Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Hormones produced in the testis.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/1105)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold. (2/1105)

We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage display. Three variants were identified that complex fluorescein with high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants as low as 35.2 nM. Notably, one of these variants effects almost complete quenching of the ligand fluorescence, similarly as an anti-fluorescein antibody. Detailed ligand-binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated (i) that the molecular recognition of fluorescein is specific and (ii) that charged residues at the center of the pocket are responsible for tight complex formation. Sequence comparison of the BBP variants directed against fluorescein with the wild-type protein and with further variants that were selected against several other ligands revealed that all of the randomized amino acid positions are variable. Hence, a lipocalin can be used for generating molecular pockets with a diversity of shapes. We term this class of engineered proteins "anticalins." Their one-domain scaffold makes them a promising alternative to antibodies to create a stable receptor protein for a ligand of choice.  (+info)

Calcium and cAMP are second messengers in the adipokinetic hormone-induced lipolysis of triacylglycerols in Manduca sexta fat body. (3/1105)

We have previously shown that stereospecific hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerol by a phosphorylatable triacylglycerol-lipase is the pathway for the adipokinetic hormone-stimulated synthesis of sn -1, 2-diacylglycerol in insect fat body. The current series of experiments were designed to determine whether cAMP and/or calcium are involved in the signal transduction pathway for adipokinetic hormone in the fat body. After adipokinetic hormone treatment, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the fat body rapidly increased and reached a maximum after 20 min, suggesting that adipokinetic hormone causes an increase in cAMP. Forskolin (0.1 micrometer), an adenylate cyclase activator, induced up to a 97% increase in the secretion of diacylglycerol from the fat body. 8Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP) produced a 40% increase in the hemolymph diacylglycerol content. Treatment with cholera toxin, which also stimulates adenylate cyclase, induced up to a 145% increase in diacylglycerol production. Chelation of extracellular calcium produced up to 70% inhibition of the adipokinetic hormone-dependent mobilization of lipids. Calcium-mobilizing agents, ionomycin and thapsigargin, greatly stimulated DG production by up to 130%. Finally, adipokinetic hormone caused a rapid increase of calcium uptake into the fat body. Our findings indicate that the action of adipokinetic hormone in mobilizing lipids from the insect fat body involves both cAMP and calcium as intracellular messengers.  (+info)

Identification of a Frizzled-like cysteine rich domain in the extracellular region of developmental receptor tyrosine kinases. (4/1105)

In Drosophila, members of the Frizzled family of tissue-polarity genes encode proteins that appear to function as cell-surface receptors for Wnts. The Frizzled genes belong to the seven transmembrane class of receptors (7TMR) and have on their extracellular region a cysteine-rich domain that has been implicated as the Wnt binding domain. This region has a characteristic spacing of ten cysteines, which has also been identified in FrzB (a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling) and Smoothened (another 7TMR, which is involved in the hedgehog signalling pathway). We have identified, using BLAST, sequence similarity between the cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled and several receptor tyrosine kinases, which have roles in development. These include the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), the neuronal specific kinase (NSK2), and ROR1 and ROR2. At present, the ligands for these developmental tyrosine kinases are unknown. Our results suggest that Wnt-like ligands may bind to these developmental tyrosine kinases  (+info)

Hox genes differentially regulate Serrate to generate segment-specific structures. (5/1105)

Diversification of Drosophila segmental morphologies requires the functions of Hox transcription factors. However, there is little information describing pathways through which Hox activities effect the discrete cellular changes that diversify segmental architecture. We have identified the Drosophila signaling protein Serrate as the product of a Hox downstream gene that acts in many segments as a component of such pathways. In the embryonic epidermis, Serrate is required for morphogenesis of normal abdominal denticle belts and maxillary mouth hooks, both Hox-dependent structures. The Hox genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A are required to activate an early stripe of Serrate transcription in abdominal segments. In the abdominal epidermis, Serrate promotes denticle diversity by precisely localizing a single cell stripe of rhomboid expression, which generates a source of EGF signal that is not produced in thoracic epidermis. In the head, Deformed is required to activate Serrate transcription in the maxillary segment, where Serrate is required for normal mouth hook morphogenesis. However, Serrate does not require rhomboid function in the maxillary segment, suggesting that the Hox-Serrate pathway to segment-specific morphogenesis can be linked to more than one downstream function.  (+info)

Locust corpora cardiaca contain an inactive adipokinetic hormone. (6/1105)

A neuropeptide from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has been identified as a novel member of the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The peptide is probably synthesised in the brain because it is the first AKH found in the storage lobe, whilst the three 'classic' Locusta AKHs are present in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In locusts, the peptide has no biological activity usually associated with AKHs. There is only 36-56% sequence identity with the three Lom-AKHs, but 78% identity with the Drosophila melanogaster AKH, Drm-HrTH. The new peptide is active in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and was provisionally named 'L. migratoria hypertrehalosaemic hormone', Lom-HrTH; its biological role in locusts remains to be established. The high degree of identity with Drm-HrTH suggests that Lom-HrTH is an ancient molecule.  (+info)

Absence of interdomain contacts in the crystal structure of the RNA recognition motifs of Sex-lethal. (7/1105)

By binding specific RNA transcripts, the Sex-lethal protein (SXL) governs sexual differentiation and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the basis for RNA binding specificity, we determined the crystal structure of the tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SXL. Both RRMs adopt the canonical RRM fold, and the 10-residue, interdomain linker shows significant disorder. In contrast to the previously determined structure of the two-RRM fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Al, SXL displays no interdomain contacts between RRMs. These results suggest that the SXL RRMs are flexibly tethered in solution, and RNA binding restricts the orientation of RRMs. Therefore, the observed specificity for single-stranded, U-rich sequences does not arise from a predefined, rigid architecture of the isolated SXL RRMs.  (+info)

Positive selection drives the evolution of the Acp29AB accessory gland protein in Drosophila. (8/1105)

Nucleotide sequence variation at the Acp29AB gene region has been surveyed in Drosophila melanogaster from Spain (12 lines), Ivory Coast (14 lines), and Malawi (13 lines) and in one line of D. simulans. The approximately 1.7-kb region studied encompasses the Acp29AB gene that codes for a male accessory gland protein and its flanking regions. Seventy-seven nucleotide and 8 length polymorphisms were detected. Nonsynonymous polymorphism was an order of magnitude lower than synonymous polymorphism, but still high relative to other non-sex-related genes. In D. melanogaster variation at this region revealed no major genetic differentiation between East and West African populations, while differentiation was highly significant between the European and the two African populations. Comparison of polymorphism and divergence at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites showed an excess of fixed nonsynonymous changes, which indicates that the evolution of the Acp29AB protein has been driven by directional selection at least after the split of the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. The pattern of variation in extant populations of D. melanogaster favors a scenario where the fixation of advantageous replacement substitutions occurred in the early stages of speciation and balancing selection is maintaining variation in this species.  (+info)

Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a crucial role in the regulation of insect development, reproduction, and other physiological processes. They are primarily produced by the corpora allata, a pair of endocrine glands located in the head of insects.

JHs are essential for maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects, preventing the expression of adult characteristics during molting. As the concentration of JH decreases in the hemolymph (insect blood), a molt to the next developmental stage occurs, and if the insect has reached its final instar, it will metamorphose into an adult.

In addition to their role in development, JHs also influence various aspects of insect reproductive physiology, such as vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis), oocyte maturation, and spermatogenesis. Furthermore, JHs have been implicated in regulating diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable environmental conditions) and caste determination in social insects like bees and ants.

Overall, juvenile hormones are vital regulators of growth, development, and reproduction in insects, making them attractive targets for the development of novel pest management strategies.

Ecdysone is a steroid hormone that triggers molting in arthropods, including insects. It's responsible for the regulation of growth and development in these organisms. When ecdysone binds to specific receptors within the cell, it initiates a cascade of events leading to the shedding of the old exoskeleton and the formation of a new one. This process is essential for the growth and survival of arthropods, as their rigid exoskeletons do not allow for expansion. By understanding ecdysone and its role in insect development, researchers can develop targeted strategies to control pest insect populations.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological and behavioral processes in insects. They are produced and released by endocrine glands and organs, such as the corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and neurosecretory cells located in the brain. Insect hormones play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, diapause (a state of dormancy), metamorphosis, molting, and other vital functions. Some well-known insect hormones include juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids (such as 20-hydroxyecdysone), and neuropeptides like the brain hormone and adipokinetic hormone. These hormones act through specific receptors, often transmembrane proteins, to elicit intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or organ function. Understanding insect hormones is essential for developing novel strategies for pest management and control, as well as for advancing our knowledge of insect biology and evolution.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

Thyroid hormones are hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small endocrine gland located in the neck that helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. The two main thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which contain iodine atoms. These hormones play a crucial role in various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, digestion, and brain development. They help regulate the rate at which your body uses energy, affects how sensitive your body is to other hormones, and plays a vital role in the development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. Thyroid hormone levels are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through a feedback mechanism that helps maintain proper balance.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Insect viruses, also known as entomoviruses, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate in insect hosts. These viruses can be found in various insect species, including those of medical and agricultural importance. Insect viruses can cause diseases in insect populations, leading to significant impacts on their growth, development, and survival. Some insect viruses have been studied as potential biological control agents for managing pest insects that affect crops or transmit diseases. Examples of insect viruses include Baculoviridae, Reoviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and regulate gene transcription in target cells. These receptors play a crucial role in the development, growth, and metabolism of an organism by mediating the actions of thyroid hormones. THRs are encoded by genes THRA and THRB, which give rise to two major isoforms: TRα1 and TRβ1. Additionally, alternative splicing results in other isoforms with distinct tissue distributions and functions. THRs function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and bind to thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. The binding of T3 or T4 to THRs triggers a conformational change, which leads to recruitment of coactivators or corepressors, ultimately resulting in activation or repression of gene transcription.

Genes in insects refer to the hereditary units of DNA that are passed down from parents to offspring and contain the instructions for the development, function, and reproduction of an organism. These genetic materials are located within the chromosomes in the nucleus of insect cells. They play a crucial role in determining various traits such as physical characteristics, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

Insect genes, like those of other organisms, consist of exons (coding regions) that contain information for protein synthesis and introns (non-coding regions) that are removed during the process of gene expression. The expression of insect genes is regulated by various factors such as transcription factors, enhancers, and silencers, which bind to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene transcription.

Understanding the genetic makeup of insects has important implications for various fields, including agriculture, public health, and evolutionary biology. For example, genes associated with insect pests' resistance to pesticides can be identified and targeted to develop more effective control strategies. Similarly, genes involved in disease transmission by insect vectors such as mosquitoes can be studied to develop novel interventions for preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in human development and growth by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 promotes the growth and reproduction of cells throughout the body, particularly in bones and other tissues. HGH also helps regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. It is essential for human development and continues to have important effects throughout life. The secretion of HGH decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the aging process.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Moths" are not a medical term, but rather they are a group of insects closely related to butterflies. They belong to the order Lepidoptera and are characterized by their scales covering their wings and body. If you have any questions about moths or if you meant to ask something else, please let me know!

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

'Insect control' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to the methods and practices used to manage or reduce the population of insects that can be harmful or disruptive to human health, food supply, or property. This can include various strategies such as chemical pesticides, biological control agents, habitat modification, and other integrated pest management techniques.

In medical terms, 'vector control' is a more relevant concept, which refers to the specific practices used to reduce or prevent the transmission of infectious diseases by insects and other arthropods that act as disease vectors (such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas). Vector control measures may include the use of insecticides, larvicides, biological control agents, environmental management, personal protection methods, and other integrated vector management strategies.

"Spodoptera" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the insect family Noctuidae. It includes several species of moths commonly known as armyworms or cutworms due to their habit of consuming leaves and roots of various plants, causing significant damage to crops.

Some well-known species in this genus are Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm), Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm), and Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). These pests can be a concern for medical entomology when they transmit pathogens or cause allergic reactions. For instance, their frass (feces) and shed skins may trigger asthma symptoms in susceptible individuals. However, the insects themselves are not typically considered medical issues unless they directly affect human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lepidoptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order that includes moths and butterflies, which are insects known for their distinctive wing scales. This term is used in the field of biology, not medicine.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

A genome in the context of insects refers to the complete set of genetic material, including all of the DNA and RNA, that is present in the cells of an insect. The genome contains all of the genes that provide the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the insect. It also includes non-coding regions of DNA that may have regulatory functions or may be the result of historical processes.

The genome of an insect is typically divided into several chromosomes, which are structures in the cell's nucleus that contain long stretches of DNA. The number and appearance of these chromosomes can vary between different species of insects. For example, some insects may have a diploid number of two sets of chromosomes (one set from each parent), while others may have a haploid number of a single set of chromosomes.

The genome size of insects can also vary significantly, with some species having genomes that are only a few hundred million base pairs in length, while others have genomes that are several billion base pairs long. The genome sequence of an insect can provide valuable insights into its evolutionary history, as well as information about the genes and regulatory elements that are important for its biology and behavior.

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone, specifically the active form of thyroid hormone, that plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. It is produced by the thyroid gland through the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine with three atoms of iodine. T3 is more potent than its precursor, thyroxine (T4), which has four iodine atoms, as T3 binds more strongly to thyroid hormone receptors and accelerates metabolic processes at the cellular level.

In circulation, about 80% of T3 is bound to plasma proteins, while the remaining 20% is unbound or free, allowing it to enter cells and exert its biological effects. The primary functions of T3 include increasing the rate of metabolic reactions, promoting protein synthesis, enhancing sensitivity to catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline), and supporting normal brain development during fetal growth and early infancy. Imbalances in T3 levels can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, which may require clinical intervention and management.

Insect repellents are substances that are applied to the skin, clothing, or other surfaces to deter insects from landing or crawling on that surface. They work by masking the scents that attract insects or by repelling them with unpleasant odors. Insect repellents can be chemical-based, such as those containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide), picaridin, or IR3535, or they can be natural, such as those containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or citronella. These substances work by interfering with the insect's ability to detect human scent, making it less likely that they will come into contact with the person using the repellent. Insect repellents are an important tool in preventing insect-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, West Nile virus, and Zika virus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemiptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order in the classification of living things, also known as "true bugs." This group includes species such as cicadas, aphids, and bedbugs. If you have a medical term in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition.

Baculoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect arthropods, particularly insects. The virions (virus particles) are enclosed in a rod-shaped or occlusion body called a polyhedron, which provides protection and stability in the environment. Baculoviruses have a wide host range within the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants), and Diptera (flies). They are important pathogens in agriculture and forestry, causing significant damage to insect pests.

The Baculoviridae family is divided into four genera: Alphabaculovirus, Betabaculovirus, Gammabaculovirus, and Deltabaculovirus. The two most well-studied and economically important genera are Alphabaculovirus (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses or NPVs) and Betabaculovirus (granulosis viruses or GVs).

Baculoviruses have a biphasic replication cycle, consisting of a budded phase and an occluded phase. During the budded phase, the virus infects host cells and produces enveloped virions that can spread to other cells within the insect. In the occluded phase, large numbers of non-enveloped virions are produced and encapsidated in a protein matrix called a polyhedron. These polyhedra accumulate in the infected insect's tissues, providing protection from environmental degradation and facilitating transmission to new hosts through oral ingestion or other means.

Baculoviruses have been extensively studied as models for understanding viral replication, gene expression, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology and pest control, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy vectors, and environmentally friendly insecticides.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Insect bites and stings refer to the penetration of the skin by insects, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, or bees, often resulting in localized symptoms including redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The reaction can vary depending on the individual's sensitivity and the type of insect. In some cases, systemic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur, which requires immediate medical attention. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with topical creams, antihistamines, or in severe cases, epinephrine. Prevention measures include using insect repellent and protective clothing.

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to release growth hormone (GH) into the bloodstream. GH plays a crucial role in growth and development, particularly during childhood and adolescence, by promoting the growth of bones and muscles.

GHRH is a 44-amino acid peptide that binds to specific receptors on the surface of pituitary cells, triggering a series of intracellular signals that ultimately lead to the release of GH. The production and release of GHRH are regulated by various factors, including sleep, stress, exercise, and nutrition.

Abnormalities in the production or function of GHRH can lead to growth disorders, such as dwarfism or gigantism, as well as other hormonal imbalances. Therefore, understanding the role of GHRH in regulating GH release is essential for diagnosing and treating these conditions.

Diptera is an order of insects that includes flies, mosquitoes, and gnats. The name "Diptera" comes from the Greek words "di," meaning two, and "pteron," meaning wing. This refers to the fact that all members of this order have a single pair of functional wings for flying, while the other pair is reduced to small knob-like structures called halteres, which help with balance and maneuverability during flight.

Some common examples of Diptera include houseflies, fruit flies, horseflies, tsetse flies, and midges. Many species in this order are important pollinators, while others can be significant pests or disease vectors. The study of Diptera is called dipterology.

Hemolymph is not a term typically used in human medicine, but it is commonly used in the study of invertebrates, particularly arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. Hemolymph is the fluid that circulates within the open circulatory system of these animals, serving multiple functions similar to both blood and lymphatic systems in vertebrates.

In simpler terms, hemolymph is a combined fluid that performs the functions of both blood and lymph in invertebrates. It serves as a transport medium for nutrients, waste products, hormones, and immune cells (hemocytes) throughout the body. Hemolymph does not contain red and white blood cells like human blood; instead, hemocytes are the primary cellular components responsible for immune responses and wound healing in these animals.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

Hypothalamic hormones are a group of hormones that are produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small region at the base of the brain. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior.

The hypothalamus produces two main types of hormones: releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones. Releasing hormones stimulate the pituitary gland to release its own hormones, while inhibiting hormones prevent the pituitary gland from releasing hormones.

Some examples of hypothalamic hormones include:

* Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland.
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, which regulate the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland.
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulate reproductive function.
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which regulates the stress response.
* Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) and prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH), which regulate the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland, which is involved in lactation.

Overall, hypothalamic hormones play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "grasshoppers" is not a term used in medical definitions. Grasshoppers are a type of insect that belongs to the order Orthoptera and suborder Caelifera. They are known for their long hind legs which they use for jumping, and some species can jump over 20 times their own body length. If you have any questions about medical terminology or topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Thyroxine (T4) is a type of hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. It is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, with the other being triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroxine plays a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including growth, development, and energy expenditure. Specifically, T4 helps to control the rate at which your body burns calories for energy, regulates protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and influences the body's sensitivity to other hormones.

T4 is produced by combining iodine and tyrosine, an amino acid found in many foods. Once produced, T4 circulates in the bloodstream and gets converted into its active form, T3, in various tissues throughout the body. Thyroxine has a longer half-life than T3, which means it remains active in the body for a more extended period.

Abnormal levels of thyroxine can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weight gain or loss, fatigue, mood changes, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Gonadal hormones, also known as sex hormones, are steroid hormones that are primarily produced by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). They play crucial roles in the development and regulation of sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. The three main types of gonadal hormones are:

1. Estrogens - predominantly produced by ovaries, they are essential for female sexual development and reproduction. The most common estrogen is estradiol, which supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and wider hips. Estrogens also play a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining bone health.

2. Progesterone - primarily produced by ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle.

3. Androgens - produced by both ovaries and testes, but primarily by testes in males. The most common androgen is testosterone, which is essential for male sexual development and reproduction. Testosterone supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in men, such as facial hair, a deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. It also plays a role in regulating sex drive (libido) and bone health in both males and females.

In summary, gonadal hormones are steroid hormones produced by the gonads that play essential roles in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics.

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones and mediate their effects in target cells. There are two main types of THRs, referred to as THR alpha and THR beta. THR beta is further divided into two subtypes, THR beta1 and THR beta2.

THR beta is a type of nuclear receptor that is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, and heart, as well as in the central nervous system. It plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, as well as in the development and function of the heart. THR beta is also involved in the regulation of body weight and energy expenditure.

THR beta1 is the predominant subtype expressed in the liver and is responsible for many of the metabolic effects of thyroid hormones in this organ. THR beta2, on the other hand, is primarily expressed in the heart and plays a role in regulating cardiac function.

Abnormalities in THR beta function can lead to various diseases, including thyroid hormone resistance, a condition in which the body's cells are unable to respond properly to thyroid hormones. This can result in symptoms such as weight gain, fatigue, and cold intolerance.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Invertebrate hormones refer to the chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in invertebrate animals, which include insects, mollusks, worms, and other animals without a backbone. These hormones are produced by specialized endocrine cells or glands and released into the bloodstream to target organs, where they elicit specific responses that help control growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior.

Examples of invertebrate hormones include:

1. Ecdysteroids: These are steroid hormones found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. They regulate molting (ecdysis) and metamorphosis by stimulating the growth and differentiation of new cuticle layers.
2. Juvenile hormone (JH): This is a sesquiterpenoid hormone produced by the corpora allata glands in insects. JH plays a crucial role in maintaining the juvenile stage, regulating reproduction, and controlling diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable conditions).
3. Neuropeptides: These are short chains of amino acids that act as hormones or neurotransmitters in invertebrates. They regulate various functions such as feeding behavior, growth, reproduction, and circadian rhythms. Examples include the neuropeptide F (NPF), which controls food intake and energy balance, and the insulin-like peptides (ILPs) that modulate metabolism and growth.
4. Molluscan cardioactive peptides: These are neuropeptides found in mollusks that regulate heart function by controlling heart rate and contractility. An example is FMRFamide, which has been identified in various mollusk species and influences several physiological processes, including feeding behavior, muscle contraction, and reproduction.
5. Vertebrate-like hormones: Some invertebrates produce hormones that are structurally and functionally similar to those found in vertebrates. For example, some annelids (segmented worms) and cephalopods (squid and octopus) have insulin-like peptides that regulate metabolism and growth, while certain echinoderms (starfish and sea urchins) produce steroid hormones that control reproduction.

In summary, invertebrates utilize various types of hormones to regulate their physiological functions, including neuropeptides, cardioactive peptides, insulin-like peptides, and vertebrate-like hormones. These hormones play crucial roles in controlling growth, development, reproduction, feeding behavior, and other essential processes that maintain homeostasis and ensure survival. Understanding the mechanisms of hormone action in invertebrates can provide valuable insights into the evolution of hormonal systems and their functions across different animal taxa.

Anterior pituitary hormones are a group of six major hormones that are produced and released by the anterior portion (lobe) of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions and activities. The six main anterior pituitary hormones are:

1. Growth Hormone (GH): Also known as somatotropin, GH is essential for normal growth and development in children and adolescents. It helps regulate body composition, metabolism, and bone density in adults.
2. Prolactin (PRL): A hormone that stimulates milk production in females after childbirth and is also involved in various reproductive and immune functions in both sexes.
3. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH regulates the development, growth, and maturation of follicles in the ovaries (in females) and sperm production in the testes (in males).
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH plays a key role in triggering ovulation in females and stimulating testosterone production in males.
5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH regulates the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth.
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.

These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus, which is located above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases releasing and inhibiting factors that control the synthesis and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, creating a complex feedback system to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

"Tenebrio" is the genus name for mealworm beetles, which are insects commonly found in stored grains and animal feed. The most common species is Tenebrio molitor. Mealworms and their larvae are often used as a food source for pets, such as reptiles and birds, but they can also cause damage to crops and structures if they infest them. They have been studied in various medical and scientific research fields including nutrition, toxicology, and allergies. Some people may have allergic reactions to mealworms or their byproducts.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

Heteroptera is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a suborder of insects within the order Hemiptera, also known as true bugs. This group includes a wide variety of species, such as bed bugs, assassin bugs, and stink bugs. While Heteroptera is not directly related to human health or medicine, some species can have medical importance as disease vectors or pests.

"Tribolium" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually the name of a genus of beetles, also known as flour beetles, which are often used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of genetics and evolution. If you have any confusion with a specific medical context where this term was used, I would recommend checking the source again for clarification.

"Bees" are not a medical term, as they refer to various flying insects belonging to the Apidae family in the Apoidea superfamily. They are known for their role in pollination and honey production. If you're looking for medical definitions or information, please provide relevant terms.

Biological metamorphosis is a complex process of transformation that certain organisms undergo during their development from embryo to adult. This process involves profound changes in form, function, and structure of the organism, often including modifications of various body parts, reorganization of internal organs, and changes in physiology.

In metamorphosis, a larval or juvenile form of an animal is significantly different from its adult form, both morphologically and behaviorally. This phenomenon is particularly common in insects, amphibians, and some fish and crustaceans. The most well-known examples include the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly or a tadpole into a frog.

The mechanisms that drive metamorphosis are regulated by hormonal signals and genetic programs. In many cases, metamorphosis is triggered by environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, or food availability, which interact with the organism's internal developmental cues to initiate the transformation. The process of metamorphosis allows these organisms to exploit different ecological niches at different stages of their lives and contributes to their evolutionary success.

"Animal Flight" is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is studied in the field of comparative physiology and biomechanics, which are disciplines related to medicine. Animal flight refers to the ability of certain animal species to move through the air by flapping their wings or other appendages. This mode of locomotion is most commonly associated with birds, bats, and insects, but some mammals such as flying squirrels and sugar gliders are also capable of gliding through the air.

The study of animal flight involves understanding the biomechanics of how animals generate lift and propulsion, as well as the physiological adaptations that allow them to sustain flight. For example, birds have lightweight skeletons and powerful chest muscles that enable them to flap their wings rapidly and generate lift. Bats, on the other hand, use a more complex system of membranes and joints to manipulate their wings and achieve maneuverability in flight.

Understanding animal flight has important implications for the design of aircraft and other engineering systems, as well as for our broader understanding of how animals have evolved to adapt to their environments.

"Bombyx" is a genus name that refers to a group of insects in the family Bombycidae, which are known as silk moths. The most well-known species in this genus is "Bombyx mori," which is the domesticated silkworm used for commercial silk production.

The term "Bombyx" itself does not have a specific medical definition, but it is sometimes used in medical or scientific contexts to refer to this group of insects or their characteristics. For example, researchers might study the effects of Bombyx mori silk on wound healing or tissue regeneration.

It's worth noting that while some species of moths and butterflies can be harmful to human health in certain circumstances (such as by acting as vectors for diseases), the Bombyx genus is not typically considered a medical concern.

Glycoprotein hormones are a group of hormones that share a similar structure and are made up of four subunits: two identical alpha subunits and two distinct beta subunits. The alpha subunit is common to all glycoprotein hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

The alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a 92 amino acid polypeptide chain that contains several disulfide bonds, which help to stabilize its structure. It is heavily glycosylated, meaning that it contains many carbohydrate groups attached to the protein backbone. The alpha subunit plays an important role in the biological activity of the hormone by interacting with a specific receptor on the target cell surface.

The alpha subunit contains several regions that are important for its function, including a signal peptide, a variable region, and a conserved region. The signal peptide is a short sequence of amino acids at the N-terminus of the protein that directs it to the endoplasmic reticulum for processing and secretion. The variable region contains several amino acid residues that differ between different glycoprotein hormones, while the conserved region contains amino acids that are identical or very similar in all glycoprotein hormones.

Together with the beta subunit, the alpha subunit forms the functional hormone molecule. The beta subunit determines the specificity of the hormone for its target cells and regulates its biological activity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "wasps" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wasps are a type of insect in the order Hymenoptera, and some people can have allergic reactions to their stings. However, there is no medical condition or disease specifically associated with wasps. If you have any specific medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help if I can!

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones and mediate their effects in the body. There are two main types of THRs, referred to as THRα and THRβ.

THRα is a subtype of thyroid hormone receptor that is primarily expressed in tissues such as the heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. It plays an important role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in these tissues. THRα has two subtypes, THRα1 and THRα2, which have different functions and are expressed in different tissues.

THRα1 is the predominant form of THRα and is found in many tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. It regulates genes involved in metabolism, growth, and development, and has been shown to play a role in regulating heart rate and contractility.

THRα2, on the other hand, is primarily expressed in the brain and pituitary gland, where it regulates the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). THRα2 is unable to bind to thyroid hormones, but can form heterodimers with THRα1 or THRβ1, which allows it to modulate their activity.

Overall, THRα plays an important role in regulating various physiological processes in the body, and dysregulation of THRα function has been implicated in a number of diseases, including heart disease, muscle wasting, and neurological disorders.

"Periplaneta" is a genus name that refers to a group of large, winged insects commonly known as cockroaches. The two most common species in this genus are the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and the German cockroach (Periplaneta germantica). These insects are typically found in warm, humid environments and can often be seen scurrying across floors or walls in homes, restaurants, and other buildings. They are known to carry diseases and can cause allergies and asthma attacks in some people.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

"Molting" is not a term typically used in medical contexts. It is primarily used to describe the shedding and replacement of feathers, hair, or skin in animals, including birds, reptiles, insects, and other invertebrates. In humans and other mammals, this process is more commonly referred to as "shedding" or "growing new hair/skin."

However, if you are referring to the medical term "molt," it is a rare genetic disorder that affects the skin's pigmentation and causes it to shed in patches. It is also known as "congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma" or "non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma." The condition is present at birth, and affected individuals have red, scaly skin that sheds in a pattern similar to snake skin. Molting is not contagious and has no known cure, but various treatments can help manage its symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hymenoptera" is not a medical term. It is a scientific classification in biology, specifically referring to an order of insects that includes sawflies, bees, ants, and wasps. These insects are characterized by having two pairs of membranous wings (except for some species that have only one pair or are wingless) and a slender waist. Some people may have allergic reactions to the venom of stinging Hymenoptera, such as bees and wasps, which can cause medical issues. However, "Hymenoptera" itself is not a medical term.

Pituitary hormone-releasing hormones (PRHs), also known as hypothalamic releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, are small neuropeptides produced and released by the hypothalamus - a small region of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating the secretion and release of various pituitary hormones, which in turn control several essential bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

There are several PRHs, each with a specific target pituitary hormone:

1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of thyroid hormones.
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Regulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which are essential for reproductive functions.
3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands.
4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): Stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for growth, development, and metabolism regulation.
5. Somatostatin or growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH): Inhibits the release of GH from the anterior pituitary gland and also suppresses the secretion of thyroid hormones.
6. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) or prolactin-releasing factor (PRF): Stimulates the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for lactation and reproductive functions.
7. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) or dopamine: Inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland.

These releasing hormones and inhibitory hormones work together to maintain a delicate balance in various physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions. Dysregulation of these hormonal systems can lead to various endocrine disorders and diseases.

I must clarify that the term 'pupa' is not typically used in medical contexts. Instead, it is a term from the field of biology, particularly entomology, which is the study of insects.

In insect development, a pupa refers to a stage in the life cycle of certain insects undergoing complete metamorphosis. During this phase, the larval body undergoes significant transformation and reorganization within a protective casing called a chrysalis (in butterflies and moths) or a cocoon (in other insects). The old larval tissues are broken down and replaced with new adult structures. Once this process is complete, the pupal case opens, and the adult insect emerges.

Since 'pupa' is not a medical term, I couldn't provide a medical definition for it. However, I hope this explanation helps clarify its meaning in the context of biology.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Pituitary hormones refer to the chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (also known as the adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (also known as the neurohypophysis).

Posterior pituitary hormones are those that are produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain located above the pituitary gland, and stored in the posterior pituitary before being released. There are two main posterior pituitary hormones:

1. Oxytocin: This hormone plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to help facilitate delivery of the baby. After delivery, oxytocin continues to be released to stimulate milk production and letdown during breastfeeding.
2. Vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH): This hormone helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of urine that is produced by the kidneys. When vasopressin is released, it causes the kidneys to retain water and increase blood volume, which can help to maintain blood pressure.

Together, these posterior pituitary hormones play important roles in regulating various physiological processes in the body.

Biological pest control, also known as biocontrol, is a method of managing or eliminating pests such as insects, mites, weeds, and plant diseases using natural enemies or other organisms. These biological control agents include predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors that regulate pest populations and reduce the need for chemical pesticides. Biological pest control is a key component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs and has minimal impact on the environment compared to traditional pest control methods.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Aphids, also known as plant lice, are small sap-sucking insects that belong to the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. They are soft-bodied and pear-shaped, with most species measuring less than 1/8 inch (3 millimeters) long.

Aphids feed on a wide variety of plants by inserting their needle-like mouthparts into the plant's vascular system to extract phloem sap. This feeding can cause stunted growth, yellowing, curling, or distortion of leaves and flowers, and may even lead to the death of the plant in severe infestations.

Aphids reproduce rapidly and can produce several generations per year. Many species give birth to live young (nymphs) rather than laying eggs, which allows them to increase their population numbers quickly. Aphids also have a complex life cycle that may involve sexual reproduction, parthenogenesis (reproduction without fertilization), and winged or wingless forms.

Aphids are an important pest in agriculture and horticulture, causing significant damage to crops and ornamental plants. They can also transmit plant viruses and produce honeydew, a sticky substance that attracts ants and supports the growth of sooty mold fungi.

Controlling aphids may involve cultural practices such as pruning, watering, and removing weeds; biological control using natural enemies such as lady beetles, lacewings, and parasitic wasps; or chemical control using insecticides.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Ecdysterone is a type of steroid hormone that occurs naturally in various plants and animals. In animals, ecdysterones are known to play important roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans. They are called "ecdysteroids" and are crucial for the process of molting, in which the arthropod sheds its exoskeleton to grow a new one.

In plants, ecdysterones are believed to function as growth regulators and defense compounds. Some studies suggest that they may help protect plants against pests and pathogens.

Ecdysterone has also gained attention in the context of human health and performance enhancement. While it is not a hormone naturally produced by the human body, some research suggests that ecdysterone may have anabolic effects, meaning it could potentially promote muscle growth and improve physical performance. However, more studies are needed to confirm these findings and establish the safety and efficacy of ecdysterone supplementation in humans.

It is important to note that the use of performance-enhancing substances, including ecdysterone, may be subject to regulations and anti-doping rules in various sports organizations. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Somatotropin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that binds to and gets activated by the hormone somatotropin, also known as growth hormone (GH). These receptors are found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, muscle, and fat. When somatotropin binds to its receptor, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate various physiological processes such as growth, metabolism, and cell reproduction.

Somatotropin receptors belong to the class I cytokine receptor family and are composed of two subunits, a homodimer of extracellular glycoproteins that bind to the hormone and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain that activates downstream signaling pathways. Mutations in the somatotropin receptor gene can lead to growth disorders such as dwarfism or gigantism, depending on whether the mutation results in a decrease or increase in receptor activity.

"Gryllidae" is not a medical term. It is the family designation for crickets in the order Orthoptera, which includes various species of insects that are characterized by their long antennae and ability to produce chirping sounds. The misinterpretation might have arisen from the fact that some scientific research or studies may reference these creatures; however, it is not a medical term or concept.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) are a group of peptide hormones that originate from the precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC). They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy balance, and appetite regulation.

There are several types of MSH, but the most well-known ones include α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH. These hormones bind to melanocortin receptors (MCRs), which are found in various tissues throughout the body. The binding of MSH to MCRs triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior.

In the context of skin physiology, α-MSH and β-MSH bind to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) on melanocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing pigment (melanin). This binding stimulates the production and release of eumelanin, a type of melanin that is brown or black in color. As a result, increased levels of MSH can lead to darkening of the skin, also known as hyperpigmentation.

Apart from their role in pigmentation, MSH hormones have been implicated in several other physiological processes. For instance, α-MSH has been shown to suppress appetite and promote weight loss by binding to melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates energy balance. Additionally, MSH hormones have been implicated in inflammation, immune response, and sexual function.

Overall, melanocyte-stimulating hormones are a diverse group of peptide hormones that play important roles in various physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy balance, and appetite regulation.

Testicular hormones, also known as androgens, are a type of sex hormone primarily produced in the testes of males. The most important and well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sex organs, such as the testes and prostate, and it also promotes the development of secondary sexual characteristics like facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass.

Testicular hormones are produced and regulated by a feedback system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, while FSH works together with testosterone to promote sperm production.

In addition to their role in male sexual development and function, testicular hormones also have important effects on other bodily functions, such as bone density, muscle mass, red blood cell production, mood, and cognitive function.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays crucial roles in the reproductive system, primarily by promoting the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries or sperm production in the testes.

The FSH molecule consists of two subunits: α (alpha) and β (beta). The α-subunit is common to several glycoprotein hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the β-subunit is unique to each hormone and determines its specific biological activity.

A medical definition of 'Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit' refers to the distinct portion of the FSH molecule that is responsible for its particular functions in the body. The β-subunit of FSH enables the hormone to bind to its specific receptors in the gonads and initiate downstream signaling pathways leading to follicular development and spermatogenesis. Any alterations or mutations in the FSH beta subunit can lead to disruptions in reproductive processes, potentially causing infertility or other related disorders.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck, does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This results in a slowing down of the body's metabolic processes, leading to various symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, muscle weakness, and depression.

The two main thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, and energy levels. In hypothyroidism, the production of these hormones is insufficient, leading to a range of symptoms that can affect multiple organ systems.

Hypothyroidism can be caused by several factors, including autoimmune disorders (such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis), surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radiation therapy for neck cancer, certain medications, and congenital defects. Hypothyroidism is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure levels of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3, and T4. Treatment usually involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones to replace the missing hormones and alleviate symptoms.

"Rhodnius" is not a medical term, but rather it refers to a genus of true bugs in the family Reduviidae. These small, wingless insects are known as "bugs" and are commonly found in tropical regions of the Americas. They feed on plant sap and are also known to be vectors for certain diseases, such as Chagas disease, which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. However, they are not typically associated with human medicine or medical conditions.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Type 1 (PTH1R) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP). It is primarily found in bone and kidney cells.

The activation of PTH1R by PTH or PTHrP leads to a series of intracellular signaling events that regulate calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, and renal function. In the bone, PTH1R stimulates the release of calcium from bone matrix into the bloodstream, while in the kidney, it increases the reabsorption of calcium in the distal tubule and inhibits phosphate reabsorption.

Mutations in the gene encoding PTH1R can lead to several genetic disorders, such as Blomstrand chondrodysplasia, Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, and hypoparathyroidism type 1B. These conditions are characterized by abnormalities in bone development, growth, and mineralization.

Ecdysteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are primarily known for their role in the regulation of molting and growth in arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans. They are structurally similar to vertebrate steroid hormones, such as estrogens and androgens, but have different physiological functions.

Ecdysteroids bind to specific receptors in the cell nucleus, leading to changes in gene expression that regulate various processes related to molting and growth, including the synthesis of new exoskeleton components and the breakdown of old ones. They also play a role in other physiological processes, such as reproduction, development, and stress response.

In recent years, ecdysteroids have attracted interest in the medical community due to their potential therapeutic applications. Some studies suggest that certain ecdysteroids may have anabolic effects, promoting muscle growth and protein synthesis, while others have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of ecdysteroids in humans.

Placental hormones are a type of hormones that are produced by the placenta, an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. These hormones play a crucial role in maintaining and supporting a healthy pregnancy. Some of the key placental hormones include:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): This hormone is produced after implantation and is detected in the urine or blood to confirm pregnancy. It maintains the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone during early pregnancy.
2. Progesterone: This hormone is critical for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. It suppresses maternal immune response to prevent rejection of the developing embryo/fetus.
3. Estrogen: This hormone plays a vital role in the growth and development of the fetal brain, as well as promoting the growth of the uterus and mammary glands during pregnancy.
4. Human Placental Lactogen (hPL): This hormone stimulates maternal metabolism to provide nutrients for the developing fetus and helps prepare the breasts for lactation.
5. Relaxin: This hormone relaxes the pelvic ligaments and softens and widens the cervix in preparation for childbirth.

These hormones work together to support fetal growth, maintain pregnancy, and prepare the mother's body for childbirth and lactation.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Pancreatic hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. The two main types of pancreatic hormones are insulin and glucagon, which are released by specialized cells called islets of Langerhans.

Insulin is produced by beta cells and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream. It also helps the body store excess glucose in the liver for later use.

Glucagon is produced by alpha cells and has the opposite effect of insulin. When blood sugar levels are low, glucagon stimulates the release of stored glucose from the liver to raise blood sugar levels.

Together, insulin and glucagon help maintain balanced blood sugar levels and are essential for the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. Other hormones produced by the pancreas include somatostatin, which regulates the release of insulin and glucagon, and gastrin, which stimulates the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

... are hormones that regulate water balance through diuretic action. The insect excretory system, ... Coast GM, Orchard I, Phillips JE, Schooley DA (2002). "Insect diuretic and antidiuretic hormones". Advances in Insect ... To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a ... Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2022, All articles lacking in-text citations, Insect hormones). ...
... is an insect hormone which mediates tanning in the cuticle of adult flies. The molecular structure of the hormone has been ... Fraenkel G, Hsiao C, Seligman M (January 1966). "Properties of bursicon: an insect protein hormone that controls cuticular ... the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2". ... Bursicon plays a very important role in insect wing expansion during the last step of metamorphosis: maturation of the wing. At ...
His subsequent scientific activities helped determine the role of the insect brain in hormone production. He was the earliest ... Litwack, Gerald (2005-12-19). Insect Hormones. ISBN 9780127098739. Capinera, John L (2008-08-11). Encyclopedia of Entomology. ... Sláma, Karel, Insect Endocrinology: A Tribute to Stefan Kopeć, from Historical figures in Insect Physiology, University of ... Development of a larval in vivo assay for prothoracicotropic hormone". Journal of Insect Physiology. 38 (11): 925-938. doi: ...
Geography of Rajasthan Geography of India Geology of India Sharma, Pradeep (2008). Insect Hormones. Discovery Publishing House ...
Depending on the insect's taxonomy, JHMAT is either the last or second to last step in JH III synthesis. Insects in Orthoptera ... Insect metamorphosis is a tightly regulated process that involves JHs and JHAMT. The function of JH in immature insects is to ... Shinoda T, Itoyama K (October 2003). "Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: a key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis ... Subramanian S, Shankarganesh K (2016-01-01). "Chapter 20 - Insect Hormones (as Pesticides)". In Omkar (ed.). Ecofriendly Pest ...
Later it was established that the insect brain produces a number of hormones, but the hormone which was the cause of the ... Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) was the first insect hormone to be discovered.The chemical symbol for prothoracicotropic ... Physiological Systems in Insects. 2nd edition, Academic Press. (CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty, Insect hormones). ... Thus, the brain was originally thought to be the source of the hormone that induces molting in insects. ...
Journal of Insect Physiology, 2002. 48: p. 601-608 Goldsworthy, G.J., K. Opoku-Ware, and L.M. Mullen, Adipokinetic hormone and ... The chemical structure was determined to be a peptide hormone formed from 10 amino acids. This was the first insect peptide ... Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are metabolic neuropeptides, mediating mobilization of energy substrates in many insects. An ... The hormone itself is part of a larger family, often referred to as red pigment concentrating hormones (RPCH) discovered in ...
Thomson, JA; Imray, F Paula; Hohn, DHS (1970). "An Improved Calliphora Bioassay for Insect Moulting Hormones". Australian ... insects can be used instead. Larval secession can aid in determining the time of death through aging the insects that are ... Insects of Australia, Diptera of New Zealand, Insects described in 1781). ... Insects can hold these toxins for months after the tissues disappear. These flies are also affected by weather conditions. The ...
CS1: long volume value, Peptide hormones, Insect hormones). ... Gäde G, Goldsworthy GJ (2003). "Insect peptide hormones: a ... Juvenile hormone is synthesised in the corpora allata. In every insect tested, at least one of the three types of Allatostatin ... Allatostatins are neuropeptide hormones in insects and crustacea. They have a twofold function: they both inhibit the ... Stay B, Tobe SS (2007). "The role of allatostatins in juvenile hormone synthesis in insects and crustaceans". Annu. Rev. ...
"The Juvenile Hormone of Insects". Nature. 178 (4526): 212-213. Hultmark D (1982). Insect Immunity: Inducible Antibacterial ... This large insect had enough juvenile hormone in its abdomen to permit extraction of detectable amounts from a single specimen ... The original description of the insect juvenile hormone by Carroll Williams in Nature in 1956 is from the cecropia silkworm. ... Cecropin, a major protein involved in the humoral immunity of most insects, was first isolated from and named after Hyalophota ...
Roles of Juvenile Hormone in Adult Insects". Advances in Insect Physiology. 26: 1-155. doi:10.1016/S0065-2806(08)60030-2. ISBN ... Most insect species contain only juvenile growth hormone (JH) III. To date JH 0, JH I, and JH II have been identified only in ... Journal for Insect Physiology. 47,1119 -1125 Pearce A.N., Huang Z.Y., Breed M.D. (2001) Juvenile hormone and aggression in ... Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. The first ...
Roles of Juvenile Hormone in Adult Insects". Cellular and molecular actions of juvenile hormone. II. Roles of juvenile hormones ... Peptide hormones, Fish hormones, Insect hormones, Beekeeping, Precursor proteins, Peripheral membrane proteins, Protein domains ... For the majority of the investigated insect species it has been documented that juvenile hormone stimulates the transcription ... Engelmann F (1983). "Vitellogenesis controlled by juvenile hormone". In Downer RG, Laufer H (eds.). Endocrinology of Insects. ...
Insects use hormones similar to thyroid hormone using iodine. Phosphorylated tyrosines created with tyrosine kinases are ... Flatt, Thomas; Moroz, Leonid L.; Tatar, Marc; Heyland, Andreas (December 2006). "Comparing thyroid and insect hormone signaling ... A deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%, while an excessive production of thyroid hormones ... Gut-inhabiting bacteria use iodine from host thyroid hormone. Thyroid-like hormones may be linked to the development of ...
Two major insect moulting hormones, alpha ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are found in bracken. These cause uncontrollable, ... Kaplanis, J. N.; Thompson, M. J.; Robbins, W. E.; Bryce, B. M. (22 September 1967). "Insect Hormones: Alpha Ecdysone and 20- ... Hydrogen cyanide is released by the young fronds of bracken when eaten by mammals or insects. ... repeated moulting in insects ingesting the fronds, leading to rapid death. Bracken is currently under investigation as a ...
Finally, he was active in the field of insect juvenile hormones. Šorm was the author or co-author of a large number of ... He also initiated the study of natural peptides, especially neurohypophyseal hormones and their analogues, some of which were ...
v t e (Steroids, Insect hormones, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... the overlooked sex steroids of insects? Males: the black box". Insect Science. 13 (5): 325-338. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7917.2006. ... Ecdysteroids are arthropod steroid hormones that are mainly responsible for molting, development and, to a lesser extent, ... Phytoecdysteroids also appear in many plants mostly as a protection agents (toxins or antifeedants) against herbivore insects. ...
The seed contain insect moulting hormones including rubrosterone, ecdysterone, and inokosterone. The root contains ...
Insect growth regulators (juvenile hormones, chitin synthesis inhibitors, etc.) are available. For example, the insect growth ... ISBN 0-85546-276-0. Lane, R.P. & Crosskey, R.W. (1993) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0-412-40000- ... Marshall, A.G. (1981) The Ecology of Ectoparasitic Insects. New York, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-474080-4. Paterson, S. (2008) ... London, British Museum (Natural History). Lehane, M.J. (1991) The Biology of Blood-sucking Insects. London, Harper Collins, ...
"Insect morphogenetic hormones and developmental mechanisms in the nematode, Nematospiroides dubius". Comparative Biochemistry ...
Insect hormones, Insect developmental biology, All stub articles, Insect stubs). ... Insect molting hormones (ecdysone and its homologues) are generally called ecdysteroids. Ecdysteroids act as moulting hormones ... Ecdysone is a[clarification needed] prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, secreted from the ... Recent findings in the laboratory of Chris Q. Doe have found a novel role of this hormone in regulating temporal gene ...
Azadirachtin mimics insect hormones called ecdysones that regulate pupation of insects; application of azadirachtin interrupts ... the development and pupation of insects, which eventually kills them. The name indicates that the basic skeleton of such ...
... (JHEH) is an enzyme that inactivates insect juvenile hormones. This inactivation is ... Juvenile hormone diol is acted on by juvenile hormone diol kinase, to give juvenile hormone diol phosphate, with the phosphate ... White AF (February 1972). "Metabolism of the juvenile hormone analogue methyl farnesoate 10, 11-epoxide in two insect species ... JHEH is one of two enzymes involved in the termination of signaling properties of the various juvenile hormones. The other is ...
... family of proteins consists of several insect specific haemolymph juvenile hormone binding proteins. Juvenile hormone (JH) has ... Kolodziejczyk R, Bujacz G, Jakob M, Ozyhar A, Jaskolski M, Kochman M (March 2008). "Insect juvenile hormone binding protein ... It would appear that JHBP forms two cavities, only one of which, the one near the N- and C-termini, binds the hormone; binding ... JH is transported from the sites of its synthesis to target tissues by a haemolymph carrier called juvenile hormone-binding ...
Daimon, T; Shinoda, T (January 2013). "Function, diversity, and application of insect juvenile hormone epoxidases (CYP15)". ... a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum". Journal of Insect Physiology. 80: 61-70. doi: ... Cytochrome P450, family 15, also known as CYP15, is an animal cytochrome P450 family found in insect genome, involved in ... a precursor of juvenile hormone, alone with its ortholog TcCYP15A1 in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle). Nelson, DR ( ...
... growth proteins and hormones in social insects". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.20375. PMC 5153251. PMID 27894417. Sal, Lorrianne ... The crop can be found in the foregut of insects. In a bird's digestive system, the crop is an expanded, muscular pouch near the ... The crop in eusocial insects, such as ants, has specialized to be distensible, and this specialization enables important ... Triplehorn, Charles A; Johnson, Norman F (2005). Borror and DeLong's introduction to the study of insects (7th ed.). Australia ...
The insect was used by Sir Vincent Wigglesworth for the detection of insect hormones. It has been implicated in the ... Insect vectors of human pathogens, Chagas disease, Insects described in 1859, Insects of South America). ... The insect has five larval stages, with a moult between each. Each larval stage consumes a single large meal of blood, which ... Further it was demonstrated that the corpora allata secrete the juvenile hormone which prevents the premature development into ...
The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian Insect Powder to Sex Hormones. In 1940 he became a foreign member of the Royal ... Both discoveries led to the pre-eminence of the Swiss industry in the steroid hormone field. At Zurich, at ETH he became ... Over the period 1934-1939 he had published 70 papers in the field of medicinally important steroid sex hormones, and filed ... After the successful synthesis in 1935 of sex hormones (androsterone and testosterone), his laboratory became the world center ...
"Cucurbitacins are insect steroid hormone antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor". Biochemical Journal. 327 (3): 643-650 ... These plants provide nourishment for a number of insect species of which the rare Euchloe tagis butterfly is the most striking ... acting on the ecdysteroid receptor of insects. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606-607 RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. ...
"Lack of 'happiness' hormone makes rice plants less attractive to insects". Retrieved 2019-12-15. "How the humble ... Her work has looked at how plants interact with insects and how this can be manipulated to reduce the attraction of crop plants ... Gatehouse's research examines plant and pest insect interactions at the molecular level, and how this can be used for ... as they repel the insect pest the glasshouse whitefly. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops, edited with Natalie ...
... is a juvenile hormone analog and an insect growth regulator. It prevents larvae from developing into adulthood and ... "insect development is quite different to human development and involves different hormones, developmental pathways and sets of ... Pyriproxyfen is a pesticide which is found to be effective against a variety of insects. It was introduced to the US in 1996, ... Ishaaya, I; Horowitz, AR (1995). "Pyriproxyfen, a Novel Insect Growth Regulator for Controlling Whiteflies : Mechanisms and ...
Insect diuretic hormones are hormones that regulate water balance through diuretic action. The insect excretory system, ... Coast GM, Orchard I, Phillips JE, Schooley DA (2002). "Insect diuretic and antidiuretic hormones". Advances in Insect ... To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a ... Articles lacking in-text citations from October 2022, All articles lacking in-text citations, Insect hormones). ...
Insect Hormones and Insect Chemical Ecology. 1999, 263-375. ... 1. Anti-insect agents. 1988, 21-239. ...
Phurealipids, produced by the entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus, mimic juvenile hormone to suppress insect immunity and ... Their chemical structures are similar to that of juvenile hormone (JH) and have been suspected to mimic JH signaling in ... Overall, phurealipids showed JH like immunosuppressive behavior in a lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua larvae. More ... Second, phurealipids like JH prevented insect metamorphosis. Especially, the methylated urea derivatives of the phurealipids ...
1997). Cucurbitacins are insect steroid hormone antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor. Biochem. J. 327, 643-650. doi: ... Cucurbitacin B can displace the insect steroidal hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, thus affecting morphological changes in Drosophila ... In vitro and in planta assays shown that LUP5 was preferentially expressed in the insect-deterrent B. vulgaris G-type. LUP5 ... Bigger, D. S., Chaney, W. E. (1998). Effects of Iberis umbellata (Brassicaceae) on insect pests of cabbage and on potential ...
Categories: Insect Hormones Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 93 ...
Location: Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research Title: Juvenile hormone regulates the shift from migrants to residents in ... Technical Abstract: In migratory insects, increasing evidence has demonstrated juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in regulating ... ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » Corn Insects and Crop Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » ... Juvenile hormone regulates the shift from migrants to residents in adult oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata. Scientific ...
Neem oil is an organic insecticide that decreases insect feeding, repels insects, and interferes with insect hormones. ... d. Utilizing organic and natural practices to control landscape insect infestation. This includes application of neem oil, ...
Juvenile hormone. a hormone that inhibits development of a juvenile insect to an adult. ... the first segment (closest to the body) of an insect leg.. *Crop. part of an insects gut. The crop is often used as a ... a snout-like projection from the heads of some insects.. *Saltatorial. a phrase used to describe the legs of some insects and ... Spinnerets are possessed by spiders and some species of insect.. *Spiracle. openings on the thorax and abdomen of insects that ...
Bruce Hammock, PhD, discovered regulating degradation of insect hormone mediators is as important as biosynthesis in ...
Biosynthesis of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs): further characterization of precursors and identification of novel products of ... Expansion of the central arborizations of persistent sensory neurons during insect metamorphosis: the role of the steroid ... hormone, 20- hydroxyecdysone RB Levine. Journal of Neuroscience 1 March 1989, 9 (3) 1045-1054; DOI: ...
Growth Insect development is controlled by juvenile hormone and ecdysone, by directly perturbing cuticle formation/deposition ... Such insect growth regulators are generally slow to moderately slow acting. * Respiration Several insecticides are known to ... 7 Juvenile hormone receptor modulators. Applied in the pre-metamorphic instar, these compounds disrupt and prevent ... This disrupts feeding and other behaviors in target insects. In contrast to Group 9, Group 29 insecticides do not bind to the ...
From LeBoeuf et al 2016 we know that ant workers pass many growth-related proteins and an important insect growth hormone, ... We use social insects as a model system because many (but not all!) social insects engage in the mouth-to-mouth fluid exchange ... In social insects that engage in trophallaxis, weve shown that the contents of trophallactic fluid, when fed to larvae, can ... The exchanged fluid is full of growth proteins, hormones, RNA and small molecules. Some of these components, when fed to larvae ...
While this solution will suffocate bugs, a similar formula using neem oil messes with insects hormones, dissuading them from ... Dont Kill These 17 Beneficial Insects in Your Garden Dont Kill These 17 Beneficial Insects in Your Garden By: Daniel Mintz, ... Attract Insect-Eating Birds. Photo: While most backyard birds dine on a combo of seeds, berries, and bugs, ... Snuff Out Insects With Capsaicin. Photo: This natural pesticide potion combines common kitchen staples to pack ...
... and insect hormones revitalize memory. A world with biofactories that give birth to household utensils, where genetically- ... Elbow-deep in bioflash drives, living joysticks, brain caviar, insect ampules, and smelling snails;. Puzzles based on the use ...
Bhattacharjee, A.K.; Gupta, R.K.; Ma, D.; Karle, J.M. Molecular similarity analysis between insect juvenile hormone and N, N- ... Moore, S.J.; Debboun, M. History of insect repellents in: Insect Repellents: Principles, Methods, & Use. Strickman, D.; Frances ... juvenile hormone mimics (IGRs) and insect repellents may aid discovery and design of novel arthropod repellents in: Juvenile ... Klun, J.A.; Schmidt, W.F.; Debboun, M. Stereochemical effects in an insect repellent. J. Med. Entomol., 2001, 38(6), 809-812. ...
Cucurbitacins are insect steroid hormone antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor. Biochemical journal; 327(3); 643-650. ...
In many insects, octopamine also plays a role in the regulation of juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. JH, a sesquiterpenoid ... Since dopaminergic DDC neurons regulate the titers of the molting hormones 20-hydroxyecdyson and juvenile hormone, both ... hormone, is synthesized and released from the corpora allata of adult insects and is tightly controlled at the levels of ... In other insects, octopamine relaxes ovarian muscles to allow the release of mature eggs into the oviducts. In the locust ...
The scientists suspected that this hormone is important to the way carbon dioxide could affect insects physiology. ... While a beekeeper puffing clouds of carbon dioxide into a hive to calm the insects is a familiar image to many, less is known ... "CO2 has many different impacts on insects, so as scientists were trying to find an effect they all have in common so we can ... First, because carbon dioxide is so widely used, she said its important to understand its mode of action in insects, and ...
Learn why insect bites itch more at night, natural remedies for nighttime, and the best over-the-counter remedies for itchiness ... Besides cortisol, other hormones such as testosterone and progesterone can also affect our perception of itchiness from insect ... Why Do Insect Bites Itch More At Night: 6 Factors that Contribute. Itchy insect bites at night can cause frustration and lead ... You suffer from insect bites and find that they itch more at night. Natural remedies can ease the itchiness caused by insect ...
... theyre supposed to automatically inject the hormone epinephrine to stop runaway allergic reactions to insect stings and foods ...
2006; RECEPTORS, NOTCH was indexed under MEMBRANE PROTEINS 1990-2005, & under INSECT HORMONES 1990-1995. ...
Insects do not have sex hormones: a myth?. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. ... Insects do not have sex hormones: a myth?. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. ... The Sf1-related nuclear hormone receptor Hr39 regulates Drosophila female reproductive tract development and function Anna K. ... Multiple steroid hormones serve non-autonomously as master regulators of male or female sexual development in mammals, whereas ...
In insects, ecdysteroids are androgens (hormones that contribute to growth). Ecdysteroids are well studied as insect growth ... So what happens in insects, arthropods and non-arthropod invertebrates are the ecdysteroid hormones that stimulate moulting and ... So when the insect consumes the plant the photoecdysteroid made their shell fall off (moult), which ends up killing them. ... In plants, a chemical is produced by the plants as a defence mechanism to act against any insects trying to eat them. ...
Chemical irritants are released by parasitic fungi, bacteria, nematode worms, gall insects, and ... irritants or hormones. Chemical irritants are released by parasitic fungi, bacteria, nematode worms, gall insects, and mites. ... The gall insects (e.g., certain aphids, wasps, moths, beetles, and midges) deposit their eggs in the plant tissues, which begin ... Each species of gall insect has its favorite host and forms galls of a characteristic shape; some are large and woody and ...
FAMeT may play a rate-limiting role in juvenile hormone biosynthesis in insects. FAMeT has been identified in the crustaceans ... In contrast, insect kinins affect the paracellular pathway, as in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito they inhibit ... In contrast, insect kinins affect the paracellular pathway, as in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito they inhibit ... Vertebrate kidneys and insect Malpighian tubules are the executors of extracellular fluid homeostasis, holding or getting rid ...
Once introduced, it blocks the normal functioning of these hormones and prevents the insects from becoming sexually mature. It ... Azadirachtin is reportedly similar in structure to the hormones used by insects to control development. ... Extracts from the neem tree are often used to treat a variety of insect problems. Pests that can be treated with them include: ... Neem is an EPA-approved pesticide that is not only fairly non-toxic to people and animals, but also to beneficial insects ...
"IGR" means Insect Growth Regulator. This is a chemical control method that acts like insect hormones to stop roaches from ...
Ecdysteroid hormones in insects regulate a diverse amount of physiological processes during developmental and adult stages. The ... molecular basis of ecdysteroid signalling has been deeply studied in holometabolous insects ... ...
These synthetic chemicals interfere with an insects ability to respond to the hormones that allow the creatures to reach ... This can be a problem for beneficial insects that you actually want in your yard. Bees, butterflies, predatory insects, and ... I combine my insect survey work with consulting for various pest control agencies. I specialize in both urban pests and ... And if you really want to eradicate the insects permanently, you could follow this up with some Ortho Broadcast Granules to ...
The juices work by preventing the insects from feeding and by preventing the insect from digesting the hormone. ... It repels or kills a variety of insect species, but does not appear to be harmful to a wide variety of beneficial insects and ... Note - This will destroy all the insects that come in contact with it. It should also be noted that severe spraying can affect ... These do not infect humans but kill many small insect pests, including aphids. ...
  • The findings, recently published in Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , were contrary to previous hypotheses. (
  • Still others have anti-insect repellent imbedded in the fibers to ward off pesky bugs. (
  • The researchers explained that this antagonist reduces the levels of juvenile hormone, which regulates reproduction and accelerates metabolism, in bumble bees. (
  • For instance, Iodine is necessary to produce the active form of our thyroid hormone, T3, which regulates our metabolism. (
  • Apparently honey promotes the production of melatonin, the hormone of sleep, that regulates the cyrcadian rhythm with a relaxing effect. (
  • Insect diuretic hormones are hormones that regulate water balance through diuretic action. (
  • Excretion is under the control of diuretic and anti-diuretic factors, or hormones. (
  • It has been known for many years that insects possess diuretic and antidiuretic factors, but it has only been comparatively recently that technological advances have allowed for them to be characterised. (
  • To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a beetle, the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae). (
  • Functions of diuretic and antidiuretic hormones include: postprandial diuresis, post-eclosion diuresis, excretion of excess metabolic water, clearance of toxic wastes and restricting metabolite loss. (
  • There are three main families of diuretic hormones: the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptides, calcitonin (CT)-like peptides and the insect kinins. (
  • The D. punctata peptide, subsequently named Dippu-DH31, turned out to be the first example of a whole new family of insect diuretic peptides - the calcitonin (CT)-like peptides. (
  • It appears that all insects possess diuretic factors from two or more families, indicating that fluid balance is very finely controlled. (
  • 1987) Identification of an arginine vasopressin-like diuretic hormone from Locusta migratoria. (
  • We find that the SF1-related Drosophila nuclear hormone receptor HR39 is also essential for sexual development. (
  • The inotocin/receptor couple can also be found in the recently sequenced genome from the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis but not in any other holometabolous insect with a completely sequenced genome (12 Drosophila species, the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, the silk worm Bombyx mori, and the honey bee Apis mellifera), suggesting that this neuropeptide system is confined to basal holometabolous insects. (
  • The endocrine system provides chemical integration through hormones. (
  • So-called endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment (eg, insecticides, petrochemicals, industrial solvents, plasticizers) can affect endocrine systems and alter hormone levels, causing alterations in sex organs, immune function, nervous system function, growth and development, and certain cancers. (
  • The anti-inflammatory properties of honey could also alleviate itch and redness caused by insect stings. (
  • It was used primarily to control insect pests on cotton and other crops in the southern United States. (
  • Other uses included controlling insect pests on livestock and killing unwanted fish in lakes. (
  • Meaning that whether it is physical, emotional or psychological stress, your body responds to it in the same way, by releasing the stress hormones like cortisol, estrogen and adrenaline. (
  • It helps to maintain the correct level of glycemia during the night, preventing the release of stress hormones, like cortisol and adrenaline. (
  • Phurealipids, produced by the entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus, mimic juvenile hormone to suppress insect immunity and immature development. (
  • Their chemical structures are similar to that of juvenile hormone (JH) and have been suspected to mimic JH signaling in immunity and the development of insects . (
  • They used carbon dioxide to treat two additional groups of queens: one group that had their ovaries removed, and another that was treated with a juvenile hormone antagonist. (
  • Anopheles funestus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles minimus and Anopheles albimanus) to seven public health insecticides in five classes, including pyrethroids (metofluthrin, prallethrin and transfluthrin), neonicotinoids (clothianidin), pyrroles (chlorfenapyr), juvenile hormone mimics (pyriproxyfen) and butenolides (flupyradifurone), in glass bottle assays. (
  • Chronic exposure of rats resulted in increased thyroid follicular cell tumors from sustained perturbation of thyroid hormone homeostasis. (
  • Is there any other oral also found in insects, fungi, and cells in visceral morphogenesis. (
  • Chitin is a large, modified polysaccharide that contains nitrogen and is found in the exoskeletons of insects, the cell walls of fungi, and certain hard structures in invertebrates and fish. (
  • Bee fat is a very important component, as the major site of insect metabolism and nutrient storage is not the brain but rather the fat body. (
  • Insect CRF-related peptides are so-called because of their similarity to the CRF-related peptides of vertebrates, which indicates a long evolutionary history. (
  • Although only a few orders are represented so far, CRF-related peptides are suspected to be ubiquitous in insects. (
  • Background: There is growing concern that poisoning and other adverse health effects are increasing because organophosphorous (OP) insecticides are now being used in combination with pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides to enhance the toxic effects of PYR insecticides on target insects, especially those that have developed PYR resistance. (
  • M. - Y. Choi , " Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) in Insects " , Korean journal of applied entomology , vol. 61, pp. 15-28, 2022. (
  • If your dog's sleeping area is too bright there is less efficient production of the hormone melatonin, which can adversely affect circadian rhythm (body clock). (
  • Here, we report that the recently sequenced genome from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum contains a gene coding for an oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide, identical to the locust peptide, which we named inotocin (for insect oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide) and a gene coding for an inotocin G protein-coupled. (
  • In fact, mutual staring between humans and dogs releases oxytocin, known as the love hormone. (
  • Comparatively recently, a peptide was isolated from the cockroach Diploptera punctata that showed no similarity to any known insect peptide but did show some similarity to vertebrate calcitonin. (
  • According to the researchers, carbon dioxide is commonly used by beekeepers and researchers to sedate bees and other insects. (
  • People started using lights to attract insects more than three centuries ago and still today, researchers collect much of their insect population data with light traps at night. (
  • According to researchers, helping others release hormones that boost your mood and wellbeing. (
  • That "everything" includes birds, frogs, spiders, small mammals, some other insects, and Yellowstone grizzly bears, which can eat up to 40,000 army cutworm moths in a day, scooping them by the pawful from rocky crevices. (
  • These factors are produced in neurosecretory cells in the insect nervous system, and stored and released from neurohaemal sites, such as the corpora cardiaca in the brain. (
  • The environment of our cells is our internal condition meaning the hormones and nutrients they receive from our blood, and the signals they receive from their neighboring cells and the nervous system (brain). (
  • Thus, a pathway that, in vertebrates, controls sex-specific steroid hormone production, also mediates reproductive functions in an invertebrate. (
  • Common contaminants are pesticides, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury), nitrates (in green leafy vegetables), aflatoxins (in nuts and milk), growth-promoting hormones (in dairy products and meat), animal hairs and feces, and insect parts. (
  • However, no similar peptide could be identified in other insects, nor could its prohormone be cloned, or its physiological actions be established. (
  • Insects heavily rely on bacteria for essential nutrients that are lacking in their diet. (
  • Segi's cap : large aggregation of gut hormone-producing cells on the intestinal villi of the fetus / edited by Mitsuo Segi, Shigeru Kobayashi. (
  • Functional morphologic changes in female sex organs induced by exogenous hormones / edited by Gisela Dallenbach-Hellweg. (
  • First, phurealipids like JH suppressed insect immune responses . (
  • The scientists suspected that this hormone is important to the way carbon dioxide could affect insects' physiology. (
  • If Owens is right that insects have been evolving to avoid light, then many of the observations on which some scientists base an insect apocalypse may actually indicate more of an insect-observation error. (
  • The roles played by steroid hormones in vertebrates and invertebrates appear to be among the most divergent. (
  • The insect changes skin several times during its growth, via a molting process under the control of a specific ecdysis hormone which triggers each molt. (
  • First, because carbon dioxide is so widely used, she said it's important to understand its mode of action in insects, and particularly in bumblebees where it is a useful tool for commercial apiaries to produce colonies for pollination year-round. (
  • That would be a problem, because insects are very important. (
  • Great tits in urban environments have lower levels of stress hormone than those living in woodland habitats. (
  • They achieve this mostly by eating a tremendous amount of plant matter-so much that the food preferences of local insects can determine which trees make up a forest, Laurel Symes, a Cornell ecologist, told me. (
  • The increasing number of persons allergic to dust, insect bites and venom, food and food additives has propelled the demand for epinephrine auto-injectors," the report says. (
  • Their appetite means much of the solar energy in plants has to go through insects before it goes anywhere else, and the rest of the animal kingdom knows that. (
  • The hormone helps the animal to quit its old skin and to acquire a larger new skin. (
  • Insects, weighed all together, would probably be heavier than any other group of terrestrial animals. (
  • Entomologists took advantage: To find insects or count them, they turned on lights. (
  • Dippu-DH31 was isolated using a cyclic AMP assay at the same time as a CRF-related peptide from the same insect. (
  • And if they stop coming to it, you're like, 'Oh, there's no insects left. (
  • Never stop producing hormones doctor or pharmacist if you opportunity for a high-protein intake. (
  • Her reasoning goes like this: Since humans have been artificially illuminating the night, they have noticed insects congregating around lights. (
  • Why did insects have the "most ruinous propensity" to "rush impetuously into bright flames? (