and viruses can escape cell death in the insect, and in some cases, may even use it to their advantage to increase transmission. (eurekalert.org)
  • Granados, "Replication Phenomena of Insect Viruses", in Miltenburger at pp. 163-184 (1978). (patents.com)
  • In nature, the dissemination of these viruses is dependent on arthropod vectors (genera Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus, and Tospovirus) or rodent vectors (genus Hantavirus). (k-state.edu)
  • Like many animal-infecting viruses, TSWV replicates in the cells of its insect vector. (k-state.edu)
  • The transgenic plants and the new knowledge of the virus vector interaction are promising tools to control TSWV and a model approach for the control of other vector-borne viruses. (k-state.edu)
  • In this dissertation, a modified viral metagenomics protocol was developed and utilized to effectively purify viruses from tissues, enabling the sequencing of novel viruses from animals, plants, and insect vectors. (usf.edu)
  • Viral metagenomics performed directly on tissue samples enabled the discovery of novel vertebrate, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. (usf.edu)
  • In addition to discovery of viruses in individual diseased animals, this dissertation pioneered a technique called vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to examine viruses present in insect vectors. (usf.edu)
  • VEM combines the power of metagenomics to sequence novel viruses with the ability of insect vectors to integrate viral diversity over space, time, and many host individuals and species. (usf.edu)
  • Mosquito viromes contained a diverse range of viruses, including vertebrate, insect, plant, and bacterial viruses, and almost all the viral sequences were novel, suggesting the pan-animal virome is largely uncharacterized. (usf.edu)
  • By enabling the discovery of virus in diseased organisms and in insect vectors, viral metagenomics is a powerful technique that will significantly enhance our fundamental scientific understanding of the diversity, transmission, biogeography, and emergence of viruses. (usf.edu)
  • In support of a large multi-investigator DARPA-funded initiative to develop vectored plant viruses that could edit plant genomes, four postdoctoral positions are available at North Carolina State University. (igtrcn.org)
  • The fellow will study cereal aphids and barley yellow dwarf viruses to characterize vector transmission dynamics, viruliferous vector dispersal in monoculture and mixed host populations under controlled environments, and plant host specificity using quantitative ecological and transcriptomics tools. (igtrcn.org)
  • Bats which represent about 20% of all known mammalian species act as both a natural reservoirs for viruses such as the Hendra virus (HeV) and the SARS like coronaviruses [14] [15] and in many cases as a vector for various viruses such as the lyssaviruses including the rabies virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. Carn V.M.: The role of Dipterous insects in the mechanical transmission of animal viruses. (exeley.com)
  • injuries caused by the mouth parts and venom of insects and of certain related creatures, known as arachnids-spiders, scorpions, ticks-but popularly classified with insects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Researchers in the Department of Entomology developed a mobile phone app - The TickApp - to identify ticks as vectors of Lyme disease. (tamu.edu)
  • Vectors are insects, ticks, rodents, some birds and other animals that can transmit disease and cause discomfort in humans. (mchdept.com)
  • For instance the mosquito is a vector for malaria, and ticks are vectors for rocky mountain spotted fever. (answers.com)
  • Ticks of the genus Ixodes are vectors of Lyme disease and babesiosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pest and vector management in the tropics : with particular reference to insects, ticks, mites and snails / Anthony Youdeowei, Mike W. Service. (who.int)
  • The failure of the newest vector control strategies also forced health professionals to revisit the old, but proven techniques developed with the guidance of researchers like Chadee, whose work on dengue and yellow fever, malaria and most recently the Zika virus had helped to guide the development of mosquito control, surveillance and control strategies in the Caribbean. (ipsnews.net)
  • The best way to protect yourself and family from mosquito and tick bites is to use insect repellent. (cdc.gov)
  • The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been successful against agricultural pests, but is not in large-scale use for suppressing or eliminating mosquito populations. (org.in)
  • Its main vector, the Culex mosquito, is being caught by scientists in Camargue and studied by virologists with the EDEN project. (youris.com)
  • It is a vector borne disease that is spread by the female Anopheles mosquito between dawn and dusk. (answers.com)
  • Is a mosquito a vector? (answers.com)
  • As the disease vector, only the mosquito confers disease upon the individual. (answers.com)
  • This mosquito is a vector of malaria . (wikipedia.org)
  • The strategy of the authors was to identify several markers of an inducible immune response in Anopheles gambiae , the major African vector of human malaria. (pnas.org)
  • The Parasite and Vector Genomics group applies genomic and transcriptomic sequencing data to profile variation among individuals and divergence among species to understand the basic biology underlying vector-borne disease transmission, with a focus on malaria. (broadinstitute.org)
  • their role as malaria vectors, and their distribution in various eco-epidemiological zones of the WHO European Region. (who.int)
  • Malaria, the most important vector-borne disease, causes 1 to 3 million deaths per year ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Malaria is a vector based disease and is considered highly communicable, meaning it can be spread, though not easily from human to human. (answers.com)
  • Malaria represents a classic example of the difficulties associated with vector-control efforts. (nap.edu)
  • Understanding current human infection risk from simian malaria species and anticipating possible future zoonotic spillover of vector-borne disease calls for a more comprehensive examination of local anopheline population ecology, as well as surveillance of their Plasmodium infection status. (nature.com)
  • Nature and animals vector graphics of different arthropods and insects. (freevector.com)
  • Insect arthropod vector symbol stock web illustration. (shutterstock.com)
  • A knowledge of the frequency of contact between infective vectors and man is crucial to an understanding of the transmission of arthropod-borne disease and to evaluating vector control. (ajtmh.org)
  • The Parasite (or causative agent of disease) -- V. Arthropod vectors of disease -- Vi. (cdc.gov)
  • While studies often focus primarily on the vertebrate host, the arthropod vector is often more important in the natural maintenance of the pathogen. (cdc.gov)
  • This article examines the common features of the host-pathogen relationship and of the arthropod vectors of the typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae. (cdc.gov)
  • Although rickettsiae have a symbiotic relationship with their arthropod hosts, in some instances, they act as true parasites-for example, members of the Wolbachia and Orientia tsutsugamushi alter reproduction and manipulate cellular processes in their arthropod hosts (4) , and the agent of epidemic typhus, Rickettsia prowazekii , kills its vector, the human body louse (5) . (cdc.gov)
  • Although rickettsiae are maintained in nature through arthropod vectors, they frequently infect vertebrates, which in turn allow new lines of vectors to acquire infection from the rickettsemic hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent, sometimes with other animals serving as intermediary hosts. (answers.com)
  • New experimental tools and models are being developed to improve understanding of the dynamic interactions that pathogenic microorganisms establish with the vector and humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • Our lack of information in this area is obviously detrimental for vector control programs relying on the genetic manipulation of vectors, as such programs require an understanding of basic physiological and biochemical processes that govern parasite-vector interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control. (mdpi.com)
  • This knowledge can help the development of new tools leading to decrease vector-host interactions, therefore the vectorial transmission. (uba.ar)
  • 3) Insect-Virus Interactions (1). (igtrcn.org)
  • 4) Insect-Virus Interactions (2). (igtrcn.org)
  • For the postdoctoral positions on the plant virus, a Ph.D. in Entomology or Plant Pathology with an emphasis in Plant Virology/Vector Interactions is desirable. (igtrcn.org)
  • The project encompases field studies of both significant plant disease vectors and pests causing direct damage through feeding to food crops in Indonesia, with the aim of progressive development of more sustainable crop protection approaches. (harper-adams.ac.uk)
  • Scientists in the department conduct research into the life cycle of parasites and their vectors. (pasteur.fr)
  • Whether and how vector insects respond to invading protozoan parasites so far has remained elusive. (pnas.org)
  • As the authors note, these reactions were observed at a time when the parasites were physically constrained within the gut lumen or within the midgut epithelial layer, but well before they were released into the blood of the insects as sporozoites. (pnas.org)
  • Some insects establish themselves on the skin as parasites, others inject poison, and still others transmit disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Phytoplasmas are obligate bacterial parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their plant-to-plant transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect-transmitted plant-pathogenic bacteria may alter their vectors' fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Insect transmission of plant-pathogenic bacteria involves propagation and circulation of the bacteria within their vectors. (asm.org)
  • The growth of the plant-pathogenic bacteria in the hemolymph of their vectors indicated that the hemolymph contains all the necessary nutrients for their growth. (asm.org)
  • Phytoplasmas are plant-pathogenic bacteria transmitted by hemipteran insects. (asm.org)
  • Length heterogeneity PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene revealed the presence of a number of bacteria stably associated with the insect vector. (asm.org)
  • It is caused by phytoplasmas, cell wall-less bacteria belonging to the class Mollicutes that can multiply in the body of the insect vector and in phloem cells of the host plant ( 18 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • To achieve this, the external microflora (bacteria and fungi) and the size and location of fungal spores on the cuticle of these insect species were determined. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • This is not a conscious decision or planned strategy of the bacteria/virus/vector, it is what worked the best and spread the most quickly. (answers.com)
  • Yet, in addition to its value in producing recombinant proteins in insect cells and larvae, this viral vector system continues to evolve in new and unexpected ways. (nih.gov)
  • A novel viral expression vector is employed in the expression of exogenous genes in "non-permissive" hosts. (patents.com)
  • Previously, the TSWV GN protein was shown to be the viral attachment protein, a molecule mediating attachment of virus particles to the midgut epithelial cells of vector thrips. (k-state.edu)
  • VEM allows for the investigation of viral diversity among the broad range of hosts that the insects feed on, providing an unprecedented snapshot of the viral diversity in natural reservoirs. (usf.edu)
  • Alarming as these findings were, they were only the latest on the evolutionary strategies of vector insect populations in the Caribbean. (ipsnews.net)
  • In this valuable little book R. C. Muirhead-Thomson has brought together much of the relevant recent literature bearing on techniques for sampling vector populations. (ajtmh.org)
  • My pdf Ecology of Insect Vector Populations is on a viewing focus because of our powerful market doing to Division. (enetincorporated.com)
  • specific pdf Ecology of Insect Vector Populations concepts and students. (enetincorporated.com)
  • Developing and applying mathematical models can provide a solid basis for identifying new ways to effectively control the emergence of resistance among vector populations-and also to identify methods that are not effective. (nap.edu)
  • We conducted a 15-month study in two Malaysian villages to determine the effect of habitat on vector populations in understudied high-altitude, high-incidence districts. (nature.com)
  • The two phytoplasmas induce different effects on this species: CYp slightly improves whereas FDp negatively affects insect fitness. (asm.org)
  • Today, many thousands of recombinant proteins, ranging from cytosolic enzymes to membrane-bound proteins, have been successfully produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (nih.gov)
  • Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we established a trans -complementation assay permitting assessment of AAP functionality during production of recombinant vectors based on complete AAV capsids and derived from any serotype. (nih.gov)
  • The pIEx™ series of transient expression vectors are designed for rapid, high-level protein expression in insect cells, while eliminating the need to create recombinant baculovirus for protein expression. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Expression of active secreted forms of human amyloid beta-protein precursor by recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plasmid cassette-transfer vectors pBHuC kappa, and pBHuC gamma 1 have been designed which enable the construction of recombinant baculoviruses directing the coexpression of complete immunoglobulin in insect cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Vector background with hand drawn insects illustrations. (shutterstock.com)
  • Can Stock Photo also offers EPS vector illustrations, clipart digital artwork, clip art, stock footage, and video animation clips. (canstockphoto.com)
  • Free insect vector clipart illustrations of Caterpillars, Beetles, and Colorado Beetles. (clipartreview.com)
  • You can use these free insect clipart illustrations for non-commercial projects. (clipartreview.com)
  • A study published in February 2016 revealed that the triatomino (or vinchuca), the vector insects for Chagas disease, were breeding twice a year instead of only in the rainy season. (ipsnews.net)
  • The practical limitations that the dual threat poses outweigh the capabilities of local vector teams," he said in response to questions about the control of Chagas disease. (ipsnews.net)
  • ITHACA, NY--The bacterium that causes citrus greening disease is not only decimating citrus orchards, but wreaks havoc in the guts of the insect that transmits it. (eurekalert.org)
  • These individuals will build on existing strengths in fundamental and applied research in disease vector research. (virology.net)
  • This method will help entomologists better understand the impacts of insect vectors on disease epidemiology. (tamu.edu)
  • There is a real risk that this foreign animal disease could be introduced to the Western Hemisphere, including North America, where we have insects that will likely serve as effective vectors of this virus," Teel said. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Here we present the first full characterization of the bacterial community of this important disease vector collected from BN-contaminated areas in Piedmont, Italy. (asm.org)
  • Grapevine yellows is a severe insect-borne disease affecting grapes in many wine-producing countries. (asm.org)
  • To educate the public and minimize the potential for human disease caused by vectors. (mchdept.com)
  • How does a vector spread disease? (answers.com)
  • What is Role of spreading vector disease? (answers.com)
  • What is vector spread disease and the examples? (answers.com)
  • A disease which is carried and spread by an agent (animal or microorganism) is a vector spread disease. (answers.com)
  • It was a bacterium that caused it, but rats and fleas between them were the vector which spread the disease. (answers.com)
  • What is the role of the vectors in the transmission of disease? (answers.com)
  • Without the vector the disease can not spread in most of the cases. (answers.com)
  • Name an example of a vector and the disease it spreads? (answers.com)
  • Yes, it is a vector for disease. (answers.com)
  • A xenodiagnosis is a diagnosis of an infectious disease by exposure to a vector of that disease, incubating the vector and examining it for the presence of that disease. (answers.com)
  • A vector is a disease causing agent. (answers.com)
  • What is a vector that transmits disease? (answers.com)
  • Why don't vectors contract the disease they carry? (answers.com)
  • Triatomine bugs such as Rhodnius prolixus are vectors of Chagas disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • 12. Chihota C.M, Rennie L.F., Kitching R.P., Mellor P.S.: Attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects. (exeley.com)
  • [8] In contrast, transmission can also occur via an intermediate species (referred to as a vector ), which carry the disease pathogen without getting sick. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeting Olipidium bornovanus is effective in stopping the vector from spreading the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lowland areas of Malaysia, Plasmodium knowlesi infection is associated with land use change and high proportions of the vector Anopheles balabacensis . (nature.com)
  • big set of insects bugs beetles and bees many species in vintage old hand drawn style engraved illustration woodcut. (shutterstock.com)
  • Beetles are a group of insects that form order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. (shutterstock.com)
  • Lastly, cucumber beetles act as insect vectors for MNSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women with his feet, itching on the lawn caused by insect bites and stings/health and medical view and devising concepts. (shutterstock.com)
  • Registration of a manufacturing use product paves the way for manufacturers to develop nootkatone-based products for consumers to buy, including insect repellents, lotions, and soaps. (cdc.gov)
  • Baculovirus as versatile vectors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • Baculoriruses for Insect Pest Control: Safety Considerations", American Society for Microbiology (1975). (patents.com)
  • Agriculture pest control vector design with colorado beetle insect, vegetables and pest control service exterminator. (adobe.com)
  • The revelation also made it clear that climate change would force scientists and environmental health professionals to spend more time studying new breeding cycles and finding new control techniques for vector insects. (ipsnews.net)
  • Each of these insects are quite different and individual control requires different methods. (acvcsd.org)
  • Out Biologists can identify the stinging insect, provide an on-site consultation and control recommendations. (acvcsd.org)
  • This significant reduction resulted in increased mortality and decreased fertility compared to insects injected with control dsRNA or water and non-injected insects as well. (k-state.edu)
  • The work presented here provides new insights on the molecular basis of this virus-vector interaction and describes new tools to conduct functional genomic assays to study gene function and design control strategies of F. occidentalis. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of this work was to develop novel control strategies against TSWV through a better understanding of the virus-vector interaction. (k-state.edu)
  • The specific goals of my research were to further examine the utility of disrupting the virus-vector interaction for effective virus control by exploiting GN properties, and to track the route of TSWV in thrips using confocal microscopy. (k-state.edu)
  • Taking into account that we are able to get regular measurements from the biological system along the control duration, such as the size of the wild insect population, we study different control strategies that involve either continuous or periodic impulsive releases. (cirad.fr)
  • Where can I get more information about insect, vector and rodent control? (mchdept.com)
  • The use of insecticides, however, presents a problem parallel to the use of antimicrobials-the chemical agents themselves frequently promote resistance among the vectors they are intended to control. (nap.edu)
  • The next challenge will be to use this molecular understanding to develop novel vector-control methods that avoid or minimize resistance problems. (nap.edu)
  • The second approach to research involves resistance management- that is, developing and implementing control methods that minimize the likelihood that vectors will evolve strong resistance to important insecticides. (nap.edu)
  • Expanding the use of integrated pest management, or IPM, also holds promise for improving vector-control programs. (nap.edu)
  • The last decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in the functional analysis of insect genes, especially those whose silencing results in mortality or interference with pathogen transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • This research shows that gut is a critical interface for this pathogen to move into the insect," said Cilia. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is highly unusual for a plant pathogen to cause such a profound response in the insect vector and the insect's response may be an Achilles' heel that we can exploit to thwart the acquisition and transmission of the bacterium by the insect. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, we found that the C Las pathogen manipulates the energy metabolism of its insect vector. (asm.org)
  • The activation of the insect immune response upon infection with FDp, which is not naturally transmitted by E. variegatus , confirmed that this bacterium is mostly perceived as a potential pathogen. (asm.org)
  • The vector is the animal, usually an insect, that carries the pathogen without itself being infected. (answers.com)
  • These results emphasize the protection that immunization confers against challenge with insect-transmissible forms of T. cruzi , and the feasibility of protecting a highly susceptible host against an otherwise lethal acute infection similar to one occurring naturally. (ajtmh.org)
  • This promoter/enhancer combination recruits endogenous insect cell transcription machinery, thereby avoiding baculovirus infection and its associated cytopathic effects. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The red blotch infected vines were randomly distributed within the plot, indicating that infection did not spread from previously infected vines, which is often indicating of vector movement. (avf.org)
  • And further, to improve practices to protect equines from vector transmission and infection. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • The insect molecules associated with virus infection and transmission by the thrips vector remain unidentified to date. (k-state.edu)
  • The aim of this work was to identify F. occidentalis larval thrips proteins that are differentially expressed during TSWV infection of the insect vector and those that directly interact with TSWV. (k-state.edu)
  • Novel features of the morphology of principal (PSGs) and tubular salivary glands (TSGs) of the insect vector F. occidentalis and of their infection with TSWV were described. (k-state.edu)
  • This indicates that damage caused by phytophagous insect species present on gorse through feeding and oviposition may enhance infection by F. tumidum. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is an economically important plant virus dependent on insects (thrips) for transmission to plant hosts. (k-state.edu)
  • We consider a minimalist model for the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), assuming that residual fertility can occur in the sterile male population. (cirad.fr)
  • Embroidery fashion patch with insects illustration. (shutterstock.com)
  • illustration insect beetle. (freepik.com)
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  • Green Insect Illustration Vector Graphics is one of the transparent images in png format about The resolution: 986x474 px ID: #69596. (yalasarat.com)
  • This shows the ancient and specialized evolutionary relationship that exists between these insects and fungi. (cabi.org)
  • About 70% of the fungi isolated from the insects were also present on the host plant (gorse) and the understorey grass. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both survive and replicate. (wikipedia.org)
  • child drawing insects, flying butterflies and baby ladybird. (freepik.com)
  • Via collaborations with academic and industry partners, we explore the evolutionary basis of drug and insecticide resistance, develop new methods of generating and applying genomic data in parasite and vector systems, and identify the genetic determinants of vaccine efficacy. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Versatility of baculovirus expression vectors. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of cauliflower mosaic virus gene I in insect cells using a novel polyhedrin-based baculovirus expression vector. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Insect Molecular Biology, 23: 579-586. (wiley.com)
  • A vector in biology is an animal on or in which a small living thing gets transported . (wikipedia.org)
  • Papers presented at the Symposium on Insect Vector Biology, held at Madras during November 22-24 1979. (who.int)
  • My vector clip art silhouettes better to edit with Adobe Illustrator CS or Adobe Photoshop CS. (all-silhouettes.com)
  • TONS of FREE vector silhouettes! (all-silhouettes.com)
  • Here I'm going to share thousands of all possible vector silhouettes, symbols and icons! (all-silhouettes.com)
  • You are not allowed to distribute my vectors as is (for example take 50% of units from pack to share with your readers), or sell silhouettes on stock sites as is (but you can use them as elements for your artwork). (all-silhouettes.com)
  • Set of three vector floral bouquets with black and white hand drawn herbs, wildflowers and insects, butterfly, bee, dragonfly in sketch style. (shutterstock.com)
  • Another challenge is to understand the RNAi machinery in insect cells and whether components that were identified in other organisms are also present in insect. (mdpi.com)
  • These include producing proteins in insect larvae, insect cells and mammalian cells. (nih.gov)
  • The insect and mammalian cells in the photomigrographs were treated with baculoviruses expressing GFP. (nih.gov)
  • Often known or unknown open reading frames (ORFs) are amplified by PCR, cloned into a variety of vectors, and the recombinants used to direct target protein expression in E. coli , mammalian cells, insect cells, or yeast. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Their intimate relationships with vector hosts ( Table 1 ) are characterized by efficient multiplication, long-term maintenance, transstadial and transovarial transmission, and extensive geographic and ecologic distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • Yet data on the degree of contact between vectors and human hosts and how this differs according to land use type in the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change are not well understood 14 . (nature.com)
  • Further research will be aimed at understanding the molecular basis of virus transmission by vectors. (igtrcn.org)
  • 11. Chen A.Y.S., Walker G.P., Carter D., Ng J.C.K.: A virus capsid component mediates virion retention and transmission by its insect vector. (exeley.com)
  • Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells. (nih.gov)
  • The pIEx™ series of multisystem expression vectors allows rapid characterization/expression of tdarget genes in both E. coli and insect cells using the same construct. (emdmillipore.com)
  • The sequencing provided the first de novo transcriptome assembly for a phytoplasma vector and a starting point for further analyses on differentially regulated genes, mainly related to immune system and energy metabolism. (asm.org)
  • Transgenic strains of plant vectors carrying conditional lethal genes. (igtrcn.org)
  • MNSV is seed-borne, soil-borne, and vector-borne. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects have been particularly successful in evolution, and current estimates are that they represent three-quarters of all extant animal species. (pnas.org)
  • Insects comprise about five-sixths of all known animal species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Alameda County, there are several species of stinging insects that may nest on your property and can cause concerns. (acvcsd.org)
  • The primary vectors of African horse sickness are among species of biting midges, which are very small blood-feeding flying insects about 1/8th of an inch in length," Teel said. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Four potential insect species (Apion ulicis, Cydia ulicetana, Epiphyas postvittana and Sericothrips staphylinus) were assessed for their ability to vector F. tumidum conidia. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • The external microflora of the four insect species were recovered by washing and plating techniques and identified by morphology and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequencing of internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and 16S rDNA. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Methylobacterium aquaticum and Pseudomonas lutea were common on all four insect species. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • In experiments to determine the loading capacity of the insect species, E. postvittana, the largest insect species studied, carried significantly more (68) and deposited significantly more (29) F. tumidum conidia than the other species. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Measuring this contact depends upon the synthesis of various estimates of abundance coupled with knowledge of the behavior of adult vectors. (ajtmh.org)
  • Our goal is to screen possible vectors to determine if they can or cannot acquire GRBaV from infected vines and transmit GRBaV to clean vines. (avf.org)
  • If African horse sickness does come to the U.S., do we have knowledge of insects that will likely transmit this virus? (theplaidhorse.com)
  • The leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus is a natural vector of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CYp) and a laboratory vector of flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp). (asm.org)
  • In practical terms, the findings point to cell death in the psyllid midgut as a place where humans could intervene to block the bacterium's path through the insect. (eurekalert.org)
  • The view summarized above essentially was obtained by studying a limited number of model insects amenable to biochemical and genetic analysis, namely the Cecropia moth, silkworms, fleshflies, and Drosophila . (pnas.org)
  • Scientists in the Broad community are sequencing and analyzing the genomes of a wide range of insects and microorganisms to understand their genetic regulation, population variation, and specialized genomic mechanisms. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Genetic RIDL technology (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is a proposed modification that involves releasing insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation, and could potentially overcome some technical difficulties with the conventional SIT technology. (org.in)
  • The goal of the NSF-funded Insect Genetic Technologies RCN is to connect insect scientists for the purpose of disseminating advanced technologies for genome modification of insects through symposia, technical workshops, and training fellowships. (igtrcn.org)
  • We're the largest royalty-free, vector-only stock agency in the world. (vectorstock.com)
  • Use this Royalty-free insect collection for personal or Commercial use, including Freelance design and business purposes. (vexels.com)
  • Powered by Free-Vectors. (free-vectors.com)
  • Free-vectors.com neither selects nor examines, controls, guarantees, approves or sponsors this image. (free-vectors.com)
  • We hope you are delighted to be able to download this excellent vector that is 70.33KB and comes with 1 file in svg free of cost. (4vector.com)
  • This Insect is just one of thousands of high quality images available to you for free. (4vector.com)
  • The current view is that the insect host defense is multifaceted and involves cellular reactions, namely phagocytosis and capsule formation by blood cells and a systemic response evidenced by the rapid and transient synthesis of a battery of potent, small cationic antimicrobial peptides. (pnas.org)
  • 1. A baculoviral vector for the production of an exogenous gene product in insect host cells wherein said host cells are incapable of permitting replication of an unmodified baculovirus which comprises an exogenous DNA sequence encoding the gene product wherein transcription of said DNA sequence is controlled by a promoter of an LTR selected from the group consisting of retroviral LTRs and transposable element LTRs. (patents.com)
  • They feature an optimal combination of AcNPV baculovirus-derived transcription elements, the hr5 (homologous region 5) enhancer and the ie1 (immediate early) promoter, to direct expression in insect cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • These vectors feature the same hr5 enhancer and the ie1 promoter as the pIEx vectors to direct expression in insect cells and also allow for expression in E. coli by the tightly controlled T7lac promoter. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Insect GeneJuice® Transfection Reagent is a liposome-based transfection reagent optimized for maximal transfection of Spodoptera insect cells with minimal toxicity. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Insect GeneJuice® is ideal for HT or large-scale protein expression when using the pIEx or pBiEx vectors for suspension culture transfection of Sf9 and other insect cells. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Expression, targeting, and assembly of functional Na,K-ATPase polypeptides in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The chimeric K20 light and heavy chains produced in sf9 insect cells were correctly processed and assembled into a normal immunoglobulin which is secreted into the culture medium of infected cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Differential uptake of PS by insect versus other cells to account for this difference is under study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Find the insect repellent that's right for you by using EPA's search tool external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • Freely-Usable Vectors- Search. (free-vectors.com)