Inosine: A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)Inosine Monophosphate: Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.Inosine NucleotidesInosine Pranobex: An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.Inosine Triphosphate: Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Purine-Nucleoside Phosphorylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between a purine nucleoside and orthophosphate to form a free purine plus ribose-5-phosphate. EC Diphosphate: An inosine nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Purine Nucleosides: Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Purines: A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Receptor, Adenosine A3: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of locations including the BRAIN and endocrine tissues. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Adenine NucleotidesMycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Thioinosine: Sulfhydryl analog of INOSINE that inhibits nucleoside transport across erythrocyte plasma membranes, and has immunosuppressive properties. It has been used similarly to MERCAPTOPURINE in the treatment of leukemia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p503)Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit ADENOSINE DEAMINASE activity.Receptors, Adenosine A2: A subclass of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS that are generally considered to be coupled to the GS, STIMULATORY G-PROTEIN which causes up regulation of CYCLIC AMP.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Tubercidin: An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Dictionaries, ChemicalAgrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Biopharmaceutics: The study of the physical and chemical properties of a drug and its dosage form as related to the onset, duration, and intensity of its action.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Utilization of exogenous purine compounds in Bacillus cereus. Translocation of the ribose moiety of inosine. (1/679)

Intact cells of Bacillus cereus catalyze the breakdown of exogenous AMP to hypoxanthine and ribose 1-phosphate through the successive action of 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and inosine phosphorylase. Inosine hydrolase was not detectable, even in crude extracts. Inosine phosphorylase causes a "translocation" of the ribose moiety (as ribose 1-phosphate) inside the cell, while hypoxanthine remains external. Even though the equilibrium of the phosphorolytic reaction favors nucleoside synthesis, exogenous inosine (as well as adenosine and AMP) is almost quantitatively transformed into external hypoxanthine, since ribose 1-phosphate is readily metabolized inside the cell. Most likely, the translocated ribose 1-phosphate enters the sugar phosphate shunt, via its prior conversion into ribose 5-phosphate, thus supplying the energy required for the subsequent uptake of hypoxanthine in B. cereus.  (+info)

A new synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cyclo-adenosine and -inosine: conformationally-fixed purine nucleosides (nucleosides and nucleotides. XVI). (2/679)

A versatile method for the synthesis of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine, a conformationally-fixed "anti" type of adenosine, was presented. Irradiation of 2', 3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-5'-phenylthioadenosine with 60W Hg vapor lamp afforded 2',3'-O-isopropylidene-5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine in high yield. The use of other 5'-alkylthio derivatives also gave the cycloadenosine, though the yields were rather poor. Deacetonation of the cyclocompound with 0.1N HCl gave 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine. The cycloinosine derivative was similarly prepared. The nmr, mass and CD spectra of 5'-deoxy-8,5'-cycloadenosine were given and discussed with the previously reported results.  (+info)

Nucleoside-3'-phosphotriesters as key intermediates for the oligoribonucleotide synthesis. III. An improved preparation of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters, their 1H NMR characterization and new conditions for removal of 2-cyanoethyl group. (3/679)

An improved procedure for the transformation of 5'-O-monomethoxytrityl-2'-O-acetyl-3'-phosphates of uridine la, inosine ib and 6-N-benzoyladenosine lc into corresponding 3'/2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 2-cyanoethyl/-phosphates iiaic is reported. H NMR characterization of nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters is presented. New conditions i.e. anhydrous triethylamine-pyridine treatment have been found for the selective removal of 2-cyanoethyl group from nucleoside 3'-phosphotriesters in the presence of neighbouring 2'-O-acetyl one.  (+info)

DNA contacts stimulate catalysis by a poxvirus topoisomerase. (4/679)

Eukaryotic type 1B topoisomerases act by forming covalent enzyme-DNA intermediates that transiently nick DNA and thereby release DNA supercoils. Here we present a study of the topoisomerase encoded by the pathogenic poxvirus molluscum contagiosum. Our studies of DNA sites favored for catalysis reveal a larger recognition site than the 5'-(T/C)CCTT-3' sequence previously identified for poxvirus topoisomerases. Separate assays of initial DNA binding and covalent complex formation revealed that different DNA sequences were important for each reaction step. The location of the protein-DNA contacts was mapped by analyzing mutant sites and inosine-substituted DNAs. Some of the bases flanking the 5'-(T/C)CCTT-3' sequence were selectively important for covalent complex formation but not initial DNA binding. Interactions important for catalysis were probed with 5'-bridging phosphorothiolates at the site of strand cleavage, which permitted covalent complex formation but prevented subsequent religation. Kinetic studies revealed that the flanking sequences that promoted recovery of covalent complexes increased initial cleavage instead of inhibiting resealing of the nicked intermediate. These data 1) indicate that previously unidentified DNA contacts can accelerate a step between initial binding and covalent complex formation and 2) help specify models for conformational changes promoting catalysis.  (+info)

RNA editing of the human serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor silences constitutive activity. (5/679)

RNA transcripts encoding the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C) receptor (5-HT2CR) undergo adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing events at up to five specific sites. Compared with rat brain, human brain samples expressed higher levels of RNA transcripts encoding the amino acids valine-serine-valine (5-HT2C-VSV) and valine-glycine-valine (5-HT2C-VGV) at positions 156, 158, and 160, respectively. Agonist stimulation of the nonedited human receptor (5-HT2C-INI) and the edited 5-HT2C-VSV and 5-HT2C-VGV receptor variants stably expressed in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts demonstrated that serotonergic agonists were less potent at the edited receptors. Competition binding experiments revealed a guanine nucleotide-sensitive serotonin high affinity state only for the 5-HT2C-INI receptor; the loss of high affinity agonist binding to the edited receptor demonstrates that RNA editing generates unique 5-HT2CRs that couple less efficiently to G proteins. This reduced G protein coupling for the edited isoforms is primarily due to silencing of the constitutive activity of the nonedited 5-HT2CR. The distinctions in agonist potency and constitutive activity suggest that different edited 5-HT2CRs exhibit distinct responses to serotonergic ligands and further imply that RNA editing represents a novel mechanism for controlling physiological signaling at serotonergic synapses.  (+info)

Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium. Concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, adenine nucleotides and nicotinamide nucleotides during germination. (6/679)

A considerable amount of evidence suggests that metabolism of germinants or metabolism stimulated by them is involved in triggering bacterial-spore germination. On the assumption that such a metabolic trigger might lead to relatively small biochemical changes in the first few minutes of germination, sensitive analytical techniques were used to detect any changes in spore components during the L-alanine-triggered germination of Bacillus megaterium KM spores. These experiments showed that no changes in spore free amino acids or ATP occurred until 2-3 min after L-alanine addition. Spores contained almost no oxo acids (pyruvate, alpha-oxoglutarate, oxaloacetate), malate or reduced NAD. These compounds were again not detectable until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is suggested, therefore, that metabolism associated with these intermediates is not involved in the triggering of germination of this organism.  (+info)

Long RNA hairpins that contain inosine are present in Caenorhabditis elegans poly(A)+ RNA. (7/679)

Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA-editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine within double-stranded RNA. In the 12 years since the discovery of ADARs only a few natural substrates have been identified. These substrates were found by chance, when genomically encoded adenosines were identified as guanosines in cDNAs. To advance our understanding of the biological roles of ADARs, we developed a method for systematically identifying ADAR substrates. In our first application of the method, we identified five additional substrates in Caenorhabditis elegans. Four of those substrates are mRNAs edited in untranslated regions, and one is a noncoding RNA edited throughout its length. The edited regions are predicted to form long hairpin structures, and one of the RNAs encodes POP-1, a protein involved in cell fate decisions.  (+info)

Editing of messenger RNA precursors and of tRNAs by adenosine to inosine conversion. (8/679)

The double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminases ADAR1 and ADAR2 convert adenosine (A) residues to inosine (I) in messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNA). Their main physiological substrates are pre-mRNAs encoding subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors or serotonin receptors in the brain. ADAR1 and ADAR2 have similar sequence features, including double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a deaminase domain. The tRNA-specific adenosine deaminases Tad1p and Tad2p/Tad3p modify A 37 in tRNA-Ala1 of eukaryotes and the first nucleotide of the anticodon (A 34) of several bacterial and eukaryotic tRNAs, respectively. Tad1p is related to ADAR1 and ADAR2 throughout its sequence but lacks dsRBDs. Tad1p could be the ancestor of ADAR1 and ADAR2. The deaminase domains of ADAR1, ADAR2 and Tad1p are very similar and resemble the active site domains of cytosine/cytidine deaminases.  (+info)

  • RNA editing is a regulatory mechanism in which nucleotides are altered posttranscriptionally and most frequently involves conversion of adenosine to inosine, which is recognized as a guanosine during translation. (
  • Chen and colleagues performed RNA sequencing analysis to identify molecular changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples that might contribute to disease progression, and they detected elevated adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing of antizyme inhibitor 1 ( AZIN1 ) in HCC samples compared with adjacent normal tissues. (
  • Metabolically, Inosine is an intermediate in a number of purine nucleotide pathways that affect the ability of the muscle to work efficiently. (
  • Pan, B , Shi, K & Sundaralingam, M 2006, ' Crystal Structure of an RNA Quadruplex Containing Inosine Tetrad: Implications for the Roles of NH 2 Group in Purine Tetrads ', Journal of Molecular Biology , vol. 363, no. 2, pp. 451-459. (
  • Inosine is not an amino acid but is classified as a nucleoside (a building block for DNA and RNA) found in muscle tissue and is one of the basic compounds comprising cells. (
  • Inosine is a naturally occurring compound in the body that supports normal cardiovascular function and blood flow. (
  • Devous, MD & Lewandowski, ED 1985, ' Inosine preserves ATP content during ischemia and enhances functional recovery during reperfusion ', Federation Proceedings , vol. 44, no. 3. (
  • Inosine provides a safe and effective way to enable the body to utilize oxygen more efficiently. (
  • When maximum stimulation is reached Inosine is converted into nutrients used by the body. (
  • Inosine is a nucleoside, one of the basic compounds comprising cells. (
  • Polyinosinic acid has been known to adopt the four-stranded helical structure but its basic unit, inosine tetrad (I tetrad), has not been determined at the atomic level. (
  • Combinations of thymidine and inosine (ranging from 0 to 7.5 mg/hr) were co-administered during a 72-hr continuous i.v. infusion of 3 μg/hr methotrexate in normal and P388 solid tumor-bearing DBA/2 mice. (
  • However, the diminishing effect on survival with thymidine and inosine doses above 0.5 mg/hr indicated loss of the antitumor effect of methotrexate. (
  • It is concluded that co-administration of inosine and/or thymidine allows the use of methotrexate doses otherwise not tolerated, though with loss of anti-tumor effect. (
  • Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring (also known as a ribofuranose) via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. (
  • Inosine is a nucleoside, one of the basic compounds comprising cells. (
  • Inosine 5'-triphosphate (ITP) also functions as an alternative substrate for ATPases and GTPases and has been used to study activation and binding kinetics of nucleoside interaction with various ATPases and GTPases. (
  • Inosine is not an amino acid but is classified as a nucleoside (a building block for DNA and RNA) found in muscle tissue and is one of the basic compounds comprising cells. (
  • cp wz table border top 1px solid ccc border left 1px solid ccc cp wz table td border right 1px solid ccc border bottom 1px solid ccc padding 5px 0px 0px 5px cp wz table th border right 1px solid ccc border bottom 1px solid ccc padding 5px 0px 0px 5px Molecular Weight 268 23 Inosine is a nucleoside. (
  • New from Swanson Premium, Inosine is a fundamental nucleoside with a broad range of functions. (
  • As the usage of inosine for avoidance of reperfusion damage in the framework of cardiopulmonary bypass hasn't yet been looked into, the purpose of the present research was to check the hypothesis that treatment with inosine during reperfusion increases myocardial, and endothelial function within a medically relevant canine style of extracorporal flow. (
  • Having established these positive results, researchers have now begun a multicenter Phase 2 trial ( NCT03168711 ), called SURE-ALS2, to further evaluate treatment with inosine over a 20-week period. (
  • As shown in Table 1, the treatment with inosine induced an increase in the amount of mitochondrial protein and the mitochondrial genome copy number, which are biochemical markers of mitochondrial content, and therefore, reflect an increased number of mitochondria in the more differentiated intestinal cells (Djouadi et al. (
  • We observed a 40% decrease in lactate dehydrogenase activity in intestinal cells following treatment with inosine (Table 1). (
  • Variants of the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase gene are associated with reduced relapse risk following treatment for HCV genotype 2/3. (
  • The present study evaluated the impact of variations in the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase) gene (ITPA) on treatment outcome in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2/3 infection receiving peginterferon-α2a and lower, conventional 800 mg daily dose of ribavirin. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether raising low levels of the natural antioxidant uric acid by the administration of a precursor, inosine, has any therapeutic effect on the progression of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS). (
  • The primary purpose of this study to determine whether raising low serum uric acid levels by daily oral administration of its precursor inosine has an effect on the cumulative number of newly active lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of inosine in patients diagnosed with relapsing remitting and secondary progressive MS. (
  • We aimed to investigate the UA elevating capability, safety, and tolerability of inosine 5'-monophosphate, a precursor of uric acid, in MSA patients with randomized, placebo controlled, and parallel assigned design. (
  • These findings warrant clinical trials testing urate, according to the authors, which can be conducted through the administration of urate's precursor compound, inosine. (
  • Inosine, an orally bioavailable precursor of urate, was investigated in a phase 2 study, the Safety of Urate Elevation in Parkinson's Disease (SURE-PD) trial. (
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS). Some research shows that having low uric acid levels increases the risk of developing MS. Research in adults with MS shows that taking inosine increases the levels of uric acid in the blood . (
  • All participants are randomized to study drugs, either tablet of placebo or inosine 5'-monophosphate, in 1 to 1 ratio and then undergo scheduled titration. (
  • Methods: A placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized trial of inosine will enroll 270 subjects with early PD, lower serum urate and DAT deficiency by neuroimaging and will randomize them 1:1 to treatment with placebo or inosine dosed to elevate urate for 2 years with a 3-month wash-out. (
  • A purpose of the present study is to investigate the capability of serum uric acid elevation, safety, and tolerability of inosine 5'-monophosphate in patients with multiple system atrophy with multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel assigned design. (
  • Yamamoto T, Moriwaki Y, Cheng J, Takahashi S, Tsutsumi Z, Ka T, Hada T. Effect of inosine on the plasma concentration of uridine and purine bases. (
  • In a second series of experiments, uridine (10(-4)-10(-5) M) and inosine (10(-4)-10(-7) M) inhibited the relase of glycerol from isolated rat epididymal adipose tissue in Krebs-bicarbonate buffer. (
  • Uridine and inosine in concentrations of 10(-4) M inhibited the epinephrine (10(-5) M)-, the norepinephrine (10(-5) M)- and the theophylline (10(-3) M)-stimulated lipolysis. (
  • Dibutyryl 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate-stimulated lipolysis was further activated in the presence of 10(-4) M uridine or inosine. (
  • Dose-response curves studies suggested that inosine, but not uridine, has a common receptor site with epinephrine in adipose tissue. (
  • 1994). In accordance to this, inosine-treatment induced gene expression of TFAM, which is a key activator of mitochondrial transcription as well as a participant in mitochondrial genome replication. (
  • Premium Inosine can help increase the body's ability to carry oxygen without affecting uptake in the lungs, therefore you can work harder and stronger. (
  • Our Premium Inosine capsules guarantee the highest potency and are of the highest quality. (
  • It has been shown that inosine has neuroprotective properties. (
  • Inosine may have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. (
  • Treatment with a compound called inosine over 12 weeks increased the levels of the antioxidant urate, a neuroprotective agent, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a pilot trial. (
  • These findings, together with epidemiological observations and preclinical data supporting a neuroprotective role of urate in ALS models, provide the rationale for larger clinical trials testing inosine as a potential disease‐modifying therapy for ALS. (
  • This has already been done in Parkinson's disease patients, with a Phase 2 trial ( NCT00833690 ) showing that inosine raised urate levels in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid (the liquid surrounding the brain and spinal cord) with a good safety profile. (
  • Inosine has been used in clinical trials for multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and has been shown to help regenerate nerve fibers in previous research. (
  • Despite lack of clinical evidence that it improves muscle development, inosine remains an ingredient in some fitness supplements. (
  • Associated inosine to interferon: results of a clinical trial in multiple sclerosis. (
  • Inosine to increase serum and cerebrospinal fluid urate in Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial. (
  • In terms of clinical implications, Inosine, which appears to have no apparent side effects in animals thus far, has potential as a novel nerve regeneration approach to treatment of stroke and other types of brain injuries. (
  • The Phase 2 SURE-ALS2 trial, now ongoing, "will serve as a helpful stepping stone in preparation for a future multicenter pivotal trial testing the effects of inosine on clinical outcomes," the investigators said. (
  • The trial uses inosine to raise urate levels in those with levels lower than the population mean (6 mg/dL). (
  • Aimed at studying the ability of inosine to elevate urate levels in ALS patients, the open-label, 12-week pilot study ( NCT02288091 ) enrolled 25 ALS patients at Massachusetts General Hospital . (
  • Inosine appeared safe, well tolerated, and effective in raising serum urate levels in people with ALS," the scientists wrote. (
  • Graphical abstract The relative stability of intramolecular quadruplexes containing inosine substitutions is different in sodium and potassium. (
  • abstract = "The effects of the complexes of inosine (Ino) analogues of isoprinosine on the immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), in plaque-forming cells assay (PFC), in mice spleen, and on the Fc-dependent SRBC phagocytosis in mice peritoneal macrophages were investigated. (
  • The purine analogues tenofovir and abacavir are precursors of potential substrates for the enzyme Inosine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase). (
  • For the first two weeks, patients took two daily 500 mg capsules of inosine - orally or through a feeding tube. (
  • also known as inosine acedoben dimepranol (INN) or methisoprinol) an antiviral drug that is a combination of inosine and dimepranol acedoben (a salt of acetamidobenzoic acid and dimethylaminoisopropanol) in a ratio of 1 to 3. (
  • The mechanism of antilipolytic action of these nucleosides is unknown, but one of the receptor sites for inosine might be adenylate cyclase. (
  • It demonstrated that inosine can safely produce well-tolerated elevations of serum and CSF urate for months or years in early PD. (
  • Exogenous inosine may contribute to the high-energy phosphate pool of cardiac muscle cells and favorably affect bioenergetics generally. (
  • Although inosine has been used clinically to support the myocardium, no data are available on the fate of exogenous inosine in the human heart. (