Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Hormones produced in the testis.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/1105)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold. (2/1105)

We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage display. Three variants were identified that complex fluorescein with high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants as low as 35.2 nM. Notably, one of these variants effects almost complete quenching of the ligand fluorescence, similarly as an anti-fluorescein antibody. Detailed ligand-binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated (i) that the molecular recognition of fluorescein is specific and (ii) that charged residues at the center of the pocket are responsible for tight complex formation. Sequence comparison of the BBP variants directed against fluorescein with the wild-type protein and with further variants that were selected against several other ligands revealed that all of the randomized amino acid positions are variable. Hence, a lipocalin can be used for generating molecular pockets with a diversity of shapes. We term this class of engineered proteins "anticalins." Their one-domain scaffold makes them a promising alternative to antibodies to create a stable receptor protein for a ligand of choice.  (+info)

Calcium and cAMP are second messengers in the adipokinetic hormone-induced lipolysis of triacylglycerols in Manduca sexta fat body. (3/1105)

We have previously shown that stereospecific hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerol by a phosphorylatable triacylglycerol-lipase is the pathway for the adipokinetic hormone-stimulated synthesis of sn -1, 2-diacylglycerol in insect fat body. The current series of experiments were designed to determine whether cAMP and/or calcium are involved in the signal transduction pathway for adipokinetic hormone in the fat body. After adipokinetic hormone treatment, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the fat body rapidly increased and reached a maximum after 20 min, suggesting that adipokinetic hormone causes an increase in cAMP. Forskolin (0.1 micrometer), an adenylate cyclase activator, induced up to a 97% increase in the secretion of diacylglycerol from the fat body. 8Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP) produced a 40% increase in the hemolymph diacylglycerol content. Treatment with cholera toxin, which also stimulates adenylate cyclase, induced up to a 145% increase in diacylglycerol production. Chelation of extracellular calcium produced up to 70% inhibition of the adipokinetic hormone-dependent mobilization of lipids. Calcium-mobilizing agents, ionomycin and thapsigargin, greatly stimulated DG production by up to 130%. Finally, adipokinetic hormone caused a rapid increase of calcium uptake into the fat body. Our findings indicate that the action of adipokinetic hormone in mobilizing lipids from the insect fat body involves both cAMP and calcium as intracellular messengers.  (+info)

Identification of a Frizzled-like cysteine rich domain in the extracellular region of developmental receptor tyrosine kinases. (4/1105)

In Drosophila, members of the Frizzled family of tissue-polarity genes encode proteins that appear to function as cell-surface receptors for Wnts. The Frizzled genes belong to the seven transmembrane class of receptors (7TMR) and have on their extracellular region a cysteine-rich domain that has been implicated as the Wnt binding domain. This region has a characteristic spacing of ten cysteines, which has also been identified in FrzB (a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling) and Smoothened (another 7TMR, which is involved in the hedgehog signalling pathway). We have identified, using BLAST, sequence similarity between the cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled and several receptor tyrosine kinases, which have roles in development. These include the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), the neuronal specific kinase (NSK2), and ROR1 and ROR2. At present, the ligands for these developmental tyrosine kinases are unknown. Our results suggest that Wnt-like ligands may bind to these developmental tyrosine kinases  (+info)

Hox genes differentially regulate Serrate to generate segment-specific structures. (5/1105)

Diversification of Drosophila segmental morphologies requires the functions of Hox transcription factors. However, there is little information describing pathways through which Hox activities effect the discrete cellular changes that diversify segmental architecture. We have identified the Drosophila signaling protein Serrate as the product of a Hox downstream gene that acts in many segments as a component of such pathways. In the embryonic epidermis, Serrate is required for morphogenesis of normal abdominal denticle belts and maxillary mouth hooks, both Hox-dependent structures. The Hox genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A are required to activate an early stripe of Serrate transcription in abdominal segments. In the abdominal epidermis, Serrate promotes denticle diversity by precisely localizing a single cell stripe of rhomboid expression, which generates a source of EGF signal that is not produced in thoracic epidermis. In the head, Deformed is required to activate Serrate transcription in the maxillary segment, where Serrate is required for normal mouth hook morphogenesis. However, Serrate does not require rhomboid function in the maxillary segment, suggesting that the Hox-Serrate pathway to segment-specific morphogenesis can be linked to more than one downstream function.  (+info)

Locust corpora cardiaca contain an inactive adipokinetic hormone. (6/1105)

A neuropeptide from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has been identified as a novel member of the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The peptide is probably synthesised in the brain because it is the first AKH found in the storage lobe, whilst the three 'classic' Locusta AKHs are present in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In locusts, the peptide has no biological activity usually associated with AKHs. There is only 36-56% sequence identity with the three Lom-AKHs, but 78% identity with the Drosophila melanogaster AKH, Drm-HrTH. The new peptide is active in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and was provisionally named 'L. migratoria hypertrehalosaemic hormone', Lom-HrTH; its biological role in locusts remains to be established. The high degree of identity with Drm-HrTH suggests that Lom-HrTH is an ancient molecule.  (+info)

Absence of interdomain contacts in the crystal structure of the RNA recognition motifs of Sex-lethal. (7/1105)

By binding specific RNA transcripts, the Sex-lethal protein (SXL) governs sexual differentiation and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the basis for RNA binding specificity, we determined the crystal structure of the tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SXL. Both RRMs adopt the canonical RRM fold, and the 10-residue, interdomain linker shows significant disorder. In contrast to the previously determined structure of the two-RRM fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Al, SXL displays no interdomain contacts between RRMs. These results suggest that the SXL RRMs are flexibly tethered in solution, and RNA binding restricts the orientation of RRMs. Therefore, the observed specificity for single-stranded, U-rich sequences does not arise from a predefined, rigid architecture of the isolated SXL RRMs.  (+info)

Positive selection drives the evolution of the Acp29AB accessory gland protein in Drosophila. (8/1105)

Nucleotide sequence variation at the Acp29AB gene region has been surveyed in Drosophila melanogaster from Spain (12 lines), Ivory Coast (14 lines), and Malawi (13 lines) and in one line of D. simulans. The approximately 1.7-kb region studied encompasses the Acp29AB gene that codes for a male accessory gland protein and its flanking regions. Seventy-seven nucleotide and 8 length polymorphisms were detected. Nonsynonymous polymorphism was an order of magnitude lower than synonymous polymorphism, but still high relative to other non-sex-related genes. In D. melanogaster variation at this region revealed no major genetic differentiation between East and West African populations, while differentiation was highly significant between the European and the two African populations. Comparison of polymorphism and divergence at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites showed an excess of fixed nonsynonymous changes, which indicates that the evolution of the Acp29AB protein has been driven by directional selection at least after the split of the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. The pattern of variation in extant populations of D. melanogaster favors a scenario where the fixation of advantageous replacement substitutions occurred in the early stages of speciation and balancing selection is maintaining variation in this species.  (+info)

1. A new method for the assay of insect prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is described, using fourth instar larvae of Manduca sexta. Larvae neck-ligated at a critical time to prevent release of PTTH from the head fail to undergo the next larval moult. Such ligated larvae moult to fifth instar larvae or larval-pupal intermediates after injection of brain homogenates from Manduca larvae, pupae or pharate adults. The degree of response is proportional to the concentration of brain homogenate injected. 2. The source of PTTH in the pupal brain is the dorsal region of the protocerebrum containing the lateral neurosecretory cells. Microhomogennates of single pieces of brain showed activity with this method. 3. PTTH activity in partially purified extracts is water soluable, stable to boiling for 10 min, and is destroyed by Pronase or trypsin.. ...
Formation of the Drosophila embryos dorsal-ventral pattern requires the maternal product of the Toll gene. DNA sequence and genetic analyses together suggested that the Toll gene product is a transmembrane protein which communicates information from an extracytoplasmic compartment to the cytoplasm. Using antibodies as probes, we show that the Toll protein is a 135 × 10(3) Mr glycoprotein which is tightly associated with embryonic membranes. During the syncytial stage when dorsal-ventral polarity is established, the maternal Toll protein is associated with the plasma membrane around the entire embryo. During later embryonic stages, the Toll protein is expressed zygotically on many cell surfaces, possibly to promote cell adhesion. The plasma membrane localization of the Toll protein in the syncytial embryo suggests that transmembrane signaling from the extracellular perivitelline space to the cytoplasm is required for establishment of the embryonic dorsal-ventral pattern.. ...
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Four locustatachykinins (LomTK I-IV) were identified in about equal amounts in extracts of corpora cardiaca of locusts, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay with synthetic LomTK I-IV as standards. Brain extracts also contained the four isoforms in roughly equimolar concentrations. Retrograde tracing of the nervi corporis cardiaci II (NCC II) in vitro with Lucifer yellow in combination with LomTK immunocytochemistry revealed that about half of the secretomotor neurons in the lateral part of the protocerebrum projecting into the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca (CCG) contain LomTK-immunoreactive material. Since the four LomTKs are present in the CCG, these four or five neurons in each hemisphere are likely to contain colocalized LomTK I-IV. The role of two of the LomTKs in the regulation of the release of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) from the adipokinetic cells in the CCG in the locust was investigated. Experiments performed in vitro showed that ...
Looking for diuretic hormone? Find out information about diuretic hormone. A neurohormone that promotes water loss in insects by increasing the volume of fluid secreted into the Malpighian tubules Explanation of diuretic hormone
This confidential blood assay for Anti Diuretic Hormone is offered at more than thirty two private outpatient departments across England, Scotland and Wales. Included in each request for Anti Diuretic Hormone are a Doctors Referral, all Phlebotomy fees (your blood taken at a Private Hospital), all laboratory fees and i
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Ecdysis behavior allows insects to shed their old exoskeleton at the end of every molt. It is controlled by a suite of interacting hormones and neuropeptides, and has served as a useful behavior for understanding how bioactive peptides regulate CNS function. Previous findings suggest th...read more ...
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TLRs primarily known for the pathogen recognition and subsequent immune responses are being investigated for their pathogenic role in various chronic diseases. The recent reports correlating the microbial infections with chronic disorders such as atherosclerosis have lead to questions in relation to the role of microbial sensors such as TLR4 in an intriguing phenomenon of the inflammation-induced angiogenesis. This article focuses on the possible mechanisms involved in it.Toll like receptors (TLRs) comprise a large family of the pathogen-pattern recognition receptors (PPRR) originally identified in Drosophila in the mid 1990s as a Toll protein (1). In Drosophila, it was found to be involved in the resistance against fungal infections (2). The first human homolog for the Toll protein was described in 1997 (3). Since then, 13 mammalian homologs of the TLR family have been identified; including twelve in mice (TLR1-9 and TLR11-13) and ten in humans (TLR1-10). TLR 10 is a pseudogene in mice but is
Locust adipokinetic hormone stimulates lipid mobilization in Manduca sexta.: Adipokinetic hormone, a decapeptide isolated from the locust, stimulates mobilizati
Eclosion hormone activity was found in the brain and ventral ganglia of pharate pupae of Manduca sexta. No activity was detected in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex. At the time of ecdysis the store of activity dropped by 50-75% in the ventral cord whereas the hormone level in the brain remained unchanged. Also, larvae whose brains were removed at the wandering stage subsequently showed pupal ecdysis behaviour and also had essentially normal levels of hormonal activity in their blood at the start of the behaviour. It was concluded that at pupal ecdysis the hormone responsible for the initiation of the behaviour is released from the ventral nerve cord rather than from the brain.. The chemical characteristics of the pharate pupal eclosion hormone were determined. The factors from the brain and ventral nerve cord were both active in a number of adult and pupal eclosion hormone bioassays. Both showed an apparent molecular weight of 8500 daltons and an isoelectric point of about 5·0, ...
The PRXamide family of neuropeptides is based on the core amino acids at the C-terminal end that are required for activity and on sequence homology of their cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors. The PRXamide family of neuropeptides includes the pyrokinins, pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptides, diapause hormone, CAPA/periviscerokinins (aka cardioacceleratory peptide 2b), and ecdysis-triggering hormone found throughout the Insecta. The vertebrate homologues include neuromedin U because it has a PRNamide C-terminal sequence. The vertebrate G protein-coupled receptors that are homologous to the insect receptors also include receptors for ghrelin, motilin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in addition to the neuromedin U receptor. This review will not only summarize the recent literature on this neuropeptide family but also include recent information about the prevalence of the neuropeptides across the Insecta based primarily on genomic and transcriptomic sequence information. Information is
Orobanche species are parasitic weeds that subsist on the roots of many dicotyledonous plants. These parasites form symplastic and apoplastic connections with their hosts and act as strong sinks for the uptake of water, minerals, and photosynthates, often causing severe damage to the hosts. Although the uptake of small molecules such as sugars and herbicides by Orobanche has been documented, movement of macromolecules between host and parasite has not been characterized. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine whether, and by what route, host macromolecules can be translocated to the parasite, and 2) engineer host resistance based on inducible expression of sarcotoxin IA, an anti-microbial peptide from the flesh fly (Sarcophaga peregrina). To address the first objective, transgenic plants expressing GFP localized to either the host cell cytosol (symplast) or secreted to the extra-cellular space (apoplast) were parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. Observations of green fluorescence in O. ...
A diuretic hormone (DH) of unusual structure was isolated from extracts of heads of Tenebrio molitor. The hormone is a 47 amino acid peptide, Mr = 5,029.9, with the sequence AGALGESGASLSIVNSLDVLRNRLLLEIARKKAKEGANRNRQILLSL. This peptide increases cyclic AMP production in Malpighian tubules of T. moli …
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Given that six Labial-positive neuroblasts are present at late L2 stages, and only four Labial-positive neuroblasts are present at early L3 stages, we posit that the labial-dependent apoptosis of the two affected neuroblasts (Ect1, Ect2) is associated with the L2/L3 transition. Since that the L2/L3 transition involves molting that is associated with elevated levels of steroid hormones such as ecdysone, it is possible that ecdysis-triggering endocrine signals participate in the labial-dependent apoptotic event in Ect1 and Ect2 (reviewed by Truman, 2005). Alternatively, transiently expressed temporal transcription factors might regulate the competence of the affected neuroblasts to undergo apoptosis in a labial-dependent manner (Maurange et al., 2008; Chell and Brand, 2008). While the molecular nature of these signals is currently not known, they are apparently not sufficient to elicit programmed cell death in all labial-expressing neuroblasts, since the labial-expressing BAlp4, BAlv, TRdm, and ...
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pattern-recognition molecules resembling the toll proteins that mediate antimicrobial responses in Drosophila. These proteins recognize different microbial products during infection and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. The TLRs act through adaptor molecules to activate various kinases and transcription factors so the organism can respond to potential infection. These adaptor molecules include TOLLIP, MyD88, and TRIF. TOLLIP associates directly with TLR2 and TLR 4, acting as an inhibitor to TLR activation. This negative regulation of TLR signaling may serve to limit the production of proinflammatory mediators during infection and inflammation ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pattern-recognition molecules resembling the toll proteins that mediate antimicrobial responses in Drosophila. These proteins recognize different microbial products during infection and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. The TLRs act through adaptor molecules to activate various kinases and transcription factors so the organism can respond to potential infection. These adaptor molecules include TOLLIP, MyD88, and TRIF. TOLLIP associates directly with TLR2 and TLR 4, acting as an inhibitor to TLR activation. This negative regulation of TLR signaling may serve to limit the production of proinflammatory mediators during infection and inflammation ...
DESPOLARIZACION Y POLARIZACION CARDIACA PDF - Este umbral depende directamente del grado de polarización, la polaridad de en el momento en que no se produce un latido cardíaco, el marcapasos lo.
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as in expression OA Life Stage term info and possibly load an image of the elegans developmental cycle, which I will provide id : WBls:0000045 name : L1-L2d ecdysis Ce def : The stage during L1-L2d molt, after the brief lethargus period, when an animal sheds off old cuticle. [wb:wjc] relationship : part_of WBls:0000043 ! L1-L2d molt Ce I need to discuss with you because I would like to have the Life stage info paired with Anatomy.i.e. we will have 3 Expressed during box, one next to Certainly expressed in, one next to Partially expressed in, one next to Possibly expressed in ...
as in expression OA Life Stage term info and possibly load an image of the elegans developmental cycle, which I will provide id : WBls:0000045 name : L1-L2d ecdysis Ce def : The stage during L1-L2d molt, after the brief lethargus period, when an animal sheds off old cuticle. [wb:wjc] relationship : part_of WBls:0000043 ! L1-L2d molt Ce I need to discuss with you because I would like to have the Life stage info paired with Anatomy.i.e. we will have 3 Expressed during box, one next to Certainly expressed in, one next to Partially expressed in, one next to Possibly expressed in ...
pyroglutamyl-leucyl-asparaginyl-phenylalanyl-seryl-threonyl-glycyl-tryptophanamide: an adipokinetic peptide from the pyrgomorphid grasshopper Phymateus leprosus
Why do dark genes always dominate light genes? If white was the stronger gene than why are light skinned characteristics recessive? Wouldnt it only m
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis by molt-inhibiting hormone in crabs. T2 - Involvement of cyclic AMP-mediated protein synthesis. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. AU - Spaziani, Eugene. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The crustacean neuropeptide, molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), directly inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis, an effect mediated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and antagonized by calcium-calmodulin. We investigated regulation of Y-organ protein, RNA, and DNA syntheses by MIH, cAMP, and calcium in relation to steroidogenesis in vitro. Ecdysteroid production and [3H]leucine incorporation into protein were inhibited 50-60 and 80-90%, respectively, by MIH activity in eyestalk extracts (4 eyestalk equivalents), 10-6 M forskolin, or a combination of 10-2 M dibutyryl cAMP and 10-4 M 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (dbcAMP-IBMX). Calcium ionophore A23187 (10-4 M) stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis two-fold, did not affect the relatively high basal (control) rate of protein synthesis, and reduced the ...
Locusta-diuretic peptide (Locusta-DP)-like immunoreactive material was detected throughout the locust central nervous system (CNS) and in associated neurohaemal organs. HPLC fractionation of brain and corpora cardiaca extracts showed that immunoreactive material co-eluted with the synthetic peptide and was biologically active. The presence of Locusta-DP in these tissues was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The peptide was shown to be released from corpora cardiaca, and could be detected in haemolymph of fed locusts. Antibodies raised against Locusta-DP(29-46) specifically blocked an increase in amaranth clearance by recently fed locusts, thereby demonstrating the role of Locusta-DP in the control or post-feeding diuresis.
PubMed journal article: DNA amount of X and B chromosomes in the grasshoppers Eyprepocnemis plorans and Locusta migratoria. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Both LCMI I and II are inhibitors of chymotrypsin and elastase (in vitro). They both inhibit the prophenol oxidase activation cascade.
Flesh fly: Flesh fly, (family Sarcophagidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, that are similar in appearance to the house fly but are characterized by
Joseph G. C. Yeoh, Aniruddha A. Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R. Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A. T. Dow. 2017. DINeR - Database for Insect Neuropeptide Research. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 86: 9-19.. Olga I. Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick R. Nässel, Olof Leimar. 2017. Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster. Ecology and Evolution 7: 3796-3807.. Jiangnan Luo, Yiting Liu, Dick R. Nassel. 2017. Transcriptional Reorganization of Drosophila Motor Neurons and Their Muscular Junctions toward a Neuroendocrine Phenotype by the bHLH Protein Dimmed. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 10.. Yiting Liu, Sifang Liao, Jan A. Veenstra, Dick R. Nässel. 2016. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) is transiently expressed during non-feeding stages and reproductive dormancy. Scientific Reports 6.. Olga I. Kubrak, Lucie Kucerova, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R. Nässel. 2016. Characterization of Reproductive Dormancy ...
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Leucomyosuppressin, 5 mg. Leucomyosuppressin insect neuropeptide originally isolated from head extracts of the Madeira cockroach Leucophaea maderae inhibits spontaneous contractions of the cockroachs lower digestive tract.
Slovenská národná knižnica si Vás dovoľuje pozvať na celoslovenský seminár Benchmarking verejných knižníc 15. októbra 2019 od 13.00 hod. v konferenčnej sále sídelnej budovy SNK Celoslovenský seminár je určený pre zriaďovateľov a riadiacich pracovníkov knižníc, pre výskumných pracovníkov, metodikov a pre širokú odbornú knihovnícku verejnosť so záujmom o vývoj slovenských verejných knižníc a aktivity Knihovníckeho institutu NK ČR na podporu knižníc. Program 13.00 Prezentácia účastníkov 13.30 - 13.40 Privítanie účastníkov Mgr. Zuzana Prachárová, riaditeľka Knižničného inštitútu SNK 13.40 - 14.40 Benchmarking knihoven a jiné aktivity Knihovnického institutu NK ČR na podporu veřejných knihoven v roku 2019PhDr. Vít Richter, riaditeľ Knihovníckeho institutu NK Praha                 14.40 - 15.50 Analýza podmienok a výkonov slovenských verejných
DISPLASIA ARRITMOGENICA DEL VENTRICULO DERECHO PDF - Displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho con compromiso de ventrículo izquierdo: valor diagnóstico de la resonancia cardiaca. La displasia
While Hyalophora cecropia larvae are large and feed on a wide range of host plants, this species is not considered a serious pest in any parts of its range. Some populations of Hyalophora cecropia may be in decline due to a number of factors, including nontarget effects of introduced biological control agents. Boettner et al. (2000) suggested that the generalist parasitoid fly Compsilura concinnata (Diptera: Tachinidae) may be responsible for such declines in the northeastern U.S. Due to its size and hardiness, Hyalophora cecropia has been used extensively in physiological and biochemical research. Carroll Williams conducted pioneering work on juvenile hormone and its role in molting and metamorphosis using this species. Owing to its impressive size and appearance, Hyalophora cecropia has become a favorite of collectors and amateur Lepidopterists. Eggs and pupae are commercially available, and a small livestock industry has developed around this and other related species. ...
Gellon, G., et al. (1997). A genetic screen for modifiers of Deformed homeotic function identifies novel genes required for head development. Development 124(17): 3321-3331 Gerasimova, T. I. and Corces, V. G. (1998). Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell 92(4): 511-521 Gindhart, J. G. and Kaufman, T. C. (1995a). Identification of Polycomb and trithorax group responsive elements in the regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics 139: 797-814 Gindhart, J. G., Jr., King, A. N. and Kaufman, T. C. (1995b). Characterization of the cis-regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics 139: 781-795. 7713432 Gleason, J. E., Korswagen, H. C. and Eisenmann, D. M. (2002). Activation of Wnt signaling bypasses the requirement for RTK/Ras signaling during C. elegans vulval induction. Genes Dev. 16: 1281-1290. 12023306 Gonzalez-Reyes, A., Macias, A. and Morata, G. (1992). Autocatalysis and ...
BioAssay record AID 102342 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro inhibitory activity of compound on ecdysone biosynthesis in larval prothoracic glands of Locusta migratoria; NI: No inhibition was observed.
We have undertaken a developmental genetic analysis of the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) of Drosophila melanogaster by examining embryonic and adult phenotypes of mutations affecting Scr gene function. Molecular mapping of Scr breakpoint lesions has defined a segment of greater than 70 kb of DNA necessary for proper Scr gene function. This region is split by the fushi tarazu (ftz) gene, with lesions affecting embryonic Scr function molecularly mapping to the region proximal (5) to ftz and those exhibiting polyphasic semilethality predominantly mapping distal (3) to ftz. Gain-of-function mutations are associated with genomic rearrangements and map throughout the Scr locus. Our analysis has revealed that the Scr locus encompasses genetic elements that are responsible for functions in both the embryonic and larval to adult periods of development. From these studies, we conclude that Scr is a complex genetic locus with an extensive regulatory region that directs functions required for ...
Confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used to carry out a comparative study of the immunostaining for three families of neuropeptides, viz., allatostatin-A (AS-A), allatostatin-C (AS-C) and allatotropin (AT), in adult female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The specific patterns of immunostaining for each of the three peptides were similar in both species. The antisera raised against AT, AS-A, and AS-C revealed intense immunoreactivity in the cells of each protocerebral lobe of the brain and stained cells in each of the ventral ganglia and neuronal projections innervating various thoracic and abdominal tissues. Only the AS-A antiserum labeled immunoreactive endocrine cells in the midgut. The distribution of the peptides supports the concept that they play multiple regulatory roles in both species.
Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102- knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of ...
South San Francisco, CA: A novel antibacterial protein targeted against E. coli O157:H7 may offer a way to prevent or treat serious food-borne bacterial infections, as demonstrated in a study published in the December issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Results in an animal model of E. coli infection showed that the orally administered protein, developed by AvidBiotics, Inc., could prevent or treat E. coli O157:H7-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation when administered either on a preventative basis or after the onset of diarrhea. Moreover, animals treated with the protein also carried and shed fewer of the E. coli O157:H7 bacteria in their feces.. E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods like ground meats or produce is a well-publicized public health problem, with life-threatening infection outbreaks reported around the world in recent years, said Dean Scholl, Ph.D., lead author of the publication. Antibiotics are contraindicated for patients infected with enterohemorrhagic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mejorar la calidad de la asistencia cardiaca. T2 - un imperativo mundial. AU - Smith, Sidney C.. AU - Fonarow, Gregg C.. AU - Piña, Ileana L.. AU - Suter, Robert. AU - Morgan, Louise. AU - Taubert, Kathryn. AU - Sánchez, Eduardo. AU - Antman, Elliott. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84947863641&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84947863641&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.recesp.2015.07.006. DO - 10.1016/j.recesp.2015.07.006. M3 - Article. C2 - 26363722. VL - 68. SP - 924. EP - 927. JO - Revista Espanola de Cardiologia. JF - Revista Espanola de Cardiologia. SN - 0300-8932. IS - 11. ER - ...
Description - NHP interleukin 17C (CX2, IL17C; Gene ID: 710618) is a cytokine that plays an important role in the innate immune system. It binds to the heterodimeric IL-17RA/IL-17RE receptor on immune cells, synergizing with IL-22 to stimulate the release of various antibacterial proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. Excessive activation of IL-17C causes pathogenic inflammatory effects seen in various autoimmune disorders ...
Little is known about the worlds first serial killer, which is perhaps why accounts of Locustas death are . . . eccentric? Heres what we do know: Locusta hailed from Gaul, the outer province of Ancient Rome now known as France. Trained in herbs, she mastered the system of
The attitude of the cooler-than-cool couple in front of us in line for Amon Tobin, the Brazilian electronic musician/mad scientist, pretty much summed up the evening for me. Sure, I expected hipsters galore at a show like this -- while Ive never really met any other Amon Tobin fans,...
para q sirve la colchicina furosemida en insuficiencia cardiaca strattera presentaciones site para que sirve azitromicina 500 mg la fluoxetina sirve para bajar de peso meticorten 5 mg para que sirve ...
Verkaufe wegen Gastro-Auflösung eine Systemkasse mit Touch inklusive 5 Schlüsseln. Mehr Infos unter www. indatec.de . Kasse ist in einem Top-Zustand ...
His subsequent scientific activities helped determine the role of the insect brain in hormone production. He was the earliest ... Litwack, Gerald (2005-12-19). Insect Hormones. ISBN 9780127098739. Capinera, John L (2008-08-11). Encyclopedia of Entomology. ... Development of a larval in vivo assay for prothoracicotropic hormone". Journal of Insect Physiology. 38 (11): 925-938. doi: ... Integration of field and laboratory studies in insect neuroendocrinology". Hormones and Behavior. 48 (4): 352-359. doi:10.1016/ ...
Sharma, Pradeep (2008). Insect Hormones. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 81-8356-290-6. Murty, M. L. K. (2003). Comprehensive ...
Thomson, JA; Imray, F Paula; Hohn, DHS (1970). "An Improved Calliphora Bioassay for Insect Moulting Hormones". Australian ... insects can be used instead. Larval secession can aid in determining the time of death through aging the insects that are ... Insects can hold these toxins for months after the tissues disappear. These flies are also affected by weather conditions. The ... Also the presence of drugs can affect the succession rate and relative age on any insects feeding on the flesh of the corpse. ...
This large insect had enough juvenile hormone in its abdomen to permit extraction of detectable amounts from a single specimen ... The original description of the insect juvenile hormone by Carroll Williams in Nature in 1956 is from the cecropia silkworm. ... "The Juvenile Hormone of Insects". Nature. 178 (4526): 212-213. "An uncommon visitor with many little legs". CBC News. August 8 ...
The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian Insect Powder to Sex Hormones. In 1940 he became a foreign member of the Royal ... He investigated the ingredients of the Dalmatian insect powder Pyrethrum (from the herb Tanacetum cinerariifolium), a highly ... After the successful synthesis of sex hormones (androsterone and testosterone), his laboratory became the world center of ...
Two major insect moulting hormones, alpha ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are found in bracken. These cause uncontrollable, ... Kaplanis, J. N.; Thompson, M. J.; Robbins, W. E.; Bryce, B. M. (22 September 1967). "Insect Hormones: Alpha Ecdysone and 20- ... Hydrogen cyanide is released by the young fronds of bracken when eaten by mammals or insects. ... repeated moulting in insects ingesting the fronds, leading to rapid death. Bracken is currently under investigation as a ...
Roles of Juvenile Hormone in Adult Insects". Cellular and molecular actions of juvenile hormone. II. Roles of juvenile hormones ... "Vitellogenesis controlled by juvenile hormone". In Downer RG, Laufer H (eds.). Endocrinology of Insects. New York: Alan R. Liss ... For the majority of the investigated insect species it has been documented that juvenile hormone stimulates the transcription ... Juvenile hormone levels drop in honey bee colonies pre-swarming and it is expected that vitellogenin levels would therefore ...
Finally, he was active in the field of insect juvenile hormones. Šorm was the author or co-author of a large number of ... He also initiated the study of natural peptides, especially neurohypophyseal hormones and their analogues, some of which were ...
... is an insect hormone which mediates tanning in the cuticle of adult flies. The molecular structure of the hormone has been ... Fraenkel G, Hsiao C, Seligman M (January 1966). "Properties of bursicon: an insect protein hormone that controls cuticular ... the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2". ... Bursicon plays a very important role in insect wing expansion during the last step of metamorphosis: maturation of the wing. At ...
"Cucurbitacins are insect steroid hormone antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor". Biochemical Journal. 327 (3): 643-650 ... These plants provide nourishment for a number of insect species of which the rare Euchloe tagis butterfly is the most striking ... acting on the ecdysteroid receptor of insects. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606-607 RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. ...
The seed contain insect moulting hormones including rubrosterone, ecdysterone, and inokosterone. The root contains ...
Insect growth regulators (juvenile hormones, chitin synthesis inhibitors, etc.) are available. For example, the insect growth ... ISBN 0-85546-276-0. Lane, R.P. & Crosskey, R.W. (1993) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0-412-40000- ... Marshall, A.G. (1981) The Ecology of Ectoparasitic Insects. New York, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-474080-4. Paterson, S. (2008) ... London, British Museum (Natural History). Lehane, M.J. (1991) The Biology of Blood-sucking Insects. London, Harper Collins, ...
"Insect morphogenetic hormones and developmental mechanisms in the nematode, Nematospiroides dubius". Comparative Biochemistry ...
... is a juvenile hormone analog and an insect growth regulator. It prevents larvae from developing into adulthood and ... "insect development is quite different to human development and involves different hormones, developmental pathways and sets of ... Pyriproxyfen is a pesticide which is found to be effective against a variety of insects. It was introduced to the US in 1996, ... Devillers, James (May 6, 2013). Juvenile Hormones and Juvenoids: Modeling Biological Effects and Environmental Fate. CRC Press ...
Insect molting hormones (ecdysone and its homologues) are generally called ecdysteroids. Ecdysteroids act as moulting hormones ... Ecdysone is a steroidal prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from the ... Recent findings in the laboratory of Chris Q. Doe have found a novel role of this hormone in regulating temporal gene ... against herbivorous insects. These phytoecdysteroids have been reputed to have medicinal value and are part of herbal ...
Azadirachtin mimics insect hormones called ecdysones that regulate pupation of insects; application of azadirachtin interrupts ... the development and pupation of insects, which eventually kills them. Azadirachtin is a tetranortriterpenoid and a limonoid. " ...
Juvenile hormone is synthesised in the corpora allata. In every insect tested, at least one of the three types of Allatostatin ... Allatostatins are neuropeptide hormones in insects and crustacea. They have a twofold function: they both inhibit the ... Stay B, Tobe SS (2007). "The role of allatostatins in juvenile hormone synthesis in insects and crustaceans". Annu. Rev. ... Gäde G, Goldsworthy GJ (2003). "Insect peptide hormones: a selective review of their physiology and potential application for ...
Roseler, P. F. (1977). "Juvenile hormone control of oogenesis in bumblebee workers, B. terrestris". Journal of Insect ... Paul Schmid-Hempel (1998). "Parasites in Social Insects" Princeton University Press. *^ Oliver Manlik; Regula Schmid-Hempel & ... This fate is determined for larvae that receive more food, have longer instar stages, and higher levels of juvenile hormone ... Leadbeater, E. & L. Chittka (2007). "The dynamics of social learning in an insect model, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris)". ...
It is therefore one of the most common moulting hormones in insects, crabs, etc. It is also a phytoecdysteroid produced by ... An ecdysteroid is a type of steroid hormones in insects that are derived from enzymatic modification of cholesterol by p450 ... "Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 41 (3): 156-161. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6327(1999)41:3,156::AID-ARCH7,3.0.CO;2- ... 20-Hydroxyecdysone (ecdysterone or 20E) is a naturally occurring ecdysteroid hormone which controls the ecdysis (moulting) and ...
"Sex-peptide activates juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the Drosophila melanogaster corpus allatum". Archives of Insect ... "Journal of Insect Physiology. The limits of respiratory function: external and internal constraints on insect gas exchange. 106 ... "Journal of Insect Physiology. 48 (1): 25-32. doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(01)00139-1. ISSN 0022-1910. PMID 12770129.. ... "Journal of Insect Physiology. 44 (11): 1081-1089. doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(98)00061-4. ISSN 0022-1910. PMID 12770407.. ...
The corpora allata is an endocrine gland that produces JH, a group of hormones that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. ... International Union for the Study of Social Insects. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Gintis, Herbert (2012). "Clash of the ... Feyereisen, R.; Tobe S. (1981). "A rapid partition assay for routine analysis of juvenile hormone released by insect corpora ... See also: Sexual selection in social insects and Identity in social insects ...
Hydropene is a synthetic juvenile hormone mimic, disrupting insect larval development like molting. "Hydroprene General Fact ... Hydroprene is an insect growth regulator used as an insecticide. It is used against cockroaches, beetles, and moths. Products ...
The insect was used by Sir Vincent Wigglesworth for the detection of insect hormones. It has been implicated in the ... The insect has five larval stages, with a moult between each. Each larval stage consumes a single large meal of blood, which ... Further it was demonstrated that the corpora allata secrete the juvenile hormone which prevents the premature development into ... Wigglesworth demonstrated that the moult is started by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) secreted into the blood in response to ...
In this species, juvenile hormone, a major regulatory insect hormone, stimulates begging and growth. Elevating larval juvenile ... hormone levels (by topical application of the analogue methoprene) increase begging indicating that juvenile hormone in insects ... suggesting that the mechanisms by which juvenile hormone affects offspring growth in insects differ from those by which ... Elevated juvenile hormone levels have a negative effect on larval growth regardless of whether larvae forage by begging or by ...
The first insect hormone prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) operates the species life cycle and diapause. This hormone is ... A pheromone trap is a type of insect trap that uses pheromones to lure insects. Sex pheromones and aggregating pheromones are ... Arnett, Ross H. (28 July 2000). "Part I: 27". American insects: a handbook of the insects of America north of Mexico (2nd ed ... 28 July 2000). American Insects. A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico (2 ed.). CRC press LLC. pp. 631-632. ISBN ...
The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian Insect Powder to Sex Hormones. In 1940 he became a foreign member of the Royal ... Both discoveries led to the pre-eminence of the Swiss industry in the steroid hormone field. At Zurich, at ETH he became ... Over the period 1934-1939 he had published 70 papers in the field of medicinally important steroid sex hormones, and filed ... After the successful synthesis in 1935 of sex hormones (androsterone and testosterone), his laboratory became the world center ...
Ponesterone, which is similar to insect's moulting hormone ecdysone, is obtained from this plant. It was the first ecdysone ...
Her junior year, she joined the Carroll Williams' lab at Harvard, where she began studying juvenile hormone in insects and ... Riddiford, Lynn; Truman, James (1972). "Delayed effects of juvenile hormone on insect metamorphosis are mediated by the corpus ... and led to key findings about the interplay of juvenile hormone and molting hormone. In 1973, Riddiford moved to the Department ... In 1997, she was the first awardee of the Recognition Award in Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Toxicology from the ...
"Lack of 'happiness' hormone makes rice plants less attractive to insects". phys.org. Retrieved 2019-12-15. "How the humble ... Her work has looked at how plants interact with insects and how this can be manipulated to reduce the attraction of crop plants ... Gatehouse's research examines plant and pest insect interactions at the molecular level, and how this can be used for ... as they repel the insect pest the glasshouse whitefly. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops, edited with Natalie ...
Ecdysterone, an insect moulting hormone, and long chain alcohols are also found in Achyranthes aspera. BSBI List 2007 (xls). ...
Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from a branch. Those species that seek pest insects are considered beneficial ' ... This hormone is thought to be a satiety signal to the brain. Peptide YY 3-36 is a hormone released by the small intestine and ... The signals from the stomach are initiated by the release of the peptide hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is a hormone that increases ... The hormone cholecystokinin is secreted by the duodenum, and it controls the rate at which the stomach is emptied.[23] ...
... signs or symptoms of excessive production of androgen hormones, cortisol, and growth hormone.[15] Comedones (blackheads and ... Hormones[edit]. Hormonal activity, such as occurs during menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne ... High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens causes the skin follicle glands to grow larger and make more oily ...
Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... a hormone that triggers ripening of fruit.[9] All three tomatoes inhibited ethylene production by reducing the amount of 1- ... "Insect Tolerant Transgenic Tomato Plants". Bio/Technology. 5 (8): 807-813. doi:10.1038/nbt0887-807.. ... The plant peptide hormone, systemin was first identified in tomato plants and genetic modification has been used to demonstrate ...
For example, the pancreas, thyroid, liver, and parathyroids are also endocrine glands that make hormones like insulin. ... Animals like worms, insects, mammals, birds, fish, and people all have digestive systems. ...
Hormone * sw:Hormone. Horse * sw:farasi. House * sw:nyumba. Human * sw:Human. Human gastrointestinal tract * sw:Human ... Insect * sw:Insect. Internal combustion engine * sw:Internal combustion engine. International Court of Justice * sw: ...
... and its control by ecdysteroid hormones in the insect Manduca sexta". FEBS Letters. 400 (3): 345-9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(96) ... "Coordinated induction of the ubiquitin conjugation pathway accompanies the developmentally programmed death of insect skeletal ...
This increases peptide hormone stability and activity.[99][100]. Pharmacokinetics[edit]. Absorption[edit]. From the U.S. ... Most tested families of bats (order Chiroptera), including major insect and fruit-eating bat families, cannot synthesize ... Ascorbic acid functions as a cofactor for enzymes involved in photosynthesis, synthesis of plant hormones, as an antioxidant ... Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ...
"Wiley: The Insects: An Outline of Entomology, 5th Edition - Gullan, P.J.; Cranston, P.S." www.wiley.com. Retrieved 11 November ... Adult female rabbit fleas, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, can detect the changing levels of cortisol and corticosterone hormones in the ... Fleas are wingless insects, 1/16 to 1/8-inch (1.5 to 3.3 mm) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the ... Unlike other insects, fleas do not possess compound eyes but instead only have simple eyespots with a single biconvex lens; ...
"INVISIBLE ITCHES: Insect and Non-Insect Causes". ENTFACT-58. University of Kentucky. Retrieved 2013-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ... Causes of formication include normal states such as onset of menopause (i.e. hormone withdrawal). Other causes are medical ... In medicine, formication is the sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on (or under) the skin. It is one ... In rare cases, individuals become convinced that the sensation is due to the presence of real insects on or under the skin. In ...
After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone . Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such ... The hormone was first identified in tomatoes, but similar proteins have been identified in other species since.[54] ... The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family ... Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in relation to their host plants". Journal of Insect Behavior. 1 (3): 261-275. doi:10.1007/ ...
With the exception of the dipteran suborder Cyclorrhapha, the so-called higher flies, all insects examined use the (R)- ... is an important signaling molecule and hormone in vertebrate animals. ... Invertebrates such as insects and squid use hydroxylated forms of retinal in their visual systems, which derive from conversion ...
They mainly feed on seeds, shrubs, grass, fruit and flowers;[7][10] occasionally they also eat insects such as locusts. Lacking ... Two antidiuretic hormones, Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and angiotensin (AII) are increased in blood plasma as a response to ... Both of these antidiuretic hormones work together to maintain water levels in the body that would normally be lost due to the ... hyperosmolality and hypovolemia.[80] AVT triggers antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which targets the nephrons of the kidney.[64] ADH ...
Most adult insects grow very little after eclosion from the pupa. Some adult insects do not feed at all, and focus entirely on ... In particular, the orchestration of the juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids in molting and metamorphosis processes has ... The egg stage in most insects is very short, only a few days. However, insects may hibernate, or undergo diapause in the egg ... Some insects undergo diapause as pupa. In this stage, the insect's physiology and functional structure, both internal and ...
"The Social Insects", Sociobiology, Harvard University Press, pp. 397-437, 2000-03-24, doi:10.2307/j.ctvjnrttd.22, ISBN 978-0- ... the proximate mechanism (e.g., brain anatomy and hormones).. Sociobiologists are interested in how behavior can be explained ... Altruism between social insects and littermates has been explained in such a way. Altruistic behavior, behavior that increases ... and the hive society of social insects. It argues that just as selection pressure led to animals evolving useful ways of ...
Such groups include monotremes, Drosophila, some other insects, some fish, some reptiles, and some plants. In Drosophila ... a direct consequence of Y-chromosome-related gene expression or an indirect result of Y-chromosome-related androgenic hormone ...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are very important galactopoietic hormones whose ... Lactation is also the hallmark of adenotrophic viviparity - a breeding mechanism developed by some insects, most notably tsetse ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), through control of ... This hormone is closely associated with prolactin and appears to be instrumental in breast, nipple, and areola growth before ...
... but instead by hormones produced in response to the stress.[8] Plant hormones act as a signal to the various tissues of plants ... Chouinard, A.; Filion, L. (2005), "Impact of Introduced White-Tailed Deer and Native Insect Defoliators on the Density and ... Shortened stature can result from growth hormone deficiency, starvation, portal systemic shunts, renal disease, hypothyroidism ... inducing one or more responses, the class of plant hormone responsible for dwarfing in plants due to injury are called ...
... strong and specific presence of cytochrome-c was detected in zymogen granules and in growth hormone granules respectively. In ... vertebrate cytochromes c all have dipole moment of approximately 320 debye while cytochromes c of plants and insects have ... DNA encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II in rat pancreatic zymogen granules and pituitary growth hormone granules". ...
"MATERNAL EFFECTS IN THE SOFT SCALE INSECT SAISSETIA COFFEAE (HEMIPTERA: COCCIDAE)". Evolution 58(11):2452-2461. 2004, 2004. The ... "Adiponectin: More Than Just Another Fat Cell Hormone?" Diabetes Care 2003 Aug; 26(8): 2442-2450 ... ""Maternal effects in quail and zebra finches: Behavior and hormones"". General and Comparative Endocrinology, Volume 190, ...
CCAP is involved as a hormone in the cockroach Periplaneta americana by upregulating digestive hormones after the insect has ... CCAP is one of several peptides and hormones to be involved in the moulting process of crustaceans and insects. There have been ... Park et al., 2003 D. R. Nässel (2002). "Neuropeptides in the nervous system of Drosophila and other insects: multiple roles as ... It is found in crustaceans and insects where it behaves as a cardioaccelerator, neuropeptide transmitter for other areas of the ...
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a cholinergic synapse in vertebrates, glutamatergic in insects. *Ciliary calyx in the ciliary ... "Regulation of Excitatory Synapses and Fearful Memories by Stress Hormones". Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. Switzerland ...
... s that are insect-pollinated are called entomophilous; literally "insect-loving" in Greek. They can be highly modified ... needs a plant is able to interpret important endogenous and environmental cues such as changes in levels of plant hormones and ... Many flowers, for example, attract only one specific species of insect, and therefore rely on that insect for successful ... The study of pollination by insects is called anthecology. Pollination mechanism. The pollination mechanism employed by a plant ...
The pineal body, known to regulate sleep patterns in humans, is thought to produce the hormones involved in hibernation and ... eating insects, smaller tadpoles and fish. Young of the Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) can occasionally be ... For adaptation to a water phase, prolactin is the required hormone, and for adaptation to the land phase, thyroxine. External ... The tadpoles secrete a hormone that inhibits digestion in the mother whilst they develop by consuming their very large yolk ...
This includes biotechnology-based approaches for the control of harmful insects, the characterisation and utilisation of active ... As well as the development of hormones, stem cells, antibodies, siRNA and diagnostic tests.[24] ... It has also been used to refer to biotechnology applied to insects. ... ingredients or genes of insects for research, or application in agriculture and medicine and various other approaches.[29] ...
Hormones also have activational effects on singing and the song nuclei in adult birds. In canaries (Serinus canaria), females ... including mechanisms for stridulation not unlike those found in some insects.[5] ... Hormone treatment alone does not seem to produce female finches with brain structures or behavior exactly like males. ... Balthazart, J.; Adkins-Regan (2002). "Sexual differentiation of brain and behavior in birds". Hormones, Brain and Behavior. 4: ...
Insect crop damages also contribute largely to annual crop losses in the U.S.[49] Herbivores affect economics through the ... molting hormones, or the nervous system.[37] Phenolics combine an aromatic carbon ring with a hydroxyl group. There are a ... "Insect Science. 14 (4): 259-275. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7917.2007.00141.x-i1.. ... What we know and do not know about coevolution: insect herbivores and plants as a test case. Pages 7-30 in H. Olff, V. K. Brown ...
... s can be pollinated either by wind or by animals, mostly insects. Many angiosperm trees are insect pollinated. Wind ... Synthesis in the leaf of a plant hormone called auxin also ceases. This causes the cells at the junction of the petiole and the ... In their natural habitats, 284 different species of insect have been found on the English oak (Quercus robur)[102] and 306 ... The resin that oozed out of trees sometimes trapped insects or spiders and these are still visible in the interior of the amber ...
Insect crop damages also contribute largely to annual crop losses in the U.S.[50] Herbivores affect economics through the ... molting hormones, or the nervous system.[38] Phenolics combine an aromatic carbon ring with a hydroxyl group. There are a ... What we know and do not know about coevolution: insect herbivores and plants as a test case. Pages 7-30 in H. Olff, V. K. Brown ... Edwards, P.J.; Wratten, S.D. (March 1985). "Induced plant defences against insect grazing: fact or artefact?". Oikos. 44 (1): ...
For example, the pancreas, thyroid, liver, and parathyroids are also endocrine glands that make hormones like insulin. ... Animals like worms, insects, mammals, birds, fish, and people all have digestive systems. ...
However, when weather conditions, insect damage, and the appropriate fungal and plant genotype are present, it can cause ... the principal hormone produced by the human ovary, to allow it to bind to estrogen receptors in mammalian target cells [45] ...
Insect hormones. Definition. Insect hormones are generated and used by insects to regulate physiological, developmental and ... Insect hormones can be produced by epithelial glands - for example, juvenile hormones or the steroid hormones ecdysteroids - or ... as for the neuropeptide hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone. Insect hormones have been used commercially to control ... A mutation in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant alters juvenile hormone response in insects and crustaceans Juvenile hormone (JH ...
The insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a large family of peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar ... Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors. Frank Staubli, Thomas J. D. Jørgensen, Giuseppe ... Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors. Frank Staubli, Thomas J. D. Jørgensen, Giuseppe ... Molecular identification of the insect adipokinetic hormone receptors Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
... but also the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Because the properties of plants change continuously and because insects ... Plants possess a wide range of defence mechanisms that are activated in response to attack by insects. This change in a plant ... in turn affects any insects that subsequently arrive on it, ... vibrant community consisting of tens or even hundreds of insect ... Insect community driven by plant hormones. Gepubliceerd op. 12 mei 2014 Plants are not solitary, defenceless organisms but ...
Researchers managed to isolate a hormone from the black garden ant, replicate it synthetically, and test its effect on uterine ... Oxytocin: The relationship crisis hormone? New study suggests that the love hormone oxytocin should be referred to as ... examines how the two hormones work in both insects and humans. The research also explores the therapeutic effect of a synthetic ... The "love hormone" is naturally released in our body when we make love or make new friends. But apart from its role in social ...
Insect diuretic hormones are hormones that regulate water balance through diuretic action. The insect excretory system, ... "Insect Diuretic and Antidiuretic Hormones". Advances in Insect Physiology 29: 279-409. Furuya, K.; Milchak, R. J.; Schegg, K. M ... "Cockroach diuretic hormones: characterization of a calcitonin-like peptide in insects". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a ...
Adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells in the corpus cardiacum of the insect Locusta migratoria represent a neuroendocrine ... Absence of coupling between release and biosynthesis of peptide hormones in insect neuroendocrine cells.. Harthoorn LF1, ... The effects of hormone release in vivo (by flight activity) and in vitro (using crustacean cardioactive peptide, ...
Non-Selective Toxicological Effects of the Insect Juvenile Hormone Analogue Methoprene. A Membrane Biophysical Approach. ...
Insect juvenile hormone, 74, was synthesized and irradiated in ether and was found to undergo photochemical processes similar ... The photochemistry of some insect juvenile hormone analogs Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/ ... To study the role of exciplexes in the E/Z isomerizartion of isolated double bonds in the juvenile hormone, 74, the ... The photochemistry of some analogs of insect growth regulators (IGRs) was studied. Methyl geranate, TY, was synthesized and ...
Chromatography and Isolation of Insect Hormones and Pheromones. Chromatography and Isolation of Insect Hormones and Pheromones ... McCaffery, A. R. is the author of Chromatography and Isolation of Insect Hormones and Pheromones with ISBN 9780306437076 and ...
The insect prothoracic glands are the source of steroidal molting hormone precursors and the glands are stimulated by a brain ... S6 phosphorylation results from prothoracicotropic hormone stimulation of insect prothoracic glands: a role for S6 kinase.. ... neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). Previous work from this laboratory revealed that PTTH acts via a cascade ...
Hormones, neuroblasts and the adult insect. Insect neurogenesis has been subjected to extensive study and as a result is ... Shepherd, David (1994) Hormones, neuroblasts and the adult insect. BioEssays, 16 (7), 457-459. (doi:10.1002/bies.950160703). ... Their studies also show that the rate at which adult neuroblasts divide is controlled by hormones, suggesting that hormones may ... Their studies also show that the rate at which adult neuroblasts divide is controlled by hormones, suggesting that hormones may ...
Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile ... Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile ... Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile ... Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile ...
Read chapter Effect of Juvenile Hormone and Ecdysterone on Rectal Pad Development during Adult Development of Hyalophora ... Previous: Insect Exocrines Page 24 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"Effect of Juvenile Hormone and Ecdysterone on Rectal Pad ... Insect Exocrines 21-23 * Effect of Juvenile Hormone and Ecdysterone on Rectal Pad Development during Adult Development of ... Biology and Biochemistry of Insect-Plant Relationships 16-18 * Natural and Synthetic Compounds with Juvenile Hormone Activity ...
Love hormone from insects could be used as drug lead to prevent uterine contractility in preterm labour. *Download PDF Copy ... www.meduniwien.ac.at/web/en/about-us/news/detailseite/2017/news-im-februar-2017/love-hormone-from-insects-as-potential-drug- ... and the closely related hormone vasopressin. Surprisingly, by introducing a small chemical modification into this insect ... In a parallel study, by analysing genetic data sets, we have now been able to show that many insects have an oxytocin or ...
The Function of Moulting Hormones during Insect Development. KENNETH C. HIGHNAM. Biochemical Society Transactions Dec 01, 1975 ... The Function of Moulting Hormones during Insect Development Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Evaluation of a Synthetic Juvenile Hormone Against Two Species of Fly Larvae (Dipt.)1. in Insect Systematics & Evolution ... Larvae of the house fly, Musca domestica L. and the blow fly, Phormia regina (Meig.) were treated with a juvenile hormone ...
In several insect species JH has been implicated as a key regulator of developmental timing, preventing the premature onset of ... Juvenile hormone (JH) is responsible for controlling many biological processes. ... Davey, K. From insect ovaries to sheep red blood cells: A tale of two hormones. J. Insect Physiol. 2007, 53, 1-10. [Google ... J. Insect Physiol. 2010, 56, 1445-1455. [Google Scholar]. *Bernardo, T.J.; Dubrovsky, E.B. The Drosophila juvenile hormone ...
Cellular aspects of eclosión hormone action on the CNS of insects, in: Receptors for Neurotransmitters, Hormones, and ... Copenhaver, P. F., and Truman, J. W., 1982, The role of eclosion hormone in the larval ecdysis of Manduca sexta, J. Insect ... Reynolds, S. E., and Truman, J. W., 1983, Eclosion hormone, in: Insect Endocrinology (R. G. H. Downer and H. Laufer, eds.), A. ... Truman J.W., Weeks J.C. (1985) Activation of Neuronal Circuits by Circulating Hormones in Insects. In: Selverston A.I. (eds) ...
Keywords:Insect neuropeptides, peptide hormones, cardioactive properties, insect heart.. Abstract:Neuropeptides and peptide ... Neuropeptides and peptide hormones from non-neuronal tissues play important roles in the regulation of insect life. In recent ... Cardioregulatory Functions of Neuropeptides and Peptide Hormones in Insects. Author(s): Szymon Chowański, Jan Lubawy, ... Activity of some of them is conserved among most of insect species, indicating crucial roles in insect physiology and age of ...
From: (insect) moulting hormone in Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology » ...
Identification of plant compounds that disrupt the insect juvenile hormone receptor complex [PNAS]. par Frédéric Magné - publié ... Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in insect development, reproduction, and many other physiological functions. Because JH ... which represents an innate resistance mechanism of plants against insect herbivores. These newly discovered plant JH antagonist ... is specific to insects, it has been investigated for use as pest control. Although compounds that mimic the action of JH (JH ...
4. By constricting fed insects at various positions it has been possible to show that most of the diuretic hormone is released ... The Site of Release of the Diuretic Hormone in Rhodnius--A New Neurohaemal System in Insects ... The Site of Release of the Diuretic Hormone in Rhodnius--A New Neurohaemal System in Insects ... The Site of Release of the Diuretic Hormone in Rhodnius--A New Neurohaemal System in Insects ...
Buy Chromatography and Isolation of Insect Hormones and Pheromones (9780306437076): NHBS - Edited By: AR McCaffery and ID ... Academic & Professional Books Insects & other Invertebrates Insects Insects: General Chromatography and Isolation of Insect ...
The second category of centrally produced hormones in insects is the morphogenesis inhibiting hormone, or juvenile hormone (JH ... theories of insect hormone action in growth and metamorphosis were created more than 50 years ago by the pioneers of insect ... The first is a complex set of neurohormones (neuropeptides) originating in the neurosecretory cells of the insect brain, which ... There are two principal categories of hormones released from the central neuroendocrine system (neurosecretory cells of the ...
The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone. K.F. Rewitz, R. ... The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone ... The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone ... The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone ...
The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone. Biochemical Society ... The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone. / Rewitz, Kim; ... title = "The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone", ... T1 - The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone ...
Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in regulating the ecdysis process in insect. ... The ecdysis triggering hormone system, via ETH/ETHR-B, is essential for successful reproduction of a major pest insect, ... "The Ecdysis Triggering Hormone System, via ETH/ETHR-B, Is Essential for Successful Reproduction of a Major Pest Insect, ... "The Ecdysis Triggering Hormone System, via ETH/ETHR-B, Is Essential for Successful Reproduction of a Major Pest Insect, ...
... were accidentally discovered in the search for an insect moulting hormone in 1965. The first Ecd compound, named ecdysone ( ... Thus, the true biological status of Ecd in insects is not a hormone, but an essential vitamin. In plants, the partly water ... Are Ecdysteroids insect hormones?. The polyhydroxylated derivatives of 7-dehydro, 6-ketocholesterol (Ecdysone, Ecdysteroids, ... Moreover, it was found that Ecd could not be viewed as insect hormones, because they were produced by multiple disintegrating ...
Hormone - Endocrine-like glands and secretions: In addition to the well-defined hormones, other substances, which are found in ... Hormones of insects. Insects secrete hormones from neurosecretory cells and also from endocrine glands. Important ... The hormones of vertebrates*Hormones of the pituitary gland*Adenohypophysis*Growth hormone (somatotropin) ... A neurosecretion of the insect brain distinct from the thoracotropic hormone and called bursicon acts directly on the adult ...
... ... Wendel, Lloyd Eugene (1977). Distribution and metabolism of two insect juvenile hormone analogs in colonies of the imported ... Formulations of each insect growth regulator, (IGR), in once refined soybean oil were presented to these colonies. Adult ...
  • In several insect species JH has been implicated as a key regulator of developmental timing, preventing the premature onset of metamorphosis during larval growth periods. (mdpi.com)
  • Pulses of 20-hydroxyecdysone (ecdysone) initiate each of the major developmental transitions, including both larval molting and metamorphosis [ 1 ], while JH is classically viewed as an antimetamorphic hormone [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This review describes the over half-centennial history of research on insect juvenile hormone (JH) as well as its natural and synthetic bioanalogues (JHA or juvenoids).The leading theories of insect hormone action in growth and metamorphosis were created more than 50 years ago by the pioneers of insect endocrinology, V. B. Wigglesworth, C. M. Williams, V. J. A. Novák, H. Piepho, H. A. Schneiderman and L. I. Gilbert. (brillonline.com)
  • There are two principal categories of hormones released from the central neuroendocrine system (neurosecretory cells of the brain, corpora cardiaca, corpora allata) that regulate insect growth and metamorphosis. (brillonline.com)
  • The developmental events occurring during moulting and metamorphosis of insects are controlled by precisely timed changes in levels of ecdysteroids, the moulting hormones. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • The prothoracic gland hormone is necessary for larval molting (ecdysis), metamorphosis to the pupa, and formation of adult characteristics. (britannica.com)
  • In concert with ecdysteroids, JH orchestrates molting and metamorphosis, and its modulatory function in molting processes has gained it the attribute "status quo" hormone. (bvsalud.org)
  • In insects, JH (formerly called neotenin) refers to a group of hormones, which ensure growth of the larva, while preventing metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insect metamorphosis can be classified into three modalities: ametabolan (no changes), hemimetabolan (progressive changes) and holometabolan (dramatical changes at the end of the cycle). (els.net)
  • Insect metamorphosis can be classified into three modalities: ametabolan, hemimetabolan and holometabolan. (els.net)
  • The main hormones involved in the regulation of insect metamorphosis are the moulting hormone and the juvenile hormone. (els.net)
  • The main types of insect metamorphosis, ametabolan, hemimetabolan and holometabolan, and the subtypes of hemimetabolan, prometabolan and neometabolan. (els.net)
  • Hypermetamorphic species like R. quadriceps can be key subjects to study the regulation and the evolution of insect metamorphosis. (els.net)
  • Encouraged by Mangold, he began to investigate that most challenging problem, control of molting and metamorphosis in insects. (nap.edu)
  • ecdysone A steroid hormone, secreted by a pair of prothoracic glands in the thorax of insects and by Y organs in crustaceans, that stimulates moulting (see ecdysis ) and metamorphosis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Juvenile hormone (JH) controls insect metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A look at the hormones involved in metamorphosis. (biozone.co.nz)
  • In most insects larval cells are reprogrammed for metamorphosis by ecdysone acting in the absence of JH ( Riddiford, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • The insect adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a large family of peptide hormones that are involved in the mobilization of sugar and lipids from the insect fat body during energy-requiring activities such as flight and locomotion, but that also contribute to hemolymph sugar homeostasis. (pnas.org)
  • Comparatively recently, a peptide was isolated from the cockroach Diploptera punctata that showed no similarity to any known insect peptide but did show some similarity to vertebrate calcitonin (Furuya et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000). The D. punctata peptide, subsequently named Dippu-DH31, turned out to be the first example of a whole new family of insect diuretic peptides - the calcitonin (CT)-like peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dippu-DH31 was isolated using a cyclic AMP assay at the same time as a CRF-related peptide from the same insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of coupling between release and biosynthesis of peptide hormones in insect neuroendocrine cells. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of hormone release in vivo (by flight activity) and in vitro (using crustacean cardioactive peptide, locustamyoinhibiting peptide, and activation of protein kinase A and C) on the biosynthetic activity for AKHs were measured. (nih.gov)
  • Neuropeptides and peptide hormones from non-neuronal tissues play important roles in the regulation of insect life. (eurekaselect.com)
  • On the other hand, activity of other neuropeptides and peptide hormones is highly diverse, depending on species or even stages of development. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this paper, we summarize the existing knowledge regarding cardioactivity and the involvement of insect neurohormones and some peptide hormones from non-neural tissues to regulation of insect myocardium. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In summary, our results shed more light on the pivotal role that the ETH peptide hormone and its receptor ETHR-B play an essential role in the reproduction of the female adult of B. dorsalis, via the regulation of JH and vitellogenin, which are controlled by a pulse of 20E. (ugent.be)
  • The reproductive cycle in cockroaches is regulated by several lipidic and peptide hormones, with juvenile hormone III (JH III), a sesquiterpenoid, playing a pivotal role as the adult female gonadotropic hormone. (ncsu.edu)
  • The second part deals with the catalysis of reactions by amino acids, while the final section is devoted to enzymes, including proteases as catalysts, semisynthetic enzymes, catalysis by peptide-based enzyme models, substrate and protein recognition, as well as mammalian and insect peptide hormones. (wiley.com)
  • These peptide hormones are synthesized by the endocrine glands in the pancreas and released into the bloodstream in response to internal changes in sugar levels. (genetics.org)
  • Thus the glucagon-like peptide in insects is referred to as hypertrehalosemic h ormone (HTH). (genetics.org)
  • A potential solution to the problem of killing insects at any stage of development may be found in peptide hormones, small proteins in all animals that regulate most bodily functions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Synthetic compounds that mimic the action of these peptide hormones should be useful as pesticides," Schooley said. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Insect hormones can be produced by epithelial glands - for example, juvenile hormones or the steroid hormones ecdysteroids - or by neurosecretory cells, as for the neuropeptide hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone. (nature.com)
  • Are Ecdysteroids insect hormones? (atlasofscience.org)
  • The polyhydroxylated derivatives of 7-dehydro, 6-ketocholesterol (Ecdysone, Ecdysteroids, Ecd) were accidentally discovered in the search for an insect moulting hormone in 1965. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • We reared larvae at separate temperatures spanning the natural range of seasonal environments and measured reaction norms for ecdysteroids, juvenile hormones (JHs) and adult fitness traits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The two major classes of insect hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs), have been implicated in many cases of insect polyphenisms, such as horned beetles, butterflies, social insects and sand crickets [ 12 - 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Plants are not solitary, defenceless organisms but rather the centre of a vibrant community consisting of tens or even hundreds of insect species. (wur.nl)
  • Various species of herbivorous insects can attack the plant simultaneously. (wur.nl)
  • The plant reaction to combinations of several insect species differs from the reaction to single insects. (wur.nl)
  • This is caused by an interaction between the various lines of defence associated with different insect species. (wur.nl)
  • This change in the plant repels some insect species while attracting others, and this leads to a shift in the insect community present on the plant. (wur.nl)
  • Evaluation of a Synthetic Juvenile Hormone Against Two Species of Fly Larvae (Dipt. (brill.com)
  • Activity of some of them is conserved among most of insect species, indicating crucial roles in insect physiology and age of these systems. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The total number of all juvenoids reported active in one or more insects species has been estimated to be more than 4000 compounds. (brillonline.com)
  • Soon after the elucidation of ecdysone, there emerged numerous literature reports about the presence of these insect hormones (Ecd) in many species of lower and higher plants. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Among insects, there are many examples of species where genes encoding LKs and their receptors are absent. (preprints.org)
  • In some species, behavioral and physiological events related to mate-finding and sexual receptivity are also regulated in a coordinated manner by this vital hormone. (ncsu.edu)
  • In this review, we explore how colonization by either single non-pathogenic microbe species or a community of such microbes belowground affects plant growth and defense and how this affects the interactions of plants with aboveground insects at different trophic levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, a shift should be made from studying single microbial species to investigating the community of root inhabiting microbes and its effects on plant-insect interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • While in many insect species, including bumble bees, JH functions as gonadotropin in adults, in some highly eusocial insects its role has shifted to regulate social behavior including division of labor, dominance and aggression. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, investigating the roles of hormones in social insects, and especially in primitively eusocial species, can not only contribute to our understanding of questions pertaining to the proximate mechanisms underlying reproduction, but also shed light on the ultimate mechanisms leading to the transition from solitary to social life. (biologists.org)
  • Most insect species contain only juvenile growth hormone (JH) III. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain species of crustaceans have been shown to produce and secrete methyl farnesoate, which is juvenile hormone III lacking the epoxide group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroid hormones are biologically active substances that play important roles in the development and sexual maturation of individuals, as well as in maintaining homeostasis, regardless of species. (eurekalert.org)
  • The PER protein sequences comparison among these species and those from other insects revealed that the most similar regions are the PAS domains and the most variable is the COOH-terminal. (ajtmh.org)
  • Butterflies and moths make up the fourth largest species of insects called lepidopterans. (nypost.com)
  • While researching the genome of the malaria mosquito, Schooley discovered two different types of diuretic hormones similar to those from other insect species. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Like methoprene, DH31 only affects lower species such as insects, which suggests it should be very safe to non-insect species. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With this information in hand, the future aim of the researchers is to explain the physiology and pharmacology of this signalling system in insects, and utilize this information to develop novel pharmaceutical tools or drug candidates for humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Juvenile hormone (JH) is an important regulator of development and physiology in insects. (biologists.org)
  • Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a group of acyclic sesquiterpenoids that regulate many aspects of insect physiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wigglesworth is fairly designated as the founding father and remarkable leader of insect physiology. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The essays in this book tackle the insects' physiology, including their evolution and dominance. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Insulin-like polypeptide binding proteins (IBPs) from insects can bind diverse insulin-like proteins (ILPs) including human insulin and IGFs. (nature.com)
  • Binding of these two proteins to the regulatory regions of some juvenile hormone target genes is closely correlated with the expression levels of those target genes in the newly emerged adult mosquitoes. (vt.edu)
  • The role of juvenile hormone binding proteins are also important, as they afford juvenile hormone protection from hydrolytic enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. This investigation has sought the site of release of the diuretic hormone which appears in the haemolymph of larvae of Rhodnius shortly after they begin feeding. (biologists.org)
  • When ingested by Lepidoptera larvae, Mimic imitates a natural insect hormone that causes the developing caterpillars to molt prematurely as the larvae go through their growth stages. (gc.ca)
  • Unlike many insects, Drosophila larvae are mosaic in terms of their sensitivity to JH. (biologists.org)
  • Methoprene is an insect hormone that halts the growth of mosquito larvae. (unf.edu)
  • Prior to coming to Nevada 16 years ago, David Schooley was a key figure at a small company in Palo Alto, Calif. that developed methoprene, an insecticide that halts the maturation of insect larvae to adults. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Insect hormones are generated and used by insects to regulate physiological, developmental and behavioural events. (nature.com)
  • Insect diuretic hormones are hormones that regulate water balance through diuretic action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common to all studied insects is the presence or 1-3 pairs of LK-expressing neurosecretory cells in each abdominal neuromere of the ventral nerve cord, that, at least in some insects, regulate secretion in Malpighian tubules. (preprints.org)
  • In mammals, two important endocrine hormones, glucagon and insulin, are key physiological effectors that regulate blood glucose levels. (genetics.org)
  • The "love hormone" has been shown to regulate social behavior, as it increases feelings of trust and prompts pro-social and moral behavior. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Precocene is known to inhibit JH biosynthesis in several non-social insects, but has been poorly studied in social insects. (biologists.org)
  • The ability to chemically reduce JH titer provides us with a non-intrusive method to probe the evolutionary changes associated with JH and the hormonal mechanisms that are associated with reproduction and behavior in social insects. (biologists.org)
  • Reproductive division of labor is a hallmark of social insects, where only one or a few females reproduce while the others remain sterile, raising both proximate and ultimate questions about the mechanisms regulating reproduction and the origin of sociality. (biologists.org)
  • In highly social insects, such as the honey bee, JH has lost its gonadotropic role and now regulates division of labor in the worker caste. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fire ant is one of the most studied social insects and over the last 60 years a great deal has been learned about many aspects of this ant, including the behaviors and chemistry of pheromone communication. (frontiersin.org)
  • We review here our research to date on the molecular structure and diversity of ant PBAN/pyrokinin peptides in preparation for determining the function of the neuropeptides in ants and other social insects. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, the authors present structures of a Drosophila IBP in its free and ILP-bound forms, providing insights into the regulation of ILP bioavailability by insect IBPs. (nature.com)
  • Here, we have identified the first insect AKH receptors, namely those from the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the silkworm Bombyx mori . (pnas.org)
  • The Met mutant of Drosophila melanogaster is highly resistant to juvenile hormone III (JH III) or its chemical analog, methoprene, an insect growth regulator. (pnas.org)
  • We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • In insects, the number and complexity of LK expressing neurons vary, from the simple pattern in the larva of Drosophila where the entire CNS has 20 neurons of three main types, to cockroaches with about 250 of many different types. (preprints.org)
  • A research group led by University of Tsukuba Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences Associate Professor Ryusuke Niwa, in a joint study with the National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, has studied Drosophila melanogaster flies to discover a new protein dubbed "Ouija Board," which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones necessary for insect development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Consequently, it is important that the gene groups that provide instructions for those biosynthetic enzymes are expressed in limited forms in the organs where steroid hormone biosynthesis takes place. (eurekalert.org)
  • While this study has provided new knowledge about the mechanism for animal steroid hormone biosynthesis and its evolution, it could also lead to the development of ideas for the development of more "environmentally friendly" agrochemicals that act only on insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • A steroid hormone produced by insects and crustaceans that promotes growth and controls molting. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The removal of larval PG turned out to have no effect on the timing and succession of insect moults. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Methoprene-tolerant 1 regulates gene transcription to maintain insect larval status. (abcam.com)
  • As long as this hormone is present in the blood the molting epidermal cells lay down a larval cuticle. (britannica.com)
  • The secretion of juvenile hormone is drastically reduced in the final larval stage, as a result of which the larva is transformed into a pupa. (vt.edu)
  • This is what lead Schooley, and his colleague Geoff Coast of the University of London, down the path of finding a way to control insects that are pests at the larval stage, a path that has them instead potentially paving the way for better mosquito control. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The photochemistry of some analogs of insect growth regulators (IGR's) was studied. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Based on product type the market is segmented into chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone analogs and mimics inhibitors and anti-juvenile hormone agents. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • Novel pseudopeptide analogs of the insect allatostain neuropeptide family which possess biological activity mimicking that of the naturally ocurring neuropepetides are disclosed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • By addition of a hydrophobic moiety to an active portion of the allatostatin peptides, analogs are produced which exhibit an overall amphipilic nature and which are capable of penetrating the insect cuticle while still retaining biological activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Furthermore, by substituting sterically hindered amino acids or aromatic acids for any or all of the first, third or fifth amino acids residues of the allatostatin C-terminal pentapeptide, analogs may be produced which are resistant to degradation by insect peptidases while still retaining biological activity. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The analogs may be used for insect control by disrupting critical reproductive and/or developmental processes normally regulated by allatostatins in insects. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This invention relates to mimetic pseudopeptide analogs of the allatostatin neuropeptide family, and the use of these analogs for insect control. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E), the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs) of adult males. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • The allatostatin family of insect neuropeptides inhibit the in vitro biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) by the corpora allata of the cockroaches Diploptera punctata Blattella germanica (L) and Periplaneta americana (Belles et al. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Ouija Board " plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the steroid hormones necessary for insect development. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study has shown that "Ouija Board" regulates the expression of the enzyme genes required for biosynthesis of insect steroid hormones (molting hormones). (eurekalert.org)
  • The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN)/pyrokinin family is a major group of insect neuropeptides, and they are expected to be found in all insect groups, and to have multiple functions during insect development and reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • S6 phosphorylation results from prothoracicotropic hormone stimulation of insect prothoracic glands: a role for S6 kinase. (nih.gov)
  • The insect prothoracic glands are the source of steroidal molting hormone precursors and the glands are stimulated by a brain neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). (nih.gov)
  • In insects its release is stimulated by prothoracicotropic hormone . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The ecdysis triggering hormone system. (ugent.be)
  • Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH), released by the Inka cells, is a master hormone in regulating the ecdysis process in insect. (ugent.be)
  • During ecdysis the form of the old cuticle laid down before the next moult is controlled by the JH level in the insect. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigate the evolutionary significance of a single amino-acid variation between crustacea and insects in the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant. (nature.com)
  • Non-Selective Toxicological Effects of the Insect Juvenile Hormone Analogue Methoprene. (springer.com)
  • Juvenile hormone and its receptor, methoprene-tolerant, control the dynamics of mosquito gene expression. (abcam.com)
  • While an insect protein, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), has been postulated as the top candidate for juvenile hormone receptor, it remains unclear how this protein is activated by juvenile hormone,' said Zhu. (vt.edu)
  • Methoprene which has the same effect as an insect hormone called juve. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The successive life stages in insect development are, therefore, determined by the varying levels of ecdysone and juvenile hormone. (britannica.com)
  • This book discusses the aspects of growth and reproduction by hormones of insects, focusing on ecdysone and juvenile hormone. (elsevier.com)
  • Then, using a unique strategy for the discovery of ligands, researchers isolated inotocin from the black garden ant, cloned its cognate receptor, and examined its pharmacological effect on both the insect and the human OTRs and VRs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Surprisingly, by introducing a small chemical modification into this insect neuropeptide, we were able to develop a very stable and highly selective inhibitor of the human vasopressin V1a receptor,' explains Christian Gruber. (news-medical.net)
  • Ecdysone is a direct regulator of transcription and, like other steroid hormones acts through a nuclear receptor pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • This work investigates the roles of Brummer lipase (Bmm) and the adipokinetic hormone (AKH)/adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR) systems on lipid metabolism and mobilization during lactation in tsetse. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2002). These factors are produced in neurosecretory cells in the insect nervous system, and stored and released from neurohaemal sites, such as the corpora cardiaca in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. An electron microscope study of the mesothoracic ganglionic mass and the abdominal nerves which leave it has shown that the axons from the neurosecretory cell bodies in the ganglionic mass some of which at least have previously been shown to contain the diuretic hormone run out into the proximal lengths of the abdominal nerves where they branch. (biologists.org)
  • 5. It is concluded that the release of diuretic hormone in Rhodnius is from a series of swollen neurosecretory axon endings dotted over the surface of those lengths of the peripheral abdominal nerves which lie close to the mesothoracic ganglionic mass. (biologists.org)
  • The first is a complex set of neurohormones (neuropeptides) originating in the neurosecretory cells of the insect brain, which are released from the neurohaemal organs, the corpora cardiaca. (brillonline.com)
  • Insects secrete hormones from neurosecretory cells and also from endocrine glands. (britannica.com)
  • The second category of centrally produced hormones in insects is the morphogenesis inhibiting hormone, or juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the associated endocrine glands, the corpora allata. (brillonline.com)
  • hormone is released by the corpora allata, another pair of non-neural endocrine glands, located behind the corpora cardiaca. (britannica.com)
  • Juvenile hormones are secreted by a pair of endocrine glands behind the brain called the corpora allata. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary control of juvenile hormone is by 1) the stimulation of the corpora allata by allatotropins short peptides which bind to G-protein coupled receptors, which signal the glands to produce JH, and 2), the inhibition of JH production by allatostatins. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the corpora allata of the third instar insect were removed, the level of JH was equal in both insects to that in the fourth instar animal, and hence both proceeded to the fifth instar at the next moult. (wikipedia.org)
  • McCaffery, A. R. is the author of 'Chromatography and Isolation of Insect Hormones and Pheromones' with ISBN 9780306437076 and ISBN 0306437074. (valorebooks.com)
  • Their studies also show that the rate at which adult neuroblasts divide is controlled by hormones, suggesting that hormones may play a more important role in regulating neurogenesis than previously suspected. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Here we investigated the presence and role of the ETH signaling in the female adult of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) that is one of the most important invasive pest insects in agriculture worldwide. (ugent.be)
  • The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Unlike humans, in insects the juvenile hormone inhibits development of adult characteristics until the insects reach a proper stage. (vt.edu)
  • Juvenile hormones also play a prominent role in regulating reproductive maturation in adult insects and synthetic juvenile hormone mimics have been widely used as pesticides for mosquito controls. (vt.edu)
  • This study demonstrates that hormone dynamics can translate a linear environmental gradient into a discrete signal and, thus, that polyphenic differences between adult morphs can already be programmed at the stage of hormone signalling during development. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The metamorphic changes are mainly regulated by two hormones: the moulting hormone, which promotes the moults, and the juvenile hormone (JH), which represses the transformation into the adult. (els.net)
  • The third active ingredient is Nylar ® , the insect growth regulator which inhibits the development of the immature stages of the flea for 100 days (14 weeks) preventing them from reaching the adult stage. (drugs.com)
  • Plants possess a wide range of defence mechanisms that are activated in response to attack by insects. (wur.nl)
  • Plants recognise different insect attackers, after which plant molecular mechanisms activate various defences within a timescale ranging from minutes to days. (wur.nl)
  • Although much attention has been given to understanding the mechanisms of action for both of these hormones, currently a great deal more is known about signaling by ecdysone than by JH. (mdpi.com)
  • This book consisting of ten review chapters contributed by leading workers in their respective fields, from around the world, covers the whole subject of insect reproduction.It begins with the basic physiological questions of insect reproduction, moves on to discuss the new advances seen in the fields of behavioural and ecological mechanisms, and culminates by examining the recent work on evolutionary biology and its application in the field. (routledge.com)
  • The action of these two hormones is mediated by a number of transcription factors, and the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of these and of the corresponding target genes are finally refined by the action of micro ribonucleic acids. (els.net)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the action of the moulting hormone are reasonably well known, but those related to juvenile hormone are much less understood. (els.net)
  • It was defined as the insect moulting hormone secreted by the prothoracic glands (PG), in accordance with the currently recognised "brain-PG" hormonal theory. (atlasofscience.org)
  • ecdysone A hormone , produced by the prothoracid glands, which brings about moulting in an insect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Interestingly, the insect AKH receptors are structurally and evolutionarily related to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors from vertebrates. (pnas.org)
  • Insect CRF-related peptides are so-called because of their similarity to the CRF-related peptides of vertebrates, which indicates a long evolutionary history. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the well-defined hormones, other substances, which are found in blood and in tissues and are of uncertain function, may be concerned in various ways with physiological regulation in vertebrates, although their hormonal status has not yet been established. (britannica.com)
  • in arthropods (as exemplified in insects and crustaceans ) it attains a level of complexity similar to that of vertebrates . (britannica.com)
  • Juvenile hormone (JH) plays key roles in insect development, reproduction, and many other physiological functions. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • The PG evidently served other physiological functions than the release of a moulting hormone. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the host plant that influence interactions between plants and aboveground insects at several trophic levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Juvenile hormone (JH) is a principal regulator of physiological processes in insects, exerting a wide variety of functions during the individual's life cycle. (biologists.org)
  • Hormones play crucial regulatory roles in coordinating the expression of physiological, behavioural and morphological traits into an integrated life history [ 9 - 11 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although the allatostatins can influence a number of physiological processes by virtue of their ability to modulate in vitro production of JH, the native allatostatins have held little promise as insect control agents. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In vertebrate animals, Ecd generally exhibit effects that are similar to the vitamin D 3 (calciferol), eventually combined with anabolic growth effects similar to the androgenic steroid hormones. (atlasofscience.org)
  • Formulations of each insect growth regulator, (IGR), in once refined soybean oil were presented to these colonies. (tamu.edu)
  • The pesticide Mimic® is an insect growth regulator used to control leaf-eating insects that cause damage or death in trees. (gc.ca)
  • For instance, in the presence of plant pathogens or insect herbivores, plants will allocate resources to the synthesis of defense compounds and as a consequence plant growth will decrease. (frontiersin.org)
  • The report covers forecast and analysis for the Insect Growth Regulator Market on a global and regional level. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • The study includes drivers and restraints for the insect growth regulator market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the insect growth regulator market on a global level. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view of the insect growth regulator market, we have included competitive landscape and analysis of Porters Five Forces model for the market. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • The study provides a decisive view on the insect growth regulator market by segmenting the market based on product type, type of form, application, and regions. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • This segmentation includes demand for insect growth regulator market based on individual product type, type of form and applications in all the regions and countries. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • Global insect growth regulator market, 2017 - 2023 (USD Million) 2.2. (wiseguyreports.com)
  • The hormone is secreted and stored by the pituitary gland, a pea-sized organ at the base of our brain that regulates many vital bodily functions, such as metabolism, physical growth, sexual maturation, and reproduction. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nylar ® is similar to insect growth hormones that occur naturally in insects. (drugs.com)
  • The social behavior of insects that is controlled to a considerable degree by chemistry is also discussed. (elsevier.com)
  • They are produced in the central and peripheral nervous systems and affect insect development, reproduction, feeding, and behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results represent a breakthrough for insect molecular endocrinology, because it will lead to the cloning of all AKH receptors from all model insects used in AKH research, and, therefore, to a better understanding of AKH heterogeneity and actions. (pnas.org)
  • A succession of insects can cause molecular changes in a plant within just a few minutes after eating starts, and these changes can influence the composition of the insect community on the plant for a period ranging from several weeks to years. (wur.nl)
  • Understanding the molecular details in the juvenile hormone signaling may lead to discovery of novel chemicals that target mosquitoes with more selectivity,' said Jinsong Zhu , assistant professor of biochemistry with the Fralin Life Science Institute at Virginia Tech. (vt.edu)
  • He and his group say they believe that studying the hormone-regulated reproduction have a better chance of elucidating the molecular action of juvenile hormones. (vt.edu)
  • During this time he not only continued his studies on insect hormones but also collaborated with Victor Twitty in experiments on the role of ectodermal structures in the development of amphibia. (nap.edu)
  • The final four sequential hydroxylations of steroid precursors into the active ecdysteroid of insects, 20E (20-hydroxyecdysone), are mediated by four cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, encoded by genes in the Halloween family. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • 33. The expression patterns of the ecdysteroid-producing Halloween genes Spook and Shade, and the vitellogenin genes Vg1 , Vg2, and Vg3 co-occurred with peak levels at days 10-15, and also juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) showed increased levels on day 15. (ugent.be)
  • Virginia Tech researchers have discovered an important step in the activation of juvenile hormone target genes. (vt.edu)
  • Reducing the protein levels of Met or FISC by genetic approaches leads to dampened expression of the juvenile hormone target genes, and decreased egg production after the female mosquitoes take a blood meal. (vt.edu)
  • Hormones are thought to play a central role in regulating reproduction in insects, but were hypothesized to undergo several changes during the evolution of sociality ( Nijhout, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • Hormones and Reproduction 5. (routledge.com)
  • As reproduction includes a variety of specific behaviors, including migration and diapause, JH has come to function as a master regulator in insect reproduction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our concept is innovative and fascinating: take an insect neuropeptid, skip over approximately 600 million years of evolution and, with a small chemical modification, this substance may be suitable to act as a drug candidate for use in humans,' explains Gruber. (news-medical.net)
  • Excretion is under the control of diuretic and anti-diuretic factors, or hormones, comprehensively reviewed by Coast et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been known for many years that insects possess diuretic and antidiuretic factors, but it has only been comparatively recently that technological advances have allowed for them to be characterised. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, the only insect for which both diuretic and antidiuretic hormones (acting directly on tubules) have been isolated is a beetle, the mealworm Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions of diuretic and antidiuretic hormones include: postprandial diuresis, post-eclosion diuresis, excretion of excess metabolic water, clearance of toxic wastes and restricting metabolite loss (Coast et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the effects of diuretic peptides are often tested only on the tubules and their role in other parts of the insect excretory system is not investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three main families of diuretic hormones: the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptides, calcitonin (CT)-like peptides and the insect kinins (Coast et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. By constricting fed insects at various positions it has been possible to show that most of the diuretic hormone is released into the region close to but behind the mesothoracic ganglionic mass. (biologists.org)
  • Coast discovered that introducing one of the two diuretic hormones, DH31, into the mosquito causes the mosquito to excrete fluid rich in sodium chloride, the main salt in blood. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Oxytocin - popularly referred to as the love hormone - plays a key role in emotional attachment, but it also helps pregnant women give birth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Insects also have neuropeptides, and Gruber and team isolated one called inotocin - which is the equivalent of vasopressin and oxytocin in arthropods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In a recent study published in 'Scientific Reports', an international team of researchers led by MedUni Vienna report that an oxytocin-like neuropeptide ('inotocin') exhibited a specific pharmacological profile for the human receptors of oxytocin (known as the 'love hormone') and vasopressin. (news-medical.net)
  • A team of scientists from Austria, Australia, Denmark, England and the Czech Republic, led by Christian Gruber from the MedUni Vienna's Institute of Pharmacology managed to isolate a neuropeptide from ants that is very similar to the human 'love hormone' oxytocin, and the closely related hormone vasopressin. (news-medical.net)
  • In order to decode or uncover such relationships between neuropeptide hormones and their receptors, the researchers used a unique strategy for ligand discovery, exploiting the advantages of the evolutionary similarities of the oxytocin-vasopressin signalling system, which exists since about 600 million years. (news-medical.net)
  • In a parallel study, by analysing genetic data sets, we have now been able to show that many insects have an oxytocin or vasopressin-like signalling system, and it is presumably functionally related throughout the animal kingdom,' reports Gruber. (news-medical.net)
  • Oxytocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus, which is a very small part of the brain that controls many of our bodily functions, including our appetite, thirst, sleep, mood, and libido. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oxytocin has earned the nickname "the love hormone" because we secrete it when we form bonds with our romantic partner, our children, and even our pets . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In CDI, the body produces reduced levels of arginine vasopressin, which is a hormone similar to oxytocin and also produced in the hypothalamus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Inotocin is the insect form of the so-called "love" hormone oxytocin. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Adipokinetic hormone (AKH)-producing cells in the corpus cardiacum of the insect Locusta migratoria represent a neuroendocrine system containing large quantities of stored secretory peptides. (nih.gov)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/840288829 Title: Insect Neurohormones Author: Marie Raabe Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1982. (worldcat.org)
  • The discovery of insect neurohormones dates from the earliest experimental in- vestigations in insect endocrines, and the matter cannot be discussed without evoking the names of its pioneers-Kopec, Wigglesworth, Fraenkel. (worldcat.org)
  • The recent proliferation of investigations into insect neurohormones has cre- ated the need for an overall review of the data. (worldcat.org)
  • Our knowledge of the subject is voluminous, and the evidence clearly demonstrates that neurohormones playa part in most insect regulatory processes. (worldcat.org)
  • Via various routes, plant hormones subsequently induce the production of compounds which repel herbivores. (wur.nl)
  • Certain hormone-like compounds boost dopamine levels in the brain. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Because JH is specific to insects, it has been investigated for use as pest control. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • Mimic does not directly affect beneficial insects such as wasps, mites and spiders, all of which help keep forest insect pest populations in check. (gc.ca)
  • The southern chinch bug, Blissus inslaris, is the most prevalent and damaging insect pest of St. Augustine grass. (gardenguides.com)
  • Bark and Wood Boring Insects in Living Trees in Europe, a Synthesis. (springer.com)
  • In target tissues, such as the liver, these pancreatic hormones activate opposing metabolic pathways ( e.g. , glycogen breakdown by glucagon and glycogen synthesis by insulin), thereby maintaining steady-state glucose levels. (genetics.org)
  • Here, we report on the discovery of potent JH antagonists in plants, which represents an innate resistance mechanism of plants against insect herbivores. (ups-tlse.fr)
  • Aboveground, plants are under continuous attack by insect herbivores and mount multiple responses that also have systemic effects on belowground microbes. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review summarizes the diverse functional roles of LK signaling in insects, as well as other arthropods and mollusks. (preprints.org)
  • They may help to protect the plant by interfering with the moulting cycle of insect pests that consume plant tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Instead, stimulation by the corpus allatum, an organ in insects that corresponds in function to the pituitary gland, causes the secretion of liquid substances on the body surface. (britannica.com)
  • Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key regulator of development both in insects and the crustacea Daphnia pulex and D. magna. (nature.com)
  • The insect life cycle is regulated by two major hormones whose balance determines the course of development. (mdpi.com)
  • The ontogenetic development of insects is characterised by endogenous peaks in Ecd concentration. (atlasofscience.org)
  • shared epub ciba foundation symposium 104 photoperiodic regulation of insect and molluscan challenges to rinse campaigns with their function c. regulations of Development: fatalities and Applications' from Anti Essays, your epub ciba foundation symposium for anti-virus bacteria, provisions, and execute analysis provisions. (twoforfour.de)
  • Modulates ecdysteroid signaling during insect development. (abcam.com)
  • This polyphenism is induced by temperature during development and mediated by ecdysteroid hormones. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Because of their rigid exoskeleton, insects grow in their development by successively shedding their exoskeleton (a process known as molting). (wikipedia.org)
  • The level gradually decreases during the development of the insect, allowing it to proceed to successive instars with each molt. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the outset, the transient appearance of juvenile hormone (JH) prevents precocious development of the OL caused by the ecdysteroid peak that initiates pupariation, but the artificial maintenance of JH after this time misdirects subsequent development. (biologists.org)
  • Steroid hormones are biosynthesized from cholesterol in specific endocrine organs via multi-step enzymatic reactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fundamental endocrine regulations of homeostatic blood sugar levels are also conserved in insects. (genetics.org)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Photoperiodic regulation of insect and molluscan hormones. (who.int)
  • Photoperiodic regulation of insect and molluscan hormones. (who.int)
  • As well, Mimic poses little or no measurable risk to bees, birds, fish, mammals and non-lepidopteran insects. (gc.ca)
  • Nets containing a novel combination of permethrin, a pyrethroid, and pyriproxyfen, an insect juvenile hormone mimic, (PPF-LLIN) may enhance malaria control, as well as reducing the spread of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Just as raging hormones are part of the process of a child's maturation through the teen years to adulthood, juvenile hormones, a group of insect isoprenoids, play an important role as butterflies, fruit flies, and mosquitoes transform their body structures as they molt from larva to pupa and then adults. (vt.edu)
  • Neuropeptides are the largest group of insect hormones. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike for other animals, there has so far been little information available about the biology of this neuropeptide signalling system in insects. (news-medical.net)
  • Insect Biology in the Future: ""VBW 80"" contains essays presented to Sir Vincent Wigglesworth during his 80th year. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Increasing the complexity of the systems studied is required to increase our understanding of microbe-plant-insect interactions and to gain more benefit from the use of non-pathogenic microbes in agriculture. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, we review how plant responses to foliar herbivory by insects belonging to different feeding guilds affect interactions of plants with non-pathogenic soil-borne microbes. (frontiersin.org)
  • These neuropeptides are responsible for stimulation of various developmental events, such as the release of the activation hormone, AH. (brillonline.com)
  • Diagram of the hormone titres and expression of Broad‐Complex (BR‐C) transcription factors in the last developmental instars in a hemimetabolan (the German cockroach, Blattella germanica ) and a holometabolan (the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta ). (els.net)