Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Ion Exchange Resins: High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cations, Monovalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or group of atoms with a valence of plus 1, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Catecholamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsSolid Phase Extraction: An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.Chromatography, Reverse-Phase: A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Pyridinium CompoundsAntiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).LLC-PK1 Cells: Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Ergothioneine: A naturally occurring metabolite of HISTIDINE that has antioxidant properties.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.TRPC Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Deuterium Exchange Measurement: A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Quinidine: An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Membrane Transport Modulators: Agents that affect ION PUMPS; ION CHANNELS; ABC TRANSPORTERS; and other MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Famotidine: A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Guanidine: A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Cephaloridine: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Emepronium: A muscarinic antagonist used mainly in the treatment of urinary syndromes. It is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.AmidinesRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Niacinamide: An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).MethylaminesIodipamide: A water-soluble radiographic contrast media for cholecystography and intravenous cholangiography.Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Pyrilamine: A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Cation Channels: A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Agmatine: Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Verapamil: A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Quinine: An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.PolyaminesQuinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Procainamide: A class Ia antiarrhythmic drug that is structurally-related to PROCAINE.Hydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.TritiumFlufenamic Acid: An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is used in musculoskeletal and joint disorders and administered by mouth and topically. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p16)Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.HydrazinesDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Lanthanum: Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers, which exchange positively charged ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which ... Polyatomic inorganic ions like SO42− and PO43−. Organic bases, usually molecules containing the amine functional group −NR2H+. ... and cation-exchange resins, or passing the treated solution through several different ion-exchange materials. Ion exchanges can ... In soil science, cation-exchange capacity is the ion-exchange capacity of soil for positively charged ions. Soils can be ...
Unlike soil, hydroponic nutrient solutions do not have cation-exchange capacity (CEC) from clay particles or organic matter. ... Main article: Organic hydroponics. Organic fertilizers can be used to supplement or entirely replace the inorganic compounds ... leaving an excess of cations in solution.[8] This cation imbalance can lead to deficiency symptoms in other cation based ... Coir has a high cation exchange, meaning it can store unused minerals to be released to the plant as and when it requires it. ...
Inorganic fertilizers are generally less expensive and have higher concentrations of nutrients than organic fertilizers. Also, ... are held in relatively strong bonds with the negatively charged portions of the soil in a process known as cation exchange. In ... Nutrient cations, including potassium and many micronutrients, ... Plants absorb water-soluble inorganic salts only from the soil ... Soil fertility is a complex process that involves the constant cycling of nutrients between organic and inorganic forms. As ...
ZS-9 is an inorganic cation exchanger crystalline with a high capacity to entrap monovalent cations, specifically potassium and ... an organic ion-exchange resin that nonspecifically binds cations (e.g., calcium, potassium, magnesium) in the gastrointestinal ... Kamel, K. S.; Schreiber, M. (2012). "Asking the question again: Are cation exchange resins effective for the treatment of ... "Effect of three laxatives and a cation exchange resin on fecal sodium and potassium excretion". Gastroenterology. 108 (3): 752- ...
Their cation exchange capacity (CEC) is of great importance in the balance of the most common cations in soil (Na+, K+, NH4+, ... with the formation of an inorganic-organic nanocomposite has prompted a large resurgence in the study of these minerals from ... The interactions of clay minerals with organic substances in the soil also plays a vital role in the fixation of nutrients and ... It is a multidisciplinary field, involving concepts and knowledge from inorganic and structural chemistry, physical chemistry, ...
The TiCl6 share edges in each form, with 3.60 Å being the shortest distance between the titanium cations. This large distance ... In a reaction where all ligands are exchanged, TiCl3 is a precursor to the tris acetylacetonate complex. The more reduced ... TiCl3 is also a reagent in organic synthesis, useful for reductive coupling reactions, often in the presence of added reducing ... ISBN 0-08-037941-9. T. R. Ingraham, K. W. Downes, P. Marier, "Titanium(III) Chloride" Inorganic Syntheses, 1960, vol 6, pp. 52- ...
... to aqueous solutions of many organic and inorganic salts gives solid precipitates of hexafluorophosphate salts. This method can ... iridium Cation, or to the η5-(2-hydroxy-4-methylpentadienyl)(η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)iridium Cation". J. Organomet. Chem ... The advantage of the anion exchange in favour of a non-coordinating anion is that the resulting ionic liquid has much higher ... The hexafluorophosphate ion, being a large anion, can be useful in stabilising large cations. In the compound tetrakis( ...
The slow oxidation of charcoal creates carboxylic groups; these increase the cations' exchange capacity of the soil. The ... Biochar is shown to have increased soil cation exchange capacity leading to improved plant nutrient uptake. Along with this it ... The accumulation of organic matter in moist tropical soils is a paradox, because of optimum conditions for organic matter ... When inorganic nutrients are applied to the soil, however, the nutrients' drainage in anthrosol exceeds that in fertilized ...
Mixed bed deionization is a 50/50 mixture of cation and anion resin combined in a single ion exchange column. With proper ... A control system operates pumps and valves for the regenerants of spent anions and cations resins within the ion exchange ... The impurities that may need to be removed are: inorganic ions (typically monitored as electrical conductivity or resistivity ... Much of these additional impurities, such as volatile organic compounds, fluoride, and an estimated 75,000+ other chemical ...
"Vinylation of Enolates with a Vinyl Cation Equivalent: trans-3-Methyl-2-Vinylcyclohexanone". Organic Syntheses. 66: 95. ; ... The exchange process is facilitated by the loss of gaseous isobutene. Alkene-Fp complexes can also be prepared from Fp anion ... The alkene ligand in these cations is activated toward attack by nucleophiles, opening the way to a number of carbon-carbon ... Synthesis and Technique in Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. pp. 171-180. ISBN 978-0- ...
Like all metal cations, Cs+ forms complexes with Lewis bases in solution. Because of its large size, Cs+ usually adopts ... Caesium fluoride enjoys a niche use in organic chemistry as a base and as an anhydrous source of fluoride ion. Caesium salts ... Most caesium compounds contain the element as the cation Cs+ , which binds ionically to a wide variety of anions. One ... "Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds". Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (PDF) (87th ed.). CRC press ...
Peat has very high cation-exchange capacity due to its high organic matter content: cations such as Ca2+ are preferentially ... of Inorganic and Analytical; Environment, Szajdak, L., Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland). Inst. for Agricultural and ... Prematurely exposing the organic matter to the atmosphere promotes the conversion of organics to carbon dioxide to be released ... Wetlands provide an environment where organic carbon is stored in living plants, dead plants and peat, as well as converted to ...
"Competitive absorption of quaternary ammonium and alkali metal cations into a Nafion cation-exchange membrane." J. Membrane Sci ... It is a counterion used in the research laboratory to prepare lipophilic salts of inorganic anions. It is used similarly to ... the four ethyl groups surrounding the nitrogen are too small to facilitate efficient ion transfer between aqueous and organic ... Tetraethylammonium (TEA), (NEt4+) or (Et4N+) is a quaternary ammonium cation consisting of four ethyl groups attached to a ...
In solvent extraction the formation of electrically-neutral complexes allows cations to be extracted into organic solvents. For ... An ion-exchange resin such as chelex 100, which contains chelating ligands bound to a polymer, can be used in water softeners ... Chemical speciation of environmentally significant metals with inorganic ligands Part 2: The Cu2+-OH−, Cl−, CO2− 3, SO2− 4, and ... but weak enough that the complex can be destroyed by nitric acid to recover the uranyl cation as nitrato complexes, such as [ ...
The conductivity of cation exchange effluent is always quite high due to the presence of anions and hydrogen ion and therefore ... The initial CO2 in the water sample is defined as Inorganic Carbon or IC. The CO2 produced from the oxidized organics and any ... The filters themselves must be constructed of ultraclean and robust materials, which do not contribute organics or cations/ ... Primary: Primary treatment consists of ultraviolet light (UV) for organic reduction, EDI and or mixed bed ion exchange for ...
They do this by creating a net negative charge by substituting lower-valent cations (e.g. Al3+) with a higher-valent cation (e. ... Clays, zeolites, and other natural material have a high capacity for cation exchange. ... controlling sorption of neutral organic contaminants by surfactant-derived and natural organic matter. Environmental Science & ... Mechanisms for removing uranium are similar to those for removing other inorganic contaminants, meaning that this study has ...
... including partitioning to soil organic matter, cation exchange, and surface complexation. Such adsorption to surfaces reduces ... 6-Dihalopyridines and Transfer-Nitration Chemistry of Their N-Nitropyridinium Cations". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 56 (9 ... ISBN 0-471-16394-5. Nakamoto, K. Infrared and Raman spectra of Inorganic and Coordination compounds. Part B (5th ed.). p. 24. ... The pKa of the conjugate acid (the pyridinium cation) is 5.25. Pyridine is protonated by reaction with acids and forms a ...
A decrease in pH reduces the retention time in cation exchange while an increase in pH reduces the retention time in anion ... Similarly organic compounds with single C-C bonds elute later than those with a C=C or C-C triple bond, as the double or triple ... For example, the addition of inorganic salts causes a moderate linear increase in the surface tension of aqueous solutions (ca ... thereby eluting weakly bound cations. This form of chromatography is widely used in the following applications: water ...
Handbook of Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic Compounds and Organic Salts: Infrared Spectra of Inorganic Compounds. ... The divalent cation can be magnesium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc or cadmium. In addition ... Zhou, Dawei; R. W. Kreilick (1993). "Electron spin exchange in single crystals of copper Tutton's salt (Cu(H2O)6(NH4)2SO4)". ... which means that they contain two different cations, M+ and M'2+ crystallized in the same regular ionic lattice. The univalent ...
... s include a wide range of hybrid inorganic-organic polymers with a number of different skeletal architectures ... H. R.; O'Connor, S. J. M.; Olmeijer, D. L.; Napierala, M. E.; Cameron, C. G. (1996). "Cation Complexation and Conductivity in ... Other polymers with both oligo-ethyleneoxy and carboxyphenoxy side groups expand in the presence of monovalent cations but ... with sulfonated aryloxy side groups are proton conductors of interest for use in the membranes of proton exchange membrane fuel ...
Average phosphorus concentration in the blood is about 0.4 g/L, about 70% of that is organic and 30% inorganic phosphates. An ... When the metal cation has a charge of 2+ or 3+, the salts are generally insoluble, hence they exist as common minerals. Many ... With metal cations, phosphate forms a variety of salts. These solids are polymeric, featuring P-O-M linkages. ... 4 PCl3 The trifluoride is produced from the trichloride by halide exchange. PF3 is toxic because it binds to haemoglobin. ...
ISBN 0-8014-0803-2. Includes discussion of many organic Brønsted acids. Shriver, D. F.; Atkins, P. W. (1999). Inorganic ... Ion-exchange chromatography utilizes a resin such as chelex 100 in which iminodiacetate residues, attached to a polymer ... ISBN 0-85312-027-7. Section 9.1 "Acidity of Solvated Cations" lists many pKa values. Lehn, J.-M. (1995). Supramolecular ... it forms a hydrophobic complex with the potassium cation which allows the uncharged ion pair [KL]+[MnO4]− to be extracted into ...
Nutrient uptake in the soil is achieved by cation exchange, wherein root hairs pump hydrogen ions (H+) into the soil through ... These hydrogen ions displace cations attached to negatively charged soil particles so that the cations are available for uptake ... Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, ... animal and plant protein are the same and that humans do not create organic compounds). With a reputation as the leading ...
J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992. K. Takai, in Handbook of Reagents for Organic ... The absence of cations in alternate layers leads to weak bonding between adjacent layers. For this reason, crystals of CrCl3 ... It consists of the cation trans-[CrCl2(H2O)4]+ and additional molecules of water and a chloride anion in the lattice. Two other ... This chromium(II) compound undergoes substitution easily, and it can exchange electrons with CrCl3 via a chloride bridge, ...
The surfaces also illustrate that heteroatoms influence the ability to form cation-pi interactions as cations will be attracted ... In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity has come to refer to cyclic (ring-shaped), planar (flat) organic compounds with a ... Exchange reactions occur with other arenes and so the p-cymene product can be recovered. The 10 π-electron system ... Bennett, M. A.; Huang, T. N.; Matheson, T. W.; Smith, A. K. (1982). "(η6-Hexamethylbenzene)ruthenium Complexes". Inorganic ...
4) cation that can itself be substituted similarly; while stibonium (SbH+. 4) itself is not known, some of its organic ... However, for the alkali metal cations, the second coordination sphere is not well-defined as the +1 charge on the cation is not ... "Inorganic Chemistry" by Cotton and Wilkinson *^ a b c d e Pyykkö, Pekka (2011). "A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, ... Furthermore, it is very useful as a heat-exchange liquid in fast breeder nuclear reactors due to its low melting point, ...
Hamilton™ PRP™-X200 Cation Exchange Columns. Analyze inorganic and organic cations using conductivity or UV detection. Separate ... Hamilton™ PRP-X100 Anion Exchange HPLC Columns: PEEK. Polymeric column packing for separation of inorganic and organic anions ... Hamilton™ PRP-X100 Anion Exchange HPLC Columns: Stainless Steel. Polymeric column packing for separation of inorganic and ... mono or divalent cations depending on mobile phase conditions from 20 ppb to 200 ppm. ...
In cation exchange chromatography, the stationary bed has an ionically negative (-) charged surface while the sample ions are ... Inorganic and organic cations, alkali and alkaline earth metals, mono or divalent cations. ... In cation exchange chromatography, the stationary bed has an ionically negative (-) charged surface while the sample ions are ...
Preferred ion transfer materials are the synthetic organic cation exchange resins. These include weak-acid, cation-exchange ... Suitable ion transfer materials include both inorganic and synthetic organic products. Inorganic ion transfer materials include ... These materials are particularly preferred because of their ability to exchange cations across the entire pH range. The most ... The method of claim 1, wherein said ion transfer material is a strong-acid cation-exchange resin. ...
Cations and anions. Ion exchange. Organic colloids and inorganic micelles (clays) are sites of ion exchange Where do ions in ... Ions adsorbed to soil surfaces can be exchanged with ions in soil solution. ... Cation exchange capacity (CEC) Sum total of exchangeable cations that a soil can adsorb. ( prevents nutrients from leaching ... Cations and anions. Ion exchange. Organic colloids and inorganic micelles (clays) are sites of ion exchange Where do ions in ...
"Scavenging of aqueous toxic organic and inorganic cations using novel facile magneto-carbon black-clay composite adsorbent, ... exhibited higher cation exchange capacity (CEC) than any of the starting adsorbents. The rates of removal of MB were faster ... Scavenging of aqueous toxic organic and inorganic cations using novel facile magneto-carbon black-clay composite adsorbent. ... Scavenging of aqueous toxic organic and inorganic cations using novel facile magneto-carbon... Diagboya, Paul N.; Dikio, ...
The Hamilton PRP-X200, cation exchange columns are used in the separation of inorganic and organic, mono or divalent cations. ...
... polymerizing component into the galleries of a layered inorganic cation exchange composition initially in proton exchanged form ... of the inorganic cation exchanger and reacts with the polymer polymerizing component to form a cured polymer-inorganic ... In the most preferred embodiment of the invention the layered inorganic composition is selected from the family of 2:1 layered ... component comprising the particulate concentrate contains a basic group for reaction with the protons of the inorganic cation ...
How do cationic and anionic ion exchange materials work? What can we use ion exchange resins for? The theory of ion exchange ... from non-ionised or slightly ionised organic or inorganic substances. Ion exchange resins can be used in metal extraction by a ... sheets act as an cation exchange system. * The excess negative charge is balanced by various cations e.g. H+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, ... 4.3 Ion Exchange systems and cationic/anionic ion exchange resin theory. cation and anion exchange systems * INTRODUCTION to ...
... is the ability to fine-tune their surface chemistry through ion exchange reactions with organic and inorganic cations. These ... organic cation and polymer matrix), the method of preparation and the strength of interfacial interactions between the polymer ... When the hydrated cations are ion-exchanged with bulkier organic cations, a larger interlayer spacing is usually obtained ( ... In some cases, the hydrated interlayer cations can be exchanged by ion-exchange reactions with cationic surfactants including ...
Unlike soil, hydroponic nutrient solutions do not have cation-exchange capacity (CEC) from clay particles or organic matter. ... Main article: Organic hydroponics. Organic fertilizers can be used to supplement or entirely replace the inorganic compounds ... leaving an excess of cations in solution.[8] This cation imbalance can lead to deficiency symptoms in other cation based ... Coir has a high cation exchange, meaning it can store unused minerals to be released to the plant as and when it requires it. ...
Preferred ion transfer materials are the synthetic organic cation exchange resins. These include weak-acid, cation-exchange ... Suitable ion transfer materials include both inorganic and synthetic organic products. Inorganic ion transfer materials include ... These materials are particularly preferred because of their ability to exchange cations across the entire pH range. The most ... A61K51/04-Organic compounds * A61K51/0474-Organic compounds complexes or complex-forming compounds, i.e. wherein a radioactive ...
... limit the ionic radius of the monovalent A cation to 2.9 Å. Therefore, only two or three C-C or C-N bonds or inorganic cations ... Moreover, a new kind of pure phase perovskite nanosheets can be obtained by utilizing cation exchange and anion exchange [84]. ... Since organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite materials were still limited by their instability. Full-inorganic halide ... J.H. Heo, S.H. Im, J.H. Noh, T.N. Mandal, C.-S. Lim et al., Efficient inorganic-organic hybrid heterojunction solar cells ...
14] attempted to combine the adsorption of organics with the cation exchange capacities (CECs) of clays to enhance the ... Recently, inorganic clays have been observed useful because of their unique structure as well as typical adsorption ... Since high concentration of acid is always present during intercalation, it is assumed that with dye cations the acid molecules ... Thus, in some cases it is found difficult to localize an organic substrate in close proximity to the electrode to enhance an ...
... wherein the ion exchange resin is a cation exchange resin; and further comprising isolating the aqueous solution from the ... for example with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid, or with organic carboxylic acids ... The electrochemical apparatus can comprise a means for transporting ions 506 such as cations (such as protons) between a first ... or from other salts by cation exchange or anion exchange.. As used herein, "analogue" refers to a chemical compound that is ...
... cation exchange capacity, total inorganic and organic carbon, and particle size) on As(III) adsorption, sequestration, ... Within the shallow Orange County Groundwater Basin sediments, the divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) are critical for limiting ... and the availability of inorganic reductants and organic electron donors that consume oxidants. We investigated the processes ... Influence of Natural Organic Matter on As Transport and Retention ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Sharma, P., Rolle, M., ...
Ion exchangers are commonly either cation exchangers that exchange positively charged ions (cations) or anion exchangers that ... The pigment may comprise inorganic and/or organic materials. Inorganic pigments include elements, their oxides, mixed oxides, ... The metal will be exchanged from the organic to the electrolyte. The resulting streams will be a stripped organic and a rich ... However, the organic matter substantially remained in the organic matter-containing water when the organic matter-containing ...
... and the types of organic/inorganic ligands and colloidal surfaces. Use of cation exchange resins, particularly Chelex-100, has ... always used in an environment where the number of binding sites is in large excess compared to the number of competing cations ... This review investigates the use of cation exchange resins by assessing the resin properties, the techniques developed and the ... LITERATURE REVIEW: The Use of Cation-Exchange Resins in Natural Water Trace Metals Research. ARTICLE: Determination of Free Ion ...
... by high cation exchange capacity and selectivity, is particularly useful in the design and development of new catalytic ... materials to apply in many organic and inorganic reactions [2].. From the structural point of view, the three dimensional ... Clinoptilolite shows exchange selective capacity toward low charge density cations.. Mordenite, with a general formula Na8Al8Si ... Ion-exchange membranes in chemical synthesis - a review. *Push-pull effect on the geometrical, optical and charge transfer ...
... soil and water samples for inorganic nutrients, trace elements and heavy metals. ... Physical properties including particle size, cation exchange capacity and exchangeable cations. *Trace metal analysis ( ... Carbon forms (total carbon, inorganic carbon (carbonate) and organic carbon determined by difference) ... We provide an extensive range of chemical analyses on plant, soil and water samples for inorganic nutrients, trace elements and ...
Phosphorus - Bray P; Olsen P; Total P; Inorganic P; Organic P; P-retention. Bray Cations (Mg, K, Ca). Cation Exchange Capacity ... Cation Exchange Capacity. Mehlich 3 (B, Ca, Al, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Na, Zn). Hot water soluble boron. Other trace elements ... Loss on ignition / ash content / organic matter. Macroporosity. Particle density. Particle size (% sand:silt:clay). Water ...
Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient ... Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in 1st truss compared to both RC and PVC. The uncredited nutrient ... Rippy, J. F. M., and Nelson, P. V. (2007). Cation exchange capacity and base saturation variation among Alberta, Canada, Moss ... the organic substrates might be more efficient than inorganic substrate (RC) in reducing Ca deficiency and BER. ...
In hybrid materials obtained via modification of the cation-exchange membrane matrix by inorganic and some organic compounds, ... exchange capacity, which is constant across the entire membrane, distribution coefficients γ+, γ− of cations and anions in it. ... Perfluorinated cation-exchange Nafion membrane produced by DuPont (USA) and its analogues such as MF-4SC (LTD Plastpolymer, ... Original perfluorinated cation-exchange and two hybrid membranes with pure aluminosilicate (halloysite) nanotubes were prepared ...
Cation Exchange Units. Effective Against: *positively charged ions. *inorganic minerals, such as iron and manganese ions ... and the capacity of resins to remove the cations. ... organic compounds. *concentrations of ferric iron (solid, ... How Anion Exchange Units Work. The anion exchange unit is similar to the cation exchange device. The difference is that the ... In Massachusetts, cation exchange is commonly used to remove iron and manganese. Cation exchange devices are commonly used in ...
... organic-inorganic hybrid cation-exchanger: Nylon-6, 6, Zr (IV) phosphate. Talanta 71 (2) 841-847. [ Links ]. KAGAYA S, ARAKI Y ... The optimum conditions for removal of Fe(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions using THBA cation exchange resin were ... The adsorption of heavy metal cations, Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Fe(II) from aqueous solution by newly-synthesized ... MONTEAGUDO J and ORTIZ T (2002) Removal of inorganic mercury from mine wastewater by ion exchange, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol ...
Obelisc N column can be used as cation-exchange and anion-exchange column. This allows to separate positively and negatively ... Ion chromatography is usually used for analysis of hydrophilic organic and inorganic ions. Same separation can be achieved on ... Method is compatible with ELSD, CAD and LC/MS and can be used for analysis of various hydrophilic and hydrophobic cations and ... Five anions (chloride, bromide, methanesulfonate, nitrate and perchlorate) along with one cation (sodium) were separated in one ...
  • With the exception of recent equilibrium based studies Chelex is always used in an environment where the number of binding sites is in large excess compared to the number of competing cations, meaning competition effect are not significant, although kinetic factors are important is Chelex lability studies. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Under natural conditions there is an equilibrium between the formation of organic matter by vegetation and its decomposition by micro-organisms. (plant-care.com)
  • The present invention relates to particulate concentrate compositions formed by intercalation of a polymer polymerizing component into the galleries of a layered inorganic cation exchange composition initially in proton exchanged form and to the use of the particulate concentrates for the preparation of cured polymer-inorganic nanolayer hybrid composite compositions. (google.com)
  • Injection solvent strength was varied by changing the eluent ion strength or organic composition of the solvent. (marquette.edu)
  • Environmental factors (e.g., rainfall seasonality, temperature, and vegetation type) and soil properties (e.g., pH, texture, organic matter, and nutrient contents) tend to drive seasonal and spatial changes in soil microbial abundance and composition ( 3 - 5 ), and these changes can influence ecosystem processes ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • For this reason the composition of both the mineral and organic matter of roses may be greatly modified even though grown upon identical soil types but in different geographical locations. (plant-care.com)
  • Composts vary widely in their organic composition and elemental content, depending on the source material, degree of decomposition, and the quantity and quality of added amendments, such as animal or poultry manures. (maximumyield.com)
  • On the other hand, in a review on clay-modified electrodes, Fitch [ 12 ] observed that one of the attractive features of clays for their use in electrode modification is the high reactivity of the clay surface with organics. (hindawi.com)
  • 14 ] attempted to combine the adsorption of organics with the cation exchange capacities (CEC's) of clays to enhance the electroreduction of the aryl halogen in dibromobenzene. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently, inorganic clays have been observed useful because of their unique structure as well as typical adsorption characteristics and chemical stability [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recently major attention of scientists has been focused on the modeling of species transport across ion-exchange membranes and a number of studies are devoted to the electromigration phenomenon. (scirp.org)
  • The practical application of such membranes is often based on the diffusion processes, so diffusion permeability is one of the important characteristics of ionic transport through such ion-exchange membranes -. (scirp.org)
  • Thus, in hybrid membranes with low dopant concentration the rate of cation transfer is higher, while the rates of anion transfer are lower than in the initial membrane . (scirp.org)
  • Electrochemical water treatment systems take advantage of this property by combining the electrode with ion exchange membranes. (wqa.org)
  • Nanocomposite cation exchange membranes (CEMs) were prepared by adding various amounts of functionalized silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles to the sulfonated polyethersulfone (sPES) polymeric matrix. (msrjournal.com)
  • Y. Journal of Electroanalytical ChemistryKobuchi, H. Motomura, Y. Noma, F. Hanada, Application of ion exchange membranes to the recovery of acids by diffusion dialysis, J. Membr. (msrjournal.com)
  • R.K. Nagarale, G.S. Gohil, V.K. Shahi, Recent developments on ion-exchange membranes and electro-membrane processes, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. (msrjournal.com)
  • D. Chen, M.A. Hickner, E. Agar, E.C. Kumbur, Optimized anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries, ACS Appl. (msrjournal.com)
  • T. Xu, Ion exchange membranes: State of their development and perspective, J. Membr. (msrjournal.com)
  • C. Klaysom, S.-H. Moon, B.P. Ladewig, G.Q.M. Lu, L. Wang, Preparation of porous ion-exchange membranes (IEMs) and their characterizations, J. Membr. (msrjournal.com)
  • M.-S. Kang, Y.-J. Choi, I.-J. Choi, T.-H. Yoon, S.-H. Moon, Electrochemical characterization of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (S-PES) cation-exchange membranes, J. Membr. (msrjournal.com)
  • Cation exchangers occur naturally in the sheet structures of clay minerals in soil which have excess immobile negative groups based on oxygen (e.g. clay O ) which hold cations like H + or Ca 2+ . (docbrown.info)
  • A large number of electrochemists show their attention to the clay-modified electrodes due to the unique layered structure of the clay and its ion exchange properties. (hindawi.com)
  • Inorganic soil clay colloids are the residues of rock particles that have been washed for ages by water. (plant-care.com)
  • The soil clay colloid contains varying quantities of cations that may be removed completely or partially without destroying the colloid. (plant-care.com)
  • Cations moving from the colloid surface will be absorbed on the root surface, absorbed into the rose, or the clay colloid will remove cations from the root surface. (plant-care.com)
  • Natural zeolites are particularly interesting because although the specific surface is lower than the synthetic materials, the low cost and abundance drive to profitable catalytic materials, allows for optimizing properties such as adsorption, ionic exchange and reactivity. (degruyter.com)
  • It is suggested that in modified electrodes the process of charge transport takes place either by physical diffusion of the electroactive molecule or by electron exchange (hopping) [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A method of quantitative evaluation of physicochemical parameters (averaged and individual diffusion coefficients and averaged distribution coefficients of ion pairs in the membrane) of system "electrolyte solution―ion-exchange membrane―water", which was proposed earlier, is further developed. (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, CC significantly increased organic acid of fruit in first truss compared to both RC and PVC. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chlorous acid is generated from a chlorite salt precursor, a chlorate salt precursor, or a combination of both by ion exchange. (justia.com)
  • For catalysis of chlorous acid to chlorine dioxide, the chlorous acid may be generated by ion exchange or in a conventional manner. (justia.com)
  • However, the radius of the isolated ion does not count here, but what does matter is the effective radius of the hydrated cation. (docbrown.info)
  • Soil is the upper layer of earth, a mixture of organic and inorganic matter, in which plants grow. (conservationdigest.com)
  • Greater organic matter content in the black soils was associated with higher microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and abundances of genes related to nitrification ( amoA ) and denitrification ( nirK and nirS ) than were observed in the red soils. (asm.org)
  • We observed that soil heterogeneity and rainfall seasonality were the main correlates of soil bacterial community structure and function in this tropical forest, likely acting through their effects on soil attributes, especially those related to soil organic matter and moisture content. (asm.org)
  • Consequently the degree of vegetation will be a major factor in determining the quantity, distribution and a general quality of soil organic matter, including humus. (plant-care.com)
  • I review a few recent studies of biochar in compost in order to tentatively explain what biochar actually does when it comes into contact with organic matter and minerals - the basic constituents of soils. (biochar-journal.org)
  • This increase is attributed to the improved organic matter input and/or reduced negative impact of tillage in these agricultural managements. (scirp.org)
  • Composted materials may be added to an inorganic rooting medium as a means of increasing the organic matter content, or as an organic source for an essential plant nutrient element or elements. (maximumyield.com)
  • Soils with a high amount of organic matter tend to be more plastic in their physical consistency, requiring care when being tilled to avoid puddles in the soil. (maximumyield.com)
  • Perfluorinated cation-exchange Nafion membrane produced by DuPont (USA) and its analogues such as MF-4SC (LTD Plastpolymer, Russia), Dow (Dow, USA) are the most widely used in various devices (like fuel cells, electrodialyzers) and investigated ion-exchange materials . (scirp.org)
  • Although water softeners get rid of some heavy metals along with hardness, water filtration systems are the best way to remove organic and inorganic materials (such as microbiological contaminants) and particulates (such as sand, rust and silt). (wqa.org)
  • Biochar first came into broad public awareness through the example of the Amazon, where the hypothesis is that Amazonian inhabitants added biochar along with other organic and household wastes over centuries to modify the surface soil horizon into a highly productive and fertile soil called Terra Preta, which is in direct contrast to the typical weathered Oxisol soils in close proximity. (biochar-journal.org)
  • Good organic, rich, productive soils developed slowly only after algae and arthropods crawled from the sea to dry land and plants took root (Fortey, 1999). (biochar-journal.org)
  • Pre- and post-adsorptive IR spectra study suggested that the positions of active interactions between the cations and the adsorbents involved surface functional groups such as the OH, COO-, and CN groups. (deepdyve.com)
  • From the slope and y-intercept data the retention mechanism of organic ion was interpreted as ion exchange and reversed phase interactions. (marquette.edu)
  • Ca,Mg.K,etc.) from a solution go into insoluble form and another ion comes out into solution to take its place is known as base exchange. (plant-care.com)