Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.RestaurantsGryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Schools: Educational institutions.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/4872)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (2/4872)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (3/4872)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (4/4872)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (5/4872)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (6/4872)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (7/4872)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (8/4872)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

  • however, insect chitin has been identified as a very valuable source for use in nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. (
  • About 1500 edible insect species are consumed worldwide (Ramos-Elorduy, 1997) at all stages of development being eggs, larvae, pupae and even adults. (
  • The Purina Beyond Nature's Protein line, which launches in Switzerland this month, will be available in two variations - one using chicken, fava beans and protein from black soldier fly larvae, and one using chicken, pig's liver and millet. (
  • Get over your squeamishness, because bug-based foods will soon infest our markets.The "elevator pitch" for Israel-based The Flying Spark states their intent to manufacture protein powder based on insect larvae that can be added to a wide range of food products, replacing today's protein powders - commonly made from whey, soy, or casein. (
  • Yet, in addition to its value in producing recombinant proteins in insect cells and larvae, this viral vector system continues to evolve in new and unexpected ways. (
  • These include producing proteins in insect larvae, insect cells and mammalian cells. (
  • Juvenile insect larvae are fed and grow under optimal conditions for several weeks 95% are steamed, then processed into proteins and oils, without using any chemical agents. (
  • BSF larvae are an ideal candidate for rearing as a feed ingredient as they consume a wide range of pre-consumer waste food (e.g. waste fruits, vegetables, stale bread, grains, grocery store waste), are native to North America, do not bite or sting, are high in protein and fat, and grow rapidly under controlled conditions. (
  • We use the larvae of the black soldier fly to upcycle complex nutrients in waste food into an excellent source of protein and fat, perfect for inclusion in feed for fish, poultry, pets and zoo animals. (
  • The aim of this thesis was to investigate potential of insect larvae as protein source, the mechanisms responsible for the browning or blackening of larvae during grinding, and its impact on protein functionality. (
  • Besides phenoloxidase activity, also endogenous proteases remained active at pH 8 in extracts of insect larvae. (
  • The amino acid composition, nutritional value, in vitro digestibility, morphologies, and thermal properties of the BSF larvae proteins (BSFLP) based on two drying methods were investigated. (
  • An article published by the Kentucky Equine Research staff, the use of protein derived from insect larvae in future horse feed makes for interesting reading. (
  • Protein derived from insect larvae has been suggested as an alternative source of this important feed component. (
  • In a study that compared meal made from housefly larvae and pupae to fish meal and soy meal, insect protein compared favorably as to gross energy and also the essential amino acids lysine and threonine. (
  • Insect flour" (dried and ground insect larvae and pupae) is produced on a small scale in the Netherlands, where zoos and pet stores are regular customers. (
  • A major problem in producing insect protein is the small size of the larvae and the large numbers that would be necessary to produce commercially useful amounts of protein. (
  • We obtained 100% mortality in the target insect after 72 hours of feeding the 2nd instar larvae with transgenic plants. (
  • MagMeal™ is a sustainable, high quality insect protein derived from black soldier fly larvae. (
  • Apart from a high protein content (fresh yellow mealworm larvae have a protein content of about 20%, and dried mealworms can reach as high as about 50%),they contain essential minerals, vitamins (B5 and B12),iron, zinc, as well as amino and fatty acids (Omega 3s),and fibres. (
  • These viruses are well replicated and expressed in cellsderived from insect larvae. (
  • The project aims to understand and improve the acceptability of foods containing whole insects, grinded insects, insect protein fractions and insect chitin in the Western food supply. (
  • "The main goal of the study was to mask the presence of insects in everyday foods by using powders instead of whole insects," ​ said study senior author and food microbiologist Lucia Aquilanti. (
  • This study has shown that whole insects and protein preparations thereof can be suitable for development of new food formulations. (
  • A new European Union Court of Justice ( CJEU ) ruling, delivered on October 1, clarifies that "food consisting of whole animals such as whole insects" does not fall within the scope of Regulation ( EC ) No 258/97 on novel food - a new policy shift that paves the way for its first "novel food" authorizations expected next year. (
  • Acceptance for eating whole insects is still pretty low in the western world, even though they are already consumed in many other countries around the world: almost 80% of them, actually! (
  • 04 Jun 2019 --- Lab-grown insect meat, fed on plants and genetically modified for maximum growth, nutrition and flavor, could be a viable and even a "superior" green alternative for high volume, healthy food production. (
  • The insect protein market is estimated to be valued at USD 144 million in 2019 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 45.0%, recording a value of USD 1,336 million by 2025. (
  • The worldwide market for Insect Protein Feed is expected to grow at a CAGR of roughly xx% over the next five years, will reach xx million US$ in 2024, from xx million US$ in 2019, according to a new study. (
  • Chapter 4, the Insect Protein Feed breakdown data are shown at the regional level, to show the sales, revenue and growth by regions, from 2014 to 2019. (
  • Our new production site, which will increase our production capacity to 10,000 tons of protein per year, will become operational by the end of 2019. (
  • My most recent title, " How To Start Podcasting - The Beginner's Guide " has sold exactly the same number of copies in the first 30 days of 2019 as " The Foodie Guide To Farming Insects For Protein . (
  • There is a growing need to develop novel foods from alternative protein sources with excellent consumer acceptance, high nutritional value and good palatability. (
  • The nutritional value of insects closely resembles the nutritional value of other animal protein sources such as chicken, beef, pork and fish (Bukkens 1997, 2005). (
  • The nutritional and economic value of edible insects is often neglected and we should further encourage their collection and commercialization, given the benefits to the environment and human health,' Vantomme said. (
  • A new study from Italy finds edible insect powder can be successfully incorporated into leavened baked goods to improve their nutritional trait, but there is a downside. (
  • Researchers from Marche Polytechnic University in Ancona have found that adding 10% cricket powder to bread substantially enhances its nutritional traits ​ ​ - especially the protein content and essential amino acids - and does not have too much of a negative effect on the dough's technological and organoleptic parameters. (
  • The breads containing cricket powder also showed a higher nutritional profile than the control bread, due to their fatty acid composition, a high protein content and the presence of essential amino acids, namely threonine, tyrosine, valine and methionine and lysine. (
  • Yeast hydrolysate is commonly used as a nutritional supplement in insect cell culture, but there are major concerns about the inconsistent performance of cultures. (
  • The good news is I think insects are a very nutritional alternative. (
  • Leitat, as a member of the consortium, develops processing technologies of larva for the production of qualitative protein flour and different nutritional products. (
  • It is also the insect species best suited to being farmed on an industrial scale, with huge potential as an alternative premium protein source due to the unparalleled nutritional and health benefits it offers to both plants and animals. (
  • however, insect chitin has been identified as a very valuable source for use in nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. (
  • Secondly, from a nutritional perspective, the average insect is around half protein by dry weight, with some insects up to as much as 75% protein. (
  • Some advocate insect-based protein sources for their nutritional quality and sustainability, while others find it an economically attractive concept. (
  • abstract = "The primary structure of the insect alpha-amylase inhibitor CMa of barley seeds was deduced from a full-length cDNA clone pc43F6. (
  • Chapul bars have gotten a big boost from Sprouts Farmers Markets , the Phoenix-based 200-plus unit supermarket chain, which added three flavors of Chapul brand cricket protein powder bars to its stores in June. (
  • The scientists did overcome this hurdle, though, through the use of preventive treatments like blenching or microwave drying the insect powder before adding it to the bread. (
  • But, as this can be easily corrected, they concluded that edible insect powder can successfully be included in leavened baked goods to enhance its protein content. (
  • The authors said further studies are needed to better understand the interactions between cereal-based matrices and insect powders, and to adjust the insect powder composition to obtain a better balanced product regarding fat content. (
  • However, insect protein extraction and processing could raise acceptance levels by providing insect-based foods and products (like mealworm protein powder),instead of whole roasted and grilled bugs. (
  • The same goes for cricket pasta and protein bars that contain cricket powder. (
  • They look harmless and nothing like insects when pulverized to powder form. (
  • For myself, I'm fond of cricket powder products (pasta and protein bars) and see that as a good way to consume edible insects and avoiding the ick factor. (
  • New protein sources are likely to become increasingly important as more consumers make a conscious decision to eat less meat. (
  • He said limited planetary resources and decreasing meat consumption in Europe were incentives to explore new proteins. (
  • Global population growth and an expanding middle class have raised per capita meat consumption by 50 percent over the past four decades, fueling fears of a protein pinch. (
  • The report said that insects are "extremely efficient" in converting feed into edible meat for humans. (
  • For more on alternative protein sources and evolved plant-based diets, see Meat: The Future and Rise of the Vegivore , as well as recent posts on Plant-Based Eggs and Beyond Meat's Chicken-Free Strips . (
  • The proteins are particularly popular with health-conscious consumers and gym-goers because game meat is generally leaner and lower in fat and calories than domesticated meats like pork and beef. (
  • Venison contains less fat than chicken, and also boasts the highest protein and lowest cholesterol content of any major meat. (
  • The increase in the per capita meat consumption and fears of protein shortage fuel the market within the region. (
  • The rising price of beef and meat and the tropical climate for insect growth in this region also pose a huge opportunity for the market to grow in this region. (
  • But for other types of meat within the cellular agriculture space, proof of concept in scalability has already been provided, which may point towards the same outcome for lab-grown insect meat in the foreseeable future. (
  • Research in lab-grown insect meat at Tufts University is, at present, strictly academic. (
  • The fledgling industry for insect meat as a whole is calling for more steadfast regulatory policies . (
  • Lab-grown insect meat may prove its potential in squeezing water and space savings furthest of all, without compromising on taste. (
  • The growing trend toward healthy eating and hybrid meat products are among the key drivers of the significantly accelerated traction within the European insect protein market. (
  • Although a staple of many, in the west insects are becoming the new 'eco protein' due to their high amino acid content and sustainability compared to traditional meat products. (
  • Massively less land and water required than for meat production, all the essential amino acids and rich in protein. (
  • I rarely eat meat, although have fish a couple of times a week, and could do better with alternative protein sources so insect protein seems like it could be a good, simple addition to my diet. (
  • The cleavage of structural proteins from the polyprotein is catalyzed by a host signal peptidase ( 16 , 30 ), whereas polyprotein cleavage in the nonstructural region requires HCV-encoded proteases ( 11 ). (
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of plant proteins by proteases breaks down the large protein molecules into peptides exposing the functional amino acids to produce novel proteins with greater functionality and digestibility increasing their suitability to a wider range of products and applications. (
  • Due to the cell lysis thatoccurs in this system, the target protein is highly contaminated with othercellular proteins such as proteases, so the time of isolation and purificationof the desired protein would be vital. (
  • A class of small (14-20 Kd) water-soluble proteins, called pheromone binding proteins, first discovered in the insect sensillar lymph but also found in the mucus of vertebrates, is postulated to mediate the solubilisation of hydrophobic odorant molecules, and thereby to facilitate their transport to the receptor neurons. (
  • These proteins can accumulate to a high abundance, up to 50% of the total soluble proteins, in various vegetative storage organs. (
  • Upon in-vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and trypsin, soluble proteins from H. illucens were more digestible compared to those of T. molitor and A. diaperinus. (
  • Here, we discuss our platform for identifying soluble proteins from 3 mL of insect cell culture and describe the procedures involved in producing protein from liter-scale cultures. (
  • Investors backing the company include the Los Angeles-based investment firm Upfront Ventures and the FootPrint Coalition, an investment vehicle financed by celebrity superhero Robert Downey Jr. The financing, which includes $139 million in debt and another $65 million in equity will be used to fund the construction of the world's largest insect farm in Amiens, France - set to open in early 2022. (
  • The product of a gene expressed in the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly), OS-D, shares features common to vertebrate odorant binding proteins, but has a primary structure unlike odorant-binding proteins. (
  • We then attempt to categorize olfactory proteins likely involved in sexual communication by comparing gene expression between adults and juveniles, as well as between males and females. (
  • Arabidopsis VSP2 ( AtVSP2 ), a gene induced by wounding, methyl jasmonate, insect feeding, and phosphate deprivation, was selected for bacterial expression and functional characterization. (
  • Positive correlation between Arabidopsis VSP gene expression and plant resistance to insects has been observed. (
  • Jasrapuria S, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Beeman RW, Muthukrishnan S. Gene families of cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAPs) in Tribolium castaneum have diverse functions. (
  • Its structural features, both at the protein and gene level, ascribe this molecule to the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF) with particular homology to neural cell adhesion molecules. (
  • In the present study, non-structural protein RNA polymerase ( 3D gene) of FMD virus (FMDV) was expressed using baculovirus expression system. (
  • Recognizing that these 'railroad track' chromosomes had also been observed in other insects like aphids, lice, earwigs and dragonflies, Drinnenberg and her colleagues searched through both available genome sequences as well as generated comprehensive lists of gene repertoires by sequencing live insects collected from the wild with the help of entomologist Dakota deYoung from the University of Washington. (
  • Cloning and transformation of various Bt genes have been done in higher plants but the resulting transgenic plants show lower insecticidal activity as insects develop Bt resistance in response to the level of gene expression . (
  • "This is the first study to investigate the postprandial response after ingestion of insect protein isolate on AA blood concentrations in vivo in humans," ​they added. (
  • The findings may lead to new ways to control disease transmission from insects to humans and animals, as well as new methods for biocontrol of agricultural insect pests. (
  • We develop smart technologies that efficiently convert end-of-life organic waste into valuable nutrients like proteins for animals and humans. (
  • Challenging this assumption, scientists from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have found that one of the foundational proteins in cell division, previously shown to be essential in organisms as diverse as yeast, flies and humans, has been surprisingly lost on multiple occasions during insect evolution. (
  • Insects are more distantly related to humans than mammals, and they are cold-blooded. (
  • This system can be used to process eukaryotic proteins and is scalable up to fermentation. (
  • This eukaryotic expression system was selected and a screening process established in 2007 as a measure to tackle the more challenging kinase, RNA-DNA processing, and integral membrane protein families on our target list. (
  • By 2050, the global population will expand to 9 billion strong leaving us protein-scarce. (
  • Even the United Nations promotes insect-eating as a promising, protein-packed way to feed the 9 billion people that will live on earth in 2050. (
  • We first generate transcriptomes from the antennae of adult males and females and identify, via homology searches, putative olfactory proteins of three different families: odorant binding proteins, odorant receptors, and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). (
  • Europe is demonstrating its global leadership in alternative protein sources and is home to trailblazers throughout the value chain. (
  • Regardless of the insect, their viability as alternative protein sources depends on the method in which they are farmed. (
  • The HCV structural proteins comprise the nucleocapsid or core protein (C) and the two envelope glycoproteins, E1 and E2 (for a review, see reference 39 ). (
  • An additional cleavage product in the coding region of the structural proteins was recently identified as p7 ( 30 , 41 ). (
  • Non-structural proteins (NSPs) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in FMD endemic countries like India which aim at disease control through vaccination. (
  • Dekker A, Sammin D, Greiner M, Bergmann I, Paton D, Grazioli S, De Clercq K, Brocchi E. Use of continuous results to compare ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus. (
  • Cattle response to foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins as antigens within vaccines produced using different concentrations. (
  • Coexpression of VP3 with the other structural proteins also led to nuclear localization of VP3, indicating that the formation of a complex with VP1 or VP2 is required for accumulation of VP3 in the nucleus. (
  • Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified virus showed that among six structural proteins, the P2 outer capsid protein (encoded by genome segment S2) was absent from the TD isolate, whereas all six proteins were present in the transmission-competent (TC) isolate. (
  • Results showed that all three protein sources led to significant increases in blood concentration of EAA, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and leucine over 120 minutes, with the greatest changes observed for whey, versus soy and insect. (
  • Its widespread adoption though will largely be determined by its ability to promote the physical changes demonstrated by popular isolated protein sources consumed today such as whey and casein. (
  • So long as they were fed with currently-permitted substrates, then the risks were similar to other sources of protein. (
  • This is due to the rising awareness about the benefits of insect protein and the necessity to develop alternative sources of protein to meet the rising global demand. (
  • Current and completed genome projects are sources of numerous novel open reading frames, which also are likely to provide new protein drug candidates or targets for medical use. (
  • There are already ways to provide the supply for the already present demand for alternate protein sources. (
  • Emphasis is placed on protein engineering strategies involving the insertion of single DNA constructs within the host plant genome. (
  • In analogy to other members of the Flaviviridae , the genome organization of HCV suggests a viral structure consisting of a nucleocapsid or core protein and a viral genome coated by a lipid envelope containing envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2. (
  • Apis mellifera 's genome and proteome provide a glimpse of the first Hymenoptera social insect [ 7 ]. (
  • P2 protein encoded by genome segment S2 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is essential for virus infection. (
  • Specifically, the proposed project explores how factors such as the extent of recognisability of insect ingredients, provision of explicit product information of the consumer influence the functional product properties, sensory performance and consumer acceptance. (
  • Based on a fundamental understanding of the relationships between functional properties, sensory perception and consumer acceptance the proposed project will provide design rules for the development of insect containing foods with excellent palatability. (
  • Customization of Insect Proteins: Interplay between functional properties, sensory performance and consumer acceptance of insects and insect-containing foods. (
  • These sequence differences may be neutral with respect to protein function, or they could be involved in the functional divergence of Hox proteins and the evolutionary diversification of animals. (
  • Functional analyses indicate that hemolin is one of the first hemolymph components to bind to the bacterial surface, taking part in a protein complex formation that is likely to initiate the immune response. (
  • An unsupervised clustering methodology combined with a comparative functional analysis unveiled proteomic signatures in the major clades of winged insects. (
  • Our primary goal was to provide a comprehensive, unbiased systematic approach for partitioning insects' proteomes to functional families. (
  • Often this choice is based on the protein type, functional activity, as well as the required yield that is required. (
  • This system is used to perform structural analysis, functional assays, generation of antibodies, but also to study protein interactions. (
  • From a small base of product launches tracked, the use (by CAGR) of edible insects grew more than 58% from 2011 to 2015, according to global research group Innova Market Insights. (
  • A high-quality protein is one that contains a large amount of essential amino acids (EAA) and branched-chained amino acids (BCAA), especially leucine. (
  • Lysine and threonine are two essential amino acids contained in high-quality protein that should be an ingredient in feeds for young horses. (
  • After exercise, a rapid increase in EAA [essential amino acids], leucine, in particular, is important for supporting maximal rates of skeletal MPS [muscle protein synthesis]. (
  • This single-amino acid alteration did not compromise the protein's secondary or tertiary structure, but resulted in complete loss of its acid phosphatase activity as well as its anti-insect activity. (
  • Experimental results showed that their amino acid score could reach the requirement of FAO/WHO (dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. (
  • Using the GUS assay and deletion analysis, the TYLCV CP NLS sequence was identified in the amino‐terminus of the protein. (
  • This system is used to study toxic proteins, incorporation of unnatural amino acids, screening of translational inhibitors etc. (
  • Oct. 15, 2014 - MANHATTAN, Kansas - Pest insects may be sickened to learn to that researchers at Kansas State University have discovered a genetic mechanism that helps compromise their immune system . (
  • Here, we constructed a computational pipeline to identify lncRNA genes in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), a major insect pest of cruciferous vegetables. (
  • The discovery of the insecticidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis in the early 20th century has allowed for the development of new pest insect control methods. (
  • Imidacloprid is widely used against sucking pest insects because of its high selectivity and low toxicity to mammals 1 . (
  • One particular type of association with invertebrates is known as necromeny, in which nematodes infest live insects and wait for their hosts to die before resuming their life cycle on the cadaver ( 2 ). (