Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.HydrocarbonsHydrocarbons, HalogenatedPolycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Chemistry, Inorganic: A field of chemistry which pertains to chemical compounds or ions that do not contain the element carbon (with the exception of carbon dioxide and compounds containing a carbonate radical, e.g., calcium carbonate).Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Phosphorus Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Alcaligenes faecalis: The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.GeorgiaGeorgia (Republic)Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (1/92)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium. (2/92)

1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response.  (+info)

Influence of exogenous thiols on inorganic mercury-induced injury in renal proximal and distal tubular cells from normal and uninephrectomized rats. (3/92)

Inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) induced time- and concentration-dependent cellular injury in freshly isolated proximal tubular (PT) and distal tubular (DT) cells from normal (control) rats or uninephrectomized (NPX) rats. PT cells from NPX rats were more susceptible than PT cells from control rats, and DT cells were slightly more susceptible than PT cells to cellular injury induced by Hg(2+) (not bound to a thiol). Preloading cells with glutathione increased Hg(2+)-induced cellular injury in PT cells from control rats. However, coincubation of PT or DT cells from control or NPX rats with Hg(2+) and glutathione (1:4) provided significant protection relative to incubations with Hg(2+) alone. No support was obtained for a role for gamma-glutamyltransferase in glutathione-dependent protection. However, the organic anion carrier does appear to play a role in accumulation and toxicity of mercuric conjugates of cysteine in PT cells from control, but not NPX, rats. Coincubation with Hg(2+) and cysteine (1:4) had little effect on, or slightly enhanced, Hg(2+)-induced cellular injury at low concentrations of Hg(2+) in all cells studied. Coincubation with Hg(2+) and albumin (1:4) markedly protected PT and DT cells from control and NPX rats at all concentrations except the highest concentration of Hg(2+) in DT cells from NPX rats. 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid protected cells both when preloaded or added simultaneously with Hg(2+). Thus, renal cells from NPX rats are more susceptible to Hg(2+)-induced injury, PT and DT cells respond differently to exposure to Hg(2+), and thiols can significantly modulate the toxic response to Hg(2+).  (+info)

Analysis of biomedical text for chemical names: a comparison of three methods. (4/92)

At the National Library of Medicine (NLM), a variety of biomedical vocabularies are found in data pertinent to its mission. In addition to standard medical terminology, there are specialized vocabularies including that of chemical nomenclature. Normal language tools including the lexically based ones used by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to manipulate and normalize text do not work well on chemical nomenclature. In order to improve NLM's capabilities in chemical text processing, two approaches to the problem of recognizing chemical nomenclature were explored. The first approach was a lexical one and consisted of analyzing text for the presence of a fixed set of chemical segments. The approach was extended with general chemical patterns and also with terms from NLM's indexing vocabulary, MeSH, and the NLM SPECIALIST lexicon. The second approach applied Bayesian classification to n-grams of text via two different methods. The single lexical method and two statistical methods were tested against data from the 1999 UMLS Metathesaurus. One of the statistical methods had an overall classification accuracy of 97%.  (+info)

The energetics of phosphate binding to a protein complex. (5/92)

The heat of binding the serine protease, porcine pancreatic elastase, by the inhibitor, turkey ovomucoid third domain, is dependent on the presence of inorganic phosphate. This dependence is saturable and can be accurately modeled as the phosphate binding to a single site on the protease-inhibitor complex; thus, the elastase-ovomucoid system provides a unique opportunity to study phosphate-protein interactions. We have used isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate this binding, thereby providing one of the few complete thermodynamic characterizations of phosphate interacting with proteins. The binding is characterized by a small favorable deltaG degrees, a large unfavorable deltaH degrees, and a positive deltaCp, thermodynamics consistent with the release of water being linked to phosphate binding. These measurements provide insight into the binding of phosphotyrosine containing peptides to SH2 domains by suggesting the energetic consequences of binding phosphate free from other interactions.  (+info)

A new route to peroxynitrite: a role for xanthine oxidoreductase. (6/92)

Peroxynitrite, a potent oxidising, nitrating and hydroxylating agent, results from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide. We show that peroxynitrite can be produced by the action of a single enzyme, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), in the presence of inorganic nitrite, molecular oxygen and a reducing agent, such as pterin. The effects of oxygen concentration on peroxynitrite production have been examined. The physiologically predominant dehydrogenase form of the enzyme is more effective than the oxidase form under aerobic conditions. It is proposed that XOR-derived peroxynitrite fulfils a bactericidal role in milk and in the digestive tract.  (+info)

Exposures and health effects from inorganic agricultural dusts. (7/92)

Most studies of respiratory disease from dust exposure in the agricultural workplace have focused on allergic diseases caused by inorganic dusts, specifically occupational asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Exposures to inorganic (mineral) dusts among farmers and farm workers may be substantial. Such exposures are most frequent in dry-climate farming regions. In such locations farming activities that perturb the soil (e.g., plowing, tilling) commonly result in exposures to farm operators of 1-5 mg/m(3) respirable dust and >= 20 mg/m(3) total dust. The composition of inorganic dust in agriculture generally reflects the soil composition. Crystalline silica may represent up to 20% of particles, and silicates represent up to 80%. These very high concentrations of inorganic dust are likely to explain some of the increase in chronic bronchitis reported in many studies of farmers. Pulmonary fibrosis (mixed dust pneumoconiosis) has been reported in agricultural workers, and dust samples from the lungs in these cases reflect the composition of agricultural soils, strongly suggesting an etiologic role for inorganic agricultural dusts. However, the prevalence and clinical severity of these cases are unknown, and many exposures are to mixed organic and inorganic dusts. Epidemiologic studies of farmers in diverse geographic settings also have observed an increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity and mortality. It is plausible that agricultural exposure to inorganic dusts is causally associated with chronic bronchitis, interstitial fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the independent contribution of mineral dusts beyond the effects of organic dusts remains to be determined.  (+info)

Inorganic dust pneumonias: the metal-related parenchymal disorders. (8/92)

In recent years the greatest progress in our understanding of pneumoconioses, other than those produced by asbestos, silica, and coal, has been in the arena of metal-induced parenchymal lung disorders. Inhalation of metal dusts and fumes can induce a wide range of lung pathology, including airways disorders, cancer, and parenchymal diseases. The emphasis of this update is on parenchymal diseases caused by metal inhalation, including granulomatous disease, giant cell interstitial pneumonitis, chemical pneumonitis, and interstitial fibrosis, among others. The clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of disorders arising from exposure to aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, mercury, and nickel are presented in detail. Metal fume fever, an inhalation fever syndrome attributed to exposure to a number of metals, is also discussed. Advances in our knowledge of antigen-specific immunologic reactions in the lung are particularly evident in disorders secondary to beryllium and nickel exposure, where immunologic mechanisms have been well characterized. For example, current evidence suggests that beryllium acts as an antigen, or hapten, and is presented by antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ T cells, which possess specific surface antigen receptors. Other metals such as cadmium and mercury induce nonspecific damage, probably by initiating production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, genetic susceptibility markers associated with increased risk have been identified in some metal-related diseases such as chronic beryllium disease and hard metal disease. Future research needs include development of biologic markers of metal-induced immunologic disease, detailed characterization of human exposure, examination of gene alleles that might confer risk, and association of exposure data with that of genetic susceptibility.  (+info)

  • inorganic Located in India. (iaswww.com)
  • A focus on installation of robust manufacturing facilities in developing countries, such as China and India, to meet the consistently rising local demand remains one of the key growth strategies for manufacturers of inorganic tin chemicals. (factmr.com)
  • Aakar Dyes and chemicals is in the business of export of dyes and dyes intermediates and consultancy for techinal process know-how of various dyes dye intermediates organic chemical pigment from india since 1995 we also do the indenting and import of. (tradeholding.net)
  • The chemical industry is a highly versatile segment in the overall industrial economy of India. (niir.org)
  • Global chemical companies present in India have benefited from many opportunities as a result of favorable factors such as skilled workers, low manufacturing cost and strong domestic demand. (niir.org)
  • The Agro-oriented chemicals like guar gum, starch, citric acid, sorbitol, yeast and others, valued at over Rs 1450 billion, apart from contributing 14% of the industrial sector's contribution to GDP, industrial chemicals have a 10% share in the overall exports of India. (niir.org)
  • With India being an emerging economy with high growth rates and a strong domestic demand the chemical industry in India will be one of the most booming industries in the coming years. (niir.org)
  • Recovered Solvent in India - Get top Organic and Inorganic Solvents in India and there contact details & address of Chemicals, Dyes & Solvents services in our city @ Indian Business Pages. (ibphub.com)
  • Metal complexes as enzyme inhibitors and catalysts in living cells Written by a team of international experts, Inorganic Chemical Biology: Principles, Techniques and Applications is a must-have for bioinorganic, bioorganometallic and medicinal chemists as well as chemical biologists working in both academia and industry. (cmu.ac.th)
  • His team also devises inorganic complexes that might function as catalysts for the synthesis of polymers from renewable resources. (acs.org)
  • In the recent years, tin chemicals have gained a number of industrial applications including surfaces treatment, plating, catalysts, reducing agents, glazes and energy and electronic devices. (factmr.com)
  • Strong oxidizers, bromine azide [Note: Hydrogen gas can react with inorganic arsenic to form the highly toxic gas arsine. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, increased mortality from multiple internal organ cancers (liver, kidney, lung, and bladder) and an increased incidence of skin cancer were observed in populations consuming drinking water high in inorganic arsenic. (epa.gov)
  • Arsenic, inorganic is being reassessed. (epa.gov)
  • Inorganic Arsenic TEACH Chemical Summary U.S. EPA, Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health This TEACH Chemical Summary is a compilation of information derived primarily from U.S. EPA and ATSDR resources, and the TEACH Database. (sputtr.com)
  • Zhejiang Jiande Jinchun Fine Calcium Co., Ltd - Producer of calcium carbonate in standard, refined, and inorganic reactive grades, inorganic for use as additives for various inorganic industrial manufacturing processes. (iaswww.com)
  • The corrosion behavior of Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Al was studied in NaCl solutions without and with different concentrations of some inorganic additives, Na 2 MoO 4 , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , and KIO 3 . (academicjournals.org)
  • I am researching the use of an inorganic zinc primer to protect hot spots on a unit. (eng-tips.com)
  • To complement the work aimed at the chemical characterization of these molecules, several studies showed that some metal ions, such as zinc and iron, are essential for life. (schoolbag.info)
  • Herein, the dry reforming of methane (DRM) represents a viable route to convert CO2 and CH4 (two of the major GHG) into syngas, a highly valuable intermediate in chemical synthesis. (ua.es)
  • In analogy, in the current context, synthesis refers to the simultaneous control over the assembly of a variety of inorganic tectons on different length scales. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Thus, chemical architectonics can be understood as the coordinated use of different tools of chemical synthesis for the assembly of nanostructured materials fulfilling function. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Two prominent inorganic chemicals, ammonia and sulfur , are also derived in large part from petroleum. (britannica.com)
  • Accurate determination of trace levels of inorganic components requires precise and accurate analytical instrumentation with interference removal capacity. (intertek.com)
  • By applying our highly sensitive and highly selective modern instrumentation we provide trace level analytical measurement of inorganic elements or trace metals can range from parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) and parts per trillion (ppt) levels. (intertek.com)
  • With a team of experts in inorganic analysis working to industry or regional standards - for example ISO 17025 or GXP Standards, Intertek can provide the analytical data you require to progress your product development programs or solve problems across a wide range of sample types. (intertek.com)
  • A chemical Fertilizer is known as inorganic fertilizer when its constituents are originated through synthetic means making them non- degradable. (agriculturalproductsindia.com)
  • We anticipate that the quantitative analysis and visualization of nanometre-scale interfaces by laser-pulsed atom-probe tomography will contribute greatly to our understanding not only of biominerals (such as bone, dentine and enamel), but also of synthetic organicg-inorganic composites. (northwestern.edu)
  • Ammonium Chloride, Granular, Technical is an inorganic white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • Solvay Barium Strontium - Business unit of Solvay S.A., manufacturing various grades of barium inorganic and strontium carbonate, barium chloride and sulfate, and sulfur. (iaswww.com)
  • Further, growing use of tin chlorides, such as stannous chloride dehydrate and stannous chloride anhydrous for applications in metalized glazing, electric components and even in food industries for tin packed food, which is expected to create potential growth prospects for market of inorganic tin chemicals. (factmr.com)
  • Rising demand for inorganic tin chemicals such as tin chloride in food, electronic and glazing industries in the Asia Pacific region on the account of growing disposable along with rapid industrialization is likely to fuel the future expansion of inorganic tin chemicals market. (factmr.com)
  • The remaining 15% comprises a wide range of chemical intermediate and industrial or speciality chemicals which have a market of over Rs 230 billion (including imports of about Rs 15 billion). (niir.org)
  • The original character of the Workshop was to bring together organic and inorganic chemists with this common interest in order to promote the exchange of ideas and, eventually, interdisciplinary research. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Marks is without a doubt one of the most dynamic and productive inorganic chemists to emerge in the past 30 years," adds colleague Richard D. Adams of the University of South Carolina. (acs.org)
  • Marks has received numerous awards, including the 2005 U.S. National Medal of Science, the 2003 Karl Ziegler Medal of the German Chemical Society, the 2002 American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal, and four ACS national awards. (acs.org)
  • Calcium was the major inorganic component of the foulants because of its highest concentration in the feed water . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although the different sequences and folds of proteins provide the most disparate metal binding sites (some examples of which are provided in Fig. 3), Nature has evolved to select other organic or inorganic ligands for metal ions in proteins, which we call "special metal cofactors. (schoolbag.info)
  • Water treatment devices can improve the quality of water by reducing health hazards such as bacteria, chemical pollutants and other toxic substances, or help remove nuisance problems, such as odors or hardness. (missouri.edu)