Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Head Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Needlestick Injuries: Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Electric Injuries: Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.AccidentsContusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Mice, Inbred C57BLSoccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Wrist Injuries: Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.Accidents, HomeVentilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Maxillofacial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the face and jaw (either upper, lower, or both).Wounds, Stab: Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Humeral Head: The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DislocationsIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Motorcycles: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Hockey: A game in which two parties of players provided with curved or hooked sticks seek to drive a ball or puck through opposite goals. This applies to either ice hockey or field hockey.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Martial Arts: Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.United StatesModels, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Off-Road Motor Vehicles: Motorized, recreational vehicles used on non-public roads. They include all-terrain vehicles, dirt-bikes, minibikes, motorbikes, trailbikes, and snowmobiles. Excludes MOTORCYCLES, which are considered public road vehicles.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Lightning Injuries: Accidental injuries caused by brief high-voltage electrical discharges during thunderstorms. Cardiopulmonary arrest, coma and other neurologic symptoms, myocardial necrosis, and dermal burns are common. Prompt treatment of the acute sequelae, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is indicated for survival.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.ExplosionsBronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
  • These included those with injuries ranging from minor, without loss of consciousness, to major, with severe neurologic damage. (forbes.com)
  • A CT of the head is indicated in patients with head injury and loss of consciousness or amnesia if the patient has also had any of the following: headache, vomiting, age greater than 60 years, drug or alcohol intoxication, short-term memory loss, evidence of trauma above the clavicles, a seizure, a focal neurologic deficit, a GCS less than 15, or a coagulopathy. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral concussion is defined as an altered mental state that may or may not include loss of consciousness that occurs as a result of head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • In conclusion, the independent factors associated with intracranial hemorrhage in patients with mild head injury who were determined to be at moderate risk for the condition included history of hypertension, headache, loss of consciousness, and baseline GCS score. (hindawi.com)
  • A penetrating head injury occurs when an object pierces the skull and breaches the dura mater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resolved , That PTA and its constituent associations work with state and local education agencies to establish adopt and implement communication procedures to contact parents and/or guardians at the time a head injury to a child occurs in the school setting. (pta.org)
  • Head trauma may trigger an acceleration of the loss of brain cells that normally occurs with age, she said. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • It occurs every time I stand up or sit down, if I tilt my head back or forward, and if I bed down etc. it's starting to become a pain and I'm wondering if this is something stop in time or whether I need to go and see the doctor again? (medhelp.org)
  • Bleeding into and surrounding the brain usually occurs at the time of injury and over time may continue so that there is increasing pressure within the skull. (rxlist.com)
  • This injury most often occurs along the side of the head where the middle meningeal artery runs in a groove along the temporal bone. (rxlist.com)
  • Write down or otherwise note everything that occurs in your life which may be related to your head trauma. (odglawgroup.com)
  • Usually they are not life-threatening, but caution needs to be taken when one occurs because repetitive injury to the brain can cause long-term effects. (sharecare.com)
  • Increasingly concerned about the long-term effects of head trauma, the NFL last year modified its policies for the treatment of a player who suffers a concussion, prohibiting his return to a subsequent game or practice without clearance from an independent neurologist. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Any child who suffers a head injury needs to be carefully assessed afterwards and it's good that your nephew has been seen both by a doctor in casualty and by the family's GP. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • During this period, youth American football players experience a median of 240 to 252 head impacts per season, according to studies using helmet accelerometry. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need a helmet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Even with a helmet, it is important for your child or teen to avoid hits to the head. (cdc.gov)
  • Download the HEADS UP app on concussion and helmet safety to learn how to spot a possible concussion and how to respond. (cdc.gov)
  • Wearing a helmet will cushion your head from the impact of falls and collisions and may save your life. (medic8.com)
  • The study wasn't a controlled experiment designed to prove whether or how helmet use or where someone sits on a motorcycle influences their odds of injuries. (reuters.com)
  • My children have even bought me a whitewater rafting helmet in case I bang my head again and reverse the process," says Amato, who lives in Colorado. (zdnet.com)
  • Welker sustained the injury on a 20-yard catch-and-run play in the fourth quarter Sunday, when he was tackled by Chiefs defensive end Allen Bailey but also was hit in the helmet by safety Eric Berry. (pbs.org)
  • A microwave helmet is placed on the patient's head and the brain tissue is examined with the aid of microwave radiation. (chalmers.se)
  • The microwave helmet could improve the medical assessment of traumatic head injuries even before the patient arrives at the hospital", says Johan Ljungqvist specialist in neurosurgery at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital. (chalmers.se)
  • The system consists of three parts: a helmet-like antenna system that is put on the patient's head, a microwave unit and a computer that is used to control the equipment, data acquisition and signal processing. (chalmers.se)
  • The protective effect of helmet use with respect to head injury prevention therefore appears to be greater in pedal cyclists compared with motorcyclists," the team writes. (abc.net.au)
  • The study, by Dr William Meehan, of the Micheli Centre for Sports Injury Prevention in the US, compares injury and death rates of US bicycle riders younger than 16 years in US states with mandatory helmet laws and those without. (abc.net.au)
  • His team found states with mandatory helmet laws had significantly lower rates of fatalities/incapacitation injuries after bicycle-motor vehicle collisions than those without (2 per million versus 2.5 per million). (abc.net.au)
  • And as that use increases, we're going to see more head injuries, unless helmet use increases. (kuow.org)
  • PORTSMOUTH A new study, done by two trauma surgeons at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, warns that it is false confidence to assume that because you wear a helmet while skiing that you are safe from head trauma. (seacoastonline.com)
  • Instead, they hope their study will show why adults and children who get a head injury while skiing or snowboarding should be checked out medically even if they were wearing a helmet at the time of their crash. (seacoastonline.com)
  • However, Porter said while helmet use rates doubled during their study period, the rate of head injuries suffered by skiers and boarders failed to decline and that s where the concern is. (seacoastonline.com)
  • We have seen kids whose parents are not that concerned because the kids were wearing a helmet, said Porter, They are released and are back the next day because of head trauma. (seacoastonline.com)
  • If injured, even if wearing a helmet, it is advisable to be checked out, especially if you hit your head. (seacoastonline.com)
  • They investigated the relationship between helmet use, injury types, and injury severity among skiers and snowboarders. (seacoastonline.com)
  • While a variety of injuries to the upper and lower extremities were studied, the most impactful findings were those surrounding helmet use. (seacoastonline.com)
  • Measuring the force of blows to the head won't immediately lead to a concussion-prevention application, but Kevin Guskiewicz, a committee member and chairman of the department of exercise and sport science at the University of North Carolina, said the information-gathering nevertheless should begin as soon as possible. (washingtonpost.com)
  • They can either be head injuries due to blows to the head or head injuries due to shaking. (healthline.com)
  • Some neurologists, however, emphasized that there is still reason for skepticism about whether multiple blows to the head lead to the type of brain damage documented in the study. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Study leader Dr. Ann McKee, a BU neurologist who directs the Bedford VA Medical Center brain banks used for the study, said certain genetic factors probably combine with the number and severity of head blows through a person's lifetime to determine the likelihood of developing the condition, which has no treatment and no diagnostic test beyond an autopsy. (bostonglobe.com)
  • The BYU scientists also found that physical injury and social withdrawal are connected through "cognitive proficiency," defined as the combination of short-term memory and the brain's processing speed. (psychcentral.com)
  • Head injuries are increasingly being linked to cognitive problems and degenerative brain disease in later life. (newscientist.com)
  • Explain that, according to the study, cognitive function in men who sustained penetrating head wounds in Vietnam is declining faster than in uninjured veterans. (medpagetoday.com)
  • BETHESDA, Md., Dec. 18 -- Men surviving penetrating head wounds in Vietnam are still having late effects, with a faster decline in cognitive function than other vets who returned uninjured, researchers here said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Among other findings, pre-injury intelligence test scores were the most consistent predictor of cognitive outcome across all time periods in the study. (medpagetoday.com)
  • After adjusting for factors such as age, sex, race, hypertension , and stroke , results showed that decreases in cognitive decline were observed in both the participants who had had head injuries and those who had not. (medscape.com)
  • Two new studies suggest that heading in soccer may result in weaker mental performance, including a decline in cognitive function, difficulty in verbal learning, planning and maintaining attention and reduced information processing speed. (momsteam.com)
  • Most importantly, Hoge continues to forge ahead with USA Football to inform players at all levels about the severity of these injuries and to work to attain a singular voice on this topic that can be easily digested by novices -- a voice free of any divisiveness between the NFL, NFLPA or any other interested party. (nfl.com)
  • The severity of these injuries varies widely. (theyec.org)
  • The literature shows that athletes with head injuries consistently perform worse on tests for memory, listening skills, and reaction time, even when the concussion was mild and the CT scan was normal. (news-medical.net)
  • Beyond any consideration of workers compensation law, the other reason that you have to get any kind of head injury checked out as quickly as possible is that it could become much worse. (odglawgroup.com)
  • A GCS score of 13 or above would indicate a minor head injury. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The minor head injury is actually irrelevant here as it has done no harm at all apart from trigger your anxiety and panic attacks. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Halle Berry was rushed from the set of "The Hive" to the hospital Tuesday evening with a minor head injury which Berry sustained while filming a fight sequence on the set of, "The Hive. (inquisitr.com)
  • After a particularly violent weekend of head-to-head collisions in October , the NFL announced it would strictly enforce its rules that prohibit some hits to the head and began issuing hefty fines to players who violated them. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Despite many educational efforts, the 32% rate of CT scans for pediatric head injuries did not decline during the nine-year study period. (forbes.com)
  • Zimmerman RA, Bilaniuk LT, Bruce D, Dolinskas C, Obrist W, Kuhl D (1978) Computed tomography of pediatric head trauma: acute general cerebral swelling. (springer.com)
  • Further studies of acute head injury patients are ongoing and planned in Sweden and abroad. (chalmers.se)
  • Although there are clear recommendations to screen for occult skeletal injury in the presence of acute head injury in infants, the recommendations regarding screening for occult head injury in the presence of suspicious skeletal or other injuries are less well-defined. (aappublications.org)
  • Certain jobs, such as construction, contain risk of a head injury. (familydoctor.org)
  • You cannot always avoid head injuries, but you can do things to decrease your risk. (familydoctor.org)
  • Drivers might have lower risk for these injuries because they sit behind a protective windshield and have a firm grip on the steering column, while the passenger often sits at a higher position behind the driver with little to hold on to, Evans added. (reuters.com)
  • Wearing one doesn't ensure that you're not going to get in a car accident, but it lowers the risk of injury and of dying in a car accident. (foxnews.com)
  • For many people, a more significant axonal injury has occurred, and this underlies the problems they have with motor skills and memory, and may also be a risk factor for later development of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent evidence disputes the theory that head injury early in life increases the risk of developing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). (psychcentral.com)
  • In an editorial alongside the research report, specialist doctors take up this point, saying that monitoring children with early injuries could reduce later risk of ADHD. (psychcentral.com)
  • Recently published guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry conclude that risk factors "may interact rather than act in isolation," and include genetics and environmental influences such as injury, maternal smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, heroin use in pregnancy, fetal hypoxia (lack of oxygen), exposure to toxins, and zinc deficiency. (psychcentral.com)
  • Find out more about head injuries as a risk factor. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • There is limited evidence that genetic predisposition, age at which the head is exposed to trauma, and other factors influence risk of this disease. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Yet players' risk of head injury hadn't been well studied, according to Hutchison and his coauthors. (reuters.com)
  • It also is becoming apparent female soccer players are at greater risk for head injuries than their male counterparts. (coloradodaily.com)
  • A new article publishing online today in the Quarterly Journal of Medicine has reported the first case showing an association between exposure to head injuries in rugby union players and an increased risk in neurodegenerative disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • They're able to go faster than bike share bikes, and I'm worried about these bikes increasing the risk of head injuries. (kuow.org)
  • While we can t say for sure, some of the injuries could be related to risk behaviors. (seacoastonline.com)
  • That the risk is highest in middle age is not surprising," he added, "as the brain has less ability to recover from injury at that time. (hon.ch)
  • Driving has a 14% higher daily risk of head injury than cycling when commuting in Toronto. (medium.com)
  • We defined moderate risk of mild head injury as a GCS score of 13-15 accompanied by at least one symptom such as headache, vomiting, or amnesia or with alcohol intoxication. (hindawi.com)
  • In specialist units, up to 75% of patients with severe injury have their intracranial pressure monitored.10 Raised intracranial pressure is treated according to a protocol that introduces successive treatments as the pressure becomes increasingly difficult to control. (rutgers.edu)
  • The team also noted that helmeted skiers and boarders were more likely to hit a stationary object, and this mechanism of injury was also associated with having more severe injury. (seacoastonline.com)