Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.
Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.
The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
A benign brain tumor composed of neural elements which most often arise from the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the walls of the lateral ventricles. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy evaluations may reveal expression of neuron specific enolase and synaptophysin and cells containing microtubuli, neurosecretory granules, and presynaptic vesicles. (From Acta Med Port 1994 Feb;7(2):113-9)
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Rare, slow-growing, benign intraventricular tumors, often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. The tumors are classified histologically as ependymomas and demonstrate a proliferation of subependymal fibrillary astrocytes among the ependymal tumor cells. (From Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1997 Feb;99(1):17-22)
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
Inflammation of CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Bleeding within the subcortical regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA). It is often associated with HYPERTENSION or ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS. Clinical manifestations may include HEADACHE; DYSKINESIAS; and HEMIPARESIS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.
A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.
Unsaturated azacyclopropane compounds that are three-membered heterocycles of a nitrogen and two carbon atoms.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Any of six membrane-covered openings between the CRANIAL SUTURES in the incompletely ossified skull of the fetus or newborn infant. The fontanelles normally close sometime after birth.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A vitamin antagonist which has teratogenic effects.
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Agents that cause vomiting. They may act directly on the gastrointestinal tract, bringing about emesis through local irritant effects, or indirectly, through their effects on the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the postremal area near the medulla.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A nicotinic antagonist most commonly used as an experimental tool. It has been used as a ganglionic blocker in the treatment of hypertension but has largely been supplanted for that purpose by more specific drugs.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Loss of structural differentiation and useful function of neoplastic cells.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An antiarrhythmic agent which exerts a potential- and frequency-dependent block of SODIUM CHANNELS.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Rare indolent tumors comprised of neoplastic glial and neuronal cells which occur primarily in children and young adults. Benign lesions tend to be associated with long survival unless the tumor degenerates into a histologically malignant form. They tend to occur in the optic nerve and white matter of the brain and spinal cord.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Benign or malignant tumors which arise from the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain. Papillomas (see PAPILLOMA, CHOROID PLEXUS) and carcinomas are the most common histologic subtypes, and tend to seed throughout the ventricular and subarachnoid spaces. Clinical features include headaches, ataxia and alterations of consciousness, primarily resulting from associated HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2072; J Neurosurg 1998 Mar;88(3):521-8)
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.
A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.
Saturated azacyclopropane compounds. They include compounds with substitutions on CARBON or NITROGEN atoms.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)

Neuroprotection of the developing brain by systemic administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide derivatives. (1/2251)

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a necrotic and often cystic lesion of the cerebral white matter occurring in very premature babies, is the leading cause of cerebral palsy in this population. Increased glutamate release and the excitotoxic cascade thus triggered may be critical factors in the development of PVL. The glutamatergic analog ibotenate injected intracerebrally into newborn mice produces white matter cysts that mimic human PVL. Concomitant injection of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a trophic factor, protects the white matter against excitotoxic lesions. The goal of the present study was to assess the protective properties of systemically injected VIP analogs against ibotenate-induced excitotoxic white matter lesions in newborn mice. VIP analogs were selected on the basis of their low susceptibility to endopeptidases and their potential ability to cross biological membranes. RO-25-1553, a long-lasting cyclic VIP analog, and stearyl-norleucine-VIP, a fatty derivative of VIP, reduced ibotenate-induced white matter cysts by up to 87% and 84%, respectively, when injected i.p. immediately after ibotenate. By comparison, i.p. coadministration of VIP and ibotenate was not protective against the excitotoxic insult. Furthermore, RO-25-1553 and stearyl-norleucine-VIP still induced significant neuroprotection of the developing white matter when injected systemically 8 and 12 h, respectively, after ibotenate, establishing these peptides as therapeutic agents in this murine model. VIP analogs may have therapeutic potential in human premature babies at high risk for PVL.  (+info)

Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats. (2/2251)

Leptin inhibits feeding and decreases body weight. It may act partly by inhibiting hypothalamic neurons that express neuropeptide Y, a powerful inducer of feeding and obesity. These neuropeptide Y neurons express the Ob-Rb leptin receptor and are overactive in the fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rat. The fa mutation affects the extracellular domain of the leptin receptor, but its impact on leptin action and neuropeptide Y neuronal activity is not fully known. We compared the effects of three doses of leptin given intracerebroventricularly and three doses of leptin injected intraperitoneally on food intake and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y mRNA, in lean and fatty Zucker rats. In lean rats, 4-h food intake was reduced in a dose-related fashion (P<0.01) by all intracerebroventricular leptin doses and by intraperitoneal doses of 300 and 600 microg/kg. Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were reduced by 28% and 21% after the highest intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal doses respectively (P<0. 01 for both). In fatty rats, only the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose reduced food intake (by 22%; P<0. 01). Neuropeptide Y mRNA levels were 100% higher in fatty rats than in lean animals, and were reduced by 18% (P<0.01) after the highest intracerebroventricular leptin dose. Intraperitoneal injection had no effect on food intake and neuropeptide Y mRNA. The fa/fa Zucker rat is therefore less sensitive to leptin given intracerebroventricularly and particularly intraperitoneally, suggesting that the fa mutation interferes both with leptin's direct effects on neurons and its transport into the central nervous system. Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (3/2251)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons. (4/2251)

Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (5/2251)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (6/2251)

Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta.  (+info)

Contribution of extracranial lymphatics and arachnoid villi to the clearance of a CSF tracer in the rat. (7/2251)

The objective of this study was to determine the relative roles of arachnoid villi and cervical lymphatics in the clearance of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tracer in rats. 125I-labeled human serum albumin (125I-HSA; 100 micrograms) was injected into one lateral ventricle, and an Evans blue dye-rat protein complex was injected intravenously. Arterial blood was sampled for 3 h. Immediately after this, multiple cervical vessels were ligated in the same animals, and plasma recoveries were monitored for a further 3 h after the intracerebroventricular injection of 100 micrograms 131I-HSA. Tracer recovery in plasma at 3 h averaged (%injected dose) 0.697 +/- 0.042 before lymphatic ligation and dropped significantly to 0.357 +/- 0. 060 after ligation. Estimates of the rate constant associated with the transport of the CSF tracer to plasma were also significantly lower after obstruction of cervical lymphatics (from 0.584 +/- 0. 072/h to 0.217 +/- 0.056/h). No significant changes were observed in sham-operated animals. Assuming that the movement of the CSF tracer to plasma in lymph-ligated animals was a result of arachnoid villi clearance, we conclude that arachnoid villi and extracranial lymphatic pathways contributed equally to the clearance of the CSF tracer from the cranial vault.  (+info)

Role of central melanocortins in endotoxin-induced anorexia. (8/2251)

Inflammation and microbial infection produce symptoms, including fever, anorexia, and hypoactivity, that are thought to be mediated by endogenous proinflammatory cytokines. Melanocortins are known to act centrally to suppress effects on fever and other sequelae of proinflammatory cytokine actions in the central nervous system, but the roles of melanocortins in anorexia and hypoactivity occurring during the acute phase response are unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effects of exogenous and endogenous alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia in relation to their effects on fever. Rats were fasted overnight to promote feeding behavior, then injected intraperitoneally with LPS (100 micrograms/kg ip), followed 30 min later by intracerebroventricular injection of either alpha-MSH or the melanocortin receptor subtype 3/subtype 4 (MC3-R/MC4-R) antagonist SHU-9119. Food intake, locomotor activity, and body temperature (Tb) were monitored during the ensuing 24-h period. Each of two intracerebroventricular doses of alpha-MSH (30 and 300 ng) potentiated the suppressive effects of LPS on food intake and locomotion, despite the fact that the higher dose alleviated LPS-induced fever. In control rats that were not treated with LPS, only the higher dose of alpha-MSH significantly inhibited food intake, and Tb and locomotor activity were unaffected. To assess the roles of endogenous central melanocortins, LPS-treated rats received intracerebroventricular SHU-9119 (200 ng). Central MC3-R/MC4-R blockade did not affect Tb or food intake in the absence of LPS treatment, but it reversed the LPS-induced reduction in 24-h food intake and increased LPS-induced fever without altering the LPS-induced suppression of locomotion. Taken together, the results suggest that exogenous and endogenous melanocortins acting centrally exert divergent influences on different aspects of the acute phase response, suppressing LPS-induced fever but contributing to LPS-induced anorexia and hypoactivity.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term perfusion of the cerebroventricular system of dogs without leakage to the peripheral circulation. AU - Nitecki, S.. AU - Karmeli, R.. AU - Harty, G. J.. AU - Kamei, C.. AU - Yaksh, T. L.. AU - Szurszewski, J. H.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Methods developed previously for studying the effect of cerebroventricular injection or ventriculocisternal perfusion of test substances are unsatisfactory because the test substance is not confined to the central compartment. Most likely the test substance enters the peripheral circulation via the arachnoid villi. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for perfusing the cerebroventricular system of conscious dogs without passage of test substances to the peripheral circulation. With the method described, the mean (±SE) cerebroventricular pressure in conscious dogs was 7.4 ± 0.8 cmH2O (n = 16), and the mean (±SE) production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was 25 ± 0.3 μl/min (n = 16). Endogenously occurring migrating ...
Interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE, caspase 1) is a cysteine protease that processes immature pro-IL-1β into active mature IL-1β. IL-1β is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates many of the physiological and behavioral responses to inflammation. Genetic deletion of ICE has previously been shown to prevent some negative physiologic responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Here we used a preclinical murine model to test the hypothesis that ICE is necessary for development of depression-like behaviors following intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with LPS. Adult male ICE knockout (ICE KO) and congenic wild-type C57BL/6 J (WT) mice were administered LPS either ICV at 100 ng/mouse or intraperitoneally (IP) at 830 μg/kg body weight or an equal volume of saline as controls. Mice were monitored up to 48 h after treatment for both sickness and depression-like behaviors. LPS given ICV induced a loss of body weight in both WT and ICE KO mice. This sickness response was similar
Our purpose was to study the influence of the stimulation of the cerebroventricular system on some mechanisms related to hydrosaline equilibrium and blood pressure regulation. Renal function and blood pressure (group 1) as well as the baroreceptor reflex (group 2) were studied. In group 1, we measured diuresis, natriuresis, creatinine clearance, lithium clearance, and blood pressure in control rats and after stimulation of the cerebroventricular system with 1 M NaCl solution. In group 2, we evaluated the baroreceptor reflex, producing an increase of blood pressure with an injection of phenylephrine to obtain baroreceptor reflex curves--characterized by threshold, point of inflection, heart period range, gain, and systolic pressure corresponding to half the heart period range (SBP50)--in control and experimental rats injected with saline and 1 M NaCl solution, respectively. In group 1 experimental rats, we observed a significant increase in diuresis, natriuresis, blood pressure, and glomerular ...
Anatomic, velocimetric, and brain motion MRI scans were combined with a computational fluid dynamics model to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mixing in the third cerebral ventricle of a healthy male adult. It was found that advection dominates over diffusion in most of the third ventricle. Three zones where diffusion plays an important role in the mixing process were identified. One of these zones, consisting of recessus infundibulus, recessus opticus and the adjacent regions up to commissura anterior, is likely to exist in the general population. We hypothesize that this zone may act as a buffer to flatten concentration peaks of pituitary gland hormones released into the CSF of the third ventricle. We further hypothesize that this zone may facilitate the communication between hypothalamus and the pituitary gland through the third ventricle cerebrospinal fluid by prolonging residence times of the communicated hormones. ...
There is considerable evidence that N/OFQ and the NOP receptor are involved in a multitude of opioid actions. N/OFQ, given intracerebroventricularly, has been shown to block morphine analgesia (Mogil et al., 1996); however, it has antinociceptive activities when administered intrathecally (Tian et al., 1997). Although selective peptide antagonists have antinociceptive activity when given intracerebroventricularly (Calo et al., 2000, 2005), selective small-molecule antagonists are not analgesic (Ozaki et al., 2000; Zaratin et al., 2004). The analgesic action of small-molecule agonists, when given systemically, is also unclear. Initial publications suggested that the selective agonist Ro 64-6198 is not analgesic, and attenuates morphine analgesia (Jenck et al., 2000). However, recent studies have shown that Ro 64-6198 has antinociceptive activity in mice using the hotplate but not the tail-flick test (Reiss et al., 2008), and in monkeys when measuring tail withdrawal (Ko et al., 2009). In both of ...
In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that chronic BACE1 inhibition in aged Tg2576 mice can reduce brain amyloid to levels below that at start of treatment and rescue deficits in contextual fear memory. A robust increase in microglial ramification, associated with brain amyloid reduction, suggests recruitment of novel clearance pathways following BACE1 inhibition in aged transgenic mice.. We sought proof-of-concept of whether chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of a potent BACE1 inhibitor can reduce brain amyloid and/or improve function in aged Tg2576 mice, despite high P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux from the brain (Meredith et al., 2008). Intracerebroventricular doses ≤1.1 μg/d produced robust brain exposures that were well tolerated and revealed maximal efficacy. In contrast, intracerebroventricular infusion at 23.5 μg/d or subcutaneous infusion at 1.1 μg/d led to high mortality. Deaths were likely due to high compound exposures leading to non-BACE1-mediated toxicity, ...
Equipment for intracerebral administration of preparations is composed of a preparation-administering device (1) holding a preparation (2), and a plunger (4) removably arranged in the preparation-administering device adapted to push the preparation held therein toward one end of the preparation-administering device. The intracerebral preparation-administration equipment is inserted into a preparation-introducing guide (5) previously implanted in the head of a patient to introduce the preparation into its guide hole (26). The preparation is then guided to a site of administration through a flexible guide tube (23) communicated with the guide hole of the preparation-introducing guide. The equipment for intracerebral administration of preparations may be composed of a tubular preparation-retaining member (30) having a preparation contained therein, and a holder (32) for holding the tubular preparation-retaining member along with a push rod (31) inserted thereinto as an integral part thereof. In this
Intracerebroventricular injection (ICVI) is an invasive injection technique of substances directly into the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral ventricles in order to bypass the blood brain barrier. Although this barrier effectively protects the brain, it can prevent important medications to enter the CNS. The technique is widely used in biomedical research to introduce drugs, therapeutic RNAs, plasmid DNAs, and viral vectors into the CNS of diseased mice models. It can also be used in human in cases of neurodegenerative disorders like spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), or administering chemotherapy in gliomas as well as delivering neurotrophic factors to CNS. Ommaya reservoir is a catheter system invented by Ayub Ommaya, a Pakistani neurosurgeon in 1963. The reservoir is implanted under the scalp and attached to a catheter which is intracerebroventricularly inserted into the lateral ventricle. Lee, Mary; Desai, Archana (2007). Gibaldis Drug Delivery Systems in Pharmaceutical Care. ASHP. p. 107. ISBN ...
Vahidy, W.H., Yeo, J.-F., Ong, W.-Y., Farooqui, A.A. (2006). Effects of intracerebroventricular injections of free fatty acids, lysophospholipids, or platelet activating factor in a mouse model of orofacial pain. Experimental Brain Research 174 (4) : 781-785. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-006-0672- ...
Before starting Brineura. Brineura is administered every other week through intraventricular infusion.1 This method allows Brineura to be delivered directly to a ventricle in the brain, and then into the fluid surrounding the brain, known as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brineura is delivered into the CSF to help reach cells that are affected by CLN2 disease. Knowledgeable members of your healthcare team will give your childs Brineura infusions1.. To receive intraventricular infusions, your child will first need to have an intraventricular access device surgically implanted.1 This is an established procedure in pediatric neurosurgery.2 The neurosurgeon will discuss the procedure with you and answer any additional questions you may have.. Your healthcare team will let you know how to prepare your child for infusion, and what to expect during this procedure. Your child will be monitored before, during, and after the infusion, and may receive medications to reduce the risk of hypersensitivity ...
In the first stage, the channel gets flushed with deionized water and a cleaning solution in the central injection port. Once the cleaning cycle is finished the run buffer pvp and dye mixture gets introduced in the same port. The waste exits the ports on the sides which are extensions of, not perpendicular to the spiral channel. Once the channel is uniformly filled, confirmed by comparing the baseline fluorescence readings of each window, the sample is injected simultaneously into the two spiral arms and a high voltage is applied (Im getting a power supply which provides up to 12kv). The separation is read through each of the eight windows and the results are compared and optimized in programming. After separating a few samples the cycle resets itself and the cleaning cycle happens again ...
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When you install System Center 2012 Configuration Manager for the first time, you create a Configuration Manager site that is the foundation from which to manage devices and users in your enterprise. This site is either a central administration site or a primary site. A central administration site is suitable for large-scale deployments and provides a central point of administration and the flexibility to support devices that are distributed across a global network infrastructure. A primary site is suitable for smaller deployments and it has fewer options to accommodate any future growth of your enterprise.. When you install a central administration site, you must also install at least one primary site to manage users and devices. With this design, you can install additional primary sites to manage more devices and to control network bandwidth when devices are in different geographical locations. You can also install another type of site that is named a secondary site. Secondary sites extend a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal and dose-dependent effects of intracerebroventricular leptin on lh secretion and appetite in sheep. AU - Miller, D W. AU - Findlay, P A. AU - Morrison, M A. AU - Raver, N. AU - Adam, C L. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The role of leptin in neuroendocrine appetite and reproductive regulation remains to be fully resolved. A series of three experiments was conducted using adequately nourished oestradiol-implanted castrated male sheep. In a cross-over design (n=6), responses to a single i.c.v. (third ventricle) injection of leptin (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg ovine leptin (oLEP) and 1.0 mg murine leptin (mLEP)), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 20 micro g) or 0.9% saline (control) were measured in terms of LH secretion (4 h post-injection compared with 4 h pre-injection) and appetite (during 2 h post-injection) in autumn (Experiment 1). NMDA and 1.0 mg oLEP treatments were repeated in the same sheep in the following spring (Experiment 2). With an additional 12 sheep (n=18 in cross-over ...
ABSTRACTResolution of inflammation in the periphery was once thought to be a passive process, but new research now suggests it is an active process mediated by specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM) derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, this has yet to be ill
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its receptor are abundantly distributed in the brain, especially in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus associated with regulating energy homeostasis. To elucidate the possible involvement of CNP in energy regulation, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of CNP on food intake in mice. The intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly suppressed food intake on 4-h refeeding after 48-h fasting. Next, intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53 significantly decreased nocturnal food intake. The increment of food intake induced by neuropeptide Y and ghrelin was markedly suppressed by intracerebroventricular administration of CNP-22 and CNP-53. When SHU9119, an antagonist for melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors, was coadministered with CNP-53, the suppressive effect of CNP-53 on refeeding after 48-h fasting was significantly attenuated by SHU9119. Immunohistochemical ...
Exercise increased many circulating inflammatory cells in both children with asthma does cialis make you last longer and controls. In addition, the factors independent of resection margin are more likely to increase the risk of local recurrence in pelvic osteosarcoma.. Because the molecular mechanism by which ZDC and Ti act on osteoblasts is incompletely understood, we attempted to get more information by comparing the effect of ZDC and Ti on osteoblast miRNAs. All the cialis vs viagra effectiveness drugs were given intracerebroventricularly (icv), histamine antagonists 15 min prior to compound 48/80. Generation of new cardiomyocytes after injury: de novo formation from resident progenitors vs.. Some inconsistencies in the results of two national food consumption surveys were discussed, as were the problems inherent in cooking method terminology. Care portals: enhancing the value of private duty home care through technology. Skin flaps mobilized from the inguinoperineal area instead of a ...
EGF promotes proliferation and migration of stem/progenitor cells in the normal adult brain. The effect of epidermal growth factor on neurogenesis in ischemic brain is unknown, however. Here we show that intraventricular administration of EGF and albumin augments 100-fold neuronal replacement in the injured adult mouse striatum after cerebral ischemia. Newly born immature neurons migrate into the ischemic lesion and differentiate into mature parvalbumin-expressing neurons, replacing more than 20% of the interneurons lost by 13 weeks after ischemia and representing 2% of the total BrdU-labeled cells. These data suggest that administration of EGF and albumin could be used to manipulate endogenous neurogenesis in the injured brain and to promote brain self-repair.. ...
The non-pathogenic parvovirus, adeno-associated virus (AAV), is an efficient vector for transgene expression in vivo and shows promise for treatment of brain disorders in clinical trials. Currently, there are more than 100 AAV serotypes identified that differ in the binding capacity of capsid proteins to specific cell surface receptors that can transduce different cell types and brain regions in the CNS. In the current study, multiple AAV serotypes expressing a GFP reporter (AAV1, AAV2/1, AAVDJ, AAV8, AAVDJ8, AAV9, AAVDJ9) were screened for their infectivity in both primary murine astrocyte and neuronal cell cultures. AAV2/1, AAVDJ8 and AAV9 were selected for further investigation of their tropism throughout different brain regions and cell types. Each AAV was administered to P0-neonatal mice via intracerebroventricular injections (ICV). Brains were then systematically analyzed for GFP expression at 3 or 6 weeks post-infection in various regions, including the olfactory bulb, striatum, cortex,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid-# peptides in normal mice to acutely induce alzheimer-like cognitive deficits. AU - Kim, Hye Yun. AU - Lee, Dongkeun K.. AU - Chung, Bo Ryehn. AU - Kim, Hyunjin V.. AU - Kim, Youngsoo. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R and D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: H14C04660000). Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Journal of Visualized Experiments.. PY - 2016/2/24. Y1 - 2016/2/24. N2 - Amyloid-# (A#) is a major pathological mediator of both familial and sporadic Alzheimers disease (AD). In the brains of AD patients, progressive accumulation of A# oligomers and plaques is observed. Such A# abnormalities are believed to block long-term potentiation, impair synaptic function, and induce cognitive deficits. Clinical and experimental evidences have revealed that the acute ...
In rodent models of type 2 diabetes (T2D), sustained remission of diabetic hyperglycemia can be induced by a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). To identify the brain area(s) responsible for this effect, we first used immunohistochemistry to map the hypothalamic distribution of phosphoERK (pERK1/2), a marker of MAP kinase-ERK signal transduction downstream of FGF receptor activation. Twenty minutes after icv FGF1 injection in adult male Wistar rats, pERK1/2 staining was detected primarily in two hypothalamic areas: the arcuate nucleus and adjacent median eminence (ARC-ME), and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). To determine whether an action of FGF1 localized to either the ARC-ME or the PVN is capable of mimicking the sustained antidiabetic effect elicited by icv FGF1, we microinjected either saline vehicle or a low dose of FGF1 (0.3 µg/side) bilaterally into either the ARC-ME area or PVN of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of T2D, and ...
Infusion of synthetic ovine CRF (10 or 100 micrograms/h) into the lateral lateral cerebral ventricle for 24 h increased mean arterial blood pressure of conscious sheep. CRF infusion also increased urine output and sodium excretion. Intravenous infusi
The effects on nociception, blood pressure and heart rate of clonidine administered intrathecally to the lumbar level were determined in conscious rats and in rats anesthetized lightly with pentobarbital. In anesthetized rats, intrathecal (i.t.) clonidine (3.2-32.0 micrograms) inhibited the nociceptive tail-flick reflex and had biphasic effects on blood pressure; lesser doses (1.0-10.0 micrograms) produced depressor effects, whereas a greater dose (32.0 micrograms) produced a marked pressor response. Clonidine also produced biphasic effects on blood pressure in conscious rats, with the dose-response function shifted upward and to the left of that observed in anesthetized rats. The depressor and antinociceptive effects of 3.2 micrograms of clonidine were antagonized by pretreatment with yohimbine (30.0 micrograms i.t.) but not by prazosin (30.0 micrograms i.t.) or by yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg i.v.). Thus, these effects of clonidine are mediated by spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors. The pressor response to ...
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is an O(2)-binding protein localized to cerebral neurons of vertebrates, including humans. Its physiological role is unknown but, like hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytoglobin/histoglobin, it may transport O(2), detoxify reactive oxygen species, or serve as a hypoxia sensor. We reported recently that hypoxia stimulates transcriptional activation of Ngb in cultured cortical neurons and that antisense inhibition of Ngb expression increases hypoxic neuronal injury, whereas overexpression of Ngb confers resistance to hypoxia. These findings are consistent with a role for Ngb in promoting neuronal survival after hypoxic insults in vitro. Here we report that in rats, intracerebroventricular administration of an Ngb antisense, but not sense, oligodeoxynucleotide increases infarct volume and worsens functional neurological outcome, whereas intracerebral administration of a Ngb-expressing adeno-associated virus vector reduces infarct size and improves functional outcome, after focal ...
Recent evidence indicates that many of the physiologic, metabolic, and behavioral responses that accompany infection in mammals are important for maintaining homeostasis and promoting recovery. We have extended this concept to birds by demonstrating that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases body temperature (T$\sb{\rm b}$), reduces feed intake, increases somnolence, decreases plasma (Fe) and (Zn), increases plasma (Cu), and elevates plasma corticosterone. To determine if any of these responses could be mediated centrally, LPS was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Whereas i.p. injection of LPS caused a modest increase in T$\sb{\rm b}$, the hyperthermic response to LPS injected i.c.v. was intense and long-lasting. This hyperthermia following i.c.v. injection of LPS was accompanied by only a transient reduction in food intake and elevation in sleep activity, with no change in plasma (Fe) or (Zn). Both peripheral and central injections of LPS increased ...
Both suckling and OT stimulation caused ERK1/2 activation; blocking it also blocked OT-evoked bursts. If suckling-evoked ERK1/2 activation is causally related to burst generation/milk ejections, then blocking ERK1/2 activation should also suppress the MER. To test this hypothesis, we first investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular microinjections of PD98059 (n = 3) or U0126 (n = 3) on the MER. Here we preferred the cerebroventricular injection rather than bilateral intra-SON injection because the former is an efficient approach to modulate burst activity by OT/OTR antagonist (Freund-Mercier and Richard, 1981, 1984) and can minimize physical damage to the SON for normal MER. In addition, this approach includes blockade in PVN neurons, thereby avoiding compensatory influences of intact PVN OT neurons after blocking ERK1/2 activation in the SON only.. Before applying PD98059 or U0126, a vehicle injection (1 μl of 50% DMSO plus 50% aCSF) was tested in these rats. Milk ejections, as ...
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Lukacs H, Hiatt ES, Lei ZM, Rao CV. Peripheral and intracerebroventricular administration of human chorionic gonadotropin alters several hippocampus-associated behaviors in cycling female rats ...
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Lesion of the anteroventral portion of the third cerebral ventricle causes hypernatremia, adipsia, and attenuation of the pressor response to intravenous administration of angiotensin II and norepinephrine. In addition, these lesions prevent the development of several experimental models of hypertension. In this study, a lesion of the third cerebral ventricle region was made in 14 dogs. In seven dogs in which hypernatremia developed the lesions included the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis; seven animals in which the circumventricular organ was spared by the lesion remained normonatremic. Vascular responsiveness of isolated right carotid artery rings to angiotensin II and phenylephrine was assessed 3 days after lesioning the anteroventral portion of the third cerebral ventricle. In endothelium-denuded ring vessels, vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine were significantly decreased in animals both with and without inclusion of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Behavioral effects of neurotensin in the open field. T2 - structure-activity studies. AU - Elliott, Peter J.. AU - Chan, Jackie. AU - Parker, Yuka Marie. AU - Nemeroff, Charles B.. PY - 1986/9/3. Y1 - 1986/9/3. N2 - The behavioral effects of intracerebroventricularly administered neurotensin (NT), some NT fragments and two synthetic NT analogs were investigated in the open field. Each peptide was studied in both a novel (no pre-exposure) and a familiar (with pre-exposure) environmental situation. Neurotensin decreases locomotor activity in the periphery but increases the time spent in the central area of the apparatus. Of the congeners tested, D-Phe11-NT has similar effects to NT whereas the NT fragments were generally inactive. These findings indicate that the intact peptide or stable substituted NT analogs, but not small C- and N-terminal fragments of NT, are behaviorally active after intraventricular administration.. AB - The behavioral effects of intracerebroventricularly ...
Problem statement: The present study was performed to determine the effect of Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of W-7, a specific calmodulin inhibitor, on the analgesic effect and development of tolerance to antinociceptive effect of acute and chronic morphine administration respectively. Approach: This study was carried out on male wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g. For acute experimental protocol, Morphine was injected intraperitonealy in a single dose (5 mg kg-1). For chronic experimental protocol, Morphine was administered daily (15 mg kg-1 for 8 days). The threshold to thermal nociceptive stimuli was measured by tail-flick test. In acute and chronic experiments, W-7 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 μmol/rat) was injected through ICV at different paradigms. Maximal Possible Effect percentage (MPE%) was considered as analgesia index. Results: Our result showed that W-7 (0.25, 0.5 and 1 μmol/rat) injections before acute morphine administration significantly reduced the analgesic effect of
Injection of norepinephrine in the lateral ventricles of rats recovering from lateral hypothalamic anorexia caused immediate feeding and, frequently, overeating. Intraventricular administration of the α-noradrenergic blocker, phentolamine, suppressed feeding in both normal rats and rats that had recovered from lateral hypothalamic lesions. Feeding is reinforced by ascending medial forebrain bundle fibers that form α-noradrenergic synapses in the hypothalamus and forebrain. Damage to these fibers suppresses feeding by reducing noradrenergic transmission and, hence, the rewarding value of food. Recovery of feeding after hypothalamic lesions coincides with the recovery of noradrenergic reward function. ...
Autor: Linthorst, A. C. E. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1997; Titel: Long-term intracerebroventricular infusion of corticotropin-releasing hormone alters neuroendocrine, neurochemical, autonomic, behavioral and cytokine responses to a systemic inflammatory challenge
BACKGROUND The effect of small and high doses of intracerebroventricularly (icv) applied bradykinin (BK) on nociception produced by mechanical stimuli and the participation of B1 and B2 receptors in this nociception were investigated in rats. RESULTS BK at the lowest dose (0.06 μg) produced hyperalgesia whereas at the higher doses (6 and 12 μg) antinociception. This effect was abolished by B1 or B2 receptor antagonists, des-Arg(10)-HOE140 and HOE140 (1 pmol icv), respectively. CONCLUSION Depending on the dose used, BK produces pro- or anti-nociceptive action. Both B1 and B2 receptors are involved in the action of icv applied BK.
If I lived up there, I sure would have voted for him, said Short, an Inver Grove Heights resident who retired from coaching in 1998 with 374 victories and four state championships. I think he will be very good because he wont be afraid of any kind of work. When you arent afraid of work, it means you will dig and dig to find the right answers. Those determined kind of workers usually tend to be good decision makers.. Vandeveer said there is a correlation between coaching wrestling and what lies ahead for Dettmer.. His wrestling skills will absolutely come in handy in the respect that a lot of what happens in the Legislature is about persistence, keeping your eye on the goal, Vandeveer said. When you are working hard for an area that you represent, and to do it in an atmosphere where there is always a lot of peripheral action going on, it is similar to (wrestling). You have the one-on-one aspect, but you really have the team outlook, too. You are able to work independently, but a lot of ...
I am looking for a plasmid based testis expression library (from any species). If anyone could spare me a few micrograms I would be eternally grateful. Many thanks for your help. Martin Cann Dept. of Pharmacology Cornell University Medical College mjcann at med.cornell.edu ...
With the recent advances in imaging techniques, we now understand that nociceptive inputs can result in the activation of complex interactions among central sites, including cortical regions that are active in cognitive, emotional and reward functions.
The Other Two is a surprisingly smart and kind comedy about fame and the pop culture industrial complex, or at least it felt that way from the pilot. Now you can watch the whole first season for free on the Comedy Central site,or in the app on your Roku/Apple TV/Chromecast, for the next two weeks.
Intraventricular drug delivery is the delivery of pain medication within the cerebrospinal fluid of the cistern (C1-2 vertebra) and intracranial ventricles.
A modified echocardiographic protocol with intrinsic plausibility control to determine intraventricular asynchrony based on TDI and TSI. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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The involvement of central catecholaminergic neurons in tonic gonadotrophin release was investigated. Male rats were given a single cerebral intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA; 170 μg free base) dissolved in 0·001 n-HCL. Plasma LH and FSH were measured by double antibody radioimmunoassay. In the 6-OHDA-treated animals, LH was significantly reduced (P,0·001 after 1 hr and remained consistently lower for 8 hr. After a transient elevation, the controls showed no significant change (P,0·01). No difference in LH concentrations was found between experimental groups sampled at 2 days or later (P,0·01). Levels of FSH were less consistently different. Administration of 6-OHDA dissolved in different vehicles, with varied pH and osmolarity, gave similar results which suggests that the quinone derivative of 6-OHDA is effective in producing the catecholaminergic impairment. These findings indicate that LH release in the male rat may be controlled (or at least ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Galanin antagonizes acetylcholine on a memory tast in basal forebrain-lesioned rats. AU - Mastropaolo, J.. AU - Nadi, N. S.. AU - Ostrowski, N. L.. AU - Crawley, Jacqueline. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Galanin coexists with acetylcholine in medial septal neurons projecting to the ventral hippocampus, a projection thought to modulate memory functions. Neurochemical lesions of the nucleus basalis-medial septal area in rats impaired choice accuracy on a delayed alternation t-maze task. Acetylcholine (7.5 or 10 μg intraventricularly or 1 μg microinjected into the ventral hippocampus) significantly improved performance in the lesioned rats. Atropine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or 10 μg intraventricularly), but not mecamylamine (3 mg/kg intraperitoneally or 20 μg intraventicularly), blocked this action of acetylcholine, suggesting involvement of a muscarinic receptor. Galanin (100-500 ng intraventricularly or 200 ng into the ventral hippocampus) attenuated the ability of ...
Cilia free our airways of dust, mucus, and pathogens, transport egg cells through the fallopian tubes, and help sperm to move forward. The four chambers in our brain, so-called cerebral ventricles, are also lined with a layer of highly specialized cells covered with bundles of cilia on their surface. Although each one is just a few thousandths of a millimeter in size, hundreds of them beating in unison can generate powerful flows.. Gregor Eichele and Regina Faubel at the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Biophysical Chemistry, together with Eberhard Bodenschatz and Christian Westendorf at the MPI for Dynamics and Self-Organization, have now succeeded in making the complex network of these flows visible in an isolated cerebral ventricle tissue. For their experiments, the researchers in Göttingen concentrated on the third cerebral ventricle, which is embedded in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a very important control center, regulating functions like the circulatory system, body temperature, ...
Objective: To investigate the effect of lateral ventricle injection inhibitor nesfatin-1 on glycolipid metabolism and its relationship with hypothalamic AMPK expression. Methods: Nesfatin-1 was injected into the lateral ventricle of the rat by the brain stereotactic technique (nesfatin-1 group), and the sham operation group was injected with an equal volume of artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the control group had no interference factor. The rats were kept for 4 weeks and an automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect blood sugar and blood lipid levels. The expression of AMPK mRNA in rat hypothalamus was detected by RT-PCR. The expression of AMPKα and phosphorylated AMPKα (pAMPKα) in the rat hypothalamus was detected by Western blot. Results: (1)According to the results of biochemical tests, compared to the control group, the level of FPG and TG in experimental group were significantly decreased (P ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Central administration of phosphatidylserine attenuates isolation stress-induced behavior in chicks. AU - Koutoku, Tomoyuki. AU - Takahashi, Hirokazu. AU - Tomonaga, Shozo. AU - Oikawa, Daichi. AU - Saito, Shin. AU - Tachibana, Tetsuya. AU - Han, Li. AU - Hayamizu, Kohsuke. AU - Denbow, D. Michael. AU - Furuse, Mitsuhiro. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - The present study investigated whether centrally administered phosphatidylserine (PS) could modify the behavior of chicks under isolation-induced stress. Isolation stress-induced vocalization and spontaneous activity for 10 min, which were attenuated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of PS. The effect of PS was compared with other phospholipids or l-serine, a constituent of PS. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) had no effect on these behavior, but phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) significantly increased vocalizations and spontaneous activity compared with PS. l-Serine similarly decreased isolation-induced vocalizations and ...
J-113,397 is an opioid drug which was the first compound found to be a highly selective antagonist for the nociceptin receptor, also known as the ORL-1 receptor.[1][2] It is several hundred times selective for the ORL-1 receptor over other opioid receptors,[3][4] and its effects in animals include preventing the development of tolerance to morphine,[5] the prevention of hyperalgesia induced by intracerebroventricular administration of nociceptin (orphanin FQ),[6] as well as the stimulation of dopamine release in the striatum,[7] which increases the rewarding effects of cocaine,[8] but may have clinical application in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.[9][10][11] ...
Patients with chronic renal failure display abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism (1-5). They almost always have resistance to the peripheral action of insulin (5, 6), while insulin secretion...
Intracerebral injections are an invasive method to bypass the blood brain barrier and are widely used to study molecular and cellular mechanisms of the central nervous system
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Significance of CAMK2B gene acquisition and amplification with exogenous 30C6HSL promoters : Within the rigid β -can structure (6) of GFP variants, Baird et al. (7) found a site that would tolerate circular permutations where two portions of the polypeptide are flipped around the central site. With obvious clefts in the β-can, the chromophore of the circularly permuted GFPs (cpGFP) seemed to be more accessible to protons outside of the proteins. The use of cpGFP might be interesting for converting the interaction signal between two protein domains into a change in the electrostatic potential of the chromophore; in other words, to transduce the information of the interaction into a fluorescent signal. [1] ...
Significance of CAMK2B gene acquisition and amplification with exogenous 30C6HSL promoters : Within the rigid β -can structure (6) of GFP variants, Baird et al. (7) found a site that would tolerate circular permutations where two portions of the polypeptide are flipped around the central site. With obvious clefts in the β-can, the chromophore of the circularly permuted GFPs (cpGFP) seemed to be more accessible to protons outside of the proteins. The use of cpGFP might be interesting for converting the interaction signal between two protein domains into a change in the electrostatic potential of the chromophore; in other words, to transduce the information of the interaction into a fluorescent signal. [1] ...
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I prepared (or cooperated in the preparation of) the Work as part of my duties as an employee, and the Work is, therefore, a work made for hire, as defined by the United States Copyright Act of 1976, as amended ...
To our crafters and those who like to sew in our community, the City of Green is accepting homemade masks Monday through Fridays between 1 p.m. and 3 p.m. at the Central Administration Building, 1755 Town Park Blvd. The masks will be shared with our local businesses, residents and volunteers who request them. Creating homemade masks: ...
Video articles in JoVE about oligonucleotides antisense include Direct Intraventricular Delivery of Drugs to the Rodent Central Nervous System.
Nakagaki K, Ebihara S, Usui S, Honda Y, Takahashi Y, Kato N (1986). "Effects of intraventricular injection of anti-DSIP serum ...
Ingoglia NA, Dole VP (October 1970). "Localization of d- and l-methadone after intraventricular injection into rat brains". The ...
At this position he conducted research on the development of cerebrospinal fluid and the effects of intra-ventricular injection ...
Combined oralisoprinosine-intraventricular alpha-interferon therapy for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Brain Dev. 1993; ... Oral inosine pranobex (oral isoprinosine) combined with intrathecal (injection through a lumbar puncture into the spinal fluid ... Long-term follow-up of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis treated with intraventricular alpha-interferon. ... or intraventricular interferon alpha.[citation needed]. *Oral inosine pranobex (oral isoprinosine) combined with interferon ...
... injection site swelling (17.1%), urticaria (12.3%), pruritus (7.7%), injection site pruritus (5.8%), nausea (5.8%), injection ... intraventricular hemorrhage (4 in the treatment group compared with 8 in the control for a relative risk of 0.25), and need for ... However, there was a higher incidence of injection site pain with subcutaneous autoinjection than with intramuscular injection ... A single intramuscular injection of 65 to 500 mg OHPC in oil solution has been found to have a duration of action of 5 to 21 ...
... injections, intraventricular MeSH E05.300.530.580 - injections, spinal MeSH E05.300.530.580.300 - injections, epidural MeSH ... injections, intra-arterial MeSH E05.300.530.380 - injections, intra-articular MeSH E05.300.530.430 - injections, intralesional ... injections, intramuscular MeSH E05.300.530.490 - injections, intraperitoneal MeSH E05.300.530.540 - injections, intravenous ... injections, intradermal MeSH E05.300.530.620.570 - injections, jet MeSH E05.300.530.620.570.100 - biolistics MeSH E05.300. ...
... intraventricular infusion - intravesical - invasive cancer - invasive cervical cancer - inverted papilloma - investigational - ... Intramuscular injection (IM) - intraocular melanoma - intraoperative radiation therapy - intraperitoneal - intraperitoneal ... percutaneous ethanol injection - percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage - percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage - ... stereotactic injection - stereotactic radiation therapy - stereotactic radiosurgery - stereotaxic radiosurgery - stereotaxis - ...
"Colomycin Injection". Summary of Product Characteristics. electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC). 18 May 2016. Archived from the ... Karakitsos D, Paramythiotou E, Samonis G, Karabinis A (2006). "Is intraventricular colistin an effective and safe treatment for ... Colistimethate sodium, a less toxic prodrug, became available for injection in 1959. In the 1980s, polymyxin use was widely ... For systemic infection, colistin must, therefore, be given by injection. Colistimethate is eliminated by the kidneys, but ...
With botulinum toxin injections, patients experience relief from spasmodic torticollis for approximately 12 to 16 weeks. There ... intraventricular hemorrhage (0.6%), and large subdural hematoma (0.3%). Physical treatment options for cervical dystonia ... Common side effects include pain at the injection site (up to 28%), dysphagia due to the spread to adjacent muscles (11% to 40 ... The most commonly used treatment for spasmodic torticollis is the use of botulinum toxin injection in the dystonic musculature ...
An Ommaya reservoir is an intraventricular catheter system that can be used for the aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid or for ... In the palliative care of terminal cancer, an Ommaya reservoir can be inserted for intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) of ...
Nadler, J. Victor, Bruce W. Perry, and Carl W. Cotman (1978) "Intraventricular Kainic Acid Preferentially Destroys Hippocampal ... "Extrafusal and Intrafusal Muscle Effects in Experimental Botulinum Toxin-A Injection." Muscle & Nerve, 19 (4): 488-96. ...
Because injection of quinolinic acid into the striatum of rodents induces electrophysiological, neuropathological, and ... "Learning deficits induced by chronic intraventricular infusion of quinolinic acid--protection by MK-801 and memantine". Eur. J ... Neurological changes produced by quinolinic acid injections include altered levels of glutamate, GABA, and other amino acids. ...
Nadler, J. Victor, Bruce W. Perry, and Carl W. Cotman (1978) "Intraventricular Kainic Acid Preferentially Destroys Hippocampal ... "Extrafusal and Intrafusal Muscle Effects in Experimental Botulinum Toxin-A Injection." Muscle & Nerve, 19 (4): 488-96. ...
Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) has been reported as a supportive measure in aggressive posterior retinopathy ... Intra ventricular haemorrhage, apnoeic episodes, etc.) may also be offered ROP screening. Retinal examination with scleral ... Potential benefits of intravitreal Avastin injection over laser therapy include: reduction in level of anesthesia required, ...
If the patient's Asthma is treated with an inhaler then it should be used as a pre-treatment prior to the injection of the ... supraventricular tachycardia or bradyarrhythmias Intraventricular conduction delay or bundle branch block or that cannot be ...
... is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the ... March 1993). "Randomized prospective comparison of intraventricular methotrexate and thiotepa with previously untreated ...
Injection of angiontensin has actually been long used to induce hypertension in animal test models to study the effects of ... "Calcium-mediated metabolic stimulation of neuroendocrine structures by intraventricular endothelin-1 in conscious rats". Brain ...
Whittle, IR; Knight, RS; Will, RG (2006). "Unsuccessful intraventricular pentosan polysulphate treatment of variant Creutzfeldt ... different doses of sodium PPS to treat 40 geriatric dogs with well-established clinical signs of chronic OA with SC injection. ...
2012). Oral administration of d-amphetamine, 0.5 mg/kg, 3 h before [11C]carfentanil injection, reduced BPND values by 2-10%. ... The observed lack of a significant accumulation of PHN in brain following the intraventricular administration of (+)- ... was administered intravenously directly before injection of [11C]carfentanil (Guterstam et al. 2013). It has been hypothesized ... "Formation of p-hydroxynorephedrine in brain following intraventricular administration of p-hydroxyamphetamine". ...
In preliminary research, injection of endothelin-1 into a lateral cerebral ventricle was shown to potently stimulate glucose ... "Dose-related potent brain stimulation by the neuropeptide endothelin-1 after intraventricular administration in conscious rats ...
Nadler; Victor, J.; Perry, Bruce W.; Cotman, Carl W. (1978). "Intraventricular Kainic Acid Preferentially Destroys Hippocampal ... "Extrafusal and Intrafusal Muscle Effects in Experimental Botulinum Toxin-A Injection". Muscle & Nerve. 19 (4): 488-96. doi: ...
In 1992, it was recognized that human gonadotropin administered by injection could also transmit CJD from person to person. ... Bone, Ian (12 July 2006). "Intraventricular Pentosan Polysulphate in Human Prion Diseases: A study of Experience in the United ...
Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ...
Injection into the bloodstream can be dangerous because insoluble fillers within the tablets can block small blood vessels. ... The observed lack of a significant accumulation of PHN in brain following the intraventricular administration of (+)- ... "Formation of p-hydroxynorephedrine in brain following intraventricular administration of p-hydroxyamphetamine". ... and dopamine-β hydroxylase present in noradrenergic neurons could easily convert p-OHA to p-OHNor after intraventricular ...
Nadler, J. Victor, Bruce W. Perry, and Carl W. Cotman (1978) "Intraventricular Kainic Acid Preferentially Destroys Hippocampal ... "Extrafusal and Intrafusal Muscle Effects in Experimental Botulinum Toxin-A Injection." Muscle & Nerve, 19 (4): 488-96. ...
Injections, Intraventricular · Insulin · Insulin Resistance · Liver · Male · Neuropeptide Y · Parasympathectomy · Rats · Rats, ... Injections, Intraventricular · Insulin · Insulin Resistance · Kinetics · Liver · Male · Mice · Mice, Inbred C57BL · ... The control group received three injections of distilled water. Whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity were measured by ...
Amyloid beta40/42 clearance across the blood-brain barrier following intra-ventricular injections in wild-type, apoE knock-out ... intra-ventricular micro-injections of Abeta40, Abeta42 or control peptides in wild-type, apoE knock-out (KO) or human apoE3 or ...
Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that intraventricular (ICV) injections of ethanol can produce signs of behavioral ... Open field locomotor effects in rats after intraventricular injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolites acetaldehyde and ... article{Correa2003OpenFL, title={Open field locomotor effects in rats after intraventricular injections of ethanol and the ... Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that intraventricular (ICV) injections of ethanol can produce signs of behavioral ...
EFFECTS OF INTRAVENTRICULAR INJECTIONS OF 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE ON PLASMA LH AND FSH IN MALE RATS. in Reproduction ... Male rats were given a single cerebral intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine hydrochloride (6-OHDA; 170 μg free base ...
Intraventricular Injection of Antibodies.. Timed pregnant ICR mice were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (0.06 mg/g). ... Here we show that Reelin is localized on Cajal-Retzius neurons in the hippocampus and that intraventricular injection of CR-50 ... 2 A-C), which is a neuron-specific marker and is known to stain early generated neurons (33-35). Injection of BrdUrd into ... A single injection of antibody at the embryonic stage (E11 to E14) seldom resulted in structural changes in the hippocampus ( ...
Intraventricular injection of rhodamine-conjugated CD9 antibody in ApoE−/− mice. ApoE−/− male mice (19 weeks old) were fed a ...
Intraventricular injection of kainic acid (2 nmol) induced circling behavior and wet-dog shakes soon after injection, followed ... Prolonged intraventricular infusion of DCG-IV (24-240 pmol/h) for 17 h before and 7 h after the application of kainic acid ... Single injections of DCG-IV (10-300 pmol/rat) in the lateral ventricle did not affect kainate neurotoxicity. Thus, prolonged ... for group II metabotropic glutamate receptors against intraventricular kainate in the rat Neuroscience. 1997 Mar;77(1):131-40. ...
... contrasting with the effect observed after its 3rd V injection. When the volume for intraventricular injections was increased, ... contrasting with the effect observed after its 3rd V injection. When the volume for intraventricular injections was increased, ... contrasting with the effect observed after its 3rd V injection. When the volume for intraventricular injections was increased, ... contrasting with the effect observed after its 3rd V injection. When the volume for intraventricular injections was increased, ...
Injections, Intraventricular. Male. Microinjections. Morphine / pharmacology*. Narcotics / pharmacology*. Rats. Rats, Sprague- ... Here we report the effect of intraventricular microinjections of morphine (0, 12, 25, 50 nmols) on hedonic taste reactions to a ...
Engraftment of endogenous CP by primary and derived CPECs following intraventricular injection. A-C, Primary CP cell injections ... CP engraftment by primary and derived CPECs following intraventricular injection. We then sought an in vivo system for ... assembly into secretory vesicles and integration into endogenous choroid plexus epithelium following intraventricular injection ... Two days after i.c.v. injection into CD1 hosts, many H2B-GFP or dye-labeled cells were associated with host CP (Fig. 5A-C). ...
Various Catheter Devices for Myocardial Injections or Other Uses. US20130123620 *. Nov 16, 2011. May 16, 2013. Cook Medical ... Intra-ventricular substance delivery catheter system. ... injection) or conduct a procedure. If tissue penetration is ... a sufficient force is maintained on the needle to inhibit retraction during injection of a substance through the needle. ... position during catheter positioning and from having to manually hold needle 24 in a deployed position during injection of a ...
Hyperthermic response to intraventricular injection of scorpion venom: role of brain monoamines. Toxicon. 1973;11(4):361-368. ... Hyperthermic response to intraventricular injection of scorpion venom : role of brain monoamines. / Osman, O. H.; Ismail, M.; ... Osman, O. H. ; Ismail, M. ; Wenger, T. / Hyperthermic response to intraventricular injection of scorpion venom : role of brain ... Osman, O. H., Ismail, M., & Wenger, T. (1973). Hyperthermic response to intraventricular injection of scorpion venom: role of ...
Ependymal restriction of intraventricular adenoviral infection. A, A single intraventricular injection of an adenoviral vector ... CSF levels of BDNF rose markedly after intraventricular injection of AdBDNF. To assess the level of release of BDNF protein ... We observed predominantly ependymal cell expression of both BDNF and GFP mRNAs after intraventricular injection of AdBDNF:IRES: ... To first assess the distribution of adenoviral transduction after a single intraventricular injection of virus, we injected ...
... safety and efficacy of left ventricular endocardial injection of guided bone marrow-derived cardiopoietic cells (C-Cure) in the ...
Injections, Intraventricular * Male * Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism* * Receptors, Androgen / metabolism* ...
Malta, E. ; Howe, P. R.C. ; Lloyd, J. C. ; Chalmers, J. P. / Effects of intraventricular injections of histamine on arterial ... Effects of intraventricular injections of histamine on arterial blood pressure and heart rate in conscious rabbits. / Malta, E ... Effects of intraventricular injections of histamine on arterial blood pressure and heart rate in conscious rabbits. Clinical ... Malta, E., Howe, P. R. C., Lloyd, J. C., & Chalmers, J. P. (1978). Effects of intraventricular injections of histamine on ...
Nimodipine pharmacokinetics after intraventricular injection of sustained-release nimodipine for subarachnoid hemorrhage. J ... In each cohort, patients will be randomly assigned in a ratio of 3:1 to receive either intraventricular EG 1962 or enteral ... The safety and tolerability of a single intraventricular dose of EG 1962 will be compared to enteral nimodipine (60 mg given ... Intraventricular or intracerebral hemorrhage in absence of SAH or with only local, thin SAH; ...
Biological: Intraventricular injection. Interventional. Phase 1. *Royan Institute. Other. *Intervention Model: Single Group ... Assessment of the efficacy of intra-articular injection of ATMSC. 10. All. 42 Years to 75 Years (Adult, Senior). NCT02966951. ... Intramyocardial Injection of Autologous Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-Bright Stem Cells for Therapeutic Angiogenesis (FOCUS Br). * ... Intraventricular Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell in Patients With ALS. *Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ...
Intraventricular injection resulted in negligible transduction. Antibodies to AAV capsid protein and beta-Gal appeared at low ... Cerebral injection produced localized beta-Gal expression that did not diffuse to other regions despite a fivefold increase in ...
After intraventricular injection, specific localization of radioactivity was found in cells of the nucleus lateralis septi, ... After intraventricular injection, specific localization of radioactivity was found in cells of the nucleus lateralis septi, ... After intraventricular injection, specific localization of radioactivity was found in cells of the nucleus lateralis septi, ... After intraventricular injection, specific localization of radioactivity was found in cells of the nucleus lateralis septi, ...
Chihara, K., Arimura, A., & Schally, A. V. (1979). Effect of intraventricular injection of dopamine, norepinephrine, ... Chihara, Kazuo ; Arimura, Akira ; Schally, Andrew V. / Effect of intraventricular injection of dopamine, norepinephrine, ... T1 - Effect of intraventricular injection of dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine on immunoreactive ... Effect of intraventricular injection of dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine on immunoreactive ...
In over 400 micro-injection experiments involving 70 loci within the brain stem of the conscious rhesus monkey ( M. mulatta), ... Henderson, W.R., and W.C. Wilson: Intraventricular injection of acetylcholine and eserine in man. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 26, ... W.I. Cranston and A.J. Honour: Effects of intraventricular and intrahypothalamic injection of noradrenaline and 5-HT on body ... Injection of solutions into cerebral tissue: Relation between volume and diffusion. Physiol. Behav. 1, 171-174 (1966).Google ...
A kariotype of MCF10CA1a shows an extra copy of chromosome 1. It metastasizes into the lung 36 days after IV injection of the ... Compositions and formulations for parenteral, intrathecal or intraventricular administration may include sterile aqueous ... Parenteral administration includes intravenous, intraarterial, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection or ... infusion; or intracranial, e.g., intrathecal or intraventricular, administration.. Pharmaceutical compositions and formulations ...
injection for intraventricular administration kit *Cerliponase alfa: 150mg/5mL (2 vials). *Intraventricular electrolytes: 5mL ( ... Store cerliponase alfa injection and intraventricular electrolytes injection upright in freezer (-25°C to -15°C) in original ... The intraventricular electrolytes are used to flush the infusion line, port needle, and intraventricular access device in order ... Thaw cerliponase alfa and intraventricular electrolytes injection vials at room temperature for ~60 minutes ...
Brineura (cerliponase alfa) Injection and Intraventricular Electrolytes Injection are administered by intraventricular infusion ... Brineura (cerliponase alfa) Injection and Intraventricular Electrolytes Injection:. Store upright in a freezer (‑25°C to ‑15°C ... Intraventricular Electrolytes is a clear to colorless solution.. Brineura and Intraventricular Electrolytes Injection are ... Each vial of Intraventricular Electrolytes Injection provides 5 mL of solution. Both Brineura and Intraventricular Electrolytes ...
Injections, Intraventricular. Sheep. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 9002-60-2/Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8/ ... Intraventricular infusion of ACTH (1-24) at 0.5 micrograms/kg per day, a rate of infusion which has no systemic effect on blood ... Intravenous infusion of CRF (100 micrograms/h) or intraventricular infusion of artificial CSF had no effect on blood pressure. ...
Search A Study of Intraventricular Liposomal Encapsulated Ara-C (DepoCyt) in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma Medications ... These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Marqibo (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) safely and ... Showing "Study Intraventricular Liposomal Encapsulated DepoCyt Patients With Recurrent" Drugs and Medications 1-25 of 109 ... "A Study of Intraventricular Liposomal Encapsulated Ara-C (DepoCyt) in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma" Drugs and ...
The present study demonstrated that intraventricular injection of HgCl,sub,2,/sub, might be a convenient method to study the ... Neurotoxic action of inorganic mercury injected in the intraventricular space of mouse cerebrum * * Yasutake Akira YASUTAKE ... To examine the neurotoxic action of inorganic mercury, HgCl,sub,2,/sub, was injected in the intraventricular space of a mouse ...
Intraventricular brain injection of adeno-associated virus type 1 (AAV1) in neonatal mice results in complementary patterns of ... For the four site injections, two injection tracts were used, one for the cortex and striatum injection and one for the ... Intraventricular injections into neonatal mice. Neonatal animals were cryoanesthetized and injected with 1 µl of viral vector ... For two injections along the same tract, the needle was lowered to the coordinates for the ventral site, the first injection ...
The zygote is the best target for micro-injection. In the mouse, the male pronucleus reaches the size of approximately 20 ... 0177] Compositions and formulations for parenteral, intrathecal or intraventricular administration may include sterile aqueous ... 4,873,191 describes a method for the micro-injection of zygotes; the disclosure of this patent is incorporated herein in its ... Transgenes may also be introduced into ES cells by retrovirus-mediated transduction or by micro-injection. Such transfected ES ...
  • Parenchymal Pressure Inconsistency in Different Brain Areas After Kaolin Injection into the Subarachnoid Space of Neonatal Rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hydrocephalus induced via intraventricular kaolin injection in adult rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thirty microliters of sterile 25% kaolin suspension was injected into the basal cisterns of adult Sprague-Dawley rats to induce hydrocephalus, and 2 intraventricular injections of either uPA or vehicle (saline) were administered immediately and 3 days thereafter. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Four and 6 days after 3v, but not 4v, alloxan injection, alloxan-treated rats ate only 30% and their blood glucose area under the curve was only 28% of saline controls' after systemic 2-deoxy- d -glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of OP1 before general hypoxia, at a dose of 20 to 50 μg, reduces brain infarction volume and mortality in neonatal rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Injection of norepinephrine in the lateral ventricles of rats recovering from lateral hypothalamic anorexia caused immediate feeding and, frequently, overeating. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intraventricular administration of the α-noradrenergic blocker, phentolamine, suppressed feeding in both normal rats and rats that had recovered from lateral hypothalamic lesions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Brineura is administered into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by infusion via a surgically implanted reservoir and catheter (intraventricular access device). (drugs.com)
  • Following a brief history and overview of current understanding, specific topics cover: collecting, injection, infections, immunology, light microscopic cytology and cytopathology of cerebrospinal fluid. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 5. The medical uses of injection into the cerebrospinal fluid space (intrathecal and intraventricular injection). (booktopia.com.au)
  • Intraventricular injection is often required to reach intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid levels high enough to treat meningitis. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Intraventricular administration of urokinase as a novel therapeutic approach for communicating hydrocephalus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral function WS (2018) Dexamethasone does not prevent hydrocephalus after severe intraventricular tests, such as the negative geotaxis test and the rotarod test, were performed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of canine brains with enlarged ventricles in asymptomatic dogs were compared to those in dogs with clinically relevant internal hydrocephalus, in order to determine the imaging findings indicative of a relevant increase in intraventricular pressure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) precedes hydrocephalus but may be self limiting and is widely defined as IVH followed by progressive enlargement until the ventricular width at the intraventricular foramen exceeds 4 mm over the 97th centile for gestational age 1 (fig 1). (bmj.com)
  • Amyloid beta40/42 clearance across the blood-brain barrier following intra-ventricular injections in wild-type, apoE knock-out and human apoE3 or E. (nih.gov)
  • In order to address if apoE affects the clearance of Abeta peptides across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and whether there are differences in the clearance of Abeta40 versus Abeta42, we performed stereotactic, intra-ventricular micro-injections of Abeta40, Abeta42 or control peptides in wild-type, apoE knock-out (KO) or human apoE3 or apoE4 expressing transgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • Prolonged intraventricular infusion of DCG-IV (24-240 pmol/h) for 17 h before and 7 h after the application of kainic acid decreased the incidence of the continuous limbic motor seizures and the degree of neuronal damage in circumscribed brain areas. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, a single injection of adenoviral BDNF substantially augmented the recruitment of new neurons into both neurogenic and non-neurogenic sites in the adult rat brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The intraventricular delivery of, and ependymal infection by, viral vectors encoding neurotrophic agents may be a feasible strategy for inducing neurogenesis from resident progenitor cells in the adult brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The results after intracarotid injection suggest that L prolyl L leucyl glycinamide may cross the blood brain barrier and the results after intraventricular injection suggest sites of localization which might be correlated with the previously reported effects of the tripeptide on the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • In over 400 micro-injection experiments involving 70 loci within the brain stem of the conscious rhesus monkey ( M. mulatta ), the diencephalon was mapped in relation to changes in ingestive and other responses to chemical stimulation. (springer.com)
  • was injected in the intraventricular space of a mouse brain as a mimic for an Hg(0) vapor-exposed model, and the Hg distribution in the brain and behavioral changes were compared with those of Hg(0)-exposed mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The PBS group shows a single cell contralateral to the injection (A), and there is a single cell in the contralateral wall in the 50% DMSO-injected brain, and a single cell on the contralateral side and two cells on the ipsilateral side of the 100% DMSO-injected brain. (biologists.org)
  • however, the blood sometimes penetrates the brain parenchyma, which results in intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage. (hindawi.com)
  • https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206306 October 25, 2018 1 / 13 The effect of dexamethasone on intraventricular hemorrhage Although the pathogenesis of brain damage and the progression to PHH from severe IVH has not been completely delineated, it is known that the contact of blood and blood products in the subarachnoid space leads to an inflammatory response that can cause obliterative ara- chnoiditis. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition to the ventricle/brain-index, a number of potential subjective signs of increased intraventricular pressure were recorded and compared between the groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct injections into brain or spinal cord have been used successfully by some investigators. (atsbio.com)
  • 9 - 12 Intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital increases the whole brain concentration of histamine in mice, 13 although the effects of this drug on brain mast cells have not been well investigated. (asahq.org)
  • The hyperthermic response was not antagonized by the prior intraventricular or intravenous injection of scorpion antiserum. (elsevier.com)
  • Administered ONLY by SLOW intravenous injection (1 ml/min) and/or intraventricular injection. (medicalcorps.org)
  • Here we show that Reelin is localized on Cajal-Retzius neurons in the hippocampus and that intraventricular injection of CR-50 at the embryonic stage disrupts the organized development of the hippocampus in vivo , converting it to a reeler pattern. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that the CR-50 epitope also is localized on Cajal-Retzius neurons in the hippocampus and that intraventricular injection of CR-50 disrupts the organized development of the hippocampus, resulting in a pattern similar to that found in reeler . (pnas.org)
  • Vector transport was studied by a single unilateral injection into the hippocampus and vector genome was found in projection sites of the hippocampus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Zhan [ 6 ] randomized 368 intraventricular hemorrhage patients into an observation group and a control (C) group. (hindawi.com)
  • Introduction Funding: This work was supported by a grant from Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) results from the rupture of the germinal matrix hemor- the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through rhage through the ependymal into the lateral ventricle and is a common and serious disorder the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & in premature infants [1, 2]. (deepdyve.com)
  • Intraventricular hemorrhage with were % in the vignettes. (wellchild.org)
  • Administer Brineura first followed by infusion of the Intraventricular Electrolytes each at an infusion rate of 2.5 mL/hr. (drugs.com)
  • The complete Brineura infusion, including the required infusion of Intraventricular Electrolytes, is approximately 4.5 hours. (drugs.com)
  • Brineura and the Intraventricular Electrolytes must only be administered by the intraventricular route, using the provided Administration Kit for use with Brineura. (drugs.com)
  • Each vial of Brineura and Intraventricular Electrolytes is intended for a single dose only. (drugs.com)
  • Each infusion consists of 10 mL of Brineura followed by 2 mL of Intraventricular Electrolytes. (drugs.com)
  • The Intraventricular Electrolytes are used to flush the infusion line, port needle, and intraventricular access device in order to fully administer Brineura and to maintain patency of the intraventricular access device. (drugs.com)
  • Thaw Brineura and Intraventricular Electrolytes Injection vials at room temperature for approximately 60 minutes. (drugs.com)
  • Do not re‑freeze vials or freeze syringes containing Brineura or Intraventricular Electrolytes. (drugs.com)
  • Inspect fully thawed Brineura and Intraventricular Electrolytes Injection vials. (drugs.com)
  • Intraventricular Electrolytes is a clear to colorless solution. (drugs.com)
  • this includes the required infusion of intraventricular electrolytes. (empr.com)
  • Brineura is expected to be available by early June as a 150mg/5mL solution in cartons containing 2 single-dose vials co-packaged with intraventricular electrolytes injection. (empr.com)
  • ZERBAXA 1.5 g (ceftolozane and tazobactam) for injection is a white to yellow sterile powder for reconstitution consisting of ceftolozane 1 g (equivalent to 1.147 g of ceftolozane sulfate) and tazobactam 0.5 g (equivalent to 0.537 g of tazobactam sodium) per vial, packaged in single-dose glass vials. (rxlist.com)
  • The recommended dosage of Brineura in pediatric patients 3 years of age and older is 300 mg administered once every other week by intraventricular infusion. (drugs.com)
  • Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection, USP should be administered intravenously in diluted solution (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). (nih.gov)
  • The recommended dosage of ZERBAXA for injection is 1.5 gram (g) (ceftolozane 1 g and tazobactam 0.5 g) for cIAI and cUTI and 3 g (ceftolozane 2 g and tazobactam 1 g) for HABP/VABP administered every 8 hours by intravenous infusion over 1 hour in patients 18 years or older and with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) greater than 50 mL/min. (rxlist.com)
  • Ventricular volumes were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on days 3, 14, and 28 after kaolin injection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intraventricular EG 1962. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The safety and tolerability of a single intraventricular dose of EG 1962 will be compared to enteral nimodipine (60 mg given every 4 hours orally or via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube) for 21 days. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The present invention relates to a drive mechanism for an injection device for setting and dispensing of a dose of a medicament, the drive mechanism. (patents.com)
  • Patients without objective disease progression and no grade 3 or 4 toxicity 6 weeks after the first dose may receive a second injection. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients in the active comparator arm received a single dose of intraventricular normal saline and up to 21 days of oral nimodipine capsules or tablets. (yahoo.com)
  • c) Caffeine Citrate 10mg/ml Solution for Injection is also effective when administered orally, and this route may be used alternatively without adjusting the dose. (medicines.org.uk)
  • For the treatment of status epilepticus, the usual recommended dose of ATIVAN Injection is 4 mg given slowly (2 mg/min) for patients 18 years and older. (rxlist.com)
  • For the designated indications as a premedicant, the usual recommended dose of lorazepam for intramuscular injection is 0.05 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg. (rxlist.com)
  • Specifics of toxin dose, concentration, injection volume and speed of injection have varied considerably. (atsbio.com)
  • Cerebral injection produced localized beta-Gal expression that did not diffuse to other regions despite a fivefold increase in injection volume. (nih.gov)
  • An initial screen, involving injection into the cerebral lateral ventricles of neonatal mice, 12 resulted in widespread gene delivery with many of the AAV vectors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thirty minutes, 24 hours, or 72 hours after OP1 injection, the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) was ligated for 90 minutes. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition to molecular, cellular, and ultrastructural criteria, derived CPECs (dCPECs) had functions that were indistinguishable from primary CPECs, including self-assembly into secretory vesicles and integration into endogenous choroid plexus epithelium following intraventricular injection. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here are the most relevant "A Study of Intraventricular Liposomal Encapsulated Ara-C (DepoCyt) in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma" Drugs and Medications that we have found in our database. (bioportfolio.com)
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  • The member does not have acute intraventricular access device-related complications (e.g., leakage, device failure, or device-related infection) or a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. (aetna.com)
  • Member does not have acute intraventricular access device-related complications (e.g., leakage, device failure, or device-related infection) or ventriculoperitoneal shunts. (aetna.com)
  • Portal IRS values increased significantly to 8.87 ± 1.94 pg/min and 1411 ± 166 pg/ml 30 min after dopamine injection, 5.93 ± 0.90 pg/min and 1055 ± 152 pg/ml 15 min after norepinephrine injection, and 5.44 ± 0.90 pg/min and 579 ± 88 pg/ml 45 min after acetylcholine injection. (elsevier.com)
  • ATIVAN Injection is indicated in adult patients for preanesthetic medication, producing sedation (sleepiness or drowsiness), relief of anxiety, and a decreased ability to recall events related to the day of surgery. (rxlist.com)
  • The use of benzodiazepines , like ATIVAN Injection, is ordinarily only an initial step of a complex and sustained intervention which may require additional interventions, (e.g., concomitant intravenous administration of phenytoin). (rxlist.com)
  • Posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation is the most serious direct complication of intraventricular haemorrhage after preterm birth. (bmj.com)
  • Serum concentrations of about 10 mcg/mL are achieved by intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg of vancomycin. (nih.gov)
  • Intraventricular injection of kainic acid (2 nmol) induced circling behavior and wet-dog shakes soon after injection, followed by episodes of limbic motor seizures at intervals of several minutes (sporadic limbic motor seizures). (nih.gov)
  • If seizures cease, no additional ATIVAN Injection is required. (rxlist.com)
  • Since 1961, vitamin K for intramuscular injection into the newborn immediately at birth has been a standard of care. (healio.com)
  • However, the behavioral changes observed immediately after the administration of kainic acid were unaffected by prolonged intraventricular infusion with DCG-IV (8-2400 pmol/h). (nih.gov)
  • Brineura should be administered by, or under the direction of a physician knowledgeable in intraventricular administration. (drugs.com)
  • AREG calmed astrocytes even without Tregs, as an intraventricular AREG injection reduced astrogliosis and improved recovery. (alzforum.org)
  • Effects of intraventricular and intrahypothalamic injection of noradrenaline and 5-HT on body temperature in conscious rabbits. (springer.com)
  • In addition, effects of intraventricular injections of 8-iso-PGF 2α and possible involvement of thromboxane in 8-iso-PGF 2α -induced cytotoxicity were determined. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patients enrolled in the experimental arm received a single 600 mg intraventricular injection of EG-1962 plus placebo capsules or tablets for up to 21 days. (yahoo.com)
  • Patients receive a single injection of intraventricular or intrathecal iodine I 131 monoclonal antibody 3F8. (knowcancer.com)
  • Although intriguing, these studies have been limited by the need for chronic intraventricular catheterization, with its dependence on protein availability and stability, the uncertain tissue bioavailability of intraventricularly administered proteins, and the risks of infection and catheter loss inherent in chronic ventriculostomy. (jneurosci.org)
  • The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of left ventricular endocardial injection of guided bone marrow-derived cardiopoietic cells (C-Cure) in the setting of chronic heart failure secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • releasing the release mechanism when the substance delivery system is in a desired position for insertion of the needle into a portion of the body, wherein once released, a sufficient force is maintained on the needle to inhibit retraction during injection of a substance through the needle. (google.com)
  • Two latex-free needle-less injection sites allow CSF sampling and intraventricular medication delivery. (medtronic.com)
  • The needle for drug injection is formed in the shape of a. (patents.com)
  • Intraventricular kainic acid also caused severe selective neuron damage in the hippocampal CA3 region, limbic lobe and medial geniculate body. (nih.gov)
  • After surgical, tuberculostatic, and immunosuppressive treatment failed to control the progressive meningeal hypertrophy, causing severe headache and neurological disability, the disease process eventually abated with intraventricular cytarabine treatment. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Intravenous infusion of CRF (100 micrograms/h) or intraventricular infusion of artificial CSF had no effect on blood pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The intraventricular access device must be implanted prior to the first infusion. (drugs.com)
  • an intraventricular access device or port must be placed at least 5-7 days prior to the first infusion. (empr.com)
  • When reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection to a concentration of 50 mg/mL for the 5 g Pharmacy Bulk Package bottle and 100 mg/mL for the 10 g Pharmacy Bulk Package bottle, a clear solution is achieved with the pH of the solution is between 2.5 and 4.5. (nih.gov)
  • Each mL of sterile injection contains either 2.0 or 4.0 mg of lorazepam, 0.18 mL polyethylene glycol 400 in propylene glycol with 2.0% benzyl alcohol as preservative. (rxlist.com)
  • An injection device uses telescoping and/or nested components and other features to make the overall device compact in size. (patents.com)
  • The present invention relates to a supplementary device for a manually operable injection device, the supplementary device comprising: a body (300) having at. (patents.com)
  • G-L) Mice injected with DMSO show a mild microglial reaction on the injected side (J,L). (M-R) This is also associated with a mild to moderate astrocytic gliosis, which is present on the side of injection (P,R). Scale bar: 25 µm for A′-F′, and 100 µm in all other panels. (biologists.org)