Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Milk, HumanMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Protein HydrolysatesVolatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Cronobacter sakazakii: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CHRONOBACTER, found in the environment and in foods.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Biphenyl CompoundsSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Small Molecule Libraries: Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Aniline CompoundsMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Medicine, Chinese Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nitroso CompoundsTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Azo CompoundsSpectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Milk Substitutes: Food BEVERAGES that are used as nutritional substitutes for MILK.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.CreatinineFood, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Milk Proteins: The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Benzyl CompoundsBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.TriterpenesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Furans: Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Allyl CompoundsLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Medicine, East Asian Traditional: Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring: A class of organic compounds containing two ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.PicratesAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.KetonesSpectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Trialkyltin Compounds: Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.GlucosidesBiometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Bicyclo CompoundsBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.SesquiterpenesDocosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Diterpenes: Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.EstersSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.EthersSpectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques: A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.ThiazolesEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Benzene DerivativesTechnetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Monoterpenes: Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
... is an inorganic compound with formula NO2BF4. It is a salt of nitronium cation and ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula Na. 2SeO. 4, not to be confused with sodium selenite. It exists as ... When used together, the two compound produce a colorless glass.[4] Pesticide[edit]. Sodium selenate is a common ingredient in ... Neither compound has demonstrated a difference in the amount of selenium absorbed. The U.S. FDA regulates that animal feed ... Bernd E. Langner "Selenium and Selenium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula BiF5. It is a white solid that is highly reactive. The ... ISBN 0-08-037941-9. Holleman, Arnold Frederik; Wiberg, Egon (2001), Wiberg, Nils, ed., Inorganic Chemistry, translated by ... compound is of interest to researchers but of not particular value. BiF5 is polymeric and consists of linear chains of trans- ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula CdS. Cadmium sulfide is a green solid.[4] It occurs in nature with ... a b c d Egon Wiberg, Arnold Frederick Holleman (2001) Inorganic Chemistry, Elsevier ISBN 0-12-352651-5 ... a b Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6 ... As a compound that is easy to isolate and purify, it is the principal source of cadmium for all commercial applications.[4] Its ...
Inorganic compounds. Lindemann's Formula". Philosophical Magazine. 35 (210): 445-480. doi:10.1080/14786440608635787. H. Stanley ... H. Stanley Allen (Dec 1917). "Atomic Frequency and Atomic Number: Frequency Formulae with Empirical Constants". Philosophical ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula MgB2. It is a dark gray, water-insoluble solid. The compound has ...
... is a reactive inorganic compound. It has the formula NHCl2. The yellow gas is unstable and reacts with many ...
... is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula PtF 4. In the solid state, the compound features ... The compound was first reported by Henri Moissan by the fluorination of platinum metal in the presence of hydrogen fluoride. A ... Derek Harry Lohmann (October 1961). The fluorides of platinum and related compounds (Thesis). University of British Columbia. ... Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry. 27. Academic Press. 1983. Section V: Tetrafluorides, pages 97-103. ISBN ...
... (IUPAC name: sulfurochloridic acid) is the inorganic compound with the formula HSO3Cl. It is also known as ... The formula is more descriptively written SO2(OH)Cl, but HSO3Cl is traditional. It is an intermediate, chemically and ... Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 549-550.. ... conceptually, between sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4).[3] The compound is rarely obtained pure. Upon ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4OCN. It is a colorless solid. ... The compound is notable as the precursor in the Wöhler synthesis of urea, an organic compound, from inorganic reactants.[2] ...
... is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HAuCl 4. Both the trihydrate and tetrahydrate are known. It ... Belevantsev, V. I.; Peschevitskii, B. I.; Zemskov, S. V. (1976). "New data on chemistry of gold compounds in solutions". ... Gloves are worn when handling the compound. Williams, Jack Marvin; Peterson, Selmer Wiefred (1969). "Example of the [H5O2]+ ion ... Mellor, J. W. (1946). A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. vol. 3, p. 593. Brauer, G., ed. (1963). ...
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound. Its chemical formula is KMnO4. It contains potassium and permanganate ... Related compounds Potassium manganate. Manganese heptoxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for. materials in their ... F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C. A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann (April 1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th Edition. Wiley-VCH. ...
... (CP) is the inorganic compound with the formula Ca3P2. It is one of several phosphides of calcium, being ... Richard C. Ropp (31 December 2012). Encyclopedia of the Alkaline Earth Compounds. Newnes. pp. 231-. ISBN 978-0-444-59553-9.. ... Other, more exotic calcium phosphides have the formula CaP, CaP3, Ca2P2, and Ca5P8. ... within a closed vessel-was an ingredient of some ancient Greek fire formulas.[4] ...
... is an inorganic compound with formula PI5. The existence of this compound has been claimed ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula AsH3. This flammable, pyrophoric, and highly toxic pnictogen hydride gas is ... The term arsine is commonly used to describe a class of organoarsenic compounds of the formula AsH3−xRx, where R = aryl or ... This compound is generally regarded as stable, since at room temperature it decomposes only slowly. At temperatures of ca. 230 ... The toxicity of arsine is distinct from that of other arsenic compounds. The main route of exposure is by inhalation, although ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula HSiCl3. It is a colourless, volatile liquid. Purified trichlorosilane ... doi:10.1002/047084289X.rt213.pub2 Simmler, W. (2005), "Silicon Compounds, Inorganic", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ... In the first step of a two-pot reaction, the carboxylic acid is first converted to the trichlosilylbenzyl compound. In the ... HSiCl3 → Si + HCl + Cl2 Via hydrosilylation, trichlorosilane is a precursor to other useful organosilicon compounds: RCH=CH2 + ...
... is an inorganic compound with formula NaBF4. It is a salt that forms colorless or white water-soluble ... Brauer, Georg (1963). Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 1, 2nd Ed. Newyork: Academic Press. p. 220 & 222. ISBN ...
... is an inorganic compound with formula SO. It is only found as a dilute gas phase. When concentrated or ... Inorganic Chemistry Woollins JD, Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry (1995), John Wiley and Sons ISBN 0-471-93620-0 Io's ... This compound is also highly flammable (similar flammability to methane) and when burned produces sulfur dioxide, a poisonous ... Production of SO as a reagent in organic syntheses has centred on using compounds that "extrude" SO. Examples include the ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula NH2OH. The pure material is a white, unstable crystalline, hygroscopic ... the latter two referring to compounds where two or three hydrogens are substituted, respectively. Examples of compounds ... Hydroxylamine and its salts are commonly used as reducing agents in myriad organic and inorganic reactions. They can also act ... heating the precipitate with an inorganic acid then restores the original aldehyde or ketone. Oximes, e.g., dimethylglyoxime, ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula H2S3. It is a pale yellow volatile liquid with a camphor-like odor. It ... R. Steudel "Inorganic Polysulfanes H2Sn with n > 1" in Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur-Rich Compounds II (Topics in Current ...
... is an inorganic compound of formula Ag2SeO3. It is formed during recovery from copper anode slimes when they ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula NaN3. This colorless salt is the gas-forming component in many car ... Sodium azide is a versatile precursor to other inorganic azide compounds, e.g., lead azide and silver azide, which are used in ... It is used for the preparation of other azide compounds. It is an ionic substance, is highly soluble in water, and is very ... The toxicity of this compound is comparable to that of soluble alkali cyanides. No toxicity has been reported from spent ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula TiOSO4. It is a white solid that forms by treatment of titanium ...
... is the inorganic compound with the formula Te2Br. It is one of the few stable lower bromides of tellurium. ... doi:10.1002/zaac.19764220103 Zhengtao Xu "Recent Developments in Binary Halogen-Chalcogen Compounds, Polyanions and Polycations ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula Cs2B12H12. It is a salt, with caesium cations and [B12H12]2− ... doi:10.1021/ja01497a069 H. C. Miller, E. L. Muetterties "Borane Anions" Inorganic Syntheses, 1967, Volume 10, pp. 81-91. doi: ...
Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses 3: 191-194. doi: 10.1002/9780470132340.ch51. ISBN 978-0-470-13234-0. ... T.J. Kealy, P.L. Pauson (1951). A New Type of Organo-Iron Compound. Nature 168 (4285): 1040. doi: 10.1038/1681039b0. ... se pravi da je njena formula FeCl3•6H2O. Spojina se piše tudi kot trans-[Fe(H2O)4Cl2]Cl•2H2O in s sistematskim imenom ... European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2001 (2): 367-368. *↑ G.A. Seisenbaevaa, S. Gohila, E.V. Suslova, T.V. Rogovab, N.Y. ...
mono-. Naming Some Inorganic Compounds Formula Name CO carbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide SO 3 sulfur trioxide OF 2 oxygen ... H 2 S hydrogen sulfide hydrosulfuric acid Naming Some Inorganic Compounds Binary covalent molecular compounds composed of two ... Unformatted text preview: mono-. Naming Some Inorganic Compounds Formula Name CO carbon monoxide CO 2 carbon dioxide SO 3 ... Naming Some Inorganic Compounds Formula Name CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide SO ...
Some examples of inorganic compounds are ammonium chromate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen fluoride and silver oxide ... What Is the Formula for Potassium Bromide?. * Q: Why Didnt Mendeleev Arrange the Elements by Their Atomic Numbers When He ... Some argue that the classification of inorganic and organic compounds should be restructured and that organic compounds should ... nucleic acids and carbohydrates are all examples of organic compounds.These differ greatly from inorganic compounds. ...
Arsenia, Arsenic metal [Note: OSHA considers Inorganic Arsenic to mean copper acetoarsenite and all inorganic compounds ... Strong oxidizers, bromine azide [Note: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine.] ...
What Are Some Examples of Inorganic Compounds?. * Q: What Is the Name of the Compound With the Formula SrCl2?. ... A: Sulfur is used as a fungicide, an insecticide and a fumigant in the production of inorganic chemicals, glass, matches, ...
Tagged applicationsbasecausticchemicalcommonlycompoundfindflakes,formsformulahydroxideincludingindustrialinorganickalilauge ... Potassium hydroxide, also known as lye is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula …. World News ...
Download high-quality Hydrogen selenide inorganic compound formula images, illustrations and vectors perfectly priced to fit ... Hydrogen selenide is an inorganic compound with the formula H2Se. This hydrogen chalcogenide is the simplest and most commonly ... compound, element, formula, hydride, hydrogen, illustration, inorganic, model, molecular, molecule, poison, reagent, selane, ...
Indexed by name and formula. v.4: Inorganic compounds and elements. By Carl Yaws. ... You can select one or more compound types and link them to one or more property terms, and ThermoDex will return a list of ... records for selected printed and web-based compilations of thermochemical and thermophysical data for chemical compounds and ...
Reacts violently with inorganic and organic compounds. This generates fire and explosion hazard. Attacks rubber. Formula: O3. ...
Nitronium tetrafluoroborate is an inorganic compound with formula NO2BF4. It is a salt of nitronium cation and ...
Molecular geometries and structural formulas. Naming inorganic compounds. Stoichiometry. Chemical nomenclature. Chemical ...
Sodium selenate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na. 2SeO. 4, not to be confused with sodium selenite. It exists as ... When used together, the two compound produce a colorless glass.[4] Pesticide[edit]. Sodium selenate is a common ingredient in ... Neither compound has demonstrated a difference in the amount of selenium absorbed. The U.S. FDA regulates that animal feed ... Bernd E. Langner "Selenium and Selenium Compounds" in Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim ...
This lesson provides helpful information on Nomenclature for Inorganic Compounds in the context of Atoms, Ions, and Molecules ... Chemical Formula. Oxyanion. Name. H3PO4. Phosphate (PO43−). Phosphoric acid. ... An inorganic compound consists of molecules that do not contain a carbon-hydrogen bond. Inorganic compounds are often studied ... Chemistry is often divided into two broad categories: organic compounds and inorganic compounds. An organic compound consists ...
The known compounds are inorganic and organic compounds. A comparison is made from the observation in the unknown sample, by ... The Relative Formula Mass of an Unknown Acid Essay. 1463 Words , 6 Pages The Relative Formula Mass of an Unknown Acid Table of ... and synthesis of an unknown compound. The compound was identified as calcium nitrate by a variety of tests. When the compound ... The flame test identified the presence of the calcium anion in the compound. The compound tested positive for the nitrate ...
2. Show understanding of how to name inorganic compounds and write chemical formulas. ... Significant laboratory time is devoted to synthesis of complex organic compounds. PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 211 with a grade of ... This course is a descriptive course in inorganic and organic chemistry. Topics include the metric system of measurement; ... In the laboratory, the essential skills of preparation, isolation, purification and identification of organic compounds are ...
4.6: Chemical Formulas for Ionic Compounds (2). *4.7: Binary Ionic Compound Nomenclature (6) ... 12.1: Organic and Inorganic Compounds *12.2: Bonding Characteristics of the Carbon Atom (1) ... Chapter 6: Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations *6.1: Formula Masses (1) ... Chapter 6: Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations 6.P. 21. 002 006 010 012 014 018 020 022 024 ...
Potassium permanganate is an inorganic chemical compound. Its chemical formula is KMnO4. It contains potassium and permanganate ... Related compounds Potassium manganate. Manganese heptoxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for. materials in their ... F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C. A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann (April 1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th Edition. Wiley-VCH. ...
Formula. Cl2-Sr. Major Category. Metals. Category. Metals, Inorganic Compounds. Description. Colorless or white odorless solid ...
Formula. Cr-O4.3Cs. Major Category. Metals. Category. Chromium Compounds, Inorganic. Comments. CrVI compounds are irritants, ... CrVI compounds are irritants, sensitizers, and may be corrosive to the skin. CrVI compounds are respiratory tract irritants and ... CrVI compounds are respiratory tract irritants and may cause pulmonary sensitization. CrVI may cause acute tubular necrosis and ...
Inorganic compounds. Lindemanns Formula". Philosophical Magazine. 35 (210): 445-480. doi:10.1080/14786440608635787. H. Stanley ... H. Stanley Allen (Dec 1917). "Atomic Frequency and Atomic Number: Frequency Formulae with Empirical Constants". Philosophical ...
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula ZnO. It appears as a white powder and is nearly insoluble in ... become a topic of interest because the conventional chemical methods are expensive and require the use of chemical compounds/ ...
... zinc sulphate formula online Wholesalers - choose zinc sulphate formula from 1783 list of China zinc sulphate formula ... Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium , sulfur and oxygen , with the formula MgSO4. ... zinc sulphate formula. All zinc sulphate formula wholesalers & zinc sulphate formula manufacturers come from members. We ... Inorganic compound Industrial Grade Indirect zinc oxide Powder CAS No. 1314-13-2 Specifications: Chemical Name Zinc oxide Other ...
Dichloramine is a reactive inorganic compound. It has the formula NHCl2. The yellow gas is unstable and reacts with many ...
Naming inorganic non-metallic binary covalent compounds using IUPAC recommendations tutorial with worked examples for chemistry ... Follow the steps below to name an inorganic non-metallic binary covalent compound given the molecular formula of the compound: ... Worked Examples of Naming Binary Inorganic Non-metallic Covalent Compounds Question 1: Name the binary inorganic compound that ... Question 4: Name the binary inorganic compound that has the formula OCl2 using IUPAC compositional nomenclature rules.(9) ...
Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds. Classification of reactions: precipitation, acid-base, redox reactions and gas- ... Mole concept and stoichiometric calculations concerning chemical formulas and chemical reactions. Principles of reactivity: ... introduction to chemical reactions and chemical properties of organic compounds and biological compounds, i.e. carbohydrates ... General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and ...
Nomenclature of inorganic ions and compounds. Classification of reactions: precipitation, acid-base, redox reactions and gas- ... Continuous time financial models: The Black-Scholes formula; pricing of options and the other derivatives; interest rate models ... introduction to chemical reactions and chemical properties of organic compounds and biological compounds, i.e. carbohydrates ... General introduction to inorganic, analytical and physical chemistry. Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and ...