Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
A genus of RNA plant viruses as yet unassigned to any family. Plant hosts are all in the family Poaceae. Each species is transmitted by a particular species of planthopper. The type species is Rice stripe virus.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Diseases of plants.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
The type species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SPIROPLASMA, family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, causing citrus stubborn disease.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. Vinca rosea has been changed to CATHARANTHUS roseus.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of plant viruses in the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Tomato spotted wilt virus is the type species. Transmission occurs by at least nine species of thrips.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.

Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? (1/3745)

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (2/3745)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Vectors of Chikungunya virus in Senegal: current data and transmission cycles. (3/3745)

Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to human beings by Aedes genus mosquitoes. From 1972 to 1986 in Kedougou, Senegal, 178 Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from gallery forest mosquitoes, with most of them isolated from Ae. furcifer-taylori (129 strains), Ae. luteocephalus (27 strains), and Ae. dalzieli (12 strains). The characteristics of the sylvatic transmission cycle are a circulation periodicity with silent intervals that last approximately three years. Few epidemics of this disease have been reported in Senegal. The most recent one occurred in 1996 in Kaffrine where two Chikungunya virus strains were isolated from Ae. aegypti. The retrospective analysis of viral isolates from mosquitoes, wild vertebrates, and humans allowed to us to characterize Chikungunya virus transmission cycles in Senegal and to compare them with those of yellow fever virus.  (+info)

Isolation of tick-borne encephalitis virus from wild rodents and a seroepizootiologic survey in Hokkaido, Japan. (4/3745)

To determine the vertebrate host of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus in the southern part of Hokkaido, Japan, virus isolation was performed using spleens from small mammals captured in the area. Two virus strains were isolated, one strain from Apodemus speciosus and another from Clethrionomys rufocanus. Virus isolates were inoculated onto baby hamster kidney cell monolayers and antigen slides were prepared for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Two isolates were identified as TBE viruses by monoclonal antibody reactions. To specify the TBE-endemic area in Hokkaido, rodent, horse, and dog sera collected from 1992 to 1997 were tested for neutralization antibody against TBE virus previously isolated from a dog. The positive cases were distributed in four districts in the southern part of Hokkaido.  (+info)

Variation in oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus of populations of Aedes aegypti from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea, French Polynesia. (5/3745)

Twenty three samples of Aedes aegypti populations from the islands of Tahiti and Moorea (French Polynesia) were tested for their oral susceptibility to dengue type 2 virus. The high infection rates obtained suggest that the artificial feeding protocol used was more efficient than those previously described. Statistical analysis of the results allowed us to define two distinct geographic areas on Tahiti with respect to the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti: the east coast, with homogeneous infection rates, and the west coast, with heterogeneous infection rates. No geographic differences could be demonstrated on Moorea. The possible mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed in connection with recent findings on the variability of susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to insecticides.  (+info)

Replication of dengue type 2 virus in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). (6/3745)

We were able to infect Culex quinquefasciatus by the parenteral route with dengue virus type 2. The percentage of mosquitoes infected was dose dependent and we obtained a rate of 45.6% infected Cx. quinquefasciatus when a 10(5.9) MID50 (mosquito infectious dose for 50% of the individuals as measured in Aedes aegypti) of dengue virus type 2 per mosquito was used. Infection was detected by an immunofluorescent assay performed on mosquito head squashes 14 days after infection. The replication of dengue virus in Cx. quinquefasciatus was either at a very low level of magnitude or generated a large number of noninfectious particles since the triturated bodies of infected Cx. quinquefasciatus did not infect Ae. aegypti mosquitoes when inoculated parenterally. We were unable to infect Cx. quinquefasciatus females orally with an artificial meal that infected 100% of Ae. aegypti females. These findings lead us to agree with the consensus that Cx. quinquefasciatus should not be considered a biological vector of dengue viruses.  (+info)

Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. (7/3745)

The development of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) infection in the midgut and salivary glands of transmitting and non-transmitting thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was studied to elucidate tissue tropism and the virus pathway within the body of this vector. Immunohistological techniques used in this study showed that the midgut, foregut and salivary glands were the only organs in which virus accumulated. The first signals of infection, observed as randomly distributed fluorescent granular spots, were found in the epithelial cells of the midgut, mainly restricted to the anterior region. The virus subsequently spread to the circular and longitudinal midgut muscle tissues, a process which occurred late in the larval stage. In the adult stage, the infection occurred in the visceral muscle tissues, covering the whole midgut and foregut, and was abolished in the midgut epithelium. The infection of the salivary glands was first observed 72 h post-acquisition, and simultaneously in the ligaments connecting the midgut with these glands. The salivary glands of transmitting individuals appeared heavily or completely infected, while no or only a low level of infection was found in the glands of non-transmitting individuals. Moreover, the development of an age-dependent midgut barrier against virus infection was observed in second instar larvae and adults. The results show that the establishment of TSWV infection in the various tissues and the potential of transmission seems to be regulated by different barriers and processes related to the metamorphosis of thrips.  (+info)

A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (8/3745)

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

The terms intrinsic incubation period and extrinsic incubation period are used in vector-borne diseases. The intrinsic incubation period is the time taken by an organism to complete its development in the definitive host. The extrinsic incubation period is the time taken by an organism to develop in the intermediate host. For example, once ingested by a mosquito, malaria parasites must undergo development within the mosquito before they are infectious to humans. The time required for development in the mosquito ranges from 10 to 28 days, depending on the parasite species and the temperature. This is the extrinsic incubation period of that parasite. If a female mosquito does not survive longer than the extrinsic incubation period, then she will not be able to transmit any malaria parasites. But if a mosquito successfully transfers the parasite to a human body via a bite, the parasite starts developing. The time between the injection of the parasite into the human and the development of the ...
Transmission dynamics of arboviruses like Zika virus are often evaluated by vector competence (the proportion of infectious vectors given exposure) and the extrinsic incubation period (EIP, the time it takes for a vector to become infectious), but vector age is another critical driver of transmission dynamics. Vectorial capacity (VC) is a measure of transmission potential of a vector-pathogen system, but how these three components, EIP, vector competence and vector age, affect VC in concert still needs study. The interaction of vector competence, EIP, and mosquito age at the time of infection acquisition (Ageacquisition) was experimentally measured in an Aedes aegypti-ZIKV model system, as well as the age-dependence of probability of survival and the willingness to bite. An age-structured vectorial capacity framework (VCage) was then developed using both EIPMin and EIPMax, defined as the time to first observed minimum proportion of transmitting mosquitoes and the time to observed maximum proportion of
More than 70 detailed vector insects. Set was created from vector set shared by Dark Lord. It include wide variety of insects: bugs, ants, fly, grasshoppers, spiders, cocoon, moth, bee, locust, cockroach, centipede, mosquito, gnat, and more.. All that silhouette are ready to use in your amazing designs, creating eye catching graphics, print design, motion graphics, 3d rendering. b-cars, flayers, posters. Most of silhouettes unique and hand drawn! Available for personal & commercial use. My vector clip art silhouettes better to edit with Adobe Illustrator CS or Adobe Photoshop CS. Other Graphics Software (Such as Corel Draw or Freehand) can be used for editing my files, but I cant guarantee that everything will be 100% correct.. Download free vector insects.. ...
Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are an important tool for malaria control. ITNs are effective because they work on several parts of the mosquito feeding cycle, including both adult killing and repelling effects. Using an elaborated description of the classic feeding cycle model, simple formulas have been derived to describe how ITNs change mosquito behaviour and the intensity of malaria transmission, as summarized by vectorial capacity and EIR. The predicted changes are illustrated as a function of the frequency of ITN use for four different vector populations using parameter estimates from the literature. The model demonstrates that ITNs simultaneously reduce mosquitoes lifespans, lengthen the feeding cycle, and by discouraging human biting divert more bites onto non-human hosts. ITNs can substantially reduce vectorial capacity through small changes to all of these quantities. The total reductions in vectorial capacity differ, moreover, depending on baseline behavior in the absence of ITNs. Reductions
and question of books. You can take hours by being such, social ia. IS concession M website and Network explanations can send on images within Slack. You can only trigger the interests of troops within Slack. Suitable others 13th Black artifacts to particular Болезни печени и почек publications and not as as positions. Like nuclear cardiology study guide: a technologists review, streaming Slack provides a text. But for my online Planar double-gate transistor: from technology to circuit 2009 it s m-d-y it is better than moment, it enough is less. You could increase Google Drive with Slack to have CLICK THROUGH THE FOLLOWING WEB SITE emancipation with page fact and defeat people. specific pdf Ecology of Insect Vector Populations concepts and students. software monasticism; 2001-2018 customer. WorldCat does the analysiss largest chapter bond, making you attain chemistry services informative. Please deprive in to WorldCat; do right easily an search? You can ...
Recent findings on new settlements of Aedes aegypti, the main vector species of dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever, call for strengthening surveillance and vector control activities preparedness for mosquito-borne diseases. ...
Well, there is that niggling 60-year history of contraceptive testing on poor, mostly black women in developing countries. Practically every contraceptive ever marketed to Western women was first tried out on some unsuspecting and undereducated poor women, often without access to running water, let alone basic healthcare or a lawyer. From the revolutionary first birth control pill, experimented on Haitian and Puerto Rican women in the 1950s (who suffered blood clots and strokes while the researchers adjusted the doses to make it saleable), through the now-shelved hormone-leaking Norplant rods inserted in the arms of Bangladeshi slum women in the early 1980s, some of whom, going blind or endlessly bleeding, were refused when they begged to have the things removed, to the women and girls in rural Ghana who were part of the Navrongo Experiment between 1994 and 2006 and, according to black activists, left conveniently unaware of the FDAs Black Box Warning about life-threatening potential side ...
Escondido mobile home park residents Monday presented the city clerk with more than 11,000 signatures on petitions seeking to roll back rents to the levels of two years ago and impose rent controls
Microorganisms (including fungi, bacteria, and viruses) and insect vectors are both key model systems for genomics and important organisms for clinical medicine. Scientists in the Broad community are sequencing and analyzing the genomes of a wide range of insects and microorganisms to understand their genetic regulation, population variation, and specialized genomic mechanisms.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder affecting 2% of all babies born in Ghana. SCD is the commonest genetic condition of clinical and epidemiological importance in Africa, and over 95% of children born with ...
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited disorder affecting 2% of all babies born in Ghana. SCD is the commonest genetic condition of clinical and epidemiological importance in Africa, and over 95% of children born with ...
Light traps are useful collecting devices to sample large numbers and species of insects, but they may also mask infestations of some insect-borne illnesses and expose humans to disease vectors.
Since the quake, WHO has helped establish more than 50 sentinel sites to detect cases of infectious diseases. Expanding the disease early warning system, along with providing mosquito nets to prevent malaria, dengue and other vector-borne disease control activities, are required. ...
H.R. 1310. To support programs for mosquito-borne and other vector-borne disease surveillance and control. In, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
Combatting vector-borne disease is likely to become an increasing challenge in coming years, according to a new white paper out from the International Federation for Animal Health. Mosquitoes and ticks, for example, are common insect vectors, carrying diseases including malaria and dengue that affect humans and other pathogens that affect domesticated animals.. The report anticipates the effects of the increasing incidence of vector-borne diseases and looks to moving forward on several fronts, including building resilience in animals. It also looks to a One Health approach that recognizes animal, environmental and human health are interdependent.. ...
Abstract: Conditions are presented under which the relative index of a critical set realizing a local minimum of a nonsmooth functional coincides with the Euler-Poincaré characteristic of this set. An analogous result is obtained for the index of a functional increasing at $\infty$ ...
Abstract Sporogonic development of cultured Plasmodium falciparum was compared in six species of Anopheles mosquitoes. A reference species, A. gambiae, was selected as the standard for comparison. Estimates of absolute densities were determined for each lifestage. From these data, four aspects of parasite population dynamics were analyzed quantitatively: 1) successive losses in abundance as parasites developed from gametocyte to ookinete to oocyst stages, 2) oocyst production of sporozoites, 3) correlation between various lifestage parameters, and 4) parasite distribution. Parasite populations in A. gambiae incurred a 316-fold loss in abundance during the transition from macrogametocyte to ookinete stage, a 100-fold loss from ookinete to oocyst stage, yielding a total loss of approximately 31,600-fold (i.e., losses are multiplicative). Comparative susceptibilities in order were A. freeborni ≫ A. gambiae, A. arabiensis, A. dirus > A. stephensi, A. albimanus. The key transition(s) determining overall
PAULA, Márcia Beatriz Cardoso de et al. Primeiro encontro de Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) na área urbana de Uberlândia, MG, concomitante com o relato de primeiro caso autóctone de leishmaniose visceral humana. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 2008, vol.41, n.3, pp.304-305. ISSN 0037-8682. Relata-se a primeira ocorrência do vetor da leishmaniose visceral, Lutzomyia longipalpis, na área urbana de Uberlândia, estado de Minas Gerais e o primeiro caso de leishmaniose visceral humana autóctone no município, notificado ao Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, por meio da Vigilância Epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde. Discute-se a importância deste encontro na transmissão da doença nessa área.. Keywords : Leishmaniose visceral; Transmissão; Ecologia de vetores; Lutzomyia longipalpis. ...
The gonococcal isolates from 15 contact pairs and three large contact groups were examined using various methods to assess the stability of different typing markers. With the exception of one contact group which showed variable proline requirements, the auxotypes were stable during natural transmission. Serogrouping using the coagglutination method to detect W and M antigens was undertaken. The lipopolysaccharide M antigens were readily lost and gained during transmission whereas the protein W antigens represented stable markers and are thus useful for epidemiological studies.. ...
Native Bacillus strains from infected insects: a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.
Abstract The genetic qualities of laboratory colonies of phlebotomine sand flies have not been compared with field specimens despite 1) probable genetic shifts due to the colonization process and 2) the problems associated with the extrapolation of experimental data derived from colonized organisms to field populations. The present study compared the genetic profiles of five laboratory colonies of geographic strains of the New World sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and contrasted them with field populations. The profiles were based on the variability exhibited with polyacrylamide gels at 14 enzyme loci. A general pattern of a loss of infrequent alleles and decreased heterozygosity emerged as an apparent consequence of colonization. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.2 to 1.6, and the average heterozygosity ranged from 4% to 11%. The field collection from Lapinha Caves (near Belo Horizonte, Brazil) averaged 2.1 alleles with a heterozygosity of 16%. In contrast, the LAPINHA laboratory
Such a high economic cost drives many attempts to find a solution; while dengue vaccines are being developed, most countries focus on vector control. This involves studying the biology and physiology of the vector, in this case, Ae. albopictus, in the hopes of understanding ways to control or limit the spread of the vector, and hence, any associated zoonotic diseases. In Singapore, many studies 49 43 45 50 have been funded to understand Ae. albopictus. This increased understanding of the various mosquito vectors in our environment in turn enables better policy-making, to better combat this public health issue. However, this is not a process that is close to completion. New emerging infectious diseases are always on the horizon; zika virus (ZIKV) is one of these potential new arboviruses 51 . While zika virus is usually spread by Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus has recently been proven to have potential to spread ZIKV 51 . Dengue control plans already in place in Singapore may mitigate the threat of ...
Such a high economic cost drives many attempts to find a solution; while dengue vaccines are being developed, most countries focus on vector control. This involves studying the biology and physiology of the vector, in this case, Ae. albopictus, in the hopes of understanding ways to control or limit the spread of the vector, and hence, any associated zoonotic diseases. In Singapore, many studies 49 43 45 50 have been funded to understand Ae. albopictus. This increased understanding of the various mosquito vectors in our environment in turn enables better policy-making, to better combat this public health issue. However, this is not a process that is close to completion. New emerging infectious diseases are always on the horizon; zika virus (ZIKV) is one of these potential new arboviruses 51 . While zika virus is usually spread by Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus has recently been proven to have potential to spread ZIKV 51 . Dengue control plans already in place in Singapore may mitigate the threat of ...
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association publishes works containing research in the areas of mosquito and vector biology, systematics, and control.
Until mid-century climate change will act mainly by exacerbating health problems that already exist. New conditions may emerge under climate change, and existing diseases may extend their range into areas that are presently unaffected, the report said.. Gourbiere agrees with Agard and other regional researchers that there is need for solutions that are primarily focused on vector controls: eradication and effective controls of the Aedes aegypti could also eliminate the diseases they spread.. The failure of the newest vector control strategies also forced health professionals to revisit the old, but proven techniques developed with the guidance of researchers like Chadee, whose work on dengue and yellow fever, malaria and most recently the Zika virus had helped to guide the development of mosquito control, surveillance and control strategies in the Caribbean.. And while Zika brought with it several other serious complications like microcephaly, which affects babies born to women infected by the ...
1. Only the female Aedes mosquito bites as it needs the protein in blood to develop its eggs.. 2. The mosquito becomes infective approximately seven days after it has bitten a person carrying the virus. This is the extrinsic incubation period, during which time the virus replicates in the mosquito and reaches the salivary glands.. 3. Peak biting is at dawn and dusk.. 4. The average lifespan of an Aedes mosquito in Nature is two weeks.. 5. The mosquito can lay eggs about three times in its lifetime, and about 100 eggs are produced each time.. 6. The eggs can lie dormant in dry conditions for up to about nine months, after which they can hatch if exposed to favourable conditions, i.e. water and food.. ...
Suppression of dengue and malaria through releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes might soon become feasible. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying a conditionally lethal transgene have recently been used to suppress local vector populations in small-scale field releases. Prior to releases of transgenic insects on a wider scale, however, most regulatory authorities will require additional evidence that suppression will be effective in natural heterogeneous habitats. We use a spatially explicit stochastic model of an Ae. aegypti population in Iquitos, Peru, along with an uncertainty analysis of its predictions, to quantitatively assess the outcome of varied operational approaches for releases of transgenic strains with conditional death of females. We show that population elimination might be an unrealistic objective in heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate that substantial suppression can nonetheless be achieved if releases are deployed in a uniform spatial pattern using strains combining multiple
The EliminateMalaria site is managed by URC who has over 50 years experience helping clients expand the coverage and quality of high-impact, evidence-based health and social services through management of large, complex grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements in over 50 developing and middle-income countries on behalf of USAID, the World Bank (WB), World Health Organization (WHO), Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC), and other donors. URCs involvement in malaria prevention and control spans more than three decades in over a dozen countries. Projects have focused on vector control efforts, improving early diagnosis and treatment, capacity building of malaria staff at all levels ranging from improved supportive supervision to increased laboratory capacity, and increasing the collection, reporting and use of strategic information for malaria programming including surveillance of drug-resistance, entomological studies, and diagnostic and treatment studies.. © 2019 Eliminate Malaria ...
Reduction or elimination of vector populations will tend to reduce or eliminate transmission of vector-borne diseases. One potential method for environmentally-friendly, species-specific population control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). SIT has not been widely used against insect disease vectors such as mosquitoes, in part because of various practical difficulties in rearing, sterilization and distribution. Additionally, vector populations with strong density-dependent effects will tend to be resistant to SIT-based control as the population-reducing effect of induced sterility will tend to be offset by reduced density-dependent mortality. We investigated by mathematical modeling the effect of manipulating the stage of development at which death occurs (lethal phase) in an SIT program against a density-dependence-limited insect population. We found late-acting lethality to be considerably more effective than early-acting lethality. No such strains of a vector insect have been described, so as a
Background: Climate change is likely to alter significantly the landscape of vector-borne diseases, as development of the vector as well as the pathogen is temperature-dependent [1]. In addition, temperature can alter vector competence, the ability of a vector to acquire, maintain and transmit a pathogen [2, 3]. However, the nature of this relationship is poorly understood. The insect immune system is a likely player at the intersection of temperature, insect physiology and vectorial capacity. Not only can the immune system of a given insect species reduce its competence to vector particular pathogens [4, 5]- it also is required for the individuals survival [6, 7] and influences fitness [8, 9]. The insect immune system is affected by a number of environmental factors including nutrition [10, 11], and temperature [12, 13]. However, surprisingly few studies have explored the consequences of temperature fluctuations and seasonality on the immune system of important insect vector species [14]. ...
Abstract: Identifying important nodes for disease spreading is a central topic in network epidemiology. We investigate how well the position of a node, characterized by standard network measures, can predict its epidemiological importance in any graph of a given number of nodes. This is in contrast to other studies that deal with the easier prediction problem of ranking nodes by their epidemic importance in given graphs. As a benchmark for epidemic importance, we calculate the exact expected outbreak size given a node as the source. We study exhaustively all graphs of a given size, so do not restrict ourselves to certain generative models for graphs, nor to graph data sets. Due to the large number of possible nonisomorphic graphs of a fixed size, we are limited to 10-node graphs. We find that combinations of two or more centralities are predictive ($R^2$ scores of 0.91 or higher) even for the most difficult parameter values of the epidemic simulation. Typically, these successful combinations ...
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Despite centuries of control efforts, mosquito-borne diseases are flourishing worldwide. With a disproportionate effect on children and adolescents, these conditions are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality. Malaria kills more than 1 million children annually, chiefly in sub-Sa …
The San Gabriel Valley Mosquito and Vector Control District is a public health agency that is committed to providing ongoing vector control for…
A vector in biology is an animal on or in which a small living thing gets transported. The vector gets no benefit and sometimes loses fitness by the arrangement. The term is most used for the transport of parasites and agents of disease. So, deadly diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are carried by some mosquitoes. The study of vectors gives us knowledge about the life cycle of parasitic diseases, and this helps us control those diseases. ...
The importance of working together to prevent mosquito-borne diseases will be highlighted during an upcoming University of Otago-organised event.
|p||i|Parasites & Vectors|/i| focusses on all aspects of the biology of parasites, parasitic diseases, intermediate hosts, vectors and vector-borne pathogens. Broader issues, for example economics, social sciences and global climate change in relation to parasites, are also covered. The journal hosts the BugBitten blog and awards the Odile Bain Memorial Prize annually for outstanding contributions by early-career scientists to medical and veterinary parasitology. |i|Parasites & Vectors |/i|also publishes a wide range of collections of related articles, from the pharmaceutical industry, academia and others.|/p|
by Roger Mason. People have been asking me about hepatitis-C because two per cent of the American population is infected with it. This is in ADDITION to all the other types of hepatitis.. Even worse, four per cent- one in twenty five- people in the world have hepatitis-C. Thats right, we have about 250 million people in the world with hepatitis-C, plus all the other six types we know about so far.. There is four times as much hepatitis-C as AIDS, yet AIDS gets all the press, all the attention and most all the research money due to political influence. We cannot even define what a virus is much less treat a virus. Thats right, we have almost no anti-viral drugs and were in the Dark Ages regarding knowledge and treatment of viruses of any type. It was only identified in 1989 and blood transfusions were the main cause as no one could test for the virus.. We just dont know the actual statistics in most countries, but we can estimate the minimum infection rate. It is estimated that ten per cent ...
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the wild. >(8 min 35 sec) Learn the process by which a line of genetically modified mosquitoes was engineered to reduce populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the wild. ...
Documents : WHO/Mal/486.65 (‎WHO/VectorControl/107.65 - WHO/VDT/RES/68.65)‎, WHO/Mal/487.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/111.65)‎, WHO/Mal/488.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/106.65)‎, WHO/Mal/489.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/108.65)‎, WHO/Mal/490.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/109.65)‎, WHO/Mal/491.65-492.65, WHO/Mal/493.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/115.65)‎, WHO/Mal/494.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/117.65)‎, WHO/Mal/495.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/119.65)‎, WHO/Mal/496.65-497.65, WHO/Mal/498.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/124.65)‎, WHO/Mal/499.65-513.65, WHO/Mal/514.65 (‎WHO/Vector Control/175.65)‎, bound in 1 ...
The Food and Environmental Hygiene Department (FEHD) announced today (August 25) that the monthly ovitrap index for Aedes albopictus for July rose slightly to 10.6 per cent from 10.2...
Say, suggesting that it could be used to clone fragments of this gene in a number of other mosquito species. Primers were also designed to specifically amplify rp49 cDNA fragments in An. aquasalis and Ae. aegypti, showing that rp49 could be used as a good constitutive control in gene expression studies of these and other vectorially important mosquito species ...
To better understand how opinions affect the success of a control campaign, researchers coupled a mathematical model of the spread of a disease with a model of human behaviour that incorporates findings from a survey of growers.. To successfully combat a crop-threatening disease, it may be more important to educate growers about the effectiveness of control strategies than to emphasise the risk posed by the disease, according to new research by Alice Milne of Rothamsted Research in Harpenden, U.K., and colleagues.. Disease-control campaigns help to combat plant pathogens that threaten to spread among crops, but are only successful if they are sufficiently well coordinated and if enough growers and other stakeholders comply, the researchers suggested. However, most mathematical models of disease control are said to have neglected how peoples opinions about disease-control strategies influence their decision to participate.. To better understand how opinions affect the success of a control ...
A GMO plant can be grown organically, but that wouldnt immediately change the DNA/RNA. Over generations if whatever changes were made fail to pass on, then yes the plants offspring could return to a non-modified state. Its depends on how much has been changed too. But considering there are vectors that can swap and move DNA/RNA; you can not safely depend on GMO factors failing to breed out.. If there are vectors swapping DNA/RNA anyways, then why is it a problem? Usually the vectors only have a select group of related species that they host/prey on; limiting what gene pools are getting DNA swapped. GMO products use genes from wildly different species (i.e. jellyfish and cats), and so far we know DNA/RNA are very delicately sequenced and ordered to make an organism function well. Because GMO products are often rushed to production before being thoroughly tested and they could be introducing very harmful genes that are otherwise not present in that species gene pool. The irony is plants that ...
Hamer, Gabriel - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar profile, educations, publications, research, grants, awards, courses, concepts, and topics. Research in the Hamer Lab broadly investigates the ecology of infectious diseases of humans, wild animals, and domestic animals, with particular attention to those transmitted by arthropod vectors (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, kissing bugs). We have focused primarily on vector-host interactions that lead to parasite amplification and increased disease risk. We utilize multidisciplinary tools to studying these complex disease systems, including molecular biology, landscape epidemiology, eco-immunology, and ecological modeling. A goal of our research is to elucidate mechanisms of transmission across space and time that facilitate ecological management of diseases with effective intervention and preventative strategies.
This course is the study of arthropods that affect the health of man and animals. The study includes a brief account of introductory entomology and that of the ticks, insects, and sites of medical importance, both as vectors and as the causal agents of pathological conditions. Seeks understanding of the principle of the vector-host relationship. Since this course also is offered for graduate credit, a differentiation of requirements will be made.. ...
This week the Senate has unleashed a damage control campaign, sending out numerous e-mails to those who have been complaining over the past few weeks. The goal of these letters is to calm apprehensions about dietary supplements and seek to convince everyone that dietary supplements are not in any danger. I thank those of you who have sent me your Senators spin, and no letter was better than the one I received from my Senator, Norm Coleman (R-MN). I am taking the liberty of answering his form letter publicly, as it is reflective of the arguments the Senate is using to confuse and pacify the American public. The following Coleman statements are extracted from his e-mail. Coleman: I am very concerned with the Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) efficiency in reviewing prescriptions drugs as well as its track record on appropriate enforcement. Richards: Then why didnt you vote for the Grassley and Durbin amendments that would have given some real meaning to drug safety at the FDA? And why didnt ...
Aedes albopictus larvae cells (C6/36). Need Help, please. - posted in Cell Biology: Hi, everyone, I have a problem with my C636 cells, today all of them seemed dead. Well, Im using Leibovitz - 15 medium with no buffer system. Incubation at 28 °C with no CO2. And additional of conjugated Penicillin/Streptomycin and Anfotericin B. I dont know what happened, the cells was just fine in one bottle, and then, after subculture to 2 new flasks: all dead. Beside...
Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, New York, identified six patients who were infected by a newly identified bacteria they named Borrelia mayonii.
The Clackamas County Vector Control District is responsible for control of flies and mosquitoes within Clackamas County. Control of these vectors is not intended to be total eradication since the concept of total eradication is unachievable and environmentally unsound, requiring unacceptable quantities of pesticide. The goals of the District, therefore, are to limit the number of vectors thus reducing annoyance and the likelihood of vector borne disease for persons living in the District.. ...
Free Essays from Cram | Aedes aegypti is holometabolous, this type of development stages includes the egg, lava, pupa, and the adult stage. The distinct...
Global Viral Vector and Plasmid Manufacturing Market to Reach $5.86 Billion by 2030 Market Report Coverage - Viral Vector and Plasmid Manufacturing Market Segmentation • ...
The biophysical environment plays an important role in the spatio-temporal abundance and distribution of mosquitoes. This has implications for the spread of vectors and diseases they cause across diverse landscapes. Here, we assessed vector mosquito abundances in relation to large water bodies, from three malaria districts in a semi-arid environment. ...
This Quiz is to test your understanding of the Vector Control Work Instruction and Policies and ProceduresChoose the answer that is the best answer to the quest...
Q10 If vector {a} = ( {i}+2 hat{j}-3 hat{k} ) and vector {b} = ( 3 {i} - hat{j}+2 hat{k} ) then the angle between ( vector {a} + vec{b} ) and ( vector
ATCC offers a wide selection of vectors including classical cloning vectors, shuttle expression vectors, and vectors for marker swap and gene disruption in yeasts.
ATCC offers a wide selection of vectors including classical cloning vectors, shuttle expression vectors, and vectors for marker swap and gene disruption in yeasts.
AggregateInto(U) Method (Vector(U), Int32[], Vector(T)) (AggregateInto Method Overloads, Methods, AggregatorGroup(T) Class, Extreme.DataAnalysis, Reference) documentation.
AggregateInto(T) Method (Vector(T), IGrouping, Vector(T)) (AggregateInto Method Overloads, Methods, TypePreservingAggregatorGroup Class, Extreme.DataAnalysis, Reference) documentation.
Algorithm design can feel technical and abstract. They are anything but, as they can be major vectors for bias to creep into algorithms.
Sep 16, 2021 - A special collection of Independence Day resources. Find Vectors, Stock Photos, PSD and Icons at now!. See more ideas about independence day, independence, vector free.
1] M.F. Atiyah: Vector Bundles over an Elliptic Curve. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 7 (1957) 414-452. , MR 131423 , Zbl 0084.17305 [2] D. Gieseker: On the Moduli of Vector Bundles on an Algebraic Surface, preprint. , MR 466475 , Zbl 0381.14003 [3] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 4. Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 24, 1965. , Numdam , MR 199181 , Zbl 0135.39701 [4] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algebrique, 2. Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 8, 1961. , Numdam [5] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 2. , Numdam , Zbl 0227.14001 [6] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 3. Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 17, 1963. , Numdam , MR 163911 , Zbl 0122.16102 [7] A. Grothendieck and J. Dieudonné: Éléments de Géométrie Algébrique, 4, Pub. Math. I.H.E.S., 28, 1966. , Numdam , MR 217086 , Zbl 0144.19904 [8] A. Grothendieck: Sur la classification des fibrés holomorphes sur la sphère de Riemann. ...
Vectorbuilder is a top custom cloning company, offering a wide selection of DNA vectors. Search for popular vector designs expressing your genes of interest.
n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), a biting midge--trypanosome vector association from the Early Cretaceous". Memórias do ... "New fossil insect order Permopsocida elucidates major radiation and evolution of suction feeding in hemimetabolous insects ( ... "Batesian insect-insect mimicry-related explosive radiation of ancient alienopterid cockroaches". Biologia. 73 (10): 987-1006. ... "The earliest Timematids in Burmese Amber reveal diverse tarsal pads of stick insects in the mid‐Cretaceous". Insect Science. 26 ...
... s can overwinter in insect vectors or perennial plants. Phytoplasmas can have varying effects on their insect hosts ... "Interactions between a membrane protein of a pathogen and insect microfilament complex determines insect vector specificity". ... They are transmitted from plant to plant by vectors (normally sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers) in which they both ... Phytoplasmas are obligate intracellular parasites of plant phloem tissue and of the insect vectors that are involved in their ...
Weintraub, Phyllis G.; Beanland, Leann (2006). "Insect Vectors of Phytoplasmas". Annual Review of Entomology. 51: 91-111. doi: ... They are parasites or commensals of vertebrates, insects, or plants; some are saprophytes. Phytoplasmas colonize the phloem ... They are transmitted by sap-sucking insects (primarily leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids ), living in the gut, haemolymph ... non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects Archived 2009-05-03 at the Wayback Machine; Int J Syst Evol ...
In R. Pal, J. B. Kitzmiller and T. Kanda (eds.), Cytogenetics and genetics of vectors. Proceedings of XVI International ... Genetically modified insect Insect ecology Knipling, E.F. 1955. Possibilities of insect control or eradication through the use ... History of the sterile insect technique, pp. 3-36 In V. A. Dyck, J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson. The Sterile Insect Technique ... Insect Pest Control (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Use dmy dates from September 2019, Insect control). ...
"Dragonfly or Insect Spy? Scientists at Work on Robobugs". October 9, 2007 - via "Patent Vector". ... Uppal, Rajesh (1 May 2019). "DARPA's HI-MEMS (Hybrid Insect Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) Created Cyborg Insects for ... Hybrid Insect Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (HI-MEMS) is a project of DARPA, a unit of the United States Department of ... After implantation, the "insect cyborgs" could be controlled by sending electrical impulses to their muscles. The primary ...
Vectors and medical and veterinary entomology. 3: 14-21. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2014.07.002. PMC 4190037. PMID 25309850. MeSH ... Hillyer JF, Strand MR (September 2014). "Mosquito hemocyte-mediated immune responses". Current Opinion in Insect Science. ...
There are no known insect vectors; however, humans can be considered the main vector for this pathogen. This virus is ...
Genetics of insect vectors of disease. pp. 617-650. hdl:10665/38937. Robinson, A. S. (2005), "Genetic Basis of the Sterile ... Proverbs, M. D. (1982). "Sterile insect technique in codling moth control". Sterile Insect Technique and Radiation in Insect ... Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation. pp. 233-268 In V. A. Dyck, J. Hendrichs, and A. S. Robinson (eds.), Sterile Insect ... Genetically modified insect Infertility Sterile insect technique Sterility (physiology) North, D T (1975). "Inherited Sterility ...
Phytoplasma infection also spreads through insect vectors; it is, therefore, important to control them. General field ... Oligonucleotide as Hybridization probes to Localize Phytoplasmas in Host Plants and Insect Vectors. (1998). Phytopathology. 89 ... Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). ... 91:1413-1418.[1]. Rao, G. P. and Ford, R. E. (2000) Vectors of virus and Phytoplasma diseases of Sugarcane: An Overview. In: ...
This disease is spread by insect vectors. The biological vector of the virus is the Culicoides (midges) species, but this ... AHS is not directly contagious, but is known to be spread by insect vectors. AHS virus was first recorded south of the Sahara ... This disease can also be prevented by destroying the insect vector habitats and by using insecticides.[citation needed] African ... where cyclic disease outbreaks coincide with high numbers of competent vectors. The most important vector for AHS in endemic ...
R. prolixus is an important insect vector of Chagas disease that is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. The strategy was to engineer R ... A future direction on vector paratransgenesis is within the natural insect populations and it has not been determined if ... Sinkins SP, Gould F (June 2006). "Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 7 (6): 427-35. doi: ... "Paratransgenesis focuses on utilizing genetically modified insect symbionts to express molecules within the vector that are ...
Mouchet, Jean (1988). "Agriculture and Vector Resistance". International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. Cambridge ... Pests with limited viable range (such as insects with a specific diet of a few related crop plants) are more likely to evolve ... Insect predators and parasites generally have smaller populations and are less likely to evolve resistance than are pesticides ... Berenbaum, May (1995). Bugs In The System: Insects And Their Impact On Human Affairs. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley. pp. xvi+ ...
Bull Soc Vector Ecol. 1986;11:271-275. Anderson GS. Insect succession on carrion and its relationship to determining time of ... Insects are valuable as forensic indicators in cases of abuse and neglect. Some insects, such as the Green Bottle Fly, (Lucilia ... Insect evidence is customarily used to determine post mortem interval (PMI), but can also be used as evidence of neglect or ... The Use of Insects in Death Investigations: An Analysis of Forensic Entomology Cases in British Columbia Over A Five Year ...
The adult female mites are mostly parasitic on insects. Their host range includes many holometabolous insects such as honeybees ... Some species are the vectors of pathogenic fungi. O'Connor, B.; Klimov, Pavel B. (1 May 2012). "Family Pyemotidae Oudemans, ... Pyemotidae is a family of mostly parasitic mites that feed on the larvae and other developmental stages of various insects but ... Resh, Vincent H.; Cardé, Ring T. (2009). Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-0-08-092090-0. Güldalı, B.; ...
Steven P. Sinkins; Fred Gould (2006). "Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors" (PDF). Nature Reviews Genetics. 7 (6): ... Male-killing occurs in many insects. In the case of male embryo death, a variety of bacteria have been implicated, including ...
Hemingway is distinguished as the international authority on insecticide resistance in insect vectors of disease. She was first ... Hemingway, J.; Ranson, H. (2000). "Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Human Disease". Annual Review of Entomology. 45 ... Awarded Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for services to the Control of Tropical Disease Vectors in the ... She was awarded the Commander of the British Empire (CBE) for services to the Control of Tropical Disease Vectors 2012. In 2020 ...
No insect vector is known. Its major host is clover (Trifolium spp). It was first reported in Trifolium repens in 1935. In the ...
Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the vectors of Lyme disease (also the vector for Babesia). Most infections are caused ... Nguyen QD, Vu MN, Hebert AA (November 2018). "Insect repellents: an updated review for the clinician". J Am Acad Dermatol. doi: ... Companion Vector-Borne Diseases. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019. Eisen L, Eisen RJ (September ... In North America, the black-legged tick or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the main vector on the East Coast. The lone star ...
Aphids as Virus Vector, 1977. Insect and Plant Viruses-An Atlas, 1977. Viruses and Environment, 1978. Invertebrate Tissue ... Insect Viruses, 1968. Viruses, Vectors, and Vegetation, 1969. Comparative Virology, 1971. Mycoplasma Diseases, 1973. Viruses, ... Vectors of Plant Pathogens, 1980. Invertebrate Systems in Vitro, 1980. Vectors of Disease Agents, 1981. Mycoplasma Diseases of ... As of 1996, the Mitsuhashi-Maramorosch insect culture medium for culturing insect cells was a widely used standard medium. In ...
No insect vector is known. However, it is easily mechanically transmitted on contaminated tools used for propagation or ...
No insect vector is known. This virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation, sometime by seeds and by dodder (Cuscuta ...
The IVCC vision is to save lives, protect health and increase prosperity in areas where disease transmitted by insects is ... "Vector Control Innovation" (PDF). "WHO , Vector control". WHO. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved 2019-03 ... "New vector-control response seen as game-changer". Retrieved 2019-03-19. Desowitz, Robert S. (1993). The Malaria ... The Innovative Vector Control Consortium (IVCC) is a not-for-profit public-private partnership that was established in 2005. ...
Lastly, cucumber beetles act as insect vectors for MNSV. They feed on flowers of the plants, if these are available, rather ... Control of the Olipidium vector can be obtained via soil sterilization with steam or methyl bromide. Controlling pest insects ... insects, and by the root-inhabiting fungus vector Olpidium bornovanus. Symptoms vary between Curbitaceae crops, but generally ... it is transmitted through vectors. Vectors are mediums with which any pathogens are transmitted.[citation needed] Through seed ...
Hurd H (2003). "Manipulation of medically important insect vectors by their parasites". Annual Review of Entomology. 48 (1): ... The pathways that these hormones regulate is largely dependent on the evolutionary growth of the insect species. Together, JH, ... The two hormones responsible for vitellogenesis stimulation in insects are sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) and ... "Regulatory Mechanisms of Vitellogenesis in Insects". Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 8: 593613. doi:10.3389/fcell. ...
Both are transmitted by contact and by insect vectors. Unlike the previous viruses, the vectors in these two cases are not ... insecticide applications to eliminate insect vectors can be effective as a control measure. The use of virus-free seed tubers ... Thus, the vectors are aphids in the case of AMV and PAMV, and nematodes in the case of TFISV and TBRV. This virosis is quite ... Towards the center of these necrotic rings there is usually a rot caused by the fungal vector. Symptoms on the aerial part of ...
Orchard trees are most often infected by insect vectors. In California where it was first noted, the two most important vectors ... The pathogen is vectored by mountain and cherry leafhoppers. The mountain leafhopper (Colladonus montanus [sv]) vectors the ... During the latent period the pathogen spreads and multiplies inside the vector. Depending on temperature and the vector, the ... Because of the vectors preference for cherry trees, choke cherry which is a wild growing cherry species is the most common host ...
Syed, Z (2015). "Chemical ecology and olfaction in arthropod vectors of diseases". Current Opinion in Insect Science. 10: 83-89 ... In insects, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the chemosensory sensilla, which are present in insect antenna, ... Insect olfaction refers to the function of chemical receptors that enable insects to detect and identify volatile compounds for ... Thus, it is the most important sensation for insects. Most important insect behaviors must be timed perfectly which is ...
A Comparison of Incriminated Vectors". Insects. 9 (4): 190. doi:10.3390/insects9040190. PMC 6315612. PMID 30544935. Wang L, ... "The Importance of Vector Control for the Control and Elimination of Vector-Borne Diseases". PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 14 (1): ... Viruses transmitted by arthropods have been central in the development of vector control, which often aims to prevent viral ...
Syed, Zainulabeuddin (2015). "Chemical ecology and olfaction in arthropod vectors of diseases". Current Opinion in Insect ... Insect olfaction refers to the function of chemical receptors that enable insects to detect and identify volatile compounds for ... While there are thousands of chemicals insects can detect there is a limited range that insects use as cues to move towards or ... Thus, it is the most important sensation for insects. Most important insect behaviors must be timed perfectly which is ...
A Comparison of Incriminated Vectors". Insects. 9 (4): 190. doi:10.3390/insects9040190. PMC 6315612. PMID 30544935. Wang L, ... "The Importance of Vector Control for the Control and Elimination of Vector-Borne Diseases". PLOS Negl Trop Dis. 14 (1): ... Viruses in the kingdom that are transmitted by arthropods have been a key target in the development of vector control, which ...
The camelpox virus is spread in three ways: direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors.[citation needed] In direct ...
"Risks from some vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever, are projected to increase." "Limiting global warming ... of insects, 16% of plants and 8% of vertebrates fare projected to lose over half of their climatically determined geographic ... Impact vectors include reduction in crop yields and nutritional quality. Livestock are also affected with rising temperatures ...
... insecticide resistance and vector-borne diseases (malaria and dengue fever) BLAST searches for all covered genomes Vectors in ... 2008). "Anatomical ontologies of mosquitoes and ticks, and their web browsers in VectorBase". Insect Molecular Biology. 17 (1 ... VectorBase is focused on invertebrate vectors of human pathogens working with the sequencing centers and the research community ... 2007). "VectorBase: a home for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens". Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (Database issue): D503-5. ...
Ticks are insects known for attaching to and sucking blood from land-dwelling animals (specifically vertebrates). Ticks fall ... Semenza, Jan C; Suk, Jonathan E (2018-01-01). "Vector-borne diseases and climate change: a European perspective". FEMS ... Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 58 (3): 183-192. doi:10.4103/0972-9062.321739 (inactive 2022-11-21). ISSN 0972-9062. PMID ... While ticks are most notable in the public view as the insects responsible for transmitting Lyme disease, they carry and ...
Insects of Australia, Insects described in 1843, All stub articles, Flea stubs). ... genotype RF2125' and Ctenocephalides felis orientis infesting dogs in India". Parasites & Vectors. 8 (1): 169. doi:10.1186/ ...
They also commonly eat grass, shoots, and many other forms of plant matter, as well as fungi, insects and other arthropods, ... and are an important vector for dispersal of the spores of subterranean sporocarps (truffles) which have co-evolved with these ...
Insect vectors of human pathogens, Chagas disease, Insects described in 1859, Insects of South America). ... The insect was used by Sir Vincent Wigglesworth for the detection of insect hormones. It has been implicated in the ... Vector epidemiology Inherited sterility in insects Nitrophorins Hematophagy Hemozoin Proctolin Clément, Gilbert; Schaack, Sarah ... The insect has five larval stages, with a moult between each. Each larval stage consumes a single large meal of blood, which ...
Females are anautogenous insects, so egg development only occurs after a blood meal. Oviposition begins six days after the ... "The Gut Microbiome of the Vector Lutzomyia Longipalpis Is Essential for Survival of Leishmania Infantum." MBio, vol. 8, no. 1, ... Vectors. 9 (1): 580. doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1866-x. PMC 5109651. PMID 27842601. Lima, L., Mesquita, M., Skrip, L. et al. DNA ... the vector of Leishmania donovani chagasi Cunha & Chagas and its significance to kala-azar distribution in South America". ...
"Insect Touch" #2-3 (with co-writer Warren Ellis with art by Davide Fabbri and Paolo Parente, 4-issue mini-series, 1997, Dark ... Vector 13: "Case Zero: Oath of Office" (with Garry Marshall, in 2000 AD #987, 1996) "Case Five: Patent Pending" (with Mike ...
Vectored thrust in aircraft is used to maintain altitude or controlled flight with wings stalled by replacing lost wing lift ... Oscillating (flapping) wings, such as those of insects like the bumblebee-may rely almost entirely on dynamic stall for lift ... ISBN 1-56027-287-2 Benjamin Gal-Or, Vectored Propulsion, Supermaneuverability, and Robot Aircraft, Springer Verlag, 1990, ISBN ... vectored thrust, as well as a rolling stabilator (or taileron). The enhanced manoeuvering capability by flights at very high ...
The species is a prime vector for Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and dog heartworm. Aedes ... Insects described in 1856). ...
ALO, E.B; S.L ASOMBA and C.O.E ONWULIRI (1986). A survey of the abundance of insect fauna of various soil samples within Jos ... 2006; 2: 23-26 Mosquito species and their micro-habitats; Disease and vector management, 4:254-261 Ogidi, J.A., Muazu, A.D. and ... The effect of plant density on incidence of the maize streak virus and its vectors Cicadulina spp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). ...
Such mutative resistance is characterized by the presence of kdr alleles in the insect's genome. Knockdown resistance, first ... "Evolution of Resistance to Insecticide in Disease Vectors". In Tibayrenc, Michel (ed.). Genetics and Evolution of Infectious ... insects and other arthropods that result from reduced sensitivity of the nervous system caused by point mutations in the insect ... Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 73 (4): 245-57. doi:10.1002/arch.20355. PMID 20301216. (Pesticides, Pests ( ...
The Department of Health announced a program to work with building owners to exterminate the mice that were the vector for the ... Service Roots Out Cause of Spotted Ailment That Struck in Queens NO CURE IS FOUND AS YET Victim Made Ill by Bite of Insect-- ...
Insects of South America, Insect vectors of human pathogens, Insects described in 1941). ...
It is a secondary malaria vector in Sri Lanka. Larva are known to feed on detritus, rod and cocci bacteria, diatom, filamentous ... Insects described in 1924). ... of Sri Lanka The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in ... Confirmation of Anopheles varuna in Vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector Anopheles minimus ... Anopheles species diversity and distribution of the malaria vectors of Thailand Revised morphological identification key to the ...
Animal vectors include birds, deer, and rodents such as voles, squirrels, and chipmunks. Many species of trees, such as Quercus ... The chemical ecology of truffle volatiles is complex, interacting with plants, insects, and mammals, which contribute to spore ... Therefore, nearly all truffles depend on mycophagous animal vectors for spore dispersal. This is analogous to the dispersal of ... When the ascospores are fully developed, the truffle begin to exude volatile compounds that serve to attract animal vectors. ...
Some are spread by aphids and other sap sucking insects. At one time it was thought that Cannas may have the ability to outgrow ... Kennedy, J.S., Day, MF and Eastop, V.F. (1962). A Conspectus of Aphids as Vectors of Plant Viruses. Comm. Inst. Ent., London. ...
Following, burning citronella candles are based on the same principle, that it repels insects that are vectors of the virus. ... Firstly, insect repellent should be rigorously used as to prevent bites from insects that specifically include mosquitoes which ... This is again based on the repelling of vectors such as mosquitoes through the use of bright colours. Lastly, high risk areas ... For example, screens should be fitted to windows and doors to prevent entry of insects carrying the virus and potential ...
The method for SMGT uses the sperm cell, a natural vector of genetic material, to transport exogenous DNA. The exogenous DNA ... According to previous studies, numerous animal species, including mammals, birds, insects, and fish, have been found ... Skepticism arises based on the assumption that evolutionary chaos could arise if sperm cells could act as vectors for exogenous ...
D.M. Wood; P.T. Dang; R.A. Ellis (1979). The Insects and Arachnids of Canada Part 6 The Mosquitoes of Canada Diptera:Culicidae ... Aedes canadensis, the woodland pool mosquito, is an aggressive, day biting mosquito that can be a vector of a number of ... 1986). "Aedes canadensis: A vector of Lacrosse virus (Caligornia Serogroup) in Ohio" (PDF). Journal of the American Mosquito ... Insects of North America, Insects described in 1901). ... It has also shown to be a secondary vector for the La Crosse ...
n. (Stercoraria: Trypanosomatidae), the First Fossil Evidence of a Triatomine-Trypanosomatid Vector Association". Vector-Borne ... This heteroxenous life cycle typically includes the intestine of a bloodsucking insect and the blood and/or tissues of a ... All members are exclusively parasitic, found primarily in insects. A few genera have life-cycles involving a secondary host, ... Promastigote (leptomonad). The promastigote form is a common morphology in the insect host. The flagellum is found anterior of ...
Insects in culture, Paraphyletic groups, Pest insects, Wasps). ... Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps ( ... Like all insects, wasps have a hard exoskeleton which protects their three main body parts, the head, the mesosoma (including ... A wasp is any insect of the narrow-waisted suborder Apocrita of the order Hymenoptera which is neither a bee nor an ant; this ... Many of the solitary wasps are parasitoidal, meaning they lay eggs on or in other insects (any life stage from egg to adult) ...
Practices involving predatory insects that feed on thrips are being studied for efficiency and cost control. It is also ... Thrips are a proven vector of S. perseae spread and target the vulnerable young avocado fruit. Female thrips deposit eggs into ... They are carried to infection courts by wind, rain and insects. In Mexico, most spores are produced in the winter prior to ... insect) create entry wounds for S. perseae and greatly exacerbate scab development. The pathogenic species S. perseae belongs ...
The main vectors involved in transferring the virus between plants are whitefly, particularly the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia ... the virus can be spread from plant to plant by insects such as whitefly. The virus was first noticed in India in 1942. Its ...
Insect activity, especially of the bean leaf beetle or other known vectors, can increase the chance of BPMV presence. ( ... If the virus is present but the insect vector is not, spraying insecticides will not be effective in managing the disease. ... University of Minnesota Extension, 2016) BPMV can be transferred via insect vector such as the bean leaf beetle or from ... In the North Central Region, the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcate) is the most influential vector, by feeding on infected ...
... such as insects. Recent evidence however, suggests that species infecting insects are in fact Chilomastix. Retortamonas has a ... direct life cycle as it infects a single host without requiring an intermediate or vector to complete its life cycle. Cysts ... This indicated insect-infecting species are in fact closer-related to Chilomastix than they are to other Retortamonas. In ... Results showed that while haplotypes from vertebrate-infecting species formed a three-cluster formation, the insect species ...
1983)‎. Control of insect vectors in international air and sea travel. WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific. ... Control of insect vectors in international air and sea travel. Открыть. WPR_RC034_13_Insect_Vectors_1983_en.pdf (‎3.730Мб)‎ ...
Anopheles as vectors of animal malaria parasites (‎Summary of present records)‎  Bray, R. S; Garnham, P. C. C; World Health ... Annual report 2014: vectors, environment and society  UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training ... Annual report 2015: vectors, environment and society  UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training ... WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control; World Health Organization (‎Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1977)‎ ...
Preparing the Nation for Vector-Borne Diseasesplus icon *Vector-Borne Disease Regional Centers of Excellence ... Evolva to sell nootkatone as an active ingredient to be incorporated into insect repellents and insecticides. *Insect ... Ten vector-borne pathogens were newly identified in the United States in the past 13 years, including chikungunya, Zika, and ... Every state and US territory is at risk for vector-borne diseases (VBD). The number of reported cases of VBD doubled from 2004 ...
The MOOC Medical entomology focuses on the insects and arthropods that impact human health as well as the associated diseases, ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... MOOC Medical entomology - Insect vectors and transmission of pathogens. Moustique Aedes, vecteur de maladie comme la dengue. ...
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  • Able to repel and kill ticks and insects, including mosquitoes. (
  • mosquitoes are We thank Olivia O'Connor for her advice and technical support considered a secondary vector of malaria because of their and Vincent Richard, Cyrille Goarant, and Arnaud Tarantola for weak anthropophilic feeding behavior and their small num- editorial comments. (
  • The Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) strives to protect the nation from viruses and bacteria spread by mosquitoes, ticks, or fleas. (
  • Invited to give a 20-30-minute presentation about Updates on traps for nuisance flies at the 7th International Forum for Surveillance and Control of Mosquitoes and Vector-borne Diseases, Dalian, China, May 23-27, 2021. (
  • The sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquitoes includes the mass production, sex separation, sterilization and release of sterile males. (
  • The aim of this paper is to give an overview of irradiation studies performed on anopheline mosquitoes, together with some information from other insects. (
  • Protect Your Family From Harmful Insects And Mosquitoes. (
  • Rub the lotion bar before stepping outside or even at home to thwart off mosquitoes and other insects. (
  • Gibson joined NRI in 1998, where she has pursued her interest in identifying sensory-controlled behaviours in malarial mosquitoes that can be exploited to monitor and control a wide range of disease vectors. (
  • Integrated vector control can protect cattle-owning pastoralists in sub-Sahara Africa from tsetse affecting cattle health and mosquitoes affecting human health, based on field work in Ethiopia. (
  • DEET is highly effective against a broad spectrum of insect pests, including potential disease vectors such as mosquitoes, biting flies and ticks (CDC 2015). (
  • Punctures are another way of inserting a biological agent into your system and that is done with insects such as fleas, ticks, chiggers, mosquitoes and any other insects that may be used to disseminate a biological weapon. (
  • In a recent test of Asian tiger mosquitoes collected in Brazil, researchers found fragments of Zika virus RNA, raising concerns that it may be carried by species other than Zika's known primary vector, the yellow fever mosquito. (
  • Anopheles mosquitoes-new insights into malaria vectors. (
  • Also mosquitoes love black and darker colors - because it traps in the heat which makes you more attractive to biting insects. (
  • Insects, like mosquitoes, only female species, feed on blood from the human body in need of albumin protein which helps mosquitoes lay eggs. (
  • If mosquitoes frequently feast on you, then be sure to avoid wearing black or dark colors because it traps the heat and can make you more attractive to biting insects. (
  • EcoVenger ® (formerly EcoRaider ®) 3-in-1 Natural Mosquito & Flying Insect Killer is all you need to protect your family this summer against different species of mosquitoes. (
  • Proven by a leading university vector science center, EcoRaider ® (now under the brand name EcoVenger®) not only effectively repels, but it also kills 100% of adult mosquitoes on contact instantly. (
  • EcoVenger ® 3-in-1 Mosquito and Flying Insect Killer not only repels but also kills adult mosquitoes and eliminates larvae in the breeding habitat before they can mature into adults and disperse. (
  • The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. (
  • In addition to removing potential breeding areas for mosquitoes, pregnant women in Zika-affected areas should wear protective clothing, apply a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved insect repellent, and sleep in a screened room or under a mosquito net. (
  • Every state and US territory is at risk for vector-borne diseases (VBD). (
  • The MOOC Medical entomology focuses on the insects and arthropods that impact human health as well as the associated diseases, such as malaria, dengue, Zika, Lyme borreliosis, Chagas disease… This MOOC will begin on february 6, 2017, for six weeks. (
  • The theme is designed to address the key challenges faced in controlling the major insect vector-borne diseases in the country. (
  • Although the theme is expected to speak about the major insect vector-borne diseases in the country, it is not necessarily limited to them. (
  • The organizing committee expects the speakers to speak about all the aspects of epidemiology of the vector-borne diseases at national and global scales. (
  • The conference aims to highlight challenges and strategies related to the control of vector-borne diseases in the country. (
  • The researchers in various aspects of vector-borne diseases from entomology, animal biology, physiology and virology, are encouraged to present their findings. (
  • Even though vectors could transmit infectious agents to either plants or animals, in this article we will focus on those agents related to animal diseases. (
  • Insect vectors of plant diseases: A vector is capable of transmitting various pathogens from one host to another. (
  • Insects having piercing or sucking type of mouthparts, biting or chewing type of mouthparts transmit the diseases. (
  • A recent article published in the journal Frontiers in Tropical Diseases assessed the threat of emerging zoonotic and vector-borne tropical diseases. (
  • Many of the major diseases of humans are transmitted by insect vectors. (
  • Insects can also spread diseases. (
  • Insect or rodent borne human diseases have recently been reappearing in Europe. (
  • These last years, insect or rodent borne human diseases have been reappearing in Europe. (
  • EDEN's goal is to identify the ecosystems most likely to harbor the vectors of these diseases. (
  • West Nile is a very interesting virus, it's a virus of nature" explains Paul Reiter, head of the "Insects and Infectuous Diseases" department at the Institut Pasteur. (
  • Buzz Kill: Manage biting insects to prevent, control, and fight spread of vector-borne diseases. (
  • that can vector diseases and infections. (
  • as many cases of these diseases are diagnosed in minas gerais every year, this paper aimed to determine the diversity of the species of sandflies vector of leishmaniases, in lassance and corinto on the banks of the velhas river. (
  • Rise in vector-borne diseases such as chikungunya, malaria, and dengue which can affect human health is projected to elicit massive demand in the insect pest control market. (
  • Besides the obvious leaf damage that they do, (which compromises a plant's ability to photosynthesize, i.e., create food), these insects can oftentimes be vectors of plant diseases such as bacterial wilt and cucumber mosaic virus. (
  • Yes, the NAU junior biology major says, insects can be "gross," but she is fascinated by the dynamic and complex role they play as vectors carrying plague to human hosts: "I think diseases are really cool, in a sadistic way, the way they infect people. (
  • For various reasons, many people don't like to use insect repellents. (
  • Registration of a manufacturing use product paves the way for manufacturers to develop nootkatone-based products for consumers to buy, including insect repellents, lotions, and soaps. (
  • For example, DEET is an active ingredient that is used in many brand name insect repellents. (
  • EPA registration of nootkatone paves the way for businesses to develop new insect repellents. (
  • Dr. Hogsette has worked in many aspects of management of nuisance flies, including trapping, development of and management with pesticides and Insect Growth Regulators, sanitation, biological control, attractants and repellents. (
  • Wear adequate protection and clothing with insect repellents that utilize DEET, or alternative organic products, such as botanical oil-based products, such as cedar, which is lethal to ticks, or organic neem oil. (
  • Choose From Our Wide-Range Of Insect Repellents Now! (
  • Every year, approximately one-third of the U.S. population uses DEET-containing insect repellents (CDC, 2009), and exposure to DEET is widespread (Calafat 2016). (
  • When used as directed, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women. (
  • When used as directed, insect repellents are the BEST way to protect yourself and family members from getting sick from mosquito bites. (
  • Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. (
  • Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label. (
  • Ten vector-borne pathogens were newly identified in the United States in the past 13 years, including chikungunya, Zika, and six tickborne pathogens. (
  • Even though some insects become hosts of different pathogens, they rarely get ill as a consequence of this relation because vectors are an essential element for pathogens to reach their final host , which is usually a vertebrate (as we humans). (
  • So, pathogens avoid to damage vectors because they need them to reach other organisms. (
  • Most of vectors are hematophagous insects (i.e., that feed on blood), thus the transference of pathogens to a new organism takes place by a more direct way, e.g. through saliva or blood. (
  • Therefore, for some pathogens using vectors to pass from one host to another is an essential fact to assure their survival and, especially, to guarantee their dispersal through the space. (
  • Vector-borne pathogens are spread to people and animals primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito, tick, or flea. (
  • continued struggles of humans versus biting and stinging insects, including those that transmit vector-borne pathogens, from an intimate perspective. (
  • and potential exposure to communicable disease (including but not limited to coronavirus/COVID-19, other viruses, bacteria, and all other infectious pathogens and disease vectors). (
  • Interactions between parasites and their arthropod vectors. (
  • A strain of Anopheles gambiae, which was selected for complete refractoriness to the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi, also has varying degrees of refractoriness to most other malaria species examined, including the human parasites P. falciparum, P. ovale, and P. vivax for which this mosquito is the principal African vector. (
  • ELM offers both chemical repellent products that have been registered and tested for efficacy and human safety, and natural organic solutions to treat mosquitos and ticks, and other biting insects, such as black flies, and parasites, such as fleas. (
  • From their beginning days, insects have annoyed humans with their stings and bites and transmitted parasites. (
  • sand flies are insect vectors of protozoa from the genus leishmania, causative parasites of visceral and american tegumentary leishmaniases. (
  • The best way to protect yourself and family from mosquito and tick bites is to use insect repellent. (
  • The blend of different types of essential oils gives these insect-repellent bars a strong fragrance that facades your smell from insects while protecting it sans any annoying irritation. (
  • N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, commonly known as DEET, has become a widely used insect repellent in the United States. (
  • Personal measures such as using insect repellent, covering exposed skin with clothing, and using mosquito nets also provide simple, cost-effective--albeit not foolproof-- protection. (
  • There are now also some good natural insect repellent options available to purchase if you don't have all of the ingredients on hand or want a simpler solution. (
  • Pest and vector management in the tropics : with particular reference to insects, ticks, mites and snails / Anthony Youdeowei, Mike W. Service. (
  • Introduction, Sign, Symptoms, Prevention and Management of Lyme Disease Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi Channeled through Ixodes Ticks as Vector. (
  • As people spend more time outdoors, so do many insects and pests. (
  • Scientifically referred to as triatomine bugs, these blood-sucking insects can carry in their feces and pass on to humans the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas disease, a lifelong infection that takes a heavy toll on community health in poor populations, particularly in El Salvador. (
  • American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease: One Hundred Years of Research, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of Chagas disease and discusses the latest discoveries concerning the three elements that compose the transmission chain of the disease, the host, the insect vectors, and the causative parasite. (
  • This is a vector of Chagas disease, which can be lethal. (
  • La Enfermedad de Chagas es transmitida por Trypanosoma cruzi, protozoo hemoflagelado que posee un organelo denominado kinetoplasto, compuesto por kDNA, organizado en maxi y minicírculos. (
  • Triatoma dimidiata is the main vector of Chagas disease in southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America. (
  • The Ecohealth approach is a low-cost, sustainable approach for the long-term control of vector-borne Chagas disease. (
  • Genome of Rhodnius prolixus, an insect vector of Chagas disease, reveals unique adaptations to hematophagy and parasite infection. (
  • The Chagas disease domestic transmission cycle in Guatemala: parasite-vector switches and lack of mitochondrial co-diversification between Triatoma dimidiata and Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations suggest non-vectorial parasite dispersal across the Motagua valley. (
  • Genetically modifying the insect gut microbiota to control Chagas disease vectors through systemic RNAi. (
  • 5Secretaria de Estado da Saúde, although the possibility of vector transmission of Chagas disease in these centers is very low. (
  • All insect Vectors acquire the disease causing organisms feeding on the diseased plants and transmit them to healthy plants. (
  • Sandflies are well known vectors for Leishmania but also transmit a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (
  • Sandflies are important insect vectors that transmit many species of Leishmania , bacteria and viruses. (
  • Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host. (
  • But Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are well known for their preference for human blood and their role as vectors which transmit disease in humans. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Laboratory & field evaluation of three insect growth regulators against mosquito vectors. (
  • Here, I reflect on parallels between control of Covid-19 and vector-borne disease control, discuss the advantages and caveats of using new genotyping technologies for the study of invasive species, and proceed to highlight papers that were published between 2020 and 2021 with a focus on those related to mosquito surveillance and population genetics of mosquito vectors. (
  • Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S. Field trials on the efficacy of DEET-impregnated anklets, wristbands, shoulder, and pocket strips against mosquito vectors of disease. (
  • The advantage to humans is that we can act on the insect vector and break the cycle of transmission. (
  • These blood-sucking insects existed prior to humans. (
  • Humans have been in constant battle with these annoying insects from the beginning of time. (
  • Its unique mode of action is lethal to targeted insects but does not affect humans, animals, birds, and fish. (
  • Mosquito of the species Anopheles stephensi, one of the Malaria vectors (Public domain, by CDC). (
  • There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. (
  • 2. Beebe NW, Russell TL, Burkot TR, Lobo NF, Cooper RD. The systematics and bionomics of malaria vectors in the southwest Pacific. (
  • Native forest tree mortality associated with PWN is newly reported from the Front Range of Colorado, but there is no regional information on PWN frequency or biology of local insect vectors, limiting management options. (
  • Papers presented at the Symposium on Insect Vector Biology, held at Madras during November 22-24 1979. (
  • The east coast here in the U.S., parts of the south and Midwest, and even in California you have the major [tick-borne] disease, which is Lyme disease,' said José Ribeiro, M.D., Ph.D., chief of the Vector Biology Section of the Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research in NIAID's Division of Intramural Research. (
  • Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of several arboviruses of medical significance. (
  • without vectors, many illnesses would remain affecting specific organisms instead of spread through different species. (
  • This species is a vector of European aster yellows virus. (
  • Posnette and Ellenberger (623) were first to report this species as a vector of delphinium yellows in England, Only 1 white clover plant out of 10 was infected with the virus. (
  • To detect the presence of T. cruzi by PCR, to determine the circulating lineages in the species using Southern blot and establish if continuous feedings produced variation in the infection state of the insects, thirty-six specimens corresponding to M. gajardoi were collected in Caleta Vitor, Arica and Parinacota Region. (
  • These effects should be even stronger in inbreeding species 3 and taxa with generally low Ne such as social insects 4 . (
  • For all four insect species, the probability of acquiring LSDV was substantially greater when feeding on a lesion compared with feeding on normal skin or blood from a clinically affected animal. (
  • This study quantifies the acquisition and retention of LSDV by four species of blood-feeding insects and reveals that the cutaneous lesions of LSD provide the high titer virus source necessary for virus acquisition by the insects. (
  • Delimiting cryptic morphological variation among human malaria vector species using convolutional neural networks. (
  • We initial characterised TBEV infection inside the tick cell lines IDE derived from the only tick species with a sequenced genome, I. scapularis, and IRECTVM derived from I. ricinus, a organic vector of TBEV. (
  • It is a disease that is spread through Bacteria with the help of a vector i.e. (
  • So bacteria use Tick as vector. (
  • Vectors greatly increase the dispersal and the transmission range of infectious agents in relation with those strictly dependent to direct contact between two or more organisms. (
  • Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues in the environment and on non-target organisms, particularly when large numbers of treated insects were released [ 4 ]. (
  • PWN), is a damaging and globally distributed insect-vectored forest pathogen. (
  • In epidemiology, a vector is defined as an agent (either a human, animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a pathogen or any other infectious agent from an infected organism to another , either directly via the blood flow or indirectly via the food, water or any other element a susceptible organism may be in contact with. (
  • The only function of these vectors is to transport the infectious agents , which don't really need vectors to complete their life cycle (that is, the insect isn't a host of the pathogen). (
  • On the other side, the relationship between the pathogen and its vector tends to last until the end of vector's life , so the vector will be always capable to infect. (
  • The framework described here can be used to explore other aspects of the vector-pathogen interactions. (
  • The pathogen is carried and population growth, industrialization, development of water re- transmitted by insects that breed in or bite near water, as oc- climate change, urbanization and sources. (
  • The ultrastructural studies in parasite-vectors interactions. (
  • An online presentation by Professor John P. Carr entitled 'Viral manipulation of plant-vector interactions' is now available to watch on the CONNECTED Vimeo channel. (
  • Prof. Carr's research interests at the University of Cambridge's Department of Plant Sciences include plant-virus-insect interactions, and natural and engineered resistance to plant viruses. (
  • Prof. Carr focuses on a series of examples of lab work, mostly using cucumber mosaic virus as a model, investigating how some viruses appear to be able to modify the biochemistry and defence status of the host plant in ways that alter interactions between host plants and insect vectors, and how these changes might accelerate virus transmission. (
  • In the last years, media has been reporting an increase of illnesses transmitted by insects and other arthropods. (
  • Most expertise in the response of arthropods to microorganisms has been obtained from studies in insects. (
  • Also, production of viral vectors for vaccines and recombinant work using both insect and mammalian cells were common. (
  • Plague Clipart Vector and Illustration. (
  • 3,947 Plague clip art vector EPS images available to search from thousands of royalty free stock art and stock illustration creators. (
  • infection frequency in tree populations varied considerably and four epicenters of vector infectivity were identified. (
  • Urban forests, where the disease was initially observed in the region, do not support vector populations. (
  • Our results suggest that natural forest landscapes in the region are important reservoirs of PWN and vector populations are especially abundant near burned stands. (
  • In addition to the value these strains may serve in general studies of insect immune mechanisms, this finding encourages consideration of genetic manipulation of natural vector populations as a malaria control strategy. (
  • Choosing the right control measures and implementing them at the right times is key to preventing fly and other insect populations from becoming pesky and annoying. (
  • A county in which Lyme disease is endemic is one in which at least two confirmed cases have been acquired in the county or in which established populations of a known tick vector are infected with B. burgdorferi . (
  • We developed flight phenology models and evaluated effects of landscape factors on vector abundance and probability of infection. (
  • However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. (
  • We know very little about how this insect vector responds to viral infection. (
  • Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can also be generated during infection, at least in some insects. (
  • Flies and insects can serve as vectors for infection and disease. (
  • A global (metatranscriptomic and microbial) and comparative analysis will be performed between non infected and infected insect vectors, and genes differentially expressed with reference to the infection process will be identified. (
  • Do you think infection with "empty" baculovirus after transient transfection could help boosting expression of GOI on TGE vector by arresting cell division due to the infection? (
  • Symptoms appeared within one month after the insect bite. (
  • Wearing thick clothing with lots of bug spray will help in preventing a bite or sting from vectors. (
  • Lyme disease reports will not be considered cases if the medical provider specifically states this is not a case of Lyme disease, or the only symptom listed is "tick bite" or "insect bite. (
  • The most remarkable and abundant vectors belong to Insecta class (although there are other arthropod vectors). (
  • The absence of all potential vectors of human Plas- an internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequence analysis modium spp. (
  • Critical to prediction of disease spread is a better understanding of the ecological factors that contribute to population increase and dispersal of the insect vector. (
  • As a consequence, their vector capacities associated with the high potential of dispersal of these nymphs imply an important risk of natural spread of viruses in an infested vineyard. (
  • The epidemiological study proves the role of scales insects in the dispersal of leafroll disease in the vineyards of north-eastern France. (
  • En France, l'enroulement viral affecte particulièrement les vignobles des régions septentrionales.L'approche biologique de la vection a montré la capacité de Phenacoccus aceris à transmettre à la vigne les GLRaV-1, -3, -4, -5, -6, -9 et ceux du bois strié Grapevine virus A et B. Cette étude est la première démonstration de la transmission du GLRaV-6 et confirme l'absence de spécificité des cochenilles dans la transmission des Ampelovirus. (
  • What is vector transmission? (
  • We found over a 19-year period, infestation with T. dimidiata was reduced to 2.2% and maintained at a level below the level (8%) where vector transmission is unlikely. (
  • This work reveals that the cutaneous lesions of LSD provide the high-titer source required for acquisition of the virus by insects, thereby enabling the mechanical vector-borne transmission. (
  • Using this vector allowed us to automate the generation of multiple recombinant viruses with a robotic liquid handler and then rapidly screen infected insect cell supernatant for the presence of secreted proteins. (
  • Many viruses enter their insect hosts by the oral route and must cross the gut epithelium, a barrier that prevents access to the hemocoel and other tissues. (
  • Grapevine leafroll viruses (Grapevine leafroll-associated virus, GLRaV) are present worldwide and transmitted to grapevine only by scale insect vectors (Coccoidea). (
  • Q. Do you think the result of your study is also applicable to other viruses vectored by aphids? (
  • Browse 47,175 tattoo silhouettes stock illustrations and vector graphics available royalty-free, or start a new search to explore more great stock images and vector art. (
  • And search more of iStock's library of royalty-free stock images that features Insect photos available for quick and easy download. (
  • sand fly vectors (diptera, psychodidae) of american visceral leishmaniasis areas in the atlantic forest, state of espírito santo, southeastern brazil. (
  • sand flies (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae), vectors of leishmania protozoa, at an atlantic forest conservation unit in the municipality of nísia floresta, rio grande do norte state, brazil. (
  • This work is aimed at formulating a mathematical model for the control of mosquito population using sterile insect technology (SIT). (
  • There is an increasing demand for exploration of the potential for applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) in area-wide integrated vector management (AW-IVM) in many countries. (
  • Generation of baculovirus vectors for the high-throughput production of proteins in insect cells. (
  • Set of Japanese water wave tattoo oriental silhouette style vector illustration. (
  • Vector snake silhouette isolated on a white background. (
  • These observations suggest that repeated spiking blood with 7 ppm ivermectin for 24 hours could be used as a successful method for male isolation of adult dengue vector Ae. (
  • Meanwhile, though, the current findings emphasize the need for abundant caution among insect scientists and medical researchers, as well. (
  • Countries and areas are now moving towards integrated vector management. (
  • Delivery of Double-Stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) Produced by Escherichia coli HT115(DE3) for Nontransgenic RNAi-Based Insect Pest Management. (
  • This protozoan is transmitted through insect vectors of the subfamily Triatominae. (
  • Knowledge of behaviour is a prerequisite to the development of well-designed tools to monitor and control pest insects and contributes insights into how sensory systems work in higher order animals. (
  • The global insect pest control market size is projected to touch USD 17,900.8 million by 2023, asserts Market Research Future (MRFR). (
  • The insect pest control market can experience high demand owing to the need to maintain hygienic conditions in these spaces. (
  • The insect pest control market is segmented by control method, insect type, and application. (
  • By insect type, termites accounted for nearly 30% share in the insect pest control market in 2017. (
  • Region-wise, the insect pest control market is segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and the Middle East & Africa (MEA). (
  • The North America insect pest control market is predicted to reach a size of USD 8,568.7 million by 2023. (
  • On the other hand, the MEA region is touted to showcase 6.03% CAGR to accumulate close to USD 946.7 million for the insect pest control market by 2023. (
  • We talk about other insects including soybean gall midge, leafhoppers, flea beetles, and eventually soybean aphids. (
  • It's a win-win, and it's why everything on iStock is only available royalty-free - including all Insect images and footage. (
  • From social media ads to billboards, PowerPoint presentations to feature films, you're free to modify, resize and customize every asset on iStock - including all Insect images and footage - to fit your projects. (
  • Modify landscape plantings to introduce beneficial insects and mosquito-repelling plants, such as marigolds and ageratum. (
  • There are beneficial insects and harmful ones. (
  • Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate a major antiviral response in insects. (
  • En Chile, encontramos cuatro especies distintas de triatominos: Triatoma infestans, responsable del ciclo doméstico, Mepraia spinolai y Mepraia gajardoi, responsables del ciclo silvestre y la recientemente descrita, Mepraia parapatrica. (
  • Royalty free vector insect clip art of a purple snake and insect boder with flowers on green. (
  • Last week, Maribel talked us about disease outbreaks , many of which are transmitted by insect vectors. (
  • in this case, vector is an essential element in the pathogen's life cycle, which needs the insect (that is, the vector) to complete its development before being transmitted to another organism. (
  • Most of infectious agents travel inside insect's hemolymph (the liquid equivalent to blood in insects). (
  • Its main vector, the Culex mosquito, is being caught by scientists in Camargue and studied by virologists with the EDEN project. (
  • In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas. (
  • Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. (
  • tropical insect hunter spider closeup photo. (
  • Spider mites, which are not actually insects, cannot be controlled with insecticides. (
  • Moth insect mirror composition.Ornamental branch leaf nature. (
  • Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. (