DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Poly T: A group of thymine nucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each thymine nucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.DNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Bacteriophage T7: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.DNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DnaB Helicases: A family of DNA helicases that participate in DNA REPLICATION. They assemble into hexameric rings with a central channel and unwind DNA processively in the 5' to 3' direction. DnaB helicases are considered the primary replicative helicases for most prokaryotic organisms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
"Germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) has a phosphorylation-dependent DNA-primase activity that is up-regulated in ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (1): 31-9. doi ... Takei Y, Assenberg M, Tsujimoto G, Laskey R (2002). "The MCM3 acetylase MCM3AP inhibits initiation, but not elongation, of DNA ... Kono Y, Maeda K, Kuwahara K, Yamamoto H, Miyamoto E, Yonezawa K, Takagi K, Sakaguchi N (2002). "MCM3-binding GANP DNA-primase ...
... requiring the synthesis of more DnaA to enable another initiation of replication. Researchers commonly replicate DNA in vitro ... In eukaryotic replication, the primase forms a complex with Pol α. Multiple DNA polymerases take on different roles in the DNA ... Traditionally, replication sites were fixed on spatial structure of chromosomes by nuclear matrix or lamins. The Heun's results ... Replication machineries include primosotors are replication enzymes; DNA polymerase, DNA helicases, DNA clamps and DNA ...
B. J. McCarthy; J. J. Holland (September 15, 1965). "Denatured DNA as a Direct Template for in vitro Protein Synthesis". ... to create a replication fork SSB protein that binds open the double-stranded DNA to prevent it from reassociating RNA primase ... Complexes of initiation factors and elongation factors bring aminoacylated transfer RNAs (tRNAs) into the ribosome-mRNA complex ... In prokaryotic cells, which have no nuclear compartment, the processes of transcription and translation may be linked together ...
Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication is the first stage of DNA synthesis where the DNA double helix is unwound and an ... Because DNA polymerases require a primer on which to begin DNA synthesis, polymerase α (Pol α) acts as a replicative primase. ... Waga S, Stillman B (May 1994). "Anatomy of a DNA replication fork revealed by reconstitution of SV40 DNA replication in vitro ... 1987). "Functional identity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a DNA polymerase-delta auxiliary protein". Nature. 326 ( ...
DNA gyrase DNA hybridization DNA ligase DNA marker DNA polymerase DNA probe DNA repair genes DNA replication DNA sequence DNA ... Induction Industrial melanism Infectious transfer Informed consent Inherit Inherited Initiation codon Initiation Initiation ... Immunohistochemistry Immunotherapy Imprinting Indigenous Amerindian genetics In situ Introduction to genetics In vitro In vitro ... Nonsense suppressor Noonan syndrome Norm of reaction Normal distribution Northern analysis Northern blot NPD Nu body Nuclear ...
These studies indicate that primer-DNA functions during both initiation and elongation stages of SV40 DNA synthesis. Results of ... RNA-DNA hybrid species termed primer-DNA. Initial experiments indicated that T antigen and the polymerase alpha-primase complex ... Proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and presumably proliferating cell nuclear antigen-dependent polymerases, is not needed to ... Primer-DNA formation during simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
... is the primase required for initiation of DNA synthesis from the light-strand origin of DNA replication (OriL). Using only ... we can faithfully reconstitute OriL-dependent initiation in vitro. Leading-strand DNA synthesis is initiated from the heavy- ... which is distinct from the replication apparatus used for copying the nuclear genome. We examine here the mechanisms of origin- ... DNA Replication, DNA, Mitochondrial, biosynthesis, chemistry, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases, physiology, Gene Silencing, Humans ...
DNA polymerase-alpha/primase functions primarily to synthesize RNA-DNA primers for initiation of DNA replication at the origin ... Complete enzymatic replication of DNA from the simian virus 40 origin has been reconstituted with T antigen and highly purified ... switching mechanism requiring replication factor C and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen allows two molecules of DNA ... DNA polymerase-alpha/primase functions primarily to synthesize RNA-DNA primers for initiation of DNA replication at the origin ...
"Germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) has a phosphorylation-dependent DNA-primase activity that is up-regulated in ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (1): 31-9. doi ... Takei Y, Assenberg M, Tsujimoto G, Laskey R (2002). "The MCM3 acetylase MCM3AP inhibits initiation, but not elongation, of DNA ... Kono Y, Maeda K, Kuwahara K, Yamamoto H, Miyamoto E, Yonezawa K, Takagi K, Sakaguchi N (2002). "MCM3-binding GANP DNA-primase ...
Twm1 has primase activity in vitro. Finally, using a novel in bacterio approach, we demonstrated that Twm1 promotes DNA ... Our results also suggest that non-metazoan Twinkle could function in the initiation of mitochondrial DNA replication. While ... We conclude that Twm1 is a replicative mitochondrial DNA helicase which is capable of priming DNA for replication. ... such as DNA helicases; in mitochondria Twinkle is important for maintaining and replicating mitochondrial DNA. Twinkle ...
In vitro assay of labeled thymidine incorporation reveals decreased levels of DNA synthesis compared to controls, but normal- ... Which proofreading activity is critical in determining the accuracy of nuclear DNA replication and thus the base substitution ... If adenine is the first base on thee template strand corresponding to the initiation point for segment E, which precursor ... DNA, Mutations And Mitosis Quiz DNA, Mutations And Mitosis Quiz Biology: Are You Ready To Take The DNA Quiz? Biology: Are You ...
This in vitro nuclear reconstitution system allows us to manipulate the DNA separately with specific damaging agents without ... Blow, J. J. and Laskey, R. A. (1986). Initiation of DNA replication in nuclei and purified DNA by a cell-free extract of ... it directly interacts with polα-primase complex and stimulates the activity of polδ/ε during the elongation phase (Fairman and ... Newport, J. (1987). Nuclear reconstitution in vitro: stages of assembly around protein-free DNA. Cell 48, 205-217. ...
1987) Functional identity of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a DNA polymerase-delta auxiliary protein. Nature 326(6112): ... 1975) Bacteriophage T7 deoxyribonucleic acid replication in vitro. Bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase: An enzyme composed of phage ... 2004) Initiation of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerization. J Gen Virol 85(Pt 5):1077-1093. ... Previously, nsp8 was proposed to be an RNA primase, possibly mediating the synthesis of small primers (30⇓-32) that could be ...
Initiation of Okazaki fragment formation requires the synthesis of an RNA primer catalyzed by primase action. We observed that ... Stocks of recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus for the expression of the UL8, UL5, UL52, UL30, UL42, ... 4A). However, double-stranded DNA was produced only in the presence of the helicase-primase (Fig. 4A). Double-stranded DNA was ... Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Helicase-Primase: DNA Binding and Consequent Protein Oligomerization and Primase Activation ...
Pea chloroplast DNA primase: Characterization and role in initiation of replication. Plant Mol. Biol. 16, 1019-1034.CrossRef ... Analysis of transcriptional initiation of yeast mitochondrial DNA in a homologous in vitro transcription. Cell. 31, 337-346. ... Novel nuclear-encoded proteins interacting with a plastid sigma factor, Sig1, in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett. 514, 300-304. ... Initiation of DNA replication at the primary origin of bacteriophage T7 by purified proteins: Requirement for T7 RNA polymerase ...
In vitro biochemical experiments have demonstrated that the replicative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma, Polg, is a ... the mitochondrial RNA polymerase and primase. Accompanying the above-mentioned topics, this review examines: 1) mtDNA ... Similar to Polg, in vitro work has demonstrated both Pol beta and PrimPol incorporate NtRTIs into nascent DNA. Cell culture and ... Similar to Polg, in vitro work has demonstrated both Pol beta and PrimPol incorporate NtRTIs into nascent DNA. Cell culture and ...
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen promotes translesion synthesis by DNA polymerase zeta. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23446-23450. [ ... To study the DNA synthesis step during homologous recombination we reconstituted recombination in vitro using the D-loop ... While an involvement of Pol α - primase had been excluded in genetic experiments (Wang et al., 2004), clearly further studies ... PCNA is required for initiation of recombination-associated DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ. Xuan Li,1,# Carrie M. Stith,2 ...
While an ever-growing body of data has yielded considerable insight into the form and function of the archaeal DNA replication ... Sliding clamps are well known for their role in DNA replication, but they also interact with factors involved in other cellular ... In bacteria, the functional single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) is a homotetramer that wraps 65 nucleotides. Pol α, Pol ... to coordinate DNA replication and cell division, and even to mediate the process of cell division itself. Researchers examined ...
... requiring the synthesis of more DnaA to enable another initiation of replication. Researchers commonly replicate DNA in vitro ... In eukaryotic replication, the primase forms a complex with Pol α. Multiple DNA polymerases take on different roles in the DNA ... Traditionally, replication sites were fixed on spatial structure of chromosomes by nuclear matrix or lamins. The Heuns results ... Replication machineries include primosotors are replication enzymes; DNA polymerase, DNA helicases, DNA clamps and DNA ...
... a DNA polymerase composed of two subunits and a helicase-primase complex composed of three gene products. Homologs of all but ... nuclear egress via dilated nuclear pore complexes, followed by envelopment at a cytoplasmic vesicle that is transported to the ... The basis of host restriction both in vivo and in vitro is poorly understood. In a few instances (e.g. HHV-4), cell surface ... suggesting that a latent state can be established after initiation of the productive cycle. Changes in the transcription factor ...
The function of mitochondrial DNA helicases and the regulation of the temporal linkage of kDNA and nuclear DNA replication in ... in the same region as DNA primase, Pol I-type DNA polymerases and a center of minicircle replication intermediates. Structure- ... regulate the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotes, using the replication of the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) of ... C. fasciculata tryparedoxin activates the binding of UMSBP to UMS DNA in vitro. An N-terminally truncated UMSBP mutant was ...
Kinoshita Y, Johnson EM: Site-specific loading of an MCM protein complex in a DNA replication initiation zone upstream of the c ... The human GINS complex binds to and specifically stimulates human DNA polymerase alpha-primase. EMBO Rep. 2007, 8: 99-103. ... Association of human origin recognition complex 1 with chromatin DNA and nuclease-resistant nuclear structures. J Biol Chem. ... in vitro experiments have found that the GINS complex physically interacts with and markedly stimulates the polymerase function ...
In vitro replication of human mitochondrial DNA: accurate initiation at the origin of light-strand synthesis. 1985. Cell 42:951 ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), in contrast to nuclear DNA, undergoes a continuous turnover and replicates throughout the cell cycle ... DNA primase of human mitochondria is associated with structural RNA that is essential for enzymatic activity.1986. Cell 45:817- ... Mammalian mitochondrial DNA replicates bidirectionally from an initiation zone. 2003. J. Biol. Chem. 278:50961-50969. Cerca con ...
Human PrimPol is a DNA primase/polymerase involved in DNA damage tolerance and prevents nuclear genome instability. PrimPol is ... The process begins with initiation of DNA replication at OriL and ends with primer removal and ligation. We find that RNase H1 ... and 3 mM Mg2+ or 0.3-3 mM Mn2+ cofactor ions supports the highest DNA polymerase activity of human PrimPol in vitro. The DNA ... Eukaryotic PrimPol is a recently discovered DNA-dependent DNA primase and translesion synthesis DNA polymerase found in the ...
We discuss the central roles of single-stranded DNA binding proteins from the OB-fold domain family in DNA replication, the ... In order to bind single-stranded DNA, these proteins utilise a characteristic and evolutionary conserved single-stranded DNA- ... and following DNA damage. In these instances, single-stranded DNA binding proteins are essential for the sequestration and ... However, there are various instances where single-stranded DNA is exposed, such as during replication or transcription, in the ...
Timed interactions between viral and cellular replication factors during the initiation of SV40 in vitro DNA replication. ... A distinct DNA-methylation boundary in the 5- upstream sequence of the FMR1 promoter binds nuclear proteins and is lost in ... Structure of a DNA polymerase alpha-primase domain that docks on the SV40 helicase and activates the viral primosome. ... Human DNA helicase B interacts with the replication initiation protein Cdc45 and facilitates Cdc45 binding onto chromatin. ...
11369845:The DNA primase of Sulfolobus solfataricus is activated by substrates. *11369846:Assigning functions to genes: ... 11369873:In vitro FRAP reveals the ATP-dependent nuclear mobilization of the ex ... 11369925:Interaction of mitochondrial initiation factor 2 with mitochondrial fM. *11369926:Substrate recognition and catalysis ... DNA-mediated assembly of weakly interacting DNA-binding protein subuni. *11369805:Amplification and assembly of chip-eluted DNA ...
Initiation of cell-free simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication requires the interaction of DNA polymerase alpha/primase with a ... The structural relationship between the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent calf DNA polymerase delta and DNA ... In addition, the enzymatic activity of the S. pombe DNA polymerase alpha measured by in vitro assay was detected at all stages ... The B-subunit of DNA polymerase alpha-primase associates with the origin recognition complex for initiation of DNA replication ...
DNA Polymerase α-Primase Complexes from Carcinogen-treated Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells ... In Vitro Malignant Conversion of Low-Grade Rat Urinary Bladder Carcinoma Cells by Exposure to N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea ... Action of Gossypol and Rhodamine 123 on Wild Type and Multidrug-resistant MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells: 31P Nuclear Magnetic ... U.S.-Japan Seminar on Molecular Mechanisms of Initiation, Promotion and Progression ...
DNA replication timing Nuclear architecture Rif1 Nuclear lamina Nuclear organization PP1 Origin firing Telomere replication ... Diede SJ, Gottschling DE (1999) Telomerase-mediated telomere addition in vivo requires DNA primase and DNA polymerases alpha ... Peace JM, Ter-Zakarian A, Aparicio OM (2014) Rif1 regulates initiation timing of late replication origins throughout the S. ... Genome-wide dynamics of replication timing revealed by in vitro models of mouse embryogenesis. Genome Res 20:155-169CrossRef ...
  • PCNA is known as the processivity clamp for DNA polymerases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Owing to this unique structure, PCNA is topologically linked to the double helix, encircling it, but it is still able to freely slide along the DNA lattice by virtue of theα -helices lining the inner channel. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, PCNA and its homologs increase the processivity of a polymerase by engaging in protein-protein interactions with its outer surface and tethering it to the DNA. (biologists.org)
  • This property of PCNA prevents the polymerase from dissociating while advancing along the template DNA and is the reason for the name sliding clamp ( Kelman and O'Donnell, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • Srs2‐dependent Rad51 removal from single‐stranded DNA promotes RPA binding necessary for PCNA loading. (embopress.org)
  • Essential interaction between the fission yeast DNA polymerase delta subunit Cdc27 and Pcn1 (PCNA) mediated through a C-terminal p21(Cip1)-like PCNA binding motif. (neb.com)
  • Homologous recombination in replicated concatemeric DNA results in inversion of the two regions, and cleavage largely or entirely at one of the two junction regions results in unit length genomes that are one or the other of two isomers differing in the orientation of the short unique sequence. (ictvonline.org)
  • By convention, if the base sequence of a single strand of DNA is given, the left end of the sequence is the 5' end, while the right end of the sequence is the 3' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have determined the complete DNA sequence of HHV-6 variant B (HHV-6B) strain HST, the causative agent of exanthem subitum, and compared the sequence with that of variant A strain U1102. (asm.org)
  • Gompels and coworkers ( 16 ) have determined the complete DNA sequence of HHV-6A strain U1102. (asm.org)
  • In the present report, to examine which gene(s) could be related to pathogenicity and other viral properties, we present the complete DNA sequence of HHV-6 strain HST, which belongs to variant B, and compare the sequence with that of HHV-6A. (asm.org)
  • This can be accomplished because different gene features, such as exons, introns, promoters, polyadenylation signal etc are associated with unique patterns in the DNA sequence. (tripod.com)
  • Here, the two strands are separated and then each strand's complementary DNA sequence is recreated by an enzyme called DNA polymerase . (wikibooks.org)
  • Reverse transcriptases and genomic variability: the accuracy of DNA replication is enzyme specific and sequence dependent. (neb.com)
  • While deletion of the N-terminal region in human Twinkle decreases mtDNA replisome activity in vitro, it is unclear whether this is solely due to its role in DNA binding and unwinding [ 3 ], or if the deletion also impairs loading of Twinkle onto a circular template. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alver RC, Chadha GS, Gillespie PJ, Blow JJ (2017) Reversal of DDK-mediated MCM phosphorylation by Rif1-PP1 regulates replication initiation and replisome stability independently of ATR/Chk1. (springer.com)
  • The eukaryotic replisome disassembles parental chromatin at DNA replication forks, but then plays a poorly understood role in the re‐deposition of the displaced histone complexes onto nascent DNA. (embopress.org)
  • Replisome assemblies unite multiple histone‐binding activities that jointly process parental histones during DNA replication. (embopress.org)
  • To guide our review of the main technological developments and the biological breakthroughs they have allowed, in the context of what seems like an overwhelming amount of examples and applications, we focus on studies of the molecular motors that carry cellular cargo and the multiprotein complex involved in DNA replication, the replisome. (rupress.org)
  • Once incorporated into newly synthesized daughter strands NtRTIs block further DNA polymerization reactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA is made up of a double helix of two complementary strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most prominently, DNA polymerase synthesizes the new strands by adding nucleotides that complement each (template) strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the fidelity of individual DNA polymerases, including their base insertion fidelity and proofreading ability, has been investigated in detail, recent emphasis has shifted to the fidelity of chromosomal multisubunit complexes (replisomes) that perform the simultaneous replication of leading and lagging DNA strands. (waw.pl)
  • The unique experimental system that allows measuring of the level of mutagenesis occurring on leading and lagging DNA strands was developed in our laboratory. (waw.pl)
  • Our group, in collaboration with Roel Schaaper (NIEHS), demonstrated for the first time, that the accuracy of DNA replication is not equal for the two replicating DNA strands. (waw.pl)
  • Our results thus suggest a role for the recruited Polα-primase in the initiation of both leading and lagging strands at the replication origins. (asm.org)
  • The parental anti-parallel DNA strands are separated and copied following hydrogen bonding rules for the keto form of each base as proposed by Watson and Crick [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Either model is consistent with the fact that Pol ε and Pol δ both possess intrinsic 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, and with genetic data in yeast suggesting that these nucleases proofread replication errors on opposite DNA strands during chromosomal [ 15 ] or plasmid [ 16 ] DNA replication. (beds.ac.uk)
  • DNA is unwound and nucleotides are matched to make two new strands. (wikibooks.org)
  • As DNA polymerases can only extend a DNA strand in a 5′ to 3′ direction, different mechanisms are used to copy the antiparallel strands of the double helix. (wikibooks.org)
  • Once separated, the two DNA strands act as a template for the development of the new strand. (edu.au)
  • We show that Twm1 is important for mitochondrial function as it maintains mitochondrial DNA copy number in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diede SJ, Gottschling DE (1999) Telomerase-mediated telomere addition in vivo requires DNA primase and DNA polymerases alpha and delta. (springer.com)
  • Conversely, B55β ablation enforces the degradation of cyclin E1 and inhibits cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • As cells undergo replicative senescence in vitro and in vivo, cells not only lose the ability to divide in response to growth stimuli, but also exhibit significant deleterious changes in the pattern of gene expression (West, 1994, Arch. (google.es)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the various force- and fluorescence-based single-molecule methods with applications both in vitro and in vivo, highlighting these advances by describing their applications in studies on cytoskeletal motors and DNA replication. (rupress.org)
  • This interplay between in vitro and in vivo assays will play a major role in future studies, with bottom-up and top-down approaches required to fill the gaps. (rupress.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the state of the field and discuss the main classes of single-molecule methods that have found applications in in vitro and in vivo studies. (rupress.org)
  • A mammalian DNA polymerase alpha holoenzyme functioning on defined in vivo-like templates. (neb.com)
  • Indeed, what little is known appears to be suggesting that diverse mechanisms may be employed to regulate chromosome copy number, to coordinate DNA replication and cell division, and even to mediate the process of cell division itself. (asmscience.org)
  • Researchers examined nucleoid distribution during the cell cycle, and the results suggested that chromosome segregation was concomitant with DNA replication, as was proposed for M. thermautotrophicus , in a mode akin to that employed by bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • The eukaryotic replication fork machinery must deal with the chromatin and chromosome structure of eukaryotic genomes, be able to replicate DNA in the context of a complex cell cycle, and be able to deal with the constant threat of mutations that could arise due to replication of damaged DNA, all while trying to efficiently replicate the DNA with high fidelity. (els.net)
  • Once bound, ORC recruits Cdc6 and Cdt1, which in turn allow assembly of the mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM)2-7 complex onto the DNA. (rupress.org)
  • Delivery of nucleoprotein complexes to recipient cells leads to integration of the bacterial DNA into the host chromosome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this study, a 5,800-base-pair DNA fragment from the chromosome of T. maritima was cloned and sequenced. (ubc.ca)
  • The ends of every chromosome are capped by repeating sequences of DNA known as telomeres, which protect the chromosomes from damage. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1). We investigate what types of mutation in genes that play a critical role in DNA replication can cause an early event in tumorigenesis and are a source of the genetic instability observed in cancer cells. (stanford.edu)
  • Present studies of RNAi in mammalian cells have demonstrated that exogenous genes delivered by DNA transfection as well as endogenous gene expression can be suppressed by the delivery of siRNA ( 4 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • however, by confirming the presence, or suggesting the absence, in M. tuberculosis of homologs of genes of known function, it provided a useful framework for subsequent studies of the reactions and pathways underlying nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in this major human pathogen. (asmscience.org)
  • and analyzing the sample for increased or decreased expression levels of at least three DNA repair genes as compared to a control cell that is not exposed to the potentially genotoxic or carcinogenic compound. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Genotoxic carcinogenic compounds may lead to damage of the genetic material, either directly by covalently binding to DNA or indirectly by interfering with the mitotic machinery, ultimately leading to mutations in genes or large aberrations in chromosomes (Hayashi, Y. (1992) Overview of genotoxic carcinogens and non-genotoxic carcinogens Exp Toxicol Pathol 44, 465-71). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Mutation analysis of replicative genes encoding the large subunits of DNA polymerase alpha and replication factors A and C in human sporadic colorectal cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus , suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles ( Pediculus, Damalinia ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, we found that defects in some RNA processing genes lead to DNA damage through the formation of toxic RNA-DNA hybrids and R-loops. (stanford.edu)
  • Given that HBx does not directly bind to DNA, its ability to activate transcription of host genes is thought to take place indirectly by interaction with nuclear transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent in vitro experiments have demonstrated that DNA polymerases may misincorporate a ribonucleotide base every thousand base pairs, suggesting that rNTPs might be the most common non-canonical nucleotides inserted into genomic DNA. (waw.pl)
  • The genomic DNA and cDNA sequences were cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) adopting touchdown-PCR and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Protection of the integrity of genomic DNA is vital to the survival of all organisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The human Gadd45 protein family plays critical roles in DNA repair, negative growth control, genomic stability, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Cimprich lab is focused on understanding how cells maintain genomic stability, with an emphasis on the DNA damage response (DDR). (stanford.edu)
  • The proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells is markedly impaired upon infection with a newly discovered human immunodeficiency virus, designated HIV-V. The defect has been traced to the expression of a viral-encoded enzyme that inactivates a host-cell nuclear protein required for DNA replication. (proprofs.com)
  • A second recently described necessity for transcription of the viral DNA in the cytoplasm after reverse transcription and before nuclear import and integration offers an additional target ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Both viral systems provide important models for the study of human DNA replication mechanisms and have allowed for vital insights into eukaryotic DNA replication. (buffalo.edu)
  • Understanding these interactions and the roles they play in the HPV DNA replication process has helped our understanding of, and continues to lead to information that tells us more about how both viral and eukaryotic DNA replication forks function. (buffalo.edu)
  • To prepare the viral DNA, the infected cells were cultured for 2 or 3 days in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and harvested when approximately 50% of the cells showed cytopathic effects. (asm.org)
  • The Oct-1 POU domain stimulates adenovirus DNA replication by a direct interaction between the viral precursor terminal protein-DNA polymerase complex and the POU homeodomain. (neb.com)
  • Cell culture and biochemical experiments have also demonstrated that antiviral ribonucleoside drugs developed to treat hepatitis C infection act as off-target substrates for POLRMT, the mitochondrial RNA polymerase and primase. (frontiersin.org)
  • NEDDylation has been shown to participate in the DNA damage pathway, but the substrates of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 8 (NEDD8) and the roles of NEDDylation involved in the DNA damage response (DDR) are largely unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we show that Thr 225-dependent Rad9 phosphorylation by Rad3 regulates DNA repair pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • Additionally, these findings indicate that the initiation complex assembly pathway bifurcates early, after ORC association with the origin, and that two parallel pathways, one controlled by MCM2-7, and the other by Xmus101, cooperate to load Cdc45 onto the origin. (rupress.org)
  • The second primary area of investigation is elucidating how the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways inhibit DNA replication when cells are subjected to DNA damage. (buffalo.edu)
  • Using both in vitro and cell-based simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication systems, we have shown that SV40 DNA replication is also shut down in response to DDR kinase pathways and that this is not based on cell cycle kinase action. (buffalo.edu)
  • Guo Y, Breeden L, Zarbl H, Preston B, Eaton D. Expression of a human cytochrome p450 in yeast permits analysis of pathways for response to and repair of aflatoxin-induced DNA damage. (labome.org)
  • Combined use of GLB with these drugs also induces DNA damage and apoptosis by activating caspase/PARP pathways and increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased autophagy in GC cells. (dovepress.com)
  • In vitro single-molecule studies on reconstituted systems of high complexity are informing on how these systems may behave in a cellular environment, and live-cell single-molecule imaging is providing pictures of increasing clarity about the physiological relevance of pathways observed in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathways promote the completion of replication when a fork stalls by allowing bypass of the lesion, an event that leaves repair to a more convenient time. (stanford.edu)
  • Although DDT pathways suppress fork collapse, thereby avoiding deleterious DNA breaks, bypass can be mutagenic. (stanford.edu)
  • Disclosed are compositions and an in vitro method for cloning and/or amplification of nucleic acid sequences of interest. (patents.com)
  • For instance the serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein (Strap) structurally contains one DNA binding OB fold as do the simple SSBs, while the TPP1 - protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) and the CST complex form complexes reminiscent of higher order SSBs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two types of NusG-DNA complexes have been observed. (ubc.ca)
  • Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brush GS and Kelly TJ (1996) Mechanisms for Replicating DNA. (els.net)
  • The studies are focused on the fidelity mechanisms operating during DNA replication. (waw.pl)
  • DSBs can also be generated due to DNA exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation as well as introduced by endogenous nucleases during developmentally programmed mechanisms such as meiosis and yeast mating type switching. (embopress.org)
  • We report anticarcinogenic properties of Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone from hop ( Humulus lupulus L.) with an exceptional broad spectrum of inhibitory mechanisms at the initiation, promotion, and progression stage of carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • in fact, RNA is similar in composition to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the preferred molecule of genetic information storage that does not have a reputation for carrying out interesting chemistry inside the cell. (schoolbag.info)
  • Current in vitro assays for the activity of HIV-RT (reverse transcriptase) require radio-labeled or chemically modified nucleotides to detect reaction products. (bvsalud.org)
  • For the identification of novel cancer chemopreventive agents, we have set up a broad spectrum of cell- and enzyme-based in vitro assays with markers relevant for measuring inhibition of carcinogenesis during the initiation, promotion, and progression stage. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While further work is required, this study has illuminated several alternative processes of mitochondrial DNA maintenance which might also be performed by the Twinkle family of helicases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While an ever-growing body of data has yielded considerable insight into the form and function of the archaeal DNA replication machinery, much less is known about the details of the archaeal cell cycle and its control. (asmscience.org)
  • DNA Replication and Cell Cycle, p 93-109. (asmscience.org)
  • The cell possesses the distinctive property of division, which makes replication of DNA essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (artificially, outside a cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), in contrast to nuclear DNA, undergoes a continuous turnover and replicates throughout the cell cycle. (unipd.it)
  • Thus, we investigated how loss of Poz1, Rap1 and Taz1 affects cell cycle regulation of Ccq1 Thr93 phosphorylation and telomere association of telomerase (Trt1 TERT ), DNA polymerases, Replication Protein A (RPA) complex, Rad3 ATR -Rad26 ATRIP checkpoint kinase complex, Tel1 ATM kinase, shelterin subunits (Tpz1, Ccq1 and Poz1) and Stn1. (prolekare.cz)
  • We further investigated how telomere shortening, caused by trt1Δ or catalytically dead Trt1-D743A, affects cell cycle-regulated telomere association of telomerase and DNA polymerases. (prolekare.cz)
  • The first group transfers DNA from one cell to another in a process called conjugation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The T4SS of Neisseria gonorrhoeae secretes DNA into the extracellular environment instead of a recipient cell [ 4 ] using machinery evolutionarily related to conjugation systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For many years, the DDR field focused on the effects of DDR on the cell cycle kinases as the only method by which DNA replication was arrested. (buffalo.edu)
  • The lack of DDR arrest of HPV DNA replication likely explains why HPV integrates so readily into host cell chromosomes−an important step for HPV-induced carcinogenesis). (buffalo.edu)
  • cell of a language earlier than 37 chips tyrosine consists in a spliceosome of mobilization and Initiation for phosphorylates. (evakoch.com)
  • In this way, the base on the old strand dictates which base appears on the new strand, and the cell ends up with a perfect copy of its DNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • DNA replication can also be performed in vitro (outside a cell). (wikibooks.org)
  • However, the comparatively low complexity of such in vitro experiments does not necessarily represent the physiology of the cell. (rupress.org)
  • The double membrane of the nucleus is termed the 'nuclear envelope' that creates a separate compartment from the cytoplasm of a cell. (edu.au)
  • A second nuclease is therefore required to remove the last ribonucleotides and we demonstrate that Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) can execute this function in vitro . (diva-portal.org)
  • Formation of an enzyme-DNA intermediate protects the DNA ends and prevents activation of a DNA damage checkpoint. (genetics.org)
  • The self-damage for age of a mRNA fated for the functional tyrosine( SAE1) descriptions from the Toll-like human strand roof at the activation when a complex addition making a glycosaminoglycan estate formation has identified on the target of the small DNA: C-terminus: enzyme defect. (erik-mill.de)