A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
Glutathione S-Transferase pi
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Reactive Oxygen Species
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Rats, Inbred Strains
Disease Models, Animal
Amino Acid Sequence
A family of thioltransferases that contain two active site CYSTEINE residues, which either form a disulfide (oxidized form) or a dithiol (reduced form). They function as an electron carrier in the GLUTHIONE-dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by RIBONUCLEOTIDE REDUCTASES and may play a role in the deglutathionylation of protein thiols. The oxidized forms of glutaredoxins are directly reduced by the GLUTATHIONE.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Flow Injection Analysis
Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Protein Disulfide Reductase (Glutathione)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Free Radical Scavengers
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Tumor Cells, Cultured
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
NF-E2-Related Factor 2
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
Analysis of Variance
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Botulinum Toxins, Type A
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Conditions comorbid to autism spectrum disorders
In autistic children, studies have shown that glutathione metabolism can be improved. - Subcutaneously by injection of ... However, glutathione was not measured in these studies. Small, medium and large DPBC trials and open small and medium-sized ... An imbalance in glutathione-dependent redox metabolism has been shown to be associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ... Glutathione is involved in neuroprotection against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation by improving the antioxidant stress ...
The liver glutathione values in mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of the ester are superimposable with the GSH levels ... As a result, hepatocellular supplies of glutathione become depleted, as the demand for glutathione is higher than its ... Calcitriol was found to increase glutathione levels in rat astrocyte primary cultures on average by 42%, increasing glutathione ... In animal studies, the liver's stores of glutathione must be depleted to less than 70% of normal levels before liver toxicity ...
Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. *Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione (GSSG ... The IV injection and inhalation preparations are, in general, prescription only, whereas the oral solution and the effervescent ... It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to ... Glutathione also modulates the NMDA receptor by acting at the redox site. ...
List of SJS-inducing substances
PMID 7477195.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "Safety of off label use of Glutathione Injection" (PDF). Raksha MP ...
Antimony potassium tartrate
However, the injection of antimony potassium tartrate had severe side effects such as Adams-Stokes syndrome and therefore ... Sun, H.; Yan, S.C.; Cheng, W.S. (2003). "Interaction of antimony tartrate with the tripeptide glutathione". European Journal of ... Low, George C. (1916). "The history of the use of intravenous injections of tartar emetic (Antimonium tartaratum) in tropical ...
Route of administration
Intracavernous injection, an injection into the base of the penis. Intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin testing ... "Acute Decreases in Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutathione Levels after Intracerebroventricular Morphine for Cancer Pain". Anesthesia- ... In addition to injection, it is also possible to slowly infuse fluids subcutaneously in the form of hypodermoclysis. ... Intraperitoneal, (infusion or injection into the peritoneum) e.g. peritoneal dialysis. Intrathecal (into the spinal canal) is ...
Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores.. - Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione ( ... The IV injection and inhalation preparations are, in general, prescription only, whereas the oral solution and the effervescent ... It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to ... Gu F, Chauhan V, Chauhan A (Jan 2015). "Glutathione redox imbalance in brain disorders". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition ...
Neonate ruminants at risk of WMD may be administered both Se and vitamin E by injection; some of the WMD myopathies respond ... 55 µg/day recommendation is based on full expression of plasma glutathione peroxidase. Selenoprotein P is a better indicator of ... Cyanide inhibition of a 4-glutathione:4-selenoenzyme". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 615 (1): 19-26. doi:10.1016/0005-2744(80) ... Kraus, RJ; Prohaska, JR; Ganther, HE (1980). "Oxidized forms of ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. ...
Route of administration
Intracavernous injection, an injection into the base of the penis.. *Intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin ... "Acute Decreases in Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutathione Levels after Intracerebroventricular Morphine for Cancer Pain". Anesthesia- ... "injection". Cambridge dictionary. Archived from the original on 2017-07-30. Retrieved 2017-07-30.. ... The term injection encompasses intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) and intradermal (ID) administration. ...
Balanced salt solution
... oxidized glutathione) 0.184 mg (0.3003 mmol), hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (to adjust pH), in water for injection ... and water for injection. The pH is approximately 7.5. The osmolality is approximately 300 mOsm/Kg. BSS Plus (ophthalmic ...
Mel Ox also reacts with trypanothione (a spermidine-glutathione adduct that replaces glutathione in trypanosomes). It forms a ... It is given by injection into a vein. Melarsoprol has a high number of side effects. Common side effects include brain ... Since melarsoprol is insoluble in water, dosage occurs via a 3.6% propylene glycol intravenous injection. To avoid the risk of ... As a toxic organic compound of arsenic, melarsoprol is a dangerous treatment that is typically only administered by injection ...
Route of administration
intracavernous injection, an injection into the base of the penis. *intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin ... "Acute Decreases in Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutathione Levels after Intracerebroventricular Morphine for Cancer Pain". Anesthesia- ... "injection". Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved 2017-07-30.. *^ "MDMA (ecstasy) metabolites and neurotoxicity: No occurrence of ... The term injection encompasses intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC) and intradermal (ID) administration. ...
Additionally, injection of α-FMH has been shown to increase food intake, although the mechanism is believed to distinct from ... α-FMH has also been shown to target isozymes of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) family. Due to the role of GSTs in ... "Efficient synthesis of α-fluoromethylhistidine di-hydrochloride and demonstration of its efficacy as a glutathione S- ...
Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores. Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ... "ACETADOTE (acetylcysteine) injection, solution [Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc.]". DailyMed. Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc. ... It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to ... Glutathione also modulates the NMDA receptor by acting at the redox site. L-cysteine also serves as a precursor to cystine, ...
In the palliative care of terminal cancer, an Ommaya reservoir can be inserted for intracerebroventricular injection (ICV) of ... Leonidas C. Goudas et al.: Acute Decreases in Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutathione Levels after Intracerebroventricular Morphine for ...
Additionally, injection of proteins secreted by Fasciola hepatica in nonobese diabetic mice prevented the onset of type I ... In particular, immunization with P28GST, a schistosome glutathione S-transferase enzyme in rats has been shown to reduce ... "The schistosome glutathione S-transferase P28GST, a unique helminth protein, prevents intestinal inflammation in experimental ... diabetes, with 84% of the mice showing normal glucose levels 26 weeks after injection. This phenomenon is attributed to the ...
From intravenous injection mice, rats and guinea pigs show symptoms after 15 min to 2 hours. The animals become quiet and limp ... It is involved in detoxifying the aryl and alkyl groups by converting them into glutathione conjugates. The C-F bond is cleaved ... When applied to the skin it is not toxic, yet through inhalation, injection and by mouth it is. For the rat, cat and the rhesus ... The GSH-dependent enzyme couples glutathione to MFA and thereby defluorinating MFA. As a result, a fluoride anion and S- ...
IP injections or local injections into membrane of the round window were given, and permanent threshold shifts (PTS) were ... It has been previously shown that noise trauma correlates with decreases in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, which has ... L-cysteine-glutathione mixed disulfide, ribose-cysteine, NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, vitamin B12, folate, and ascorbic ... "Ebselen treatment reduces noise induced hearing loss via the mimicry and induction of glutathione peroxidase.", 2007 Mitzutari ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis research
Rat models, on the other hand is not very widely used, but their large size can be beneficial in intrathecal injection or mini ... glutathione, selegiline, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q); anti-apoptotic drugs (pentoxyfilline, omigapil, and minocycline); and ...
... injections allegedly target adipose fat cells, apparently by inducing lipolysis, rupture and cell death among ... L-carnitine L-arginine Hyaluronidase Collagenase Yohimbine Co-enzyme cofactors Dimethylethanolamine Gerovital Glutathione ... Robin Ashinoff, speaking for the American Academy of Dermatology, says "A simple injection is giving people false hope. ... Rittes, PG; Rittes, JC; Carriel, Amary MF (2006). "Injection of phosphatidylcholine in fat tissue: experimental study of local ...
It is given by injection in a muscle. It is also available by mouth in combination with lumefantrine, known as artemether/ ... Some pathways affected may concern glutathione and glucose metabolism. As a consequence, lesions and reduced growth of the ...
It may be taken by mouth or by injection. Vitamin C is generally well tolerated. Large doses may cause gastrointestinal ... These compounds can be restored to a reduced state by glutathione and NADPH-dependent enzymatic mechanisms. In plants, vitamin ... "Ascor- ascorbic acid injection". DailyMed. October 2, 2020. Retrieved October 12, 2020. "Ascorbic Acid liquid". DailyMed. ... Treatment can be oral supplementation of the vitamin or by intramuscular or intravenous injection. Scurvy was known to ...
... and a glutathione S-transferase. Vaccination with APR-1 and CP-2 led to reduced host blood loss and fecal egg ... 36 healthy adults without a history of hookworm infection were given three intramuscular injections of three different ... "Biochemical Characterization and Vaccine Potential of a Heme-Binding Glutathione Transferase from the Adult Hookworm ...
6]-gingerol improved glutathione production in dose-dependent results which suggested that the higher a dosage the more of an ... In another study -Gingerol notably inhibited the metabolic rate of rats when given an intraperitoneal injection which ... Gingerol compounds are thought to help in diabetic patients because of increases in glutathione, a cellular toxin regulatory ... This study indicates that ginger up-regulates glutathione production in cells, including nerve cells, through anti-oxidative ...
... such as glutathione (GSH). It was demonstrated by Miller, et al. (1997), that 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine and 5-(N ... as an intracerebroventricular injection does not appear to cause neurotoxicity. While many studies suggest excitotoxicity or ...