Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.ElastinElastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vascular Stiffness: Loss of vascular ELASTICITY due to factors such as AGING; and ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Increased arterial stiffness is one of the RISK FACTORS for many CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Isodesmosine: 2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Desmosine: A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Myalgia: Painful sensation in the muscles.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Acrylic ResinsPhantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tropoelastin: A salt-soluble precursor of elastin. Lysyl oxidase is instrumental in converting it to elastin in connective tissue.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Acoustic: A scientific tool based on ULTRASONOGRAPHY and used not only for the observation of microstructure in metalwork but also in living tissue. In biomedical application, the acoustic propagation speed in normal and abnormal tissues can be quantified to distinguish their tissue elasticity and other properties.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Entropy: The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Tradescantia: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE that is used in genotoxic bioassays.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Tropocollagen: The molecular unit of collagen fibrils that consist of repeating three-stranded polypeptide units arranged head to tail in parallel bundles. It is a right-handed triple helix composed of 2 polypeptide chains. It is rich in glycine, proline, hydroxyproline, and hydroxylysine.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Capsulorhexis: The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Microbubbles: Small encapsulated gas bubbles (diameters of micrometers) that can be used as CONTRAST MEDIA, and in other diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Upon exposure to sufficiently intense ultrasound, microbubbles will cavitate, rupture, disappear, release gas content. Such characteristics of the microbubbles can be used to enhance diagnostic tests, dissolve blood clots, and deliver drugs or genes for therapy.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
A mechanical wave requires an initial energy input. Once this initial energy is added, the wave travels through the medium ... Mechanical waves can be produced only in media which possess elasticity and inertia. ...
In macroeconomics, σ is used in equations to represent the elasticity of substitution between two inputs ...
In economics, ε refers to elasticity. In statistics, to refer to error terms. In statistics, to refer to the degree of ... a transition that involves no shifting of an input symbol. In astronomy, the fifth-brightest star in a constellation (see Bayer ...
to the input quantities (or a joint probability distribution to those input quantities that are not independent). The ... Examples are material constants such as modulus of elasticity and specific heat. There are often other relevant data given in ... Once the input quantities X 1 , … , X N {\displaystyle X_{1},\ldots ,X_{N}} have been characterized by appropriate probability ... When the input quantities X i {\displaystyle X_{i}} contain dependencies, the above formula is augmented by terms containing ...
Similarly the power input from the applied force is equal to the velocity of the input point v in {\displaystyle v_{\text{in ... A simple machine with no friction or elasticity is called an ideal machine. Due to conservation of energy, in an ideal simple ... Simple machines do not contain a source of energy, so they cannot do more work than they receive from the input force. ... the ratio of input velocity to output velocity M A ideal = F out F in = v in v out {\displaystyle \mathrm {MA} _{\text{ideal ...
That means excitation of any one transducer here will lead to a sequence of input signals on two other transducers in the ... A surface acoustic wave (SAW) is an acoustic wave traveling along the surface of a material exhibiting elasticity, with an ... Linear elasticity Love wave Phonon Picosecond ultrasonics Ultrasound Applied Solid State Physics Laboratory - Hokkaido ...
Input impedance and peripheral inhomogeneity of dog lungs. J Appl Physiol 72: 168-178, 1992. Jensen A, Atileh H, Suki B, ... Fredberg JJ and Stamenovic D. On the imperfect elasticity of lung tissue. J Appl Physiol 67: 2408-2419, 1989. Bayliss L and ... Input impedance and peripheral inhomogeneity of dog lungs. J Appl Physiol 72: 168-178, 1992. Hildebrandt J. Comparison of ... Fredberg JJ and Stamenovic D. On the imperfect elasticity of lung tissue. J Appl Physiol 67: 2408-2419, 1989. Fung Y. ...
... and elasticities measuring how easily inputs to production may be substituted for one another. Income elasticity of demand ... Other elasticities may belong to the constant elasticity of substitution class. Amongst these are Armington elasticities, which ... elasticities: dimensionless parameters that capture behavioural response. For example, export demand elasticities specify by ... Usually the database is presented as an input-output table or as a social accounting matrix (SAM). In either case, it covers ...
... and elasticities of inputs. Traditional cost functions include Cobb-Douglas and the Constant Elasticity of Substitution models ... For output y, at date t and a vector of m input prices p, the generalized-Ozaki cost, c, is c ( p , y , t ) = ∑ i b i i ( y b y ... Most cost functions then take the price of the inputs and adjust for different factors of production, typically, technology, ... In econometrics it is often desirable to have a model of the cost of production of a given output with given inputs-or in ...
The cell layer allows for easier flow of blood and as such there is a reduced viscosity and reduced elasticity. The ... Slippage which is associated with a continuous input of viscous energy. When the force is removed, the cube would recover ... The viscosity of blood has a primary influence on flow in the larger arteries, while the elasticity, which resides in the ... According to the theory of linear viscoelasticity, the decay time is equal to the viscosity-elasticity ratio and therefore the ...
Coding is the process during which the video inputs are transferred into binary digit (0, 1) because digits can be much more ... For example, the quartz is often used in crystal oscillators due to its elasticity. After a crystal is accurately installed, ... When the video signals are inputted into the oscillators, the crystal with electrodes attaching to it starts to vibrate as a ...
In the case of reducing the period of development defined in the previous section uses a method of adjusting labor input ... software, which is determined by the elasticity of difficulty. The cost of software development is calculated as the product of ...
The size of the rebound effect is determined by the price elasticity of demand for the good. In a perfectly competitive market ... However, goods and services generally use more than one type of input (e.g. fuel, labour, machinery), and other factors besides ... input cost may also affect price. These factors tend to reduce the rebound effect, making the Jevons paradox less likely to ... where fuel is the sole input used, if the price of fuel remains constant but efficiency is doubled, the effective price of ...
... z1 and z2 are the utilised quantities of input 1 and input 2 respectively, and a and b are technologically determined constants ... It was named after Wassily Leontief and represents a limiting case of the constant elasticity of substitution production ... For the simple case of a good that is produced with two inputs, the function is of the form q = Min ( z 1 a , z 2 b ) {\ ...
In the long run, all inputs may be adjusted by management. These distinctions translate to differences in the elasticity ( ... In microeconomics, production is the conversion of inputs into outputs. It is an economic process that uses inputs to create a ... input. Even if one region has an absolute advantage as to the ratio of its outputs to inputs in every type of output, it may ... Just as on the demand side, the position of the supply can shift, say from a change in the price of a productive input or a ...
... which is an elasticity (a percentage change in output for a percentage change in input), the modified duration is instead a ... semi-elasticity-a percentage change in output for a unit change in input. Bond convexity is a measure of the sensitivity of the ... Although rho is a primary input into the Black-Scholes model, the overall impact on the value of an option corresponding to ... or elasticity is the percentage change in option value per percentage change in the underlying price, a measure of leverage, ...
... labor input (the total number of person-hours worked in a year or 365.25 days) K = capital input (the real value of all ... The constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function (in the two-factor case) is Y = A ( α K γ + ( 1 − α ) L γ ) 1 ... Inputs {\displaystyle I_{i}={\text{Inputs}}} a i = Model coefficients {\displaystyle a_{i}={\text{Model coefficients}}} The ... Output elasticity measures the responsiveness of output to a change in levels of either labor or capital used in production, ...
Energy input labeling - Energy landscape - Energy level - Energy level splitting - Energy management software - Energy ... Energy elasticity - Energy engineering - Energy (esotericism) - Energy expenditure - Energy factor - Energy field disturbance ...
Import substitution Income Income elasticity of demand Income velocity of money Induced demand Industrial organization Input- ... research Opportunity cost Output Parable of the broken window Pareto efficiency Price Price discrimination Price elasticity of ... Economic data Economic growth Economic profits Economic modeling Economic reports Economic system Ecosystem services Elasticity ...
Distribution and Economic Progress [on absolute and relative shares of labour in social income as influenced by elasticity of ... such that for example a fall in the wage rate would lead to substitution away from other inputs and more labour use from ... relative to its elasticity of derived demand, with or without increasing returns] Section II. Documents (57 pages) G.F. Shove, ... on the elasticity of substitution as to its definition, generalization to multiple factors and products, and application to ...
Linear Elasticity, including multi-body contact analysis of metallic and composite structures Nonlinear Elasticity, including ... inputs (bulk residual stress or machining induced residual stress) Support for a wide variety of constraint conditions Solution ... a suite of analysis modules supporting advanced solutions in elasticity and heat transfer, and utility modules that offer ... Tractions can be directly applied to the model to meet the requirements of elasticity Intrinsic capability to represent ...
Constant returns to scale: doubling all input usages exactly doubles output. Constant elasticity of substitution (CES) function ... doubling all input usages more than doubles output. Decreasing returns to scale: doubling all input usages less than doubles ... The elasticity of substitution between factors of production is a measure of how easily one factor can be substituted for ...
... this is not necessary as the elasticity of the rubber and air in the tires will absorb most inputs above 50 Hz. The remaining ... Dampen input forces appreciably Frame/Rollcage - Distributes input forces over the entire vehicle Driver - Directly fatigued by ... Act as dampers to the input forces Wheels - Add weight Brakes - Add weight Springs - Respond directly to the input forces ... The analysis path in this case is: Input - The road or race track Unsprung mass - Weight not felt by the springs Tires - ...
Check if input arguments if length(A) ~= length(timeSA) warning('The length of A is not equal length of timeSA') return end if ... Elasticity parameter - nu >=0 needed for distance measure % % Code by: P.-F. Marteau - http://people.irisa.fr/Pierre-Francois. ...
Assuming the wheel and axle does not dissipate or store energy, that is it has no friction or elasticity, the power input by ... Let a and b be the distances from the center of the bearing to the edges of the wheel A and the axle B. If the input force FA ... so the ratio of the output force to the input force, or mechanical advantage, is given by M A = F B F A = a b . {\displaystyle ... the ratio of power output to power input Wheel and Axle, The World Book Encyclopedia, World Book Inc., 1998, pp. 280-281 Bowser ...
... are any arrangement under which wages are paid in the form of: payment in kind (i.e. commodities, including goods and/or services); credit with retailers or; a money substitute, such as scrip, chits, vouchers or tokens, rather than with conventional money. Truck, in this context, is an archaic English language word meaning "exchange" or "barter" (and is derived from the French troquer). By contrast, the term truck system usually refers to a specific set of practices under which employees are defrauded and/or exploited. This may take one or both of two forms. Firstly, the payment in kind, credit, or money substitute is demonstrably of a lesser market value than the amount of money that would normally be paid for the same work. Secondly, truck systems are normally regarded as undesirable or illegal because they limit employees' ability to choose how to spend their earnings. For example, credit or company scrip might be usable only for the purchase of goods at a monopolistic ...
In this paper, own- and cross-price elasticities of factor demand are derived from a flexible functional form: a translog cost ... "Estimating the Impact of SBTC on Input Demand Elasticities in Hungary," MNB Working Papers 2004/3, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central ... In this paper, own- and cross-price elasticities of factor demand are derived from a flexible functional form: a translog cost ...
Furthermore, the paper shows how to obtain a distribution of output supply and input demand elasticities that match available ... Furthermore, the paper shows how to obtain a distribution of output supply and input demand elasticities that match available ... PMP and Uniqueness of Calibrating Solution: Output Supply and Input Demand Elasticities Small Farms Paris, Quirino ... Home , PMP and Uniqueness of Calibrating Solution: Output Supply and Input Demand Elasticities Small Farms ...
Specifically, we study the impacts of free trade in inputs when the elasticity of substitution between the traded inputs that ... Batabyal, Amitrajeet and Beladi, Hamid (2016): Trade Between Creative Regions When the Input Elasticity of Substitution is Less ... Creative Capital, Creative Region, Elasticity of Substitution, Input, Trade. Subjects:. F - International Economics , F1 - ... Trade Between Creative Regions When the Input Elasticity of Substitution is Less Than Unity ...
Inputs Of Interest: Tongues For Technology 18 Comments * New Year Habits - What Do You Do For Data Storage? 91 Comments ... One of these was a challenge set by the Paris Academy of Science to mathematically describe the elasticity of metal plates. An ... Perhaps more importantly, her work formed the basis of the study of elasticity and stress in metals that allowed engineers to ...
Dirty Energy Inputs: Is Substitutability the New Efficiency? - Endogenous Investment in the Elasticity of Substitution. ...
Fans as Inputs, An Apparently On-Going Series. Elasticity of demand, fans as inputs, profit-maximization ... What Is the Price Elasticity of Demand for NFL Network?. Elasticity of demand ... post I mentioned that there arent too many treatments in the formal sports economics literature that examine fans as inputs. ...
Elasticity 56. Consumer Demand and Utility Theory 62. Inputs and the Cost of Production 64 ...
Substitution Elasticities between GHG Polluting and Nonpolluting Inputs in Agricultural Production: A Meta-Regression Energy ... Substitution Elasticities between GHG Polluting and Nonpolluting Inputs in Agricultural Production: A Meta-Regression. ...
We then estimate the Armington model, with and without the inclusion of a tariff, and we compare the elasticities. Lastly, we ... derived from a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) utility function, and a non-homothetic CES utility functional form, ... does the inclusion of import tariffs lead to different estimated Armington elasticities? (2) when a discriminating tariff is ... "Armington Elasticities in Intermediate Inputs Trade; A Problem in Using Multilateral Trade Data," IMF Working Papers 04/22, ...
Varying the Inputs Estimating the Effect of Cross-Elasticity Summary 9780789759580 TOC 11/12/2018 ...
Demand is inelastic when the % change in quantity demanded is less than the % change in price, so the price elasticity is less ... The price elasticity of demand is not the same as the slope of the demand curve ... so the price elasticity is EQUAL to one in absolute value. ... Availability of inputs.. *Existing capacity. *Inventories held ...
... data elasticity_data; input i $ j $ elasticity; datalines; Milk Milk -0.4 Butter Butter -2.7 Cheese1 Cheese1 -1.1 Cheese2 ... num elasticity {PRODUCTS, PRODUCTS} init 0; read data elasticity_data into [i j] elasticity; var Price {PRODUCTS} ,= 0; var ... num elasticity {PRODUCTS, PRODUCTS} init 0; read data elasticity_data into [i j] elasticity; var Price {PRODUCTS} ,= 0; impvar ... input raw $10. supply; datalines; Fat 600000 DryMatter 750000 Water . ; data product_data; input product $ Fat DryMatter Water ...
... income elasticities of demand; price elasticities of demand; productivity trends; distribution of income, wealth, and ... substitutability of inputs and resources; substitution possibilities in consumption; incidence of taxes, benefits, or price ... What assumptions, if any, about the following underlie your analysis: Cost functions; supply elasticities; consumer preferences ...
You will be asked to input your password on the next screen.. » Proceed ... Review of the first edition: This book is an introductory level, thoroughly referenced presentation of rubberlike elasticity ... His current research interests pertain to the physical chemistry of polymers, including the elasticity of polymer networks, ... His research interests are focused on rubber elasticity; polymer and protein physics and engineering, both experiment and ...
In macroeconomics, σ is used in equations to represent the elasticity of substitution between two inputs ...
... and their relationship to time Defining the relationship between inputs and ... - Selection from Managerial Economics For ... Chapter 6 Production Magic: Pulling a Rabbit Out of the Hat In This Chapter Understanding variable and fixed inputs, ... See Chapter 4 on elasticity.) Similarly, in production, sometimes youre better off using a lot of machines, what economists ... The amount you use of an input depends upon how much it costs and how much output it adds. The crucial thing to determine is ...
block are elasticity values. The "s:0" field indicates that the top-level elasticity of substitution between inputs is zero ( ... Top level elasticity of substitution between inputs or demands.. t:. Elasticity of transformation between outputs in production ... indicates that inputs identified as belonging to the "a:". aggregate trade off with an elasticity of substitution ELAS(S). (at ... Associated elasticity (input or output aggregates only) When $FUNLOG:.TRUE. is specified, a complete report of demand and ...
The paper presents algorithms for identifying optimal values of measurement inputs at all four stages, adjusted to integers, as ... elasticity National Category Medical and Health Sciences Research subject Occupational and Environmental Medicine Identifiers. ... measurement strategy; postural loads; statistical performance; optimization; economic evaluation; resource allocation; input ... The derived demand functions for inputs to the four stages were used to derive functions for the minimized cost and the ...
The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a material constant. A strip of material subjected to a force will lengthen. Force F, over ... Westerhof N, Noordergraaf A. Arterial elasticity: a generalized model. Effect on input impedance and wave travel in the ... The Youngs modulus of elasticity is a material constant. A strip of material subjected to a force will lengthen. Force F, over ... Elasticity of soft tissues in simple elongation. Am J Phys. 1967;28:1532-44.Google Scholar ...
Balancing stiffness and elasticity in jumping froghoppers. In this first example of a single rapid movement, we highlight ... The ratio between mechanical power output and metabolic power input. Typically, but not always, the efficiency of an activity ... V. strength and elasticity of locust cuticle. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 245, 137-169. ... The key to the elastic power of this system is a combination of osmotic pressure and membrane elasticity in the organelle that ...
... nightclubs explosion models men hole knee multiple zip cut rotten elasticity casual pants hot fashion pants from Chinese mens ... You can calculate shipping cost by inputting the required information.. 2. Time in transit: Transit time varies with different ... Nightclubs Explosion Models Men Hole Knee Multiple Zip Cut Rotten Elasticity Casual pants Hot Fashion Pants. ... Process Non-Hot Treatment Style Details Zipper Decoration Elasticity Microfluid. Fabric Cotton Color 330 White, 340 Red Size 28 ...
... substitution elasticity in Y Y0(R) non-energy output W0(R) non-ernery demand NY0(R) non-electric energy input to Y EY0(R ... resource inputs to B NB0(R) non-electric energy input to B EB0(R) electric energy input to Y VB0(R) value-added input to ... electric energy input to Y VY0(R) value-added input to Y BY0(R) basic materials input to Y B0(R) basic materials ... elasticities of substitution and supply * ESUBC Elasticity of substitution in non-basic production. * ESUBB Elasticity of ...
Estimating trade elasticities : demand composition and the trade collapse of 2008-09. [Matthieu Bussière; National Bureau of ... Economic Research.;] -- This paper introduces a new methodology for the estimation of demand trade elasticities based on an ... We compute the import intensity of demand components by using the OECD Input-Output tables. We argue that the composition of ... Estimating trade elasticities : demand composition and the trade collapse of 2008-09. Author:. Matthieu Bussière; National ...
Input versus output of the whole agricultural system. Biological factors. Soil macro/micro flora and fauna. Animal health. ... Elasticity: recovery time to return to trend line after perturbation (e.g., number of years after drought). * Amplitude: ... It increases labour inputs, diversifies crop management (though not necessarily crop diversity which may be greatest in hunter- ... Forcing: level of inputs (e.g., fertilizer) necessary to maintain characteristic resource and production levels. * Inertia: ...
A higher elasticity means that it is easier for producers to switch between factors (that is, the system is more responsive to ... A typical producer maximizes profi ts, given a set of input and output prices. Consistent with neoclassical general equilibrium ... Accordingly, a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) function is chosen as the production function for each sector:. Xi = ... elasticity of substitution, σ, in the following way: ρ (σ = 1/(1 + ρ)). Thus, unlike a Cobb-Douglas function, in which the ...
  • For example, when household incomes rise, poor households may increase the share of their income spent on foods (that is, with an income elasticity greater than one), whereas rich households may reduce their food expenditure share (that is, with an elasticity less than one). (yudu.com)
  • Let's assume that, all things equal, each percent increase in economic activity is accompanied by a half-percent increase in gasoline use (i.e., an income-elasticity of 0.5). (grist.org)
  • This mid-range assumption is more conservative than the 0.67 income-elasticity I've assumed for years . (grist.org)
  • Income elasticity of demand is the ratio of the percentage change in the quantity demanded of a good or service to a given percentage change in income. (ukessays.com)
  • If the stress-strain relationship is linear, the material obeys Hooke's law and the slope of the relation is called the Youngs modulus of elasticity, E. The stress-strain relation of biological tissues is curved, and the local slope is the incremental elastic modulus, E inc , which is strain (or stress) dependent. (springer.com)
  • In this first example of a single rapid movement, we highlight jumping froghoppers (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea) as a system yielding new insights into the balance between the stiffness necessary to store substantial elastic potential energy and the elasticity required to permit spring flexion without failure ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • We then estimate the Armington model, with and without the inclusion of a tariff, and we compare the elasticities. (repec.org)
  • When added to a familiar gravity model, I estimate a positive relationship between Internet connectivity and bilateral exports in data-intensive industries with an elasticity of 0.25 to 2.25 over a variety of possible settings. (google.com)
  • We estimate the elasticity of substitution between investments in one period and stocks of skills in that period to assess the benefits of early investment in children compared to later remediation. (nber.org)
  • Short-run and long-run industry-level estimates of U.S. Armington elasticities ," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance , Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 49-68, March. (repec.org)
  • Ditto to develop the Carbon Tax Center's carbon-tax impact model , which subdivides energy use into four sectors - electricity, gasoline, aviation, and "other" - with different estimates of price-elasticity for each. (grist.org)
  • To achieve more precise estimates than those of previous researchers, we do not consider energy a single unified input. (iaee.org)
  • So the price elasticity is greater than 1 in absolute value. (brainscape.com)
  • Thus, unlike a Cobb-Douglas function, in which the substitution elasticity is always unitary, the CES production function allows for a wider range of substitution possibilities between different factors in response to relative price changes. (yudu.com)
  • A higher elasticity means that it is easier for producers to switch between factors (that is, the system is more responsive to relative factor price changes), whereas a low elasticity represents a more rigid factor market system. (yudu.com)
  • As productivity and income grow, so do wages relative to intermediate input prices, which increases the relative price of non-tradables if tradable sectors use intermediate inputs more intensively. (google.com)
  • We show that sectoral differences in input intensities can account for about half of the observed elasticity of the aggregate price level with respect to GDP per capita. (google.com)
  • If the price-elasticity is close to zero, then the fee devolves to a revenue-raiser that will never fulfill the purpose of reducing the harm. (grist.org)
  • As someone with a long-time orientation toward price incentives and cost internalization, particularly for major sources of environmental damage such as energy use and driving, I've made it my business to keep on top of the literature on price-elasticity. (grist.org)
  • elasticities are calculated on real, not nominal, price changes). (grist.org)
  • Blakely T, Nghiem N, Genc M, Mizdrak A, Cobiac L, Mhurchu CN, Swinburn B, Scarborough P, Cleghorn C. Modelling the health impact of food taxes and subsidies with price elasticities: The case for additional scaling of food consumption using the total food expenditure elasticity . (otago.ac.nz)
  • It is the aim of this project to develop a firm basis for input-to-state stability (ISS) theory of distributed parameter systems and to introduce systematic methods for ISS stabilization of important classes of PDEs. (uni-passau.de)
  • 3. In the present study, the physiological variation in skin elasticity that occurs in respect of age, sex and pregnancy is investigated and the implications concerning the physiological changes that occur in skin collagen discussed. (portlandpress.com)
  • If, however, a model involves several classes of sectors and agents, a wide range of tax instruments and large tables of input data, the word- processor approach is impossible. (gams.com)
  • The evidence suggests that there are significant substitution possibilities between the agricultural input and other production factors in the meat and bakery sectors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Section 2 introduces MPSGE input syntax and the GAMS interface using a small two-sector model of taxation. (gams.com)
  • To account for supply management in the dairy sector, separability between raw milk and the other inputs was introduced. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We find that in periods during which elasticity is rising, the quantity of FCS loans increases relative to the commercial sector. (cornell.edu)
  • We present the Armington model, derived from a constant elasticity of substitution (CES) utility function, and a non-homothetic CES utility functional form, which is more flexible. (repec.org)
  • Economic equilibrium models, particularly those based on complicated functions such as nested CES, are easier to understand at an abstract level than they are to specify in detail, and the translation of a model from input data into algebraic relations can be a tedious and error- prone undertaking. (gams.com)
  • The empirical model in this study is a growth function and the infrastructure variables are added as an input to this function. (igi-global.com)
  • This data is then input into a finite element model of the tyre, using DYNA. (scientific.net)
  • These elasticities are then incorporated into the model that aims to test the effectiveness of the counter cyclical lending role of the Farm Credit System (FCS) relative to the Commercial Banking (CB) system in the US over the past 80 years. (cornell.edu)
  • Twenty-year data (1950-69 except 1951-70 for hired labor) were analyzed with the aid of simple equation least-squares multiple regression techniques for all inputs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, decomposing growth for the Eurozone as a whole conceals significant differences across European countries, in both real GDP growth and its factor inputs. (voxeu.org)
  • Rather than a considered examination of the vast body of studies of energy elasticities, Manzi's "argument" is a lone table cherry-picked from the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) new (April 2011) 242-page World Economic Outlook [PDF]. (grist.org)
  • This paper argues that suitable natural endowments are an important precondition for high input farming. (scielo.org.mx)
  • The results suggest that high input agriculture would also work in other areas of the world with adequate natural endowments. (scielo.org.mx)
  • In these places, high input agriculture cannot generate sufficient additional revenues to warrant the additional cost. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Although some resource deficiencies can be readily overcome with more inputs, efforts to extend high input agriculture to low productivity sites will often be doomed to failure. (scielo.org.mx)
  • The greatest advantage of this material lies in its high elasticity. (scientific.net)
  • This approach allows for studying high shares of clean energy not observable today and for isolating mechanisms that impact the elasticity of substitution between clean and dirty energy. (diw.de)
  • It combines the greatest mechanical strength ever measured in any material natural or artificial with very light weight and high elasticity. (medindia.net)
  • Non-farm income also has an effect on the number of households that purchase farm animals, with an estimated elasticity of 0.35. (fao.org)
  • The scale elasticity for the two largest provinces (Ontario and Quebec) is greater than one, but inference does not reject the null hypothesis of increasing returns to scale. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The results also suggest that farmers will partially adapt to climate change by altering their input intensity. (scielo.org.mx)
  • We incorporate the interest expense elasticities described above to show how farmers sensitivity to interest rates affects farm lending. (cornell.edu)
  • The outcomes analyzed are expenditures on working capital (variable inputs such as feed, seed, and herbicides) and investment in livestock. (fao.org)
  • I find that while non-farm income has no significant effect on the probability of purchasing variable inputs, it does have an effect on the amount spent if positive, with an estimated elasticity of 0.14. (fao.org)