Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Hormones produced in the testis.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/1105)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

Small antibody-like proteins with prescribed ligand specificities derived from the lipocalin fold. (2/1105)

We demonstrate that the ligand pocket of a lipocalin from Pieris brassicae, the bilin-binding protein (BBP), can be reshaped by combinatorial protein design such that it recognizes fluorescein, an established immunological hapten. For this purpose 16 residues at the center of the binding site, which is formed by four loops on top of an eight-stranded beta-barrel, were subjected to random mutagenesis. Fluorescein-binding BBP variants were then selected from the mutant library by bacterial phage display. Three variants were identified that complex fluorescein with high affinity, exhibiting dissociation constants as low as 35.2 nM. Notably, one of these variants effects almost complete quenching of the ligand fluorescence, similarly as an anti-fluorescein antibody. Detailed ligand-binding studies and site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated (i) that the molecular recognition of fluorescein is specific and (ii) that charged residues at the center of the pocket are responsible for tight complex formation. Sequence comparison of the BBP variants directed against fluorescein with the wild-type protein and with further variants that were selected against several other ligands revealed that all of the randomized amino acid positions are variable. Hence, a lipocalin can be used for generating molecular pockets with a diversity of shapes. We term this class of engineered proteins "anticalins." Their one-domain scaffold makes them a promising alternative to antibodies to create a stable receptor protein for a ligand of choice.  (+info)

Calcium and cAMP are second messengers in the adipokinetic hormone-induced lipolysis of triacylglycerols in Manduca sexta fat body. (3/1105)

We have previously shown that stereospecific hydrolysis of stored triacylglycerol by a phosphorylatable triacylglycerol-lipase is the pathway for the adipokinetic hormone-stimulated synthesis of sn -1, 2-diacylglycerol in insect fat body. The current series of experiments were designed to determine whether cAMP and/or calcium are involved in the signal transduction pathway for adipokinetic hormone in the fat body. After adipokinetic hormone treatment, cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the fat body rapidly increased and reached a maximum after 20 min, suggesting that adipokinetic hormone causes an increase in cAMP. Forskolin (0.1 micrometer), an adenylate cyclase activator, induced up to a 97% increase in the secretion of diacylglycerol from the fat body. 8Br-cAMP (a membrane-permeable analog of cAMP) produced a 40% increase in the hemolymph diacylglycerol content. Treatment with cholera toxin, which also stimulates adenylate cyclase, induced up to a 145% increase in diacylglycerol production. Chelation of extracellular calcium produced up to 70% inhibition of the adipokinetic hormone-dependent mobilization of lipids. Calcium-mobilizing agents, ionomycin and thapsigargin, greatly stimulated DG production by up to 130%. Finally, adipokinetic hormone caused a rapid increase of calcium uptake into the fat body. Our findings indicate that the action of adipokinetic hormone in mobilizing lipids from the insect fat body involves both cAMP and calcium as intracellular messengers.  (+info)

Identification of a Frizzled-like cysteine rich domain in the extracellular region of developmental receptor tyrosine kinases. (4/1105)

In Drosophila, members of the Frizzled family of tissue-polarity genes encode proteins that appear to function as cell-surface receptors for Wnts. The Frizzled genes belong to the seven transmembrane class of receptors (7TMR) and have on their extracellular region a cysteine-rich domain that has been implicated as the Wnt binding domain. This region has a characteristic spacing of ten cysteines, which has also been identified in FrzB (a secreted antagonist of Wnt signaling) and Smoothened (another 7TMR, which is involved in the hedgehog signalling pathway). We have identified, using BLAST, sequence similarity between the cysteine-rich domain of Frizzled and several receptor tyrosine kinases, which have roles in development. These include the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), the neuronal specific kinase (NSK2), and ROR1 and ROR2. At present, the ligands for these developmental tyrosine kinases are unknown. Our results suggest that Wnt-like ligands may bind to these developmental tyrosine kinases  (+info)

Hox genes differentially regulate Serrate to generate segment-specific structures. (5/1105)

Diversification of Drosophila segmental morphologies requires the functions of Hox transcription factors. However, there is little information describing pathways through which Hox activities effect the discrete cellular changes that diversify segmental architecture. We have identified the Drosophila signaling protein Serrate as the product of a Hox downstream gene that acts in many segments as a component of such pathways. In the embryonic epidermis, Serrate is required for morphogenesis of normal abdominal denticle belts and maxillary mouth hooks, both Hox-dependent structures. The Hox genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A are required to activate an early stripe of Serrate transcription in abdominal segments. In the abdominal epidermis, Serrate promotes denticle diversity by precisely localizing a single cell stripe of rhomboid expression, which generates a source of EGF signal that is not produced in thoracic epidermis. In the head, Deformed is required to activate Serrate transcription in the maxillary segment, where Serrate is required for normal mouth hook morphogenesis. However, Serrate does not require rhomboid function in the maxillary segment, suggesting that the Hox-Serrate pathway to segment-specific morphogenesis can be linked to more than one downstream function.  (+info)

Locust corpora cardiaca contain an inactive adipokinetic hormone. (6/1105)

A neuropeptide from the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, has been identified as a novel member of the family of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). The peptide is probably synthesised in the brain because it is the first AKH found in the storage lobe, whilst the three 'classic' Locusta AKHs are present in the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In locusts, the peptide has no biological activity usually associated with AKHs. There is only 36-56% sequence identity with the three Lom-AKHs, but 78% identity with the Drosophila melanogaster AKH, Drm-HrTH. The new peptide is active in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, and was provisionally named 'L. migratoria hypertrehalosaemic hormone', Lom-HrTH; its biological role in locusts remains to be established. The high degree of identity with Drm-HrTH suggests that Lom-HrTH is an ancient molecule.  (+info)

Absence of interdomain contacts in the crystal structure of the RNA recognition motifs of Sex-lethal. (7/1105)

By binding specific RNA transcripts, the Sex-lethal protein (SXL) governs sexual differentiation and dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the basis for RNA binding specificity, we determined the crystal structure of the tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SXL. Both RRMs adopt the canonical RRM fold, and the 10-residue, interdomain linker shows significant disorder. In contrast to the previously determined structure of the two-RRM fragment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Al, SXL displays no interdomain contacts between RRMs. These results suggest that the SXL RRMs are flexibly tethered in solution, and RNA binding restricts the orientation of RRMs. Therefore, the observed specificity for single-stranded, U-rich sequences does not arise from a predefined, rigid architecture of the isolated SXL RRMs.  (+info)

Positive selection drives the evolution of the Acp29AB accessory gland protein in Drosophila. (8/1105)

Nucleotide sequence variation at the Acp29AB gene region has been surveyed in Drosophila melanogaster from Spain (12 lines), Ivory Coast (14 lines), and Malawi (13 lines) and in one line of D. simulans. The approximately 1.7-kb region studied encompasses the Acp29AB gene that codes for a male accessory gland protein and its flanking regions. Seventy-seven nucleotide and 8 length polymorphisms were detected. Nonsynonymous polymorphism was an order of magnitude lower than synonymous polymorphism, but still high relative to other non-sex-related genes. In D. melanogaster variation at this region revealed no major genetic differentiation between East and West African populations, while differentiation was highly significant between the European and the two African populations. Comparison of polymorphism and divergence at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites showed an excess of fixed nonsynonymous changes, which indicates that the evolution of the Acp29AB protein has been driven by directional selection at least after the split of the D. melanogaster and D. simulans lineages. The pattern of variation in extant populations of D. melanogaster favors a scenario where the fixation of advantageous replacement substitutions occurred in the early stages of speciation and balancing selection is maintaining variation in this species.  (+info)

1. A new method for the assay of insect prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is described, using fourth instar larvae of Manduca sexta. Larvae neck-ligated at a critical time to prevent release of PTTH from the head fail to undergo the next larval moult. Such ligated larvae moult to fifth instar larvae or larval-pupal intermediates after injection of brain homogenates from Manduca larvae, pupae or pharate adults. The degree of response is proportional to the concentration of brain homogenate injected. 2. The source of PTTH in the pupal brain is the dorsal region of the protocerebrum containing the lateral neurosecretory cells. Microhomogennates of single pieces of brain showed activity with this method. 3. PTTH activity in partially purified extracts is water soluable, stable to boiling for 10 min, and is destroyed by Pronase or trypsin.. ...
Formation of the Drosophila embryos dorsal-ventral pattern requires the maternal product of the Toll gene. DNA sequence and genetic analyses together suggested that the Toll gene product is a transmembrane protein which communicates information from an extracytoplasmic compartment to the cytoplasm. Using antibodies as probes, we show that the Toll protein is a 135 × 10(3) Mr glycoprotein which is tightly associated with embryonic membranes. During the syncytial stage when dorsal-ventral polarity is established, the maternal Toll protein is associated with the plasma membrane around the entire embryo. During later embryonic stages, the Toll protein is expressed zygotically on many cell surfaces, possibly to promote cell adhesion. The plasma membrane localization of the Toll protein in the syncytial embryo suggests that transmembrane signaling from the extracellular perivitelline space to the cytoplasm is required for establishment of the embryonic dorsal-ventral pattern.. ...
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Four locustatachykinins (LomTK I-IV) were identified in about equal amounts in extracts of corpora cardiaca of locusts, using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay with synthetic LomTK I-IV as standards. Brain extracts also contained the four isoforms in roughly equimolar concentrations. Retrograde tracing of the nervi corporis cardiaci II (NCC II) in vitro with Lucifer yellow in combination with LomTK immunocytochemistry revealed that about half of the secretomotor neurons in the lateral part of the protocerebrum projecting into the glandular lobe of the corpora cardiaca (CCG) contain LomTK-immunoreactive material. Since the four LomTKs are present in the CCG, these four or five neurons in each hemisphere are likely to contain colocalized LomTK I-IV. The role of two of the LomTKs in the regulation of the release of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) from the adipokinetic cells in the CCG in the locust was investigated. Experiments performed in vitro showed that ...
Looking for diuretic hormone? Find out information about diuretic hormone. A neurohormone that promotes water loss in insects by increasing the volume of fluid secreted into the Malpighian tubules Explanation of diuretic hormone
This confidential blood assay for Anti Diuretic Hormone is offered at more than thirty two private outpatient departments across England, Scotland and Wales. Included in each request for Anti Diuretic Hormone are a Doctors Referral, all Phlebotomy fees (your blood taken at a Private Hospital), all laboratory fees and i
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Ecdysis behavior allows insects to shed their old exoskeleton at the end of every molt. It is controlled by a suite of interacting hormones and neuropeptides, and has served as a useful behavior for understanding how bioactive peptides regulate CNS function. Previous findings suggest more ...
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TLRs primarily known for the pathogen recognition and subsequent immune responses are being investigated for their pathogenic role in various chronic diseases. The recent reports correlating the microbial infections with chronic disorders such as atherosclerosis have lead to questions in relation to the role of microbial sensors such as TLR4 in an intriguing phenomenon of the inflammation-induced angiogenesis. This article focuses on the possible mechanisms involved in it.Toll like receptors (TLRs) comprise a large family of the pathogen-pattern recognition receptors (PPRR) originally identified in Drosophila in the mid 1990s as a Toll protein (1). In Drosophila, it was found to be involved in the resistance against fungal infections (2). The first human homolog for the Toll protein was described in 1997 (3). Since then, 13 mammalian homologs of the TLR family have been identified; including twelve in mice (TLR1-9 and TLR11-13) and ten in humans (TLR1-10). TLR 10 is a pseudogene in mice but is
Locust adipokinetic hormone stimulates lipid mobilization in Manduca sexta.: Adipokinetic hormone, a decapeptide isolated from the locust, stimulates mobilizati
Eclosion hormone activity was found in the brain and ventral ganglia of pharate pupae of Manduca sexta. No activity was detected in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex. At the time of ecdysis the store of activity dropped by 50-75% in the ventral cord whereas the hormone level in the brain remained unchanged. Also, larvae whose brains were removed at the wandering stage subsequently showed pupal ecdysis behaviour and also had essentially normal levels of hormonal activity in their blood at the start of the behaviour. It was concluded that at pupal ecdysis the hormone responsible for the initiation of the behaviour is released from the ventral nerve cord rather than from the brain.. The chemical characteristics of the pharate pupal eclosion hormone were determined. The factors from the brain and ventral nerve cord were both active in a number of adult and pupal eclosion hormone bioassays. Both showed an apparent molecular weight of 8500 daltons and an isoelectric point of about 5·0, ...
The PRXamide family of neuropeptides is based on the core amino acids at the C-terminal end that are required for activity and on sequence homology of their cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors. The PRXamide family of neuropeptides includes the pyrokinins, pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptides, diapause hormone, CAPA/periviscerokinins (aka cardioacceleratory peptide 2b), and ecdysis-triggering hormone found throughout the Insecta. The vertebrate homologues include neuromedin U because it has a PRNamide C-terminal sequence. The vertebrate G protein-coupled receptors that are homologous to the insect receptors also include receptors for ghrelin, motilin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in addition to the neuromedin U receptor. This review will not only summarize the recent literature on this neuropeptide family but also include recent information about the prevalence of the neuropeptides across the Insecta based primarily on genomic and transcriptomic sequence information. Information is
Orobanche species are parasitic weeds that subsist on the roots of many dicotyledonous plants. These parasites form symplastic and apoplastic connections with their hosts and act as strong sinks for the uptake of water, minerals, and photosynthates, often causing severe damage to the hosts. Although the uptake of small molecules such as sugars and herbicides by Orobanche has been documented, movement of macromolecules between host and parasite has not been characterized. The objectives of this research were to 1) determine whether, and by what route, host macromolecules can be translocated to the parasite, and 2) engineer host resistance based on inducible expression of sarcotoxin IA, an anti-microbial peptide from the flesh fly (Sarcophaga peregrina). To address the first objective, transgenic plants expressing GFP localized to either the host cell cytosol (symplast) or secreted to the extra-cellular space (apoplast) were parasitized by O. aegyptiaca. Observations of green fluorescence in O. ...
A diuretic hormone (DH) of unusual structure was isolated from extracts of heads of Tenebrio molitor. The hormone is a 47 amino acid peptide, Mr = 5,029.9, with the sequence AGALGESGASLSIVNSLDVLRNRLLLEIARKKAKEGANRNRQILLSL. This peptide increases cyclic AMP production in Malpighian tubules of T. moli …
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Given that six Labial-positive neuroblasts are present at late L2 stages, and only four Labial-positive neuroblasts are present at early L3 stages, we posit that the labial-dependent apoptosis of the two affected neuroblasts (Ect1, Ect2) is associated with the L2/L3 transition. Since that the L2/L3 transition involves molting that is associated with elevated levels of steroid hormones such as ecdysone, it is possible that ecdysis-triggering endocrine signals participate in the labial-dependent apoptotic event in Ect1 and Ect2 (reviewed by Truman, 2005). Alternatively, transiently expressed temporal transcription factors might regulate the competence of the affected neuroblasts to undergo apoptosis in a labial-dependent manner (Maurange et al., 2008; Chell and Brand, 2008). While the molecular nature of these signals is currently not known, they are apparently not sufficient to elicit programmed cell death in all labial-expressing neuroblasts, since the labial-expressing BAlp4, BAlv, TRdm, and ...
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pattern-recognition molecules resembling the toll proteins that mediate antimicrobial responses in Drosophila. These proteins recognize different microbial products during infection and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. The TLRs act through adaptor molecules to activate various kinases and transcription factors so the organism can respond to potential infection. These adaptor molecules include TOLLIP, MyD88, and TRIF. TOLLIP associates directly with TLR2 and TLR 4, acting as an inhibitor to TLR activation. This negative regulation of TLR signaling may serve to limit the production of proinflammatory mediators during infection and inflammation ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pattern-recognition molecules resembling the toll proteins that mediate antimicrobial responses in Drosophila. These proteins recognize different microbial products during infection and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. The TLRs act through adaptor molecules to activate various kinases and transcription factors so the organism can respond to potential infection. These adaptor molecules include TOLLIP, MyD88, and TRIF. TOLLIP associates directly with TLR2 and TLR 4, acting as an inhibitor to TLR activation. This negative regulation of TLR signaling may serve to limit the production of proinflammatory mediators during infection and inflammation ...
DESPOLARIZACION Y POLARIZACION CARDIACA PDF - Este umbral depende directamente del grado de polarización, la polaridad de en el momento en que no se produce un latido cardíaco, el marcapasos lo.
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as in expression OA Life Stage term info and possibly load an image of the elegans developmental cycle, which I will provide id : WBls:0000045 name : L1-L2d ecdysis Ce def : The stage during L1-L2d molt, after the brief lethargus period, when an animal sheds off old cuticle. [wb:wjc] relationship : part_of WBls:0000043 ! L1-L2d molt Ce I need to discuss with you because I would like to have the Life stage info paired with Anatomy.i.e. we will have 3 Expressed during box, one next to Certainly expressed in, one next to Partially expressed in, one next to Possibly expressed in ...
as in expression OA Life Stage term info and possibly load an image of the elegans developmental cycle, which I will provide id : WBls:0000045 name : L1-L2d ecdysis Ce def : The stage during L1-L2d molt, after the brief lethargus period, when an animal sheds off old cuticle. [wb:wjc] relationship : part_of WBls:0000043 ! L1-L2d molt Ce I need to discuss with you because I would like to have the Life stage info paired with Anatomy.i.e. we will have 3 Expressed during box, one next to Certainly expressed in, one next to Partially expressed in, one next to Possibly expressed in ...
pyroglutamyl-leucyl-asparaginyl-phenylalanyl-seryl-threonyl-glycyl-tryptophanamide: an adipokinetic peptide from the pyrgomorphid grasshopper Phymateus leprosus
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Why do dark genes always dominate light genes? If white was the stronger gene than why are light skinned characteristics recessive? Wouldnt it only m
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis by molt-inhibiting hormone in crabs. T2 - Involvement of cyclic AMP-mediated protein synthesis. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. AU - Spaziani, Eugene. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The crustacean neuropeptide, molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), directly inhibits Y-organ ecdysteroidogenesis, an effect mediated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) and antagonized by calcium-calmodulin. We investigated regulation of Y-organ protein, RNA, and DNA syntheses by MIH, cAMP, and calcium in relation to steroidogenesis in vitro. Ecdysteroid production and [3H]leucine incorporation into protein were inhibited 50-60 and 80-90%, respectively, by MIH activity in eyestalk extracts (4 eyestalk equivalents), 10-6 M forskolin, or a combination of 10-2 M dibutyryl cAMP and 10-4 M 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (dbcAMP-IBMX). Calcium ionophore A23187 (10-4 M) stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis two-fold, did not affect the relatively high basal (control) rate of protein synthesis, and reduced the ...
Locusta-diuretic peptide (Locusta-DP)-like immunoreactive material was detected throughout the locust central nervous system (CNS) and in associated neurohaemal organs. HPLC fractionation of brain and corpora cardiaca extracts showed that immunoreactive material co-eluted with the synthetic peptide and was biologically active. The presence of Locusta-DP in these tissues was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The peptide was shown to be released from corpora cardiaca, and could be detected in haemolymph of fed locusts. Antibodies raised against Locusta-DP(29-46) specifically blocked an increase in amaranth clearance by recently fed locusts, thereby demonstrating the role of Locusta-DP in the control or post-feeding diuresis.
PubMed journal article: DNA amount of X and B chromosomes in the grasshoppers Eyprepocnemis plorans and Locusta migratoria. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Both LCMI I and II are inhibitors of chymotrypsin and elastase (in vitro). They both inhibit the prophenol oxidase activation cascade.
Flesh fly: Flesh fly, (family Sarcophagidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, that are similar in appearance to the house fly but are characterized by
Joseph G. C. Yeoh, Aniruddha A. Pandit, Meet Zandawala, Dick R. Nässel, Shireen-Anne Davies, Julian A. T. Dow. 2017. DINeR - Database for Insect Neuropeptide Research. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 86: 9-19.. Olga I. Kubrak, Sören Nylin, Thomas Flatt, Dick R. Nässel, Olof Leimar. 2017. Adaptation to fluctuating environments in a selection experiment with Drosophila melanogaster. Ecology and Evolution 7: 3796-3807.. Jiangnan Luo, Yiting Liu, Dick R. Nassel. 2017. Transcriptional Reorganization of Drosophila Motor Neurons and Their Muscular Junctions toward a Neuroendocrine Phenotype by the bHLH Protein Dimmed. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 10.. Yiting Liu, Sifang Liao, Jan A. Veenstra, Dick R. Nässel. 2016. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 1 (DILP1) is transiently expressed during non-feeding stages and reproductive dormancy. Scientific Reports 6.. Olga I. Kubrak, Lucie Kucerova, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R. Nässel. 2016. Characterization of Reproductive Dormancy ...
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Leucomyosuppressin, 5 mg. Leucomyosuppressin insect neuropeptide originally isolated from head extracts of the Madeira cockroach Leucophaea maderae inhibits spontaneous contractions of the cockroachs lower digestive tract.
Cardoso JCR, Félix RC, Bergqvist CA, Larhammar D. New insights into the evolution of vertebrate CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) and invertebrate DH44 (diuretic hormone 44) receptors in metazoans. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014;209:162-70. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.09.004 ...
Slovenská národná knižnica si Vás dovoľuje pozvať na celoslovenský seminár Benchmarking verejných knižníc 15. októbra 2019 od 13.00 hod. v konferenčnej sále sídelnej budovy SNK Celoslovenský seminár je určený pre zriaďovateľov a riadiacich pracovníkov knižníc, pre výskumných pracovníkov, metodikov a pre širokú odbornú knihovnícku verejnosť so záujmom o vývoj slovenských verejných knižníc a aktivity Knihovníckeho institutu NK ČR na podporu knižníc. Program 13.00 Prezentácia účastníkov 13.30 - 13.40 Privítanie účastníkov Mgr. Zuzana Prachárová, riaditeľka Knižničného inštitútu SNK 13.40 - 14.40 Benchmarking knihoven a jiné aktivity Knihovnického institutu NK ČR na podporu veřejných knihoven v roku 2019PhDr. Vít Richter, riaditeľ Knihovníckeho institutu NK Praha                 14.40 - 15.50 Analýza podmienok a výkonov slovenských verejných
DISPLASIA ARRITMOGENICA DEL VENTRICULO DERECHO PDF - Displasia arritmogénica del ventrículo derecho con compromiso de ventrículo izquierdo: valor diagnóstico de la resonancia cardiaca. La displasia
Adult development theory, like all good theories, can help us see patterns that might be invisible otherwise. We can ask a new set of questions about ourselves and others. And perhaps most importantly, we can come to see ourselves and others as we are becoming rather than as we have been.
While Hyalophora cecropia larvae are large and feed on a wide range of host plants, this species is not considered a serious pest in any parts of its range. Some populations of Hyalophora cecropia may be in decline due to a number of factors, including nontarget effects of introduced biological control agents. Boettner et al. (2000) suggested that the generalist parasitoid fly Compsilura concinnata (Diptera: Tachinidae) may be responsible for such declines in the northeastern U.S. Due to its size and hardiness, Hyalophora cecropia has been used extensively in physiological and biochemical research. Carroll Williams conducted pioneering work on juvenile hormone and its role in molting and metamorphosis using this species. Owing to its impressive size and appearance, Hyalophora cecropia has become a favorite of collectors and amateur Lepidopterists. Eggs and pupae are commercially available, and a small livestock industry has developed around this and other related species. ...
Gellon, G., et al. (1997). A genetic screen for modifiers of Deformed homeotic function identifies novel genes required for head development. Development 124(17): 3321-3331 Gerasimova, T. I. and Corces, V. G. (1998). Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Cell 92(4): 511-521 Gindhart, J. G. and Kaufman, T. C. (1995a). Identification of Polycomb and trithorax group responsive elements in the regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics 139: 797-814 Gindhart, J. G., Jr., King, A. N. and Kaufman, T. C. (1995b). Characterization of the cis-regulatory region of the Drosophila homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Genetics 139: 781-795. 7713432 Gleason, J. E., Korswagen, H. C. and Eisenmann, D. M. (2002). Activation of Wnt signaling bypasses the requirement for RTK/Ras signaling during C. elegans vulval induction. Genes Dev. 16: 1281-1290. 12023306 Gonzalez-Reyes, A., Macias, A. and Morata, G. (1992). Autocatalysis and ...
BioAssay record AID 102342 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro inhibitory activity of compound on ecdysone biosynthesis in larval prothoracic glands of Locusta migratoria; NI: No inhibition was observed.
We have undertaken a developmental genetic analysis of the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) of Drosophila melanogaster by examining embryonic and adult phenotypes of mutations affecting Scr gene function. Molecular mapping of Scr breakpoint lesions has defined a segment of greater than 70 kb of DNA necessary for proper Scr gene function. This region is split by the fushi tarazu (ftz) gene, with lesions affecting embryonic Scr function molecularly mapping to the region proximal (5) to ftz and those exhibiting polyphasic semilethality predominantly mapping distal (3) to ftz. Gain-of-function mutations are associated with genomic rearrangements and map throughout the Scr locus. Our analysis has revealed that the Scr locus encompasses genetic elements that are responsible for functions in both the embryonic and larval to adult periods of development. From these studies, we conclude that Scr is a complex genetic locus with an extensive regulatory region that directs functions required for ...
Confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used to carry out a comparative study of the immunostaining for three families of neuropeptides, viz., allatostatin-A (AS-A), allatostatin-C (AS-C) and allatotropin (AT), in adult female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles albimanus. The specific patterns of immunostaining for each of the three peptides were similar in both species. The antisera raised against AT, AS-A, and AS-C revealed intense immunoreactivity in the cells of each protocerebral lobe of the brain and stained cells in each of the ventral ganglia and neuronal projections innervating various thoracic and abdominal tissues. Only the AS-A antiserum labeled immunoreactive endocrine cells in the midgut. The distribution of the peptides supports the concept that they play multiple regulatory roles in both species.
Cytochrome P450 superfamily proteins play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and during physiological and developmental processes. To contribute to our understanding of this large gene family in insects, we have investigated the function of the cytochrome P450 gene LmCYP4G102 in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Suppression of LmCYP4G102 expression by RNA interference (RNAi) does not interfere with moulting but causes rapid loss of body weight - probably due to massive loss of water, and death soon after moulting. Accordingly, maintaining these animals at 90% relative humidity prevented lethality. Consistently, RNAi against LmCYP4G102 provoked a decrease in the content of cuticular alkanes, which as an important fraction of cuticular hydrocarbons have been shown to confer desiccation resistance. In addition, the cuticle of LmCYP4G102- knockdown locusts was fragile and easier deformable than in control animals. Presumably, this phenotype is due to decreased amounts of ...
South San Francisco, CA: A novel antibacterial protein targeted against E. coli O157:H7 may offer a way to prevent or treat serious food-borne bacterial infections, as demonstrated in a study published in the December issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Results in an animal model of E. coli infection showed that the orally administered protein, developed by AvidBiotics, Inc., could prevent or treat E. coli O157:H7-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation when administered either on a preventative basis or after the onset of diarrhea. Moreover, animals treated with the protein also carried and shed fewer of the E. coli O157:H7 bacteria in their feces.. E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods like ground meats or produce is a well-publicized public health problem, with life-threatening infection outbreaks reported around the world in recent years, said Dean Scholl, Ph.D., lead author of the publication. Antibiotics are contraindicated for patients infected with enterohemorrhagic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mejorar la calidad de la asistencia cardiaca. T2 - un imperativo mundial. AU - Smith, Sidney C.. AU - Fonarow, Gregg C.. AU - Piña, Ileana L.. AU - Suter, Robert. AU - Morgan, Louise. AU - Taubert, Kathryn. AU - Sánchez, Eduardo. AU - Antman, Elliott. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/j.recesp.2015.07.006. DO - 10.1016/j.recesp.2015.07.006. M3 - Article. C2 - 26363722. VL - 68. SP - 924. EP - 927. JO - Revista Espanola de Cardiologia. JF - Revista Espanola de Cardiologia. SN - 0300-8932. IS - 11. ER - ...
Description - NHP interleukin 17C (CX2, IL17C; Gene ID: 710618) is a cytokine that plays an important role in the innate immune system. It binds to the heterodimeric IL-17RA/IL-17RE receptor on immune cells, synergizing with IL-22 to stimulate the release of various antibacterial proteins and proinflammatory cytokines. Excessive activation of IL-17C causes pathogenic inflammatory effects seen in various autoimmune disorders ...
Little is known about the worlds first serial killer, which is perhaps why accounts of Locustas death are . . . eccentric? Heres what we do know: Locusta hailed from Gaul, the outer province of Ancient Rome now known as France. Trained in herbs, she mastered the system of
The attitude of the cooler-than-cool couple in front of us in line for Amon Tobin, the Brazilian electronic musician/mad scientist, pretty much summed up the evening for me. Sure, I expected hipsters galore at a show like this -- while Ive never really met any other Amon Tobin fans,...
para q sirve la colchicina furosemida en insuficiencia cardiaca strattera presentaciones site para que sirve azitromicina 500 mg la fluoxetina sirve para bajar de peso meticorten 5 mg para que sirve ...
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... is an insect hormone which mediates tanning in the cuticle of adult flies. The molecular structure of the hormone has been ... Fraenkel G, Hsiao C, Seligman M (January 1966). "Properties of bursicon: an insect protein hormone that controls cuticular ... the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2". ... Bursicon plays a very important role in insect wing expansion during the last step of metamorphosis: maturation of the wing. At ...
His subsequent scientific activities helped determine the role of the insect brain in hormone production. He was the earliest ... Litwack, Gerald (2005-12-19). Insect Hormones. ISBN 9780127098739. Capinera, John L (2008-08-11). Encyclopedia of Entomology. ... Sláma, Karel, Insect Endocrinology: A Tribute to Stefan Kopeć, from Historical figures in Insect Physiology, University of ... Development of a larval in vivo assay for prothoracicotropic hormone". Journal of Insect Physiology. 38 (11): 925-938. doi: ...
Sharma, Pradeep (2008). Insect Hormones. Discovery Publishing House. ISBN 81-8356-290-6. Murty, M. L. K. (2003). Comprehensive ...
Juvenile hormone is synthesised in the corpora allata. In every insect tested, at least one of the three types of Allatostatin ... Allatostatins are neuropeptide hormones in insects and crustacea. They have a twofold function: they both inhibit the ... Stay B, Tobe SS (2007). "The role of allatostatins in juvenile hormone synthesis in insects and crustaceans". Annu. Rev. ... Gäde G, Goldsworthy GJ (2003). "Insect peptide hormones: a selective review of their physiology and potential application for ...
Roles of Juvenile Hormone in Adult Insects". Cellular and molecular actions of juvenile hormone. II. Roles of juvenile hormones ... Peptide hormones, Fish hormones, Insect hormones, Beekeeping, Precursor proteins, Peripheral membrane proteins, Protein domains ... For the majority of the investigated insect species it has been documented that juvenile hormone stimulates the transcription ... Engelmann F (1983). "Vitellogenesis controlled by juvenile hormone". In Downer RG, Laufer H (eds.). Endocrinology of Insects. ...
Thomson, JA; Imray, F Paula; Hohn, DHS (1970). "An Improved Calliphora Bioassay for Insect Moulting Hormones". Australian ... insects can be used instead. Larval secession can aid in determining the time of death through aging the insects that are ... Insects of Australia, Diptera of New Zealand, Insects described in 1781). ... Insects can hold these toxins for months after the tissues disappear. These flies are also affected by weather conditions. The ...
This large insect had enough juvenile hormone in its abdomen to permit extraction of detectable amounts from a single specimen ... The original description of the insect juvenile hormone by Carroll Williams in Nature in 1956 is from the cecropia silkworm. ... "The Juvenile Hormone of Insects". Nature. 178 (4526): 212-213. "An uncommon visitor with many little legs". CBC News. August 8 ...
Insects use hormones similar to thyroid hormone using iodine. Phosphorylated tyrosines created with tyrosine kinases are ... Flatt, Thomas; Moroz, Leonid L.; Tatar, Marc; Heyland, Andreas (December 2006). "Comparing thyroid and insect hormone signaling ... A deficiency of thyroid hormones can reduce basal metabolic rate up to 50%, while an excessive production of thyroid hormones ... Gut-inhabiting bacteria use iodine from host thyroid hormone. Thyroid-like hormones may be linked to the development of ...
Two major insect moulting hormones, alpha ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are found in bracken. These cause uncontrollable, ... Kaplanis, J. N.; Thompson, M. J.; Robbins, W. E.; Bryce, B. M. (22 September 1967). "Insect Hormones: Alpha Ecdysone and 20- ... Hydrogen cyanide is released by the young fronds of bracken when eaten by mammals or insects. ... repeated moulting in insects ingesting the fronds, leading to rapid death. Bracken is currently under investigation as a ...
Finally, he was active in the field of insect juvenile hormones. Šorm was the author or co-author of a large number of ... He also initiated the study of natural peptides, especially neurohypophyseal hormones and their analogues, some of which were ...
v t e (Steroids, Insect hormones, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ... the overlooked sex steroids of insects? Males: the black box". Insect Science. 13 (5): 325-338. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7917.2006. ... Ecdysteroids are arthropod steroid hormones that are mainly responsible for molting, development and, to a lesser extent, ... Phytoecdysteroids also appear in many plants mostly as a protection agents (toxins or antifeedants) against herbivore insects. ...
The seed contain insect moulting hormones including rubrosterone, ecdysterone, and inokosterone. The root contains ...
Insect growth regulators (juvenile hormones, chitin synthesis inhibitors, etc.) are available. For example, the insect growth ... ISBN 0-85546-276-0. Lane, R.P. & Crosskey, R.W. (1993) Medical Insects and Arachnids. Chapman & Hall, London. ISBN 0-412-40000- ... Marshall, A.G. (1981) The Ecology of Ectoparasitic Insects. New York, Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-474080-4. Paterson, S. (2008) ... London, British Museum (Natural History). Lehane, M.J. (1991) The Biology of Blood-sucking Insects. London, Harper Collins, ...
"Insect morphogenetic hormones and developmental mechanisms in the nematode, Nematospiroides dubius". Comparative Biochemistry ...
Insect hormones, Insect developmental biology, All stub articles, Insect stubs). ... Insect molting hormones (ecdysone and its homologues) are generally called ecdysteroids. Ecdysteroids act as moulting hormones ... Ecdysone is a[clarification needed] prohormone of the major insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is secreted from ... Recent findings in the laboratory of Chris Q. Doe have found a novel role of this hormone in regulating temporal gene ...
Azadirachtin mimics insect hormones called ecdysones that regulate pupation of insects; application of azadirachtin interrupts ... the development and pupation of insects, which eventually kills them. The name indicates that the basic skeleton of such ...
... growth proteins and hormones in social insects". eLife. 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.20375. PMC 5153251. PMID 27894417. Sal, Lorrianne ... The crop can be found in the foregut of insects. In a bird's digestive system, the crop is an expanded, muscular pouch near the ... The crop in eusocial insects, such as ants, has specialized to be distensible, and this specialization enables important ... Triplehorn, Charles A; Johnson, Norman F (2005). Borror and DeLong's introduction to the study of insects (7th ed.). Australia ...
Daimon, T; Shinoda, T (January 2013). "Function, diversity, and application of insect juvenile hormone epoxidases (CYP15)". ... a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum". Journal of Insect Physiology. 80: 61-70. doi: ... Cytochrome P450, family 15, also known as CYP15, is an animal cytochrome P450 family found in insect genome, involved in ... a precursor of juvenile hormone, alone with its ortholog TcCYP15A1 in Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle). Nelson, DR ( ...
The insect was used by Sir Vincent Wigglesworth for the detection of insect hormones. It has been implicated in the ... Insect vectors of human pathogens, Chagas disease, Insects described in 1859, Insects of South America). ... The insect has five larval stages, with a moult between each. Each larval stage consumes a single large meal of blood, which ... Further it was demonstrated that the corpora allata secrete the juvenile hormone which prevents the premature development into ...
The topic of the lecture was From the Dalmatian Insect Powder to Sex Hormones. In 1940 he became a foreign member of the Royal ... Both discoveries led to the pre-eminence of the Swiss industry in the steroid hormone field. At Zurich, at ETH he became ... Over the period 1934-1939 he had published 70 papers in the field of medicinally important steroid sex hormones, and filed ... After the successful synthesis in 1935 of sex hormones (androsterone and testosterone), his laboratory became the world center ...
It is therefore one of the most common moulting hormones in insects, crabs, etc. It is also a phytoecdysteroid produced by ... An ecdysteroid is a type of steroid hormones in insects that are derived from enzymatic modification of cholesterol by p450 ... Being that these hormones are hydrophobic, they traverse lipid membranes and permeate the tissues of an organism. Indeed, the ... These hormone producing tissues express the ecdysone receptor throughout development, possibly indicating a functional feedback ...
"Cucurbitacins are insect steroid hormone antagonists acting at the ecdysteroid receptor". Biochemical Journal. 327 (3): 643-650 ... These plants provide nourishment for a number of insect species of which the rare Euchloe tagis butterfly is the most striking ... acting on the ecdysteroid receptor of insects. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606-607 RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. ...
"Lack of 'happiness' hormone makes rice plants less attractive to insects". Retrieved 2019-12-15. "How the humble ... Her work has looked at how plants interact with insects and how this can be manipulated to reduce the attraction of crop plants ... Gatehouse's research examines plant and pest insect interactions at the molecular level, and how this can be used for ... as they repel the insect pest the glasshouse whitefly. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops, edited with Natalie ...
... is a juvenile hormone analog and an insect growth regulator. It prevents larvae from developing into adulthood and ... "insect development is quite different to human development and involves different hormones, developmental pathways and sets of ... Pyriproxyfen is a pesticide which is found to be effective against a variety of insects. It was introduced to the US in 1996, ... Ishaaya, I; Horowitz, AR (1995). "Pyriproxyfen, a Novel Insect Growth Regulator for Controlling Whiteflies : Mechanisms and ...
Strand, M.R.; Brown, M.R.; Vogel, K.J. (2016). "Mosquito Peptide Hormones". Advances in Insect Physiology. Vol. 51. Elsevier. ... Insect vectors of human pathogens, Animal models, Insects described in 1902). ... This species has the highest amount of polymorphism in the CYPs of any insect known, much tending to be found in "scaffolds" ... 2012). Insect molecular biology and biochemistry. Amsterdam Boston: Academic Press. pp. x+563. ISBN 978-0-12-384747-8. OCLC ...
Instead, it prevents immature insects from reaching maturity by mimicking juvenile hormone. Fenoxycarb in the Pesticide ... Fenoxycarb is a carbamate insect growth regulator. It has a low toxicity for bees, birds, and humans, but is toxic to fish.[ ... "New insecticides with ecdysteroidal and juvenile hormone activity". Annual Review of Entomology. Annual Reviews. 43 (1): 545- ...
After an insect attack tomato plants produce systemin, a plant peptide hormone. Systemin activates defensive mechanisms, such ... The hormone was first identified in tomatoes, but similar proteins have been identified in other species since. Although not a ... The ideal vibratory frequencies to release pollen grains are provided by an insect, such as a bumblebee, or the original wild ... The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family ...
Juvenil hormones (JHs) are implied in insect development, reproduction, longevity and both, solitary and social behaviour. In ... 6 Gram-negative binding proteins (GNBPs), more than in other insects. One of them is specific of insect and the rest are ... This termite only has two opsin genes copies, the smallest number of opsin genes among the insects, as a result of living in ... In eusocial insects and the reproductive division of labour is regulated by cuticular hydrocarbons. The reproductive status in ...
Juvenile hormones, which are known to regulate insect development, have also been extracted from its bark. Pierre noted that ...
Neem extracts act as an antifeedant and block the action of the insect molting hormone ecdysone. Azadirachtin is the most ... Neem oil is not known to be harmful to mammals, birds, earthworms or some beneficial insects such as butterflies, honeybees and ... Robert L. Metcalf (2007), "Insect Control", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.), Wiley, pp. 1-64, doi: ...
They act as a covering, protecting the corm from insects, digging animals, flooding, and water loss. The tunics of some species ...
Some species of Hagfish reproduce seasonally, stimulated by hormones from their pituitary gland. E. burgeri is known to ... analogous to the peritrophic matrix of insects.[56] ...
... ing stimulates the production of hormones responsible for a good mood: oxytocin, which releases the feeling of love and ... and insects exchange caresses" which appear to be kisses of affection, they are not kisses in the human sense. ... the cataglottism of pigeons and the antennal play of some insects." Even among mammals such as the dog, cat and bear, similar ... strengthens the bond with the partner, endorphins - hormones responsible for the feeling of happiness -, and dopamine, which ...
... sex hormones, and neuropeptides) that govern these drives are testosterone, estrogen, dopamine, oxytocin, and vasopressin.[10][ ... using both hormones and monoamines. ... Animal studies indicate that elevated activity of dopaminergic pathways can stimulate a ...
Allen and Doisy did not name the hormone, and simply referred to it as an "ovarian hormone" or "follicular hormone";[78] others ... Apart from humans and other mammals, estradiol is also found in most vertebrates and crustaceans, insects, fish, and other ... Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone. It is involved in the ... Production rates, secretion rates, clearance rates, and blood levels of major sex hormones Sex Sex hormone Reproductive. phase ...
... the organ responsible for secreting juvenile hormone during insect growth and development. This chemical triggers the next ... Ageratum has evolved a unique method of protecting itself from insects: it produces a methoprene-like compound which interferes ... molting cycle to prematurely develop adult structures, and can render most insects sterile if ingested in large enough ...
Most commonly, flowers are insect-pollinated, known as entomophilous; literally "insect-loving" in Greek.[54] To attract these ... needs a plant is able to interpret important endogenous and environmental cues such as changes in levels of plant hormones and ... Many flowers, for example, attract only one specific species of insect, and therefore rely on that insect for successful ... "Journal of Insect Physiology. 58 (2): 278-285. doi:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2011.12.001. ISSN 0022-1910. PMID 22172382. Archived from ...
"Journal of Insect Behavior. 9 (5): 659-672. doi:10.1007/BF02213547. ISSN 1572-8889. S2CID 42555491.. ... molting hormones, or the nervous system.[55] Phenolics combine an aromatic carbon ring with a hydroxyl group. There are several ... Insect crop damages also contribute largely to annual crop losses in the U.S.[69] Herbivores also affect economics through the ... What we know and do not know about coevolution: insect herbivores and plants as a test case. Pages 7-30 in H. Olff, V. K. Brown ...
1977 - Roger Guillemin, Andrew W. Schally, United States, for their discoveries about how the brain makes peptide hormone[68] ... 1948 - Paul Hermann Müller, Switzerland, for his work on DDT as a poison against several insects[39] ... 1947 - Bernardo Alberto Houssay, Argentina, for finding out how the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe works in the ... 1950 - Philip French, Edward Kendall, United States, and Tadeusz Reichstein, Switzerland, for the hormones of the adrenal ...
Hormone-controlled UV-B responses in plants, archived from the original on 8 July 2016. ... "Insect-O-Cutor" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 June 2013.. ... UVB also plays a major role in plant development, as it affects most of the plant hormones.[26] During total overcast, the ... Many insects use the ultraviolet wavelength emissions from celestial objects as references for flight navigation. A local ...
2006 - Mandyam Veerambudi Srinivasan For research that has revealed the working of the insect mind, and helped redefine ... 2003 - Christopher Helliwell For isolating the genes that control the biosynthesis of gibberellin, a plant hormone that ... 2001 - Donald Metcalf For discovery and development of hormones called "colony stimulating factors" which stimulate the ...
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a cholinergic synapse in vertebrates, glutamatergic in insects. *Ciliary calyx in the ciliary ... "Regulation of Excitatory Synapses and Fearful Memories by Stress Hormones". Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. Switzerland ...
For example, responding to a local itch sensation is an effective way to remove insects from one's skin. ... Hyperparathyroidism, overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH)[15] ... Formication, a sensation that resembles that of small insects crawling on or under the skin ...
Vitamins & Hormones. 23. стр. 359-382. doi:10.1016/S0083-6729(08)60385-4. ISBN 9780127098234. . PMID 5326344.. ... In Chemistry and biology of social insects (edited by Eder, J., Rembold, H.). Munich, German Federal Republic, Verlag J. Papemy ...
Hormones that are passed down from the mother into the egg affect offspring growth, behavior, and social interactions. These ... During breeding season, coots are more likely to eat aquatic insects and mollusks-which constitute the majority of a chick's ...
They are relatives of insects. If the Arthropods are regarded as a superphylum, then the insects and crustacea would be phyla ( ... Moulting is controlled by hormones. A new exoskeleton is then secreted to replace the old one. While they wait for their new ...
Insect pests[edit]. Aphis fabae[edit]. Broad bean plants are highly susceptible to early summer infestations of the black bean ... "Ubiquitin, Hormones and Biotic Stress in Plants". Annals of Botany. Annals of Botany Company (OUP). 99 (5): 787-822. doi ...
Wilson describes On Human Nature as a sequel to his earlier books The Insect Societies (1971) and Sociobiology: The New ... Some indication is given by considering the effects of hormone treatments during pregnancy and the equal treatment in the ... In The Insect Societies (1971), I proposed that a coherent branch of biology might be constructed from a synthesis of social ... producing insect-like behavior? His view is that genetic factors act as a set of biases in development, nudging it one way or ...
... which includes analysis of the coevolution of flowers and their insect pollinators. ...
Xylem sap (pronounced /ˈzaɪləm/) consists primarily of a watery solution of hormones, mineral elements and other nutrients. ... Many insects of the order Hemiptera (the half-wings), feed directly on phloem sap, and make it the primary component of their ... Phloem sap (pronounced /ˈfloʊɛm/) consists primarily of sugars, hormones, and mineral elements dissolved in water. It flows ... Insect honeydew is called sap, particularly when it falls from trees, but is only the remains of eaten sap and other plant ...
The maist sensitive auries are aroond the een, lugs, an neb.[75] Horse are able tae sense contact as subtle as an insect ... "A missense mutation in the gene for melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is associated with the chestnut coat color ...
Placentas vary with respect to the transport of nutrients and hormones, a variance that may influence epigenesis. For example, ... ISBN 0-452-26672-6. Irles P, Bellés X, Piulachs MD (2009). "Identifying genes related to choriogenesis in insect panoistic ...
J Insect Physiol 42(1) 3-12. Ichikawa, T. and H. Sakamoto. (2013). A third type of defensive behavior in the tenebrionid beetle ... but should not be confused with darkling beetle mealworms sprayed with juvenile hormone. Studies have found that in the wild ... Zophobas atratus pupae.[permanent dead link] Journal of Insect Science 13 33. Tschinkel, W. (1981). Larval dispersal and ...
Its expression can also be modified through hormones such as triiodothyronine, a thyroid hormone. For instance, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase ... At position 312, insects feeding on Apocynum species differed from mammalian Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase through the change of glutamic acid ... Thyroid hormone V-ATPase Clausen MV, Hilbers F, Poulsen H (June 2017). "The Structure and Function of the Na,K-ATPase Isoforms ... Lin HH, Tang MJ (January 1997). "Thyroid hormone upregulates Na,K-ATPase α and β mRNA in primary cultures of proximal tubule ...
As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ... Paternally inherited mitochondria have additionally been reported in some insects such as fruit flies, honeybees, and ...
However, in aerodynamics experiments with other insects, he found that viscosity at the scale of small insects meant even their ... The hormones that stimulate the development of the ovaries are suppressed in female worker bees, while the queen remains ... Harmless insects such as hoverflies often derive protection from resembling bumblebees, in Batesian mimicry, and may be ... Most bumblebees are social insects that form colonies with a single queen. The colonies are smaller than those of honey bees, ...
While seed dormancy is linked to many genes, abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, has been linked as a major influencer to ... Diapause is common in insects, allowing them to suspend development between autumn and spring, and in mammals such as the roe ... A simple diagram can be drawn of ABA inhibits seed germination, while gibberellin (GA, also plant hormone) inhibits ABA ...
Many forms of sexual selection exist among the insects. Parental care is often provided by female insects, as in bees, but male ... 1 February 2006). "Menstrual cycle, trait estrogen level, and masculinity preferences in the human voice". Hormones and ... Gilbert, James D. J.; Manica, Andrea (30 April 2015). "The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses ... Since Darwin's pioneering observations on humans, it has been studied intensively among the insects, spiders, amphibians, ...
Ecdysterone, an insect moulting hormone, and long chain alcohols are also found in Achyranthes aspera. BSBI List 2007 (xls). ...
Karlson Lecture Xavier BellesInstitute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-UFP, Barcelona, Spain Plenary Speakers Suzanne Eaton Max Planck Institute, Dresden, Germany François LeulierInstitut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, France Irene Miguel-AliagaMRC, Imperial College London, United Kingdom Norbert PerrimonHHMI, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA Carl ThummelUniversity of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA Additional Speakers: Michael Adams (University of…
Photoperiodic regulation of insect and molluscan hormones. Contributor(s): Symposium on Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect and ... Insect hormones -- congresses , Insects -- physiology -- congresses , Mollusca -- physiology -- congresses , Periodicity -- ... congresses , Invertebrate hormones -- physiology -- congresses , LightNLM classification: QL 495 Tags from this library: No ... Molluscan Hormones (1983 : Ciba Foundation)Material type: TextSeries: Ciba Foundation symposium ; 104Publication details: ...
Polyphenism in insects and the juvenile hormone. Journal of Biosciences. 2007 Mar; 32(2): 415-20. ...
Categories: Insect Hormones Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 93 ...
Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect and Molluscan Hormones. Collins, Geralyn M.. 79,20€ ...
Irregular plant growths caused by reactions between plant hormones and growth-regulating chemicals produced by some insects or ... Six (6%) case respondents recalled an insect bite within 24 hours before the appearance of the rash or lesion. Respondents ... Through initial reports, KDHE characterized the rash as closely resembling an insect bite (i.e., pruritic, erythematous, and ... Pyemotes genus probably caused the insect bites. They based their hypothesis on the similar distribution of rash among persons ...
Insect hormone biosynthesis. rn00983 Drug metabolism - other enzymes. rn00997 Biosynthesis of various other secondary ...
The interaction with the juvenile hormone was −11.4 kcal/mol for the molecule ZINC00001021. Molecules ZINC00001021 and ... Molecule ZINC00001624 presented potential for inhibition for the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (insect and human) with a binding ... Comparative genomics of insect juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 2006, 36, 366-374. [Google Scholar] [ ... and reproduction of insects are under control of juvenile and ecdysteroid hormones, or molting hormones, secreted by specific ...
Egt codes for an enzyme that inactivates an insect moulting hormone called 20-hydroxyecdysone. This is useful because when ... the enzyme for which egt codes gradually increases the amount of inactivated moulting hormone in the caterpillars body - and ...
The limonoid called azaridictin in neem oil is what insects seem to detest. Azaridictin is similar to insect hormones and ... The bitter curry is also supposed to stimulate appetite as it stimulates the liver to produce bile, hormones and folic acid. ... It acts as a pesticide against almost 200 species of insects! Neem based pesticides are now produced commercially all over the ... So it is safely used as an insect repellent in grain stores and cattle feed. ...
... insect moulting hormones ingested by song birds affect their ticks, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6: 23390. dokumentum típusa: ... Hornok S, Berkecz R, Sos E, Sandor AD, Kormoczi T, Solymosi N, Kontschan J, Hunyadi A: Arthropod moulting hormones ( ...
... is one of the most invasive insect pests worldwide. The two most destructive whitefly cryptic species are MEAM1/B and MED/Q. ... is one of the most invasive insect pests worldwide. The two most destructive whitefly cryptic species are MEAM1/B and MED/Q. ... 2017). Viral effector protein manipulates host hormone signaling to attract insect vectors. Cell Res. 27, 402-415. doi: 10.1038 ... Within plant-virus-insect tritrophic interactions, both insects and plants emit and receive chemical cues that modulate their ...
Together they worked on steroid hormones, insect development, and gene regulation in general. She helped create the, now ... In her early research she focused on the endocrine control of insect metamorphosis; later she broadened her work to address ...
They contribute to vital processes such as carbon source assimilation, biosynthesis of hormones and of structural components of ... insect molting hormone) biosynthesis CYP504 Aspergillus nidulans Penicillin overproduction Phenylacetate 2-hydroxylase (a ... is one of the major defense compounds against microbial pathogens and insects accumulated in the gramineae. ...
Nijhout H.F. (1994) Insect Hormones, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J. ... Effects of juvenile hormone on the development of tergal glands in Melipona, J. Apic. Res. 33, 11-14. . ... Kerr W.E., Akahira Y., Camargo C.A. (1975) Sex determination in bees, IV, Genetic control of juvenile hormone production in ... Velthuis H.H.W., Sommeijer M.J. (1991) Roles of morphogenetic hormones in caste polymorphism in stingless bees, in: Gupta A.P ...
Procorticotrophin-releasing hormone: endoproteolytic processing and differential release of its derived peptides within AtT20 ... Cloning and characterisation of a procorticotrophin-releasing hormone in the IZD-MB-0503 immunocyte line from the insect ... Differential processing of corticotrophin-releasing hormone by the human placenta and hypothalamus.. *E. Chan, M. Thomson, G. ... Prothyrotropin-releasing Hormone Targets Its Processing Products to Different Vesicles of the Secretory Pathway*. *M. Perelló, ...
hormones in insects and can disrupt moulting, perturbing normal insect development [44]. When ingested by ...
00981 Insect hormone biosynthesis. 00908 Zeatin biosynthesis. 00903 Limonene and pinene degradation. 00281 Geraniol degradation ... 04935 Growth hormone synthesis, secretion and action. 04918 Thyroid hormone synthesis. 04919 Thyroid hormone signaling pathway ... 04928 Parathyroid hormone synthesis, secretion and action. 04916 Melanogenesis. 04924 Renin secretion. 04614 Renin-angiotensin ... 00140 Steroid hormone biosynthesis. 00561 Glycerolipid metabolism. 00564 Glycerophospholipid metabolism. 00565 Ether lipid ...
... may have predisposed this hormone for a regulatory role in the evolution of endothermy. ... Thyroid hormone (TH) is best known for its role in development in animals, and for its control of metabolic heat production ( ... Davey K: From insect ovaries to sheep red blood cells: a tale of two hormones. J Insect Physiol. 2007, 53: 1-10. 10.1016/j. ... Flatt T, Moroz LL, Tatar M, Heyland A: Comparing thyroid and insect hormone signaling. Integr Comp Biol. 2006, 46: 777-794. ...
Juvenile Hormone Activates the Transcription of Cell-division-cycle 6 (Cdc6) for Polyploidy-dependent Insect Vitellogenesis and ... Although juvenile hormone (JH) is known to prevent insect larval metamorphosis and stimulate adult reproduction, the molecular ... mechanisms of JH action in insect reproduction remain largely unknown. Earlier, we reported that the JH-receptor complex, ...
The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. This report shows that CTC expression in the ... The finding that CTCF has a role in the maintenance of maternal imprints in insects, as it does in mammals, supports the ... In support of this suggestion, it was found that the CTCF sites are well conserved within the sequenced insect genomes. The ... This feature may explain how CTCF can regulate imprinting in organisms as diverse as insects and mammals, in which the ...
Yucca extracts also stimulate plants immune systems to produce their own protective hormones boosting insect and disease ...
Title - Polynucleotides encoding insect steroid hormone receptor polypeptides and cells transformed with same. / Polynucleotide ... 2) a reporter gene functionally linked to an operative hormone response element wherein the hormone response element is capable ... Title - Chimeric steroid hormone superfamily receptor proteins. Claim 1. A chimeric receptor having at least an N-terminus ... a first chimeric protein comprising at least one dimerization domain of a first member of the steroid/thyroid hormone nuclear ...
INSECT SINGERS. INSECT STORIES. INSECT CLOCKS. INSECT VISION. INSECT HORMONES. DIETARY RESTRICTION AND AGING. INSECT LIVES. ... insect dietary P466》由于是年代较久的资料都绝版了,几乎不可能购买到实物。如果大家为了学习确实需要,博主可为大家寻取其电子版PDF文件,如果内容合法合规可以向博主求助,我会及时受理并将完整页PDF电子档下载地址发
In the biological warfare between plants and animals, toxins are not as effective as hormones which prevent normal insect ... After all, an insect can evolve a new enzyme to break down a toxin but it would be difficult for it to break down or ignore its ... In animals these chemicals are hormones which signal sexual differentiation, pupation, and other developmental stages. ... own sex or developmental hormone and get to the next stage of its life cycle. In humans, the sterols include the cortisone ...
Insect Growth Regulators: Inhibit the normal life cycle of insects by copying one of these hormones, directly interrupting ... Insecticides: Control insects and other arthropods.. Integrated Pest Management (IPM): The use of all suitable pest control ... Midgut Poisons: Are poisons that attack the guts of insects via protein toxins leading to unbalanced ions, or salts and other ... Larvicide: A pesticide used to kill insect larvae. Commonly used to control mosquito and black fly larvae.. Metamorphosis: A ...
Insect molting and metamorphosis are controlled by the hormone 20E, which is synthesized from the precursor E produced in the ... Three major hormones regulate most aspects of post-embryonic development in holometabolous insects: the prothoracicotropic ... Shade is the Drosophila P450 enzyme that mediates the hydroxylation of ecdysone to the steroid insect molting hormone 20- ... The Halloween genes code for cytochrome P450 enzymes mediating synthesis of the insect moulting hormone. Biochem. Soc. Trans. ...
  • Phytoplasma protein effector SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis. (
  • The influence of smoke volatiles on sexual maturation and juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the black army cutworm, Actebia fennica (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (
  • The role of allatostatic and allatotropic neuropeptides in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Lacanobia oleracea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 2001. (
  • I did my B.S. (1991) and M.S. (1993) studies at Michigan Technological University where I studied with John Adler working on the biosynthesis of insect molting hormones in plants as a defense mechanism against insect attack. (
  • The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci , is one of the most invasive insect pests worldwide. (
  • A substance or device to lure insects or other pests to a trap or poison bait. (
  • The main areas of research included issues in the resistance of pests (insects and mites) to pesticides and related biochemical mechanisms, including the processes of pesticide decomposition, the action of insecticides and their effect on pests and their natural enemies. (
  • To ensure that you are selecting a product that will be effective for your insect pests, always read and follow the label. (
  • Managing insect pests in your garden, landscape or around the house can be very frustrating. (
  • They are considered harmless to people and pets and can be very effective in stopping the life cycle of certain insect pests. (
  • Many products affect beneficial insects the same way that they affect pests. (
  • It was used primarily to control insect pests on cotton and other crops in the southern United States. (
  • Other uses included controlling insect pests on livestock and killing unwanted fish in lakes. (
  • A group of pesticides commonly used for control of insects, mites, fungi, and weeds. (
  • There he continued to study the different effects of insect hormones and also researched the levels and effects of different enzymes in insects that have developed resistance to various pesticides or are still sensitive to such substances. (
  • A number of pesticides work by chemically mimicking JHs, thus preventing insects from developing and reproducing normally. (
  • It's considered one of the safer pesticides for beneficial insects as it only affects insects that ingest it or are directly sprayed. (
  • However, many insect pollinator species have been declining because of habitat loss, climate change, pathogens, and exposure to pesticides [1. (
  • Much of the food we find in grocery stores is highly processed and grown using pesticides, hormones, and antibiotics. (
  • Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology , 70:111-115. (
  • Riddiford, L.M. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 31: 371-393. (
  • McNeil, J.N. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 30: 855-862. (
  • By synthesizing the hormone and preventing larvae developing into adult insects, Djerassi produced nontoxic and environmentally friendly insecticides. (
  • However, sometimes insect pest numbers grow to unmanageable levels and use of insecticides is justified. (
  • Botanical insecticides break down quickly after application so they are relatively safe for many beneficial insects that are not being targeted. (
  • Farmers wanting to protect their crops against pest insects often apply neurotoxic insecticides such as neonicotinoids (see Glossary ), which target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) . (
  • Background: There is growing concern that poisoning and other adverse health effects are increasing because organophosphorous (OP) insecticides are now being used in combination with pyrethroid (PYR) insecticides to enhance the toxic effects of PYR insecticides on target insects, especially those that have developed PYR resistance. (
  • Each of these species has developed resistance to one or more protectants, including organophosphorus insecticides, synthetic pyrethroids and the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene. (
  • Finally, ecdysone receptors isolated from different insects and new receptors based on the retinoic acid receptor are also included. (
  • Together, the data demonstrate the critical role of ligand desolvation in determining binding affinity, with general implications for the binding of hormones to their cognate nuclear receptors. (
  • Strangely, humans have receptors for these insect/plant steroids, and perhaps even more bizarrely, they can exert physiological and health benefits. (
  • Together they worked on steroid hormones, insect development, and gene regulation in general. (
  • It is probable that GM crops affect the sperm parameters such as morphology, motility, or abnormal steroid hormones, possibly influencing the infertility index. (
  • Upon his return to Israel (1972), he was employed for several years as a lecturer in insect physiology and general biology in the Department of Zoology at Tel Aviv University. (
  • Yucca extracts also stimulate plants' immune systems to produce their own protective hormones boosting insect and disease resistance. (
  • For field crops, these traits may include resistance to diseases and insects, resistance to heat and drought, reducing the time to crop maturity, greater yield, and better agronomic quality. (
  • Initially, their use was due to the resistance of insects and the reduction of herbicides and pesticide usage, and in the second generation, the use of these products was aimed at producing them more nutritious. (
  • The dream is becoming reality with viruses already modified to infect and transform plants giving them insect and disease resistance and weedkiller (herbicide) tolerance (585). (
  • We chose these breeds for their great maternal qualities as well as their natural resistance to insects. (
  • 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) is one of the major defense compounds against microbial pathogens and insects accumulated in the gramineae. (
  • PLNTPTH 5060 Plants can be attacked by a multitude of pathogens and insects. (
  • In the biological warfare between plants and animals, toxins are not as effective as hormones which prevent normal insect development. (
  • The expression of egt in the insect host interferes with the normal insect development by blocking the molting process. (
  • Loss of CTCF resulted in delayed and less synchronized larval development that could only be rescued by feeding larvae with both, the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone and cholesterol. (
  • These insects inject a hormone into the plant tissue, causing it to grow abnormally and enclose the developing wasp larvae. (
  • I would be wary of super worms, they are often treated with insect hormone mimics so that they grow to be extra large larvae. (
  • Djerassi's team discovered that insects produce a hormone in their early developmental stage that allows them to remain as larvae. (
  • Aquatic prey items include worms, aquatic insect larvae, small fish, and fish fry . (
  • Some insects - such as diving beetles and their larvae - will happily make a meal out of small frogs and tadpoles. (
  • Pyriproxyfen is an insect growth regulator (insect juvenile hormone analogue), active against pupal stages resulting in the inhibition of adult development (prevents emergence), and altering/disrupting normal adult behavior and decreased fertility. (
  • So it is safely used as an insect repellent in grain stores and cattle feed. (
  • Insect repellent comes in handy, but the smell is considered awful by many. (
  • Emphasis will be given to defense hormones and their signaling networks. (
  • Entomologists from Kansas State University (KSU), Pittsburg State University (PSU), and the University of Nebraska--Lincoln, hypothesized that mites from the Pyemotes genus probably caused the insect bites. (
  • Thyroid hormone (TH) is best known for its role in development in animals, and for its control of metabolic heat production (thermogenesis) during cold acclimation in mammals. (
  • We hypothesize that thyroid hormone (TH) regulates the thermal-acclimation response. (
  • The claims are geneally directed to systems to modulate the expression of a target gene by the interaction of two chimeric proteins each having a dimerization domain member of the streoid/thyroid hormone nuclear receptor. (
  • He also researched the effects of thyroid hormone deficiencies in women who had malfunctioning thyroid glands. (
  • Chronic exposure of rats resulted in increased thyroid follicular cell tumors from sustained perturbation of thyroid hormone homeostasis. (
  • Most scientists believe this has something to do with the body's ability to produce melatonin - a hormone secreted at night by the pineal gland that helps balance the reproductive, thyroid, and adrenal hormones and regulates the body's circadian rhythm of sleeping and waking. (
  • Addison's disease, hypoadrenocorticism, is an insufficient production of adrenal hormones cortisol and aldosterone. (
  • The insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) binds to its cognate nuclear receptor composed of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and Ultraspiracle (USP) and triggers the main developmental transitions, in particular molting and metamorphosis. (
  • How Did Insect Metamorphosis Evolve? (
  • People have known since at least the time of ancient Egypt that worms and grubs develop into adult insects, but the evolution of insect metamorphosis remains a genuine biological mystery even today. (
  • By combining evidence from the fossil record with studies on insect anatomy and development, biologists have established a plausible narrative about the origin of insect metamorphosis, which they continue to revise as new information surfaces. (
  • Metamorphosis was so successful that, today, as many as 65 percent of all animal species on the planet are metamorphosing insects. (
  • Wingless ametabolous insects, such as silverfish and bristletails , undergo little or no metamorphosis. (
  • Hemimetaboly, or incomplete metamorphosis, describes insects such as cockroaches, grasshoppers and dragonflies that hatch as nymphs-miniature versions of their adult forms that gradually develop wings and functional genitals as they molt and grow. (
  • JHs have multiple roles in insect development, metamorphosis and sexual maturation. (
  • Details for: Photoperiodic regulation of insect and molluscan hormones. (
  • Hartfelder K., Engels W. (1998) Social insect polymorphism: hormonal regulation of plasticity in development and reproduction in the honeybee, Curr. (
  • A putative receptor for the metamorphic action of juvenile hormone. (
  • Genomes of insect pollinators can encode hundreds of detoxification enzymes that originated millions of years ago to cope with toxins naturally produced by flowering plants or found in other food sources. (
  • Melasma is especially common in women, who experience hormone surges during pregnancy and their reproductive years. (
  • It acts as a pesticide against almost 200 species of insects! (
  • for instance when crews on passenger planes, mid-flight, open overhead storage spaces and spray a pesticide to kill non-native insects. (
  • These oval-shaped, wingless insects survive exclusively on the blood of mammals and insects, but they prefer human blood! (
  • Plus, once the insects leave the galls, small spiders, ants and other beneficial bugs move in. (
  • If you use a broad-spectrum insecticide, such as carbaryl, it will likely kill beneficial insects along with the gall-making bugs. (
  • This shift proved remarkably beneficial: young and old insects were no longer competing for the same resources. (
  • On the blog, we've discussed integrated pest management and many preventative strategies like resistant crops, row cover, attracting beneficial insects , and crop rotation. (
  • Again, it has the downside of affecting other beneficial insects that come into contact with it. (
  • It also interferes with insects' hormone systems making it difficult for them to reproduce. (
  • Most species feed on insects and other invertebrates. (
  • Some slow-flying bat species are finding it difficult to feed themselves since there are fewer hours of unalloyed darkness available to them and also because the insects that they like to eat swarm around lights at night. (
  • Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems. (
  • Females that have higher levels of juvenile hormones develop their eggs up to several days faster than those with lower hormonal levels. (
  • Purification and reassessment of ligand binding by the recombinant, putative juvenile hormone receptor of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta . (
  • In animals these chemicals are hormones which signal sexual differentiation, pupation, and other developmental stages. (
  • After all, an insect can evolve a new enzyme to break down a toxin but it would be difficult for it to break down or ignore its own sex or developmental hormone and get to the next stage of its life cycle. (
  • The chemical signals we send have direct and developmental effects on hormone levels in other people. (
  • The abrasive nature of diatomaceous earth cuts the exoskeleton of insects causing insects to dry out. (
  • While completely safe for humans to handle, it's very abrasive and will scratch and scuff the exoskeleton or soft body of insects that come into contact with it. (
  • This can occur from the change in hormones during pregnancy ("mask of pregnancy"), or from taking oral contraceptives. (
  • Arthropod moulting hormones (ecdysteroids) are present in the blood of insectivorous bats , MAMMAL REVIEW 52: (3) pp. 317-321. (
  • The group of steroids are known as Ecdysteroids , "Ecdy" because they were originally found to play a role in ecdysis, the process of moulting that insects use to grow bigger. (
  • Scientists got excited when they first looked closely at Ecdysteroids because they look like androgenic hormones. (
  • Sources include chemicals found in household products, the workplace, at home, and in the environment and poisonings from foods, beverages, drugs and medicines, and animal and insect bites. (
  • A Commercial Extract of Cyanotis arachnoidea Roots as a Source of Unusual Ecdysteroid Derivatives with Insect Hormone Receptor Binding Activity. (
  • Commonly referred to as synthetic auxins are chemicals that mimic natural plant hormones and interrupt plant cell growth in newly forming stems and leaves. (
  • Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones. (
  • Effects of juvenile hormone on the development of tergal glands in Melipona , J. Apic. (
  • Hartfelder K., Rembold H. (1991) Caste-specific modulation of juvenile hormone III content and ecdysteroid titer in postembryonic development of the stingless bee, Scaptotrigona postica depilis , J. Comp. (
  • The steroid hormone ecdysone is a central regulator of insect development. (
  • Scientists from the John Innes Centre on Norwich Research Park have identified for the first time a specific molecule from a parasite that manipulates plant development to the advantage of the insect host. (
  • Swammerdam dissected all kinds of insects under a microscope, confirming that the larva, pupa and adult insect were phases in the development of a single individual, not distinct creatures. (
  • This doesn't mean that touch is the sole stimulating factor for faster egg development-after all, the roaches that interacted with healthy, living insects friends enjoyed the fastest reproduction times. (
  • During this time he visited a number of important laboratories, including that of Prof. P. Joly in Strasbourg, France and also in the Department of Genetics at the University of Cambridge in England where he studied the effect of hormones on the giant chromosomes of Drosophila flies. (
  • This chapter discusses the discovery and chemical characterization of the first identified hypothalamic releasing factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (pyroGlu-His-ProNH2), which provided ultimate confirmation for the founding principles of neuroendocrinology which resulted later in the discovery of other releasing factor peptides. (
  • however, these peptides were referred to as adipokinetic hormone (AKH) due to sequence similarity between these peptides. (
  • Spinosad is a natural toxin made by soil borne bacterium that affects the nervous system of insects. (
  • But the mechanisms within touch that causes hormones to surge-whether something specific to living cockroaches themselves, or something about the physical feeling itself-remained unknown. (
  • The bitter curry is also supposed to stimulate appetite as it stimulates the liver to produce bile, hormones and folic acid. (
  • Proprietary liposome transfection reagent optimized for maximal transfection efficiency of Sf9 insect cells for baculovirus protein expression. (
  • Insect GeneJuice is ideal for large-scale protein expression in suspension-culture transfections of Sf9 insect cells when using pIEx™ and pBiEx™ vectors, which contain the immediate early baculovirus promoter, IE1. (
  • They found that a protein effector SAP11 reduces the production of a defence hormone in the plant that is used against the leafhopper. (
  • Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum . (
  • With that gene, a voodoo virus compels its caterpillar hosts to emerge from their shady hideaways, climb en masse to the tops of trees, deliquesce and fall as a rosy rain of viral particles on their fellow healthy caterpillars. (
  • In 1651 English physician William Harvey published a book in which he proposed that caterpillars and other insect larvas were free-living embryos that abandoned nutrient-poor 'imperfect eggs' before they matured. (
  • Insect growth regulators can be found in products to control fleas, fire ants, mosquitos and caterpillars. (
  • Melatonin reduces the body's nocturnal production of estrogen - a hormone that can stimulate growth of cancer cells. (
  • The fed state will stimulate the production of incretin hormones, including GLP-1 and GIP. (
  • August Friedrich Leopold Weismann studied how the traits of organisms developed and evolved in a variety of organisms, mostly insects and aquatic animals, in Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. (
  • The molecular biology toolbox and its use in basic and applied insect science. (
  • The adipokinetic hormone system in Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae): Molecular identification and characterization of two adipokinetic hormone (AKH) precursors from Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens and two putative AKH receptor variants from A. aegypti . (
  • Between 280 million and 300 million years ago, however, some insects began to mature a little differently-they hatched in forms that neither looked nor behaved like their adult versions. (
  • Today, biologists know that these adult structures arise from clusters of cells called imaginal discs , which first form when an insect embryo develops in its egg. (
  • Within plant-virus-insect tritrophic interactions, both insects and plants emit and receive chemical cues that modulate their interactions ( Howe and Jander, 2008 ). (
  • The circadian timing system in Nicotiana attenuata: A functional connection between the circadian clock and hormone signaling in plant-insect interactions. (
  • Mosquito reproduction is regulated by a suite of hormones, many acting through membrane-bound receptor proteins. (
  • Check your garden regularly for signs of pest issues like curling leaves, holes in leaves, slimy trails, and eggs or insects on the underside of leaves. (
  • No males were involved, as cockroach eggs begin to grow in the female prior to any acts of insect intimacy. (
  • Hormones such as estrogen and testosterone are routinely given to feedlot cattle to produce more muscle at a rapid rate. (
  • Dip the cuttings in a rooting hormone and place into a rooting medium suited for fynbos plants. (
  • Wood vinegar is safe to living matters in the food chain, especially, insects that help pollinate plants. (
  • The practice of using hormones and sub-therapeutic antibiotics is common in the cattle industry. (
  • The most common way gardeners attempt to connect with insects is by planting for butterflies. (
  • Through initial reports, KDHE characterized the rash as closely resembling an insect bite (i.e., pruritic, erythematous, and papular), but few persons reported seeing or feeling a bite. (
  • ACP might function as a neurotransmitter or local neuromodulator, as opposed to a hormone, based on the fact that its receptor is predominantly found in the central nervous system (Hansen et al. (