Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.DeoxyriboseProtein Footprinting: A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.PicratesMannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Pulse Radiolysis: Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Biphenyl CompoundsProstatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methylurea Compounds: Urea compounds which are substituted with one or more methyl groups.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Pholiota: A genus of basidiomycetous mushroom in the family Strophariaceae, exhibiting a bipolar mating system.PhenanthrolinesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.AnserinePhotolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PeroxidasesDiuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Benserazide: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.HydroquinonesThiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.ZymosanMolsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.

*Ergothioneine

Under laboratory conditions, it scavenges hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid, inhibits production of oxidants by metal ... Although potential effects of ergothioneine are under preliminary research, its physiological role in vivo is unknown. In ... In vitro assays, as well as in vivo animal models, are used in basic research to identify its potential biological properties. ... Cheah, Irwin K.; Halliwell, Barry (2012-05-01). "Ergothioneine; antioxidant potential, physiological function and role in ...

*Copper zinc water filtration

... along with hydroxyl radicals that form during the process. The process can remove chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, heavy metals, ... The filter also inhibits the growth of algae, fungi, and bacteria to an extent. Copper zinc filtration has been used in ... Copper zinc water filtration is a high-purity brass water filtration process that relies on the redox potential of dissolved ... This redox reaction generates an electric potential of about 300mV, which may be responsible for the partial antimicrobial ...

*Kaempferol

At low concentrations, its acts as a super-oxide scavenger, specifically against the highly reactive hydroxyl radical and ... 2010). "The Potential Role of Honey and its Polyphenols in Preventing Heart Diseases: A Review". Afr J Tradit Complement Altern ... Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit or decrease the activity of enzymes that partake in viral infection such as reverse ... In vitro studies along with some animal testing has demonstrated the wide range of potential anti-cancer properties of ...

*Lactoperoxidase

... reaction leading to oxygen consumption and intracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation could explain the hydroxyl radical- ... Peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite inhibits herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The antibacterial activity ... Furthermore, addition or augmentation of the lactoperoxidase system has potential applications in controlling bacteria in food ... Roger V, Tenovuo J, Lenander-Lumikari M, Söderling E, Vilja P (1994). "Lysozyme and lactoperoxidase inhibit the adherence of ...

*Cyclic voltammetry

... are important in living cells because they inhibit cell damage or death caused by oxidation reactions that produce radicals. ... These data are plotted as current (i) versus applied potential (E, often referred to as just 'potential'). In Figure 2, during ... Examples of antioxidants include flavonoids, whose antioxidant activity is greatly increased with more hydroxyl groups. Because ... Unlike in linear sweep voltammetry, after the set potential is reached in a CV experiment, the working electrode's potential is ...

*Benzene in soft drinks

The proposed mechanism begins with hydrogen abstraction by the hydroxyl radical, which itself is produced by the Cu2+-catalysed ... Benzene in soft drinks is of potential concern due to the carcinogenic nature of the benzene molecule. This contamination is a ... Calcium disodium EDTA and sugars have been shown to inhibit benzene production in soft drinks. The International Council of ... Drinks and Other Beverages International Council of Beverages Associations ICBA Guidance Document to Mitigate the Potential for ...

*NAD(P)H oxidase

Cadet, J., Delatour, T., Douki, T., Gasparutto, D., Pouget, J., Ravanat, J., & Sauvaigo, S. (1999). Hydroxyl radicals and DNA ... Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits the NADPH enzyme, blocking the source of oxidative stress in the vasculature. NO donor drugs (also ... Lactate and PO2 modulate superoxide anion production in bovine cardiac myocytes: potential role of NADH oxidase. Circulation. ... Release of iron can undergo Fenton reaction with hydrogen peroxide to yield hydroxyl radicals, which damage any biological ...

*Nanoremediation

... titanium dioxide produces hydroxyl radicals, which are highly reactive and can oxidize contaminants. Hydroxyl radicals are used ... One potential method is to separate the analyte from the sample and concentrate them to a smaller volume, easing detection and ... For in situ remediation, this action inhibits the particles from dispersing in the contaminated area, reducing their ... Nanotechnology offers the potential to effectively treat contaminants in situ, avoiding excavation or the need to pump ...

*FirePro Systems (Europe)

The K*s bind to other flame free radicals (hydroxyls - OH-) forming stable products such as KOH. This action extinguishes fire ... In 1994, Charis Economides, an ecopreneur, recognising the potential for a viable environmentally friendly fire suppression ... naturally occurring potassium salts to extinguish fire by inhibiting the chemical chain reactions in the flame on a molecular ... When the aerosol reacts with the flame, Potassium radicals (K*) are formed mainly from the disassociation of (K2CO3). ...

*Oxidative phosphorylation

These reactive oxygen species and their reaction products, such as the hydroxyl radical, are very harmful to cells, as they ... This generates potential energy in the form of a pH gradient and an electrical potential across this membrane. This store of ... There are several well-known drugs and toxins that inhibit oxidative phosphorylation. Although any one of these toxins inhibits ... with reducing agents having negative potentials and oxidizing agents positive potentials. As shown above, E. coli can grow with ...

*Human serum albumin

The albumin thiol reacts with radical hydroxyl (.OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the reactive nitrogen species as ... Glycation has the potential to alter the biological structure and function of the serum albumin protein. Moreover, the ... Milojevic J, Raditsis A, Melacini G (2009). "Human Serum Albumin Inhibits Aβ Fibrillization through a "Monomer-Competitor" ... This reaction can be inhibited in the presence of antioxidant agents. Although this reaction may happen normally, elevated ...

*Porphyrin

... free hydroxyl radical, or hydrogen peroxide. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2009.00589.x. These high reactive oxygen species react ... Complexes with Mn, Fe, and Co catalyze a variety of reactions of potential interest in organic synthesis. Some complexes ... While excess production of prophyrins indicate organochlorine exposure, lead inhibits ALA dehydratase enzyme. Although not ... to produce oxidative radicals that damage the cell, possibly inducing apoptosis or even necrosis. Bacteria have been shown to ...

*2-Mercaptoethanol

... is used to reduce disulfide bonds and can act as a biological antioxidant by scavenging hydroxyl radicals (amongst others). It ... DTT is also a more powerful reducing agent with a redox potential (at pH 7) of −0.33 V, compared to −0.26 V for 2- ... 2-Mercaptoethanol and related reducing agents (e.g., DTT) are often included in enzymatic reactions to inhibit the oxidation of ... is widely used because the hydroxyl group confers solubility in water and lowers the volatility. Due to its diminished vapor ...

*Reactive oxygen species production in marine microalgae

... their oxidation does result in significant sources of hydroxyl radicals in the ocean. The hydroxyl radical is the most unstable ... ROS can inhibit photosynthesis in algae Thus an alga that is more tolerant of ROS than another may produce and release it as a ... Their potential for damage also makes reactive oxygen species useful in direct protection from invading pathogens, as a defense ... Next, the reduction of hydrogen peroxide yields the hydroxyl radical, H2O2↔2OH•, which can then get reduced to the hydroxyl ion ...

*Juglone

... potential pathways through which juglone achieves its anticancer properties is through the formation of the semiquinone radical ... This in turn inhibits the effects of respiration of mitochondria and inhibits photosynthesis found in common crops such as ... The IR for juglone shows peaks at 3400 cm-1, 1662 cm-1, and 1641 cm-1 which are characteristic of the hydroxyl and carbonyl ... This conversion from juglone to semiquinone radical that causes the superoxide anion radical to form takes place in the ...

*Cucurbitacin E

... hydroxyl radical (OH-) and singlet oxygen. Not all natural antioxidants have strong free-radical scavenging properties against ... Chen, X.; Bao, J.; Guo, J.; Ding, Q.; Lu, J.; Huang, M.; Wang, Y. (2012). "Biological activities and potential molecular ... It causes a reduction of cell multiplication.[citation needed] This triterpene can inhibit the phosphorylation of the cofilin ... Cucurbitacin E glycoside has demonstrated antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties. Its antioxidant and free-radical ...

*Reperfusion injury

This oxidation results in molecular oxygen being converted into highly reactive superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Xanthine ... Inhibiting cyclophilin D has been shown to prevent the opening of the MPT pore and protect the mitochondria and cellular energy ... A study of aortic cross-clamping, a common procedure in cardiac surgery, demonstrated a strong potential benefit with further ... Damage to the cell's membrane may in turn cause the release of more free radicals. Such reactive species may also act ...

*Nodularin

... specifically superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, which consequently cause oxidative DNA damage via peroxidation of lipids, ... PP-2A), and Protein phosphatase 3 (PP-3). These enzymes act by removing the phosphate from a protein, inhibiting the function ... Blowing wind can spread substances from cyanobacterial blooms up to 10 km, increasing the area of potential exposure. Currently ... Once in the liver, nodularin inhibits three key enzymes, specifically the catalytic units of serine/threonine protein ...

*Carbon monoxide

It reacts with hydroxyl radical (•OH) to produce a radical intermediate •HOCO, which transfers rapidly its radical hydrogen to ... These properties have potential to be used to prevent the development of a series of pathological conditions including ischemia ... Relative to inflammation, carbon monoxide has been shown to inhibit the movement of leukocytes to inflamed tissues, stimulate ... and hydroxyl radical. NO2 gives O(3P) via photolysis, thereby forming O3 following reaction with O2. Since hydroxyl radical is ...

*Transforming growth factor beta

Factors that may cause such modification may include hydroxyl radicals from reactive oxygen species (ROS). TGF-β was rapidly ... TGF-β inhibits B cell proliferation. The exact mechanism is unknown, but there is evidence that TGF-β inhibits B cell ... When TGF-β signaling fails to control NF-κB activity in cancer cells, this has at least two potential effects: first, it ... It is also known to induce NF-κB inhibitor IKBa, inhibiting NF-κB activation. NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates ...

*Cytochrome c oxidase

... and a second electron and a proton from the hydroxyl of Tyr(244), which becomes a tyrosyl radical: The second oxygen is ... Other ligands, such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, can also inhibit COX by binding to regulatory sites on the enzyme, ... indicating potential unexplored roles for enzyme activity. Summary reaction: 4 Fe2+-cytochrome c + 8 H+in + O2 → 4 Fe3+- ... Methanol in methylated spirits is converted into formic acid, which also inhibits the same oxidase system. High levels of ATP ...

*Myricetin

The resulting hydroxy radicals are often linked to DNA degradation, however, there are doubts as to whether or not this damage ... Myricetin also has been shown to inhibit the act of genetic mutation as exhibited by the Ames test. This test showed that ... Multiple studies have demonstrated that myricetin also has the potential to act as a pro-oxidant due to its tendency to undergo ... Structural analysis of myricetin and other flavonoids with observed antiviral effects indicate that the 3,4' free hydroxyl ...

*Flavin-containing monooxygenase

O-O bond in the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate resulting in the formation of an internal hydrogen bonded hydroxyl radical. ... By doing this, the number of potential adverse drug-drug interactions is minimized and the reliance on CYP450 metabolism is ... FMOs have gained a lot of attention in drug development since these enzymes are not readily induced or inhibited by the ... Several approaches have been made to screen potential drug interactions. One of them includes human FMO3 (hFMO3), which is ...

*Herbivore

Other critics point out that animals do not have the ability to assess and maximize their potential gains, therefore the ... Phenolics combine an aromatic carbon ring with a hydroxyl group. There are a number of different phenolics such as lignins, ... These compounds are often bitter and can inhibit DNA or RNA synthesis or block nervous system signal transmission. Cyanogens ... which produce free radicals disrupting DNA, protein, and lipids, and can cause skin irritation. Nitrogen-based defenses are ...

*Carbophenothion

... can be degraded in the atmosphere by a reaction with photochemically produced hydroxyl radicals. The half life ... Kegley, S.E.; Hill, B.R.; Orme S.; Choi A.H. "Carbophenothion - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ... Carbophenothion affects the nervous system by inhibiting cholinesterase. There are no signs of chronic or carcinogenic effects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous superoxide dismutase levels regulate iron-dependent hydroxyl radical formation in Escherichia coli exposed to hydrogen peroxide. AU - Mccormick, Michael L.. AU - Buettner, Garry R.. AU - Britigan, Bradley E.. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Aerobic organisms contain antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, to protect them from both direct and indirect effects of reactive oxygen species, such as O2- and H2O2. Previous work by others has shown that Escherichia coli mutants lacking SOD not only are more susceptible to DNA damage and killing by H2O2 but also contain larger pools of intracellular free iron. The present study investigated if SOD- deficient E. coli cells are exposed to increased levels of hydroxyl radical (OH) as a consequence of the reaction of H2O2 with this increased iron pool. When the parental E. coli ...
The universally conserved eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF), eIF1A, plays multiple roles throughout initiation: it stimulates eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAiMet attachment to 40S ribosomal subunits, scanning, start codon selection and subunit joining. Its bacterial ortholog IF1 consists of an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) domain, whereas eIF1A additionally contains a helical subdomain, N-terminal tail (NTT) and C-terminal tail (CTT). The NTT and CTT both enhance ribosomal recruitment of eIF2/GTP/Met-tRNAiMet, but have opposite effects on the stringency of start codon selection: the CTT increases, whereas the NTT decreases it. Here, we determined the position of eIF1A on the 40S subunit by directed hydroxyl radical cleavage. eIF1As OB domain binds in the A site, similar to IF1, whereas the helical subdomain contacts the head, forming a bridge over the mRNA channel. The NTT and CTT both thread under Met-tRNAiMet reaching into the P-site. ...
Definition of Oxygen-Derived Free Radical in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Oxygen-Derived Free Radical? Meaning of Oxygen-Derived Free Radical as a legal term. What does Oxygen-Derived Free Radical mean in law?
The effects of four calcium channel blockers (nicardipine, nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem) on free radical injury in cultured endothelial cells were studied and compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene. When the cultured cells were exposed to a superoxide and hydroxyl radical generating system for up to 60 minutes, lipid peroxidation occurred, and cellular viability decreased by 60% at 30 minutes. Concomitantly, total cellular glutathione decreased by 40%, whereas total protein thiols changed minimally. Preincubation of the cells with each of the calcium blockers (5 and 20 microM) before free radical addition resulted in various degrees of significant protection against cell death, and losses of glutathione correlated significantly (r = 0.89, p less than 0.001). The order of efficacy was nicardipine greater than nifedipine greater than verapamil greater than ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spin trapping evidence for myeloperoxidase-dependent hydroxyl radical formation by human neutrophils and monocytes. AU - Ramos, C. L.. AU - Pou, S.. AU - Britigan, B. E.. AU - Cohen, M. S.. AU - Rosen, G. M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Using the electron spin resonance/spin trapping system, 4-pyridyl 1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN)/ethanol, hydroxyl radical was detected as the α-hydroxyethyl spin trapped adduct of 4-POBN, 4-POBN-CH(CH3)OH, from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated human neutrophils and monocytes without the addition of supplemental iron. 4-POBN-CH(CH3)OH was stable in the presence of a neutrophil-derived superoxide flux. Hydroxyl radical formation was inhibited by treatment with superoxide dismutase, catalase, and azide. Treatment with a series of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylation of 2′-deoxyguanosine by a free radical mechanism. AU - Crean, Conor. AU - Geacintov, Nicholas. AU - Shafirovich, Vladimir. PY - 2009/9/24. Y1 - 2009/9/24. N2 - The mechanistic aspects of the methylation of guanine in DNA initiated by methyl radicals that are derived from the metabolic oxidation of some chemical carcinogens remain poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the kinetics and the formation of methylated guanine products by two methods: (i) the combination of •CH3 radicals and guanine neutral radicals, G(-H)•, and (ii) the direct addition of •CH3 radicals to guanine bases. The simultaneous generation of •CH3 and dG(-H)• radicals was triggered by the competitive oneelectron oxidation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) by photochemically ...
The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids on free radical injury and free radical scavenging in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) so that complications of kidney failure, especially cardiovascular disease, may be avoided or delayed. Children with CKD on dialysis and post-renal transplantation are at an extremely high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that children with CKD who have higher dietary intake of antioxidants and omega-3 FAs, would have lower free radical injury, as measured by 8-Isoprostanes (8-ISOP) and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and higher free radical scavenging, as measured by ABTS (2,2-Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) compared to children with CKD with lower intakes of these nutrients. Pre-dialysis was ...
Generally, free radicals react with other molecules, damaging them. However some processes such as the killing of bacteria by neutrophil granulocytes is beneficial. The most important oxygen-based free radicals are superoxide and the hydroxyl radical, produced from the reduction of molecular oxygen. These free radicals are extremely reactive and are often associated with cell damage, mutations, and even malignancies. Symptoms of aging such as atherosclerosis is thought to be due to oxidation by free radicals. The free radical theory of aging postulates that free radical damage is the primary mechanism of aging. Free radicals are also associated with liver damage due to alcohol and the development of ...
Generally, free radicals react with other molecules, damaging them. However some processes such as the killing of bacteria by neutrophil granulocytes is beneficial. The most important oxygen-based free radicals are superoxide and the hydroxyl radical, produced from the reduction of molecular oxygen. These free radicals are extremely reactive and are often associated with cell damage, mutations, and even malignancies. Symptoms of aging such as atherosclerosis is thought to be due to oxidation by free radicals. The free radical theory of aging postulates that free radical damage is the primary mechanism of aging. Free radicals are also associated with liver damage due to alcohol and the development of ...
Crk Hind, D Bihari, JF Griffin, YE Latchman, J Brostoff, TL Dormandy, J Tinker; Circulating Levels of Leucocyte Elastase and Free Radical Activity in the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Preliminary Study. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1987; 72 (s16): 83P-84P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs072083Pb. Download citation file:. ...
hapter 11 Free Radical Reactions A free radical is a species containing one or more unpaired electrons Free radicals are electron-deficient species, but they are usually uncharged, so their chemistry is
There is now rather convincing evidence that oxygen free radicals are involved in some aspects of aging, arthritis, and tumor initiation and promotion. Oxygen free radicals may also be involved in tissue damage occurring in ischemia, ionizing irradiation, ozone damage, high-pressure oxygen therapy, and processes involved in leukocyte phagocytosis as well as in the toxic action of several drugs. It is important to examine oxygen free radical reactions with DNA as primary mediating aspects of the action of these species. One product formed by hydroxyl free radical addition to DNA, (8-OHdG), can be very sensitively quantitated using LCED methodology. The presence of this modified nucleoside within DNA may have important biological consequences. This chapter is concerned with aspects of LCED methodology as a technique to quantitate the 8-OHdG ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of cardiac vagal afferents in ischemia and reperfusion. T2 - Prostaglandins versus oxygen-derived free radicals. AU - Ustinova, Elena E.. AU - Schultz, Harold D.. PY - 1994/5. Y1 - 1994/5. N2 - Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion can evoke excitation of cardiac vagal nerve endings and activation of a cardiogenic depressor reflex (Bezold- Jarisch effect). We postulate that oxygen-derived free radicals, which are known to be produced during prolonged ischemia and reperfusion, contribute to this afferent excitation. We recorded activity from 47 chemosensitive vagal afferent fibers in 31 rats; the endings of these fibers were located in the left ventricle. Chemosensitive endings were identified with topical applications of capsaicin (10 μg) to the surface of the heart. Reactivity of the endings to oxygen-derived free radicals was assessed by topical application of H2O2 (3 to 9 μmol). ...
Striking differences in the prevalence of coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) exist between different coal mine regions. The major factors responsible for the observed regional differences in CWP have not yet been identified. In the present study, chemical reactivity of the carbon-centered free radicals in coals and lung tissues, as well as ferrous iron in the coals, were studied by ESR techniques.
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A numerical model has been developed to estimate the role of hydroxyl radicals in the competition of organic compounds during electrolysis using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. It is well established that hydroxyl radicals are generated during water discharge. These radicals are free at the surface and act locally, their sphere of activity was estimated by the model to be 20 nm maximum from the anode. The implementation of the model taking account the presence of one and then two organic compounds in the solution can be used to predict the variation of the concentration of each organic with time during the electrolysis and their space profile in the electrochemical reactor too without using adjustable parameters. The role of hydroxyl radicals was highlighted in the ...
Pyrite-induced hydroxyl radical formation and its effect on nucleic acids. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In the hydrothermal crystallization of zeolites from basic media, hydroxide ions (OH-) catalyze the depolymerization of the aluminosilicate gel by breaking the Si,Al-O-Si,Al bonds and catalyze the polymerization of the aluminosilicate anions around the hydrated cation species by remaking the Si,Al-O-Si,Al bonds. We report that hydroxyl free radicals (•OH) are involved in the zeolite crystallization under hydrothermal conditions. The crystallization processes of zeolites-such as Na-A, Na-X, NaZ-21, and silicalite-1-can be accelerated with hydroxyl free radicals generated by ultraviolet irradiation or Fentons reagent. ...
The homogeneous decomposition of hydrogen peroxide has been used as a source of hydroxyl radicals. In part I values were reported for the relative rates of reaction of hydroxyl radicals with methane, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. In this paper these values are confirmed for different experimental conditions and more consideration is given to details of subsequent reactions. The reaction of methyl radicals with oxygen has previously been shown to occur by a third order reaction both at 200 °C (Hoare & Walsh 1957) and at room temperature (Christie 1958). Present results show that the reaction is second order at 525 °C as suggested by Barnard & Honeyman (1964). In the absence of added oxygen, methyl radicals combine to give ethane which in turn reacts with ...
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N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) may be implicated in human colon carcinogenesis, but the toxicological mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Because it was previously demonstrated that nitrosamines and nitrosamides, representing two classes of NOC, induce distinct gene expression effects in colon cells that are particularly related to oxidative stress, we hypothesized that different radical mechanisms are involved. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we investigated the radical-generating properties of genotoxic NOC concentrations in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Cells were exposed to nitrosamides (N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea) or nitrosamines (N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, and N-nitrosopyrrolidine). Nitrosamines caused formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and carbon-centered radicals, which was further ...
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This is probably due the carbonate radical production from hydroxyl radical and bicarbonate with a second order. rate constant of 8.5 × 106 M−1 s− 1 [22] and posterior probe oxidation by both carbonate and hydroxyl radical, as they are not specific MK-2206 solubility dmso [50]. In the case of DHR, hydroxyl radicals are the most reactive but least efficient in generating fluorescent products, probably because of lower selectivity of attack than carbonate radical [50]. In the case of NADH oxidation, the observed higher oxidation when bicarbonate is present probably reside in the fact that hydroxyl radical can either add or oxidize targets, whereas carbonate ...
1EMI: The location of protein S8 and surrounding elements of 16S rRNA in the 70S ribosome from combined use of directed hydroxyl radical probing and X-ray crystallography.
ALS is characterized by oxidative damage in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid, which is exerted by pro-oxidative activity of iron. Such activity of iron can be drastically increased in the presence of inappropriate iron ligands that catalyze redox cycling of iron, thereby promoting hydroxyl radical generation. The aim of our study was to determine the relative level of inappropriate iron ligands in the cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients. To determine the levels of inappropriate iron ligands and redox activity of iron in cerebrospinal fluid (10 samples from ALS patients and 10 controls), we applied electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We have shown that cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients comprises twofold increased level of inappropriate iron ligands, proportionally increasing iron redox activity and hydroxyl radical production compared to controls. In conclusion, ...
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is added in sunscreens due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. However, upon irradiation of UV light, reactive oxygen species particularly hydroxyl radical which can damage human skin will be generated. In this study, lignin/TiO2 composites were employed to quench the hydroxyl radicals generated by the TiO2. The lignin was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) via kraft and soda pulping processes. The kraft lignin composite was labelled as KL/TiO2 whereas the soda lignin composite was labelled as SL/TiO2. The lignins and the composites were characterized by FTIR, UV spectroscopy, 13C NMR, SEM, EDX, and XRD. The relative hydroxyl radical production of composites and TiO2 were compared through photo-oxidation of coumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin as a test medium. ...
Most pollutants in the Earths atmosphere are removed by oxidation with highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Field measurements have revealed much higher concentrations of hydroxyl radicals than expected in regions with high loads of the biogenic volatile organic compound isoprene1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8. Different isoprene degradation mechanisms have been proposed to explain the high levels of hydroxyl radicals observed5, 9, 10, 11. Whether one or more of these mechanisms actually operates in the natural environment, and the potential impact on climate and air quality, has remained uncertain12, 13, 14. Here, we present a complete set of measurements of hydroxyl and peroxy radicals collected during isoprene-oxidation experiments ...
1, 10 copper phenanthroline assay is a frequently used assay to examine the pro-oxidative activity of extracts against DNA [26]. On addition of reagents and subsequent incubation, a complex called bis (1, 10 - phenanthroline copper) is formed which links to DNA and breaks down its strand; hydroxyl radical generation is primarily implicated in DNA damage [39]. However, if the cuprous ions are bound, DNA degradation does not occur. When reducing agent ascorbic acid (which is a proven pro-oxidant at higher concentration [40]) is added to the complex, Cu(II) in the complex gets converted to Cu(I) and hence, there is additional production of hydroxyl radicals that breaks down DNA into TBARS (Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance). Hence, the level of TBARS formed in different extracts/fractions can indirectly reveal the quantity of hydroxyl ...
Chemical and enzymatic probing methods are powerful techniques for examining details of sequence-dependent structure in DNA and RNA. Reagents that cleave nucleic acid molecules in a structure-specific, but relatively sequence-non-specific manner, such as hydroxyl radical or DNase I, have been used widely to probe helical geometry in nucleic acid structures, nucleic acid-drug complexes, and in nucleoprotein assemblies. Application of cleavage-based techniques to structures present in superhelical DNA has been hindered by the fact that the cleavage pattern attributable to supercoiling-dependent structures is heavily mixed with non-specific cleavage signals that are inevitable products of multiple cleavage events. We present a rigorous mathematical procedure for extracting the cleavage pattern specific to supercoiled DNA and use this method to investigate the hydroxyl radical ...
Rate constants for the gas‐phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals and chlorine atoms with aliphatic alcohols and ethers have been determined at 298 ± 2 K and at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere. The OH radical rate data were obtained using both the absolute technique of pulse radiolysis combined with kinetic UV spectroscopy and a conventional photolytic relative rate method. The Cl atom rate constants were measured using only the relative rate method. Values of the rate constants in units of 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 are: (Formula Presented.) The above relative rate constants are based on the values of 퓀(OH + c‐C6H12) = 7.49 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 and 퓀(Cl + c‐C6H12) = 311 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. Attempts to corre late the trends in the rate constant data in terms of the bond dissociation energies and inductive effects are discussed. ...
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can produce hydroxyl radicals (OHo) that damage DNA. Oxidative damage affects the function or reproduction of cells leading to diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Living organisms have developed defense mechanisms such as antioxidants that can prevent or repair oxidation. Peroxiredoxins (prx), ubiquitous proteins that are found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, can act as antioxidants reducing H2O2 to H2O. In eukaryotic cells, prx are also regulators of H2O2-mediating signaling. In the presence of high levels of H2O2, peroxiredoxin becomes overoxidized, forming sulfinic acid. The overoxidized prx can no longer reduce H2O2 to H2O, allowing H2O2 to participate in signaling. The formation of sulfinic acid was believed to be irreversible; however, recent studies have shown that a yeast protein called sulfiredoxin (srx) can reduce the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition of sugar derivatives with unmasked hydroxyl group(s). AU - Shing, Tony Kung Ming. AU - Wong, Wai F.. AU - Cheng, Hau M.. AU - Kwok, Wun S.. AU - So, King H.. PY - 2007/3/1. Y1 - 2007/3/1. N2 - (Chemical Equation Presented) Intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition (INOC) of sugar derivatives with one to four free hydroxyl group(s) is reported. The INOC reaction, using chloramine-T, in the presence of silica gel, to generate nitrile oxides from oximes, proceeded smoothly to afford five- or six-membered carbocycles in good to excellent yields. This new methodology alleviates protection/deprotection steps and makes the synthetic route shorter and more efficient.. AB - (Chemical Equation Presented) Intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition (INOC) of sugar derivatives with one to four free hydroxyl group(s) is reported. The INOC ...
Two lines of evidence connect metals to Alzheimer s disease. First, metals promote the aggregation of Aß peptide in vitro (Atwood et al., 1998), probably via metal-catalyzed oxidation of the Aß peptide (Dyrks et al., 1992), and second, metals such as copper and iron are accumulated in plaques (Lovell et al., 1998). Interestingly, Aß peptide in a soluble state generates hydrogen peroxide with concomitant TBARS signals, probably by the generation of hydroxyl radical formation (Huang et al., 1999) via Fenton-like or Haber-Weiss reactions (Haber and Weiss, 1934; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1990). The mechanisms involved in the Aß-mediated neurotoxicity are unknown, although the fibril state of Aß is apparently necessary for the toxicity observed in neuronal cultures (Iversen et al., 1995; Bonnefont et al., 1998; Muñoz and Inestrosa, 1999; Calderón et al., 1999). We hypothetized that the interaction of amyloid fibrils and metals with oxidative ...
In chemistry, photocatalysis is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. In catalysed photolysis, light is absorbed by an adsorbed substrate. In photogenerated catalysis, the photocatalytic activity (PCA) depends on the ability of the catalyst to create electron-hole pairs, which generate free radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radicals: •OH) able to undergo secondary reactions. Its practical application was made possible by the discovery of water electrolysis by means of titanium dioxide. In homogeneous photocatalysis, the reactants and the photocatalysts exist in the same phase. The most commonly used homogeneous photocatalysts include ozone and photo-Fenton systems (Fe+ and Fe+/H2O2). The reactive species is the •OH which is used for different purposes. The mechanism of hydroxyl radical production by ozone can follow two ...
CaoWei; ChenWeiJun; SuoZhiRong; YaoYaPing, 2008: Protective effects of ethanolic extracts of buckwheat groats on DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals
TY - JOUR. T1 - ESTIMATES OF ATMOSPHERIC HYDROXYL RADICAL CONCENTRATIONS FROM THE OBSERVED DECAY OF MANY REACTIVE HYDROCARBONS IN WELL-DEFINED URBAN PLUMES. AU - BLAKE, N J AU - PENKETT, S A AU - CLEMITSHAW, K C AU - ANWYL, P AU - LIGHTMAN, P AU - MARSH, A R W AU - BUTCHER, G PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. M3 - Article. VL - 98. SP - 2851. EP - 2864. JO - Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. JF - Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. SN - 2169-897X. IS - D2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe of Mu transposase-induced bending of DNA. T2 - Overcoming limitations of hydroxyl-radical footprinting. AU - Ding, Zhi Ming. AU - Harshey, Rasika M.. AU - Hurley, Laurence. PY - 1993/9/11. Y1 - 1993/9/11. N2 - Phage Mu transposase (A-protein) is primarily responsible for transposition of the Mu genome. The protein binds to six att sites, three at each end of Mu DNA. At most att sites interaction of a protein monomer with DNA is seen to occur over three minor and two consecutive major grooves and to result in bending up to about 90°. To probe the directionality and locus of these A-protein-induced bends, we have used the antitumor antibiotic (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe. As a consequence of binding within the minor groove, (+)-CC-1065 is able to alkylate N3 of adenine in a sequence selective manner. This selectivity is partially determined by conformational flexibility of the DNA ...
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Water scarcity and water pollution is a worldwide problem and has driven research into eco-friendly and low-energy cost efficient remediation. The reuse of wastewater for non-potable purpose after proper treatment is the only sustainable solution to the problem. Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) based on the in-situ generation of hydroxyl radicals have been intensively investigated for this purpose as a treatment step to achieve wastewater reuse. The main degradation mechanism of AOPs is based on the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with dissolved organic matter. However, hydroxyl radicals follow unselective multi-step pathways, limiting their efficiency in complex environmental matrices. To overcome such limitations, AOP treatment, based on generation of sulfate radicals, has ...
Biotin protein ligase of is the 35. or that the presence of the reaction intermediate impedes access of subtilisin to the cleavage site. The disordered loop containing residues 115C123 lies close to the biotin binding site, and residues 115C118 become ordered in the crystal structure when biotinyl-lysine occupies the active site. Because of the similarity to nucleotide-binding sequences in protein buy 118876-58-7 kinases, the sequence 115GRGRRG120 within this loop had been thought to function in ATP binding (Buoncristiani et al. 1986; Wilson et al. 1992). However, a recent mutational analysis shows that this sequence has a role in biotin binding (Kwon and Beckett 2000). No function has been identified previously for the C-terminal domain comprising residues 274C321, which shows structural similarity to the Src homology 3 domains (Noble et al. 1993). However, recent evidence of safety by biotinyl-5-AMP buy 118876-58-7 against hydroxyl radical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydroxyl radical-suppressing mechanism and efficiency of melanin-mimetic nanoparticles. AU - Hayashi, Koichiro. AU - Tokuda, Atsuto. AU - Sakamoto, Wataru. PY - 2018/8/7. Y1 - 2018/8/7. N2 - Harnessing melanins to scavenge free radicals in vivo may yield treatment methods for inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanism underlying melanin-mediated suppression of free radicals, which is yet unclear, is warranted. Herein, we chemically synthesized melanin-mimetic nanoparticles (MeNPs) and investigated the mechanism underlying their use. MeNPs efficiently suppressed hydroxyl radicals by converting some MeNP hydroxyl groups to ketone groups. Furthermore, they suppressed hydroxyl ...
Mentors: Anderson, Hilt. Iron oxide nanoparticles have the ability to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within cells through catalyzing the Haber-Weiss reaction (Fenton chemistry) which produces the hydroxyl radical. Cancer cells are more susceptible to oxidative insults compared to normal cells due to fast cell proliferation and metabolism so additional ROS stress induced by exogenous agents can overwhelm the relatively low antioxidant capacity and disrupt the redox homeostasis inside cancer cells leading to selective tumor cell toxicity. Iron oxide nanoparticles have been previously studied due to their multitude of biological applications, inherent biocompatibility, magnetic properties, and lack of protein adsorption after proper coating. Therefore, iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran will be used to improve the efficacy of radiation by enhancing the intracellular ROS production.. Due to the half-life of the ...
Atrazine is widely used as a selective triazine herbicide for controlling a wide varieties of broad-leaf and grassy weeds [1]. Atrazine herbicide is moderately present in the aquatic environment and has a low rate of biodegradability. Despite the atrazines low water solubility, there is much concern about the contamination of water resources with the highly toxic herbicides [2, 3]. Many studies reported that atrazines half-life in the aqueous phase and groundwater resources ranges from 41 to 237 days and 15 months to 20 years, respectively [4].. The maximum contaminant level for atrazine in drinking water established by the USEPA and WHO is 3.0 and 2.0 \( \mu \)gL−1, respectively [5]. Long-term effects of atrazine include probable human carcinogen, endocrine-disrupter, alteration in vitamins function, hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity [6].. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) [7] and photocatalytic oxidation process are efficient methods relying on hydroxyl ...
Hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation by neutrophils in vitro requires exogenous iron. Two recent studies [Britigan, Rosen, Thompson, Chai & Cohen (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 17026-17032; Winterbourn (1987) J. Clin. Invest. 78, 545-550] both reported that neutrophil degranulation could potentially inhibit the formation of .OH, but differed in their conclusions as to the responsible factor, myeloperoxidase (MPO) or lactoferrin (LF). By using a previously developed spin-trapping system which allows specific on-line detection of superoxide anion (O2-) and .OH production, the impact of MPO and LF release on neutrophil .OH production was compared. When iron-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-supplemented neutrophils were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, .OH formation occurred, but terminated prematurely in spite of continued O2- generation. Inhibition of MPO by azide increased the magnitude, but not the ...
Isoheptane has the potential to volatilize to air, based on a relatively high vapor pressure, where it is subject to atmospheric oxidation. In air, octane can react with photosensitized oxygen in the form of hydroxyl radicals (OH-). Estimation with the APOWIN model (HSPA Consortium 2009) resulted in a test substance half-life, as mediated by hydroxyl radical (OH-) attack is calculated as1.56 days based on a 12-hour day (the 12-hour day half-life value normalizes degradation to a standard day light period during which hydroxyl radicals needed for degradation are generated). The half-life was calculated based on an OH- reaction rate constant of 6.8630 E-12 cm3/molecule-sec and an OH- concentration of 1.5E6 OH/cm3. Isoheptane as well as other constituent chemicals of the C7-C9 aliphatic ...
PARP is activated in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells through the breaking of single-strand DNA by free radicals such as hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite. This activity is attenuated by a pharmacological inhibitor, 3-AB.23 24 25 Free radicals are also produced during SAH and are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm.26 The auto-oxidation of oxyhemoglobin within a subarachnoid clot to methemoglobin releases free radicals, such as the superoxide anion18 or hydroxyl radical, via the Haber-Weiss27 and Fenton28 reactions. The generation of these free radicals causes lipid peroxidation and damages vessel walls, especially endothelial cells, thereby leading to vasospasm.29 30 In our study we identified the ...
In this work, the near-neutral photo-Fenton process, as a means of wastewater disinfection, was enhanced by the addition of Organic Acids (OAs), namely citric, ascorbic, tartaric and caffeic acid. The addition of OAs exhibited significant bacterial inactivation enhancement, compared to the classic photo-Fenton systems (Fe2+/H2O2/solar and Fe3+/H2O2/solar). The improved disinfection performance was not attributed to pH variations by the addition of OAs, but to the increase of the initial dissolved iron in the system, facilitating the Fe3+/Fe2+ turnover in the catalytic photo-Fenton reaction and consequently, the hydroxyl radicals production. For citric and tartaric acid, increased photo-activity of the complexes was associated with their high capability to complex Fe3+ and to promote ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT), which is of key importance to feed Fe2+ to the Fenton process. On the other hand, for ascorbic and caffeic acid, the ...
1. The effects of free radicals on the capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a substrate for the enzyme transglutaminase were investigated. 2. beta L-Crystallin was exposed to defined radical species that were generated radiolytically, and transglutaminase activity, using the modified protein as substrate, was subsequently measured by monitoring the incorporation of [14C]putrescine. 3. Exposure of beta L-crystallin to hydroxyl radicals, thymine peroxyl radicals and acetone peroxyl radicals at concentrations of up to 135 microM increased the capacity of the protein to incorporate putrescine. With higher concentrations of these radicals this capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a transglutaminase substrate declined to control levels or lower. 4. Superoxide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetic and stoichiometric assessment of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. AU - McPhail, D B AU - Hartley, R C AU - Gardner, P T AU - Duthie, G G. PY - 2003/3/12. Y1 - 2003/3/12. N2 - dThere is current interest in the use of naturally occurring flavonoids as antioxidants for the preservation of foods and the prevention of diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancers. To establish the molecular characteristics required for maximum antioxidant activity, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been used to determine the stoichiometry and kinetics of the hydrogen-donating ability of 15 flavonoids and D-alpha-tocopherol to galvinoxyl, a resonance-stabilized, sterically protected aryloxyl radical. The second-order reaction rates, which will be governed by O-H bond dissociation energies, were myricetin , morin , quercetin , fisetin similar to catechin , kaempferol similar to luteolin , rutin , D-alpha-tocopherol , ...
Beside with protective effect against development of certain diseases, allicin found in garlic and onion may also be an antioxidant scarvenger of oxygen free radicals (OFRs). Study of hydroxyl radicals (.OH), indicated the prevention of allicin effect in lipid peroxidation of malondialdehyde in liver homogenate in a concentration-dependent manner. Other in the study of the hydroxyl scavengers of allyl cysteine, alliin, allicin, and allyl disulfide, showed allicin did not exhibit hydroxyl radical scavenging but antioxidant activities as protective compounds against free radical damage ...
Calcium- and potassium-permeable plasma membrane transporters are activated by copper in |i|Arabidopsis|/i| root tips: linking copper transport with cytosolic hydroxyl radical production
Iron is an essential element that has a number of fundamental roles in cellular biochemistry and metabolism. These include oxygen binding to heme proteins and the formation of active centres in enzymes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (De Silva et al., 1996; Aisen et al., 2001). Iron can also vary its redox state and can be rapidly oxidised from Fe2+ to Fe3+ (ferrous to ferric iron) in the presence of oxygen. This reaction generates the superoxide anion, which through a series of redox reactions leads to the generation of toxic hydroxyl radicals (the Haber-Weiss reactions; De Silva et al., 1996; Aisen et al., 2001). Thus iron can be both toxic and beneficial to organisms, and iron status in the body must be carefully regulated to provide sufficient iron for biological functions, whilst avoiding excess Fe2+ which can lead to oxidative stress.. Fish acquire iron predominantly from the diet, and with negligible iron uptake ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Superoxide anion radicals activate hepatic stellate cells after entry through chloride channels. T2 - A new target in liver fibrosis. AU - den Hartog, G.J.. AU - Qi, S.. AU - van Tilburg, J.H.. AU - Koek, G.H.. AU - Bast, A.. PY - 2014/2/5. Y1 - 2014/2/5. N2 - It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. ROS, however, constitute a group of species with varying properties making it likely that their contribution to the pathological mechanism varies. LX-2 hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were exposed to superoxide anion radicals (O2−) generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. To rule out that the activation of HSCs is due to hydrogen peroxide derived from O2−, control incubations with copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase and tempol were studied as well. Influx of O2− activated HSCs, evidenced by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and the secretion of ...
Hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite induce relaxations via ATP-sensitive K+ channels, indicating that oxygen-derived free radicals may activate these channels. Levels of free radicals are increased throughout the arterial wall in animal models of atherosclerosis, and therefore, vasorelaxation via ATP-sensitive K+ channels may be augmented in chronic hypertension. The present study was designed to determine whether relaxations to an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, levcromakalim, are increased in the aorta from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and whether free radical scavengers reduce these relaxations. Rings of aortas without endothelium taken from age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR were suspended for isometric force recording. Relaxations to levcromakalim (10(-8) to 10(-5) M), which are abolished by glibenclamide (10(-5) M), were augmented in the aorta from SHR, compared to those in the aorta ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular structure and electronic state of the dibenzo[a,e]pentalene anion radical. AU - Saito, Masaichi. AU - Hashimoto, Yoko. AU - Tajima, Tomoyuki. AU - Ishimura, Kazuya. AU - Nagase, Shigeru. AU - Minoura, Mao. PY - 2012/3/5. Y1 - 2012/3/5. N2 - Undergoing a radical change! The reduction of dibenzo[a,e]pentalene by KC 8 afforded the corresponding anion radical, the structure of which was characterized for the first time by X-ray diffraction analysis. The electronic state of the anion radical is discussed with the aid of theoretical calculations.. AB - Undergoing a radical change! The reduction of dibenzo[a,e]pentalene by KC 8 afforded the corresponding anion radical, the structure of which was characterized for the first time by X-ray diffraction analysis. The electronic state of the ...
Article A novel and quick method to avoid H|sub|2|/sub|O|sub|2|/sub| interference on COD measurement in Fenton system by Na|sub|2|/sub|SO|sub|3|/sub| reduction and O|sub|2|/sub| oxidation. Hydrogen peroxide interference on chemical oxygen demand (COD...
This study aims to investigate the effects of selected organic substances on the degradation of hydrogen peroxide during the Fenton reaction. Since the presence of organic substances can strongly affect the mechanism of the Fenton reaction, the information on effects of organic substances on the reaction would be a vital guide to the success of its application to the destruction of organics in wastewater. Several organic compounds having different structures were selected as model pollutants: 4-chlorophenol, 1,4-dioxane, chloroform, a dye (reactive black-5), and EDTA. Oxidation of 4-chlorophenol and reactive black-5 resulted in enormously fast degradation of hydrogen peroxide, while others such as 1,4-dioxane and chloroform showed much slower degradation. These experimental data were compared to simulation results from a computational model based on a simple áOH-driven oxidation model. Modelling results for chloroform and 1,4-dioxane were in relatively good agreement with the experimental data, ...
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Sodium formate and formic acid industries in China were under structural reform since 2015 when the Chinese government has issued the new Environmenta
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long fiber onto the remote detector. Single-laser-shot planar LIF (PLIF) imaging of OH in flames is also demonstrated using fiber-based excitation. The effects of delivering intense UV beams through long optical fibers are investigated, and the system improvements for an all-fiber-coupled OH-PLIF imaging system are discussed. Development of such fiber-based diagnostics and imaging systems constitutes a major step in transitioning laser diagnostic tools from research laboratories to reacting flow facilities of practical interest.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Flavonoids recently attracted much attention due to their antioxidant and antiradical activity. Because they are interesting in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The task of this paper is to describe and explain polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in the juices. Effectiveness of polyphenolic compounds, free radical scavengers, is determined by the schedule of free hydroxyl groups on flavonoids core. The contents of polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity in fruits, their jams and fresh fruit juices and stored. Its proved a synergistic action of vitamin C and polyphenolic compound ...
METHODS AND RESULTS Injury was induced by inflation of a balloon catheter 50 +/- 6% above baseline arterial diameter; dogs were followed for 2 hours before death. Epicardial coronary diameters at arteriography and extent of thrombus deposition at serial histological sections were analyzed in controls (n = 20) and in dogs pretreated with superoxide dismutase (SOD, a superoxide radical scavenger, n = 10); other dogs were pretreated with the hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase (n = 8), the iron chelator deferoxamine (n = 6), or the hydroxyl radical scavenger 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (n = 9). Angioplasty-induced injury was similar among groups. After angioplasty, control dogs exhibited localized and persistent vessel constriction, which was maximal at the initial 5 minutes (28.9 +/- 6.3% diameter decrease versus baseline). Corresponding arterial diameters of SOD-treated dogs were 24-69% larger (95% confidence ...
Oh, poor nutmeg! It has been way under looked for its ability to scavenge free radicals which are associated with cellular damage.. In a menthol extract, nutmeg had a lot of antioxidant power. Nutmeg demonstrated activity as a free radical scavenger, an antioxidant capacity for peroxyl and hydroxyl radical, and some phenolic activity. (Phenols have immune modulating properties.) One drawback in this study was that the extraction method could have altered the active constituents activity.. Black peppercorn, nutmeg, rosehip, cinnamon and oregano leaf were extracted with 50% acetone and 80% methanol, and evaluated for their radical-scavenging activities against cation (ABTS+), DPPH, peroxyl (ORAC) and hydroxyl (HO) radicals. For each extract, total phenolic content (TPC) and ...
The study recreated the effects of cigarette smoke on cancerous cells of the mouth. Half the cells were exposed to cigarette smoke only, while the other half were exposed to a saliva and cigarette smoke mixture. The researchers then studied the cells to assess whether the saliva and smoke mixture would speed up the cancers development.. The longer the mouth cells were exposed to the contaminated saliva, the more they were damaged. The researchers also found that the cigarette smoke destroyed various salivary components, including protective ones such as peroxidase, the most important antioxidant contained in saliva. Antioxidants are molecules that help protect the body against cancer.. Nagler said the reaction between certain components of saliva and the low reactive free radicals contained in cigarette smoke results in the production of highly active hydroxyl free radicals. Free ...
Highly intensive sport performance is characterized by a number of events, which make increased free radical production and related cell damage most probable. Oxygen consumption for aerobic energy production increases about 20-fold and so does free radical production since both processes are quantitatively interrelated.. Additionally, free radicals may result from energy depletion in skeletal muscle during which ATP is broken down to ADP 2 AMP 2 hypoxanthine, which finally leads to the formation of xanthine and uric acid in red blood cells and endothelial cells, resulting in the liberation of free radicals. This is the xanthine oxidase (XO) pathway. Also the autooxidation of catecholamines as well as the production of nitric oxide, substances that are increased during exercise, lead to free radical production.. From animal experiments as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Reorganization of Proteins Revealed by Radiolysis and Mass Spectrometry. T2 - G-Actin Solution Structure is Divalent Cation Dependent. AU - Guan, Jing Qu. AU - Almo, Steven C.. AU - Reisler, Emil. AU - Chance, Mark R.. PY - 2003/10/21. Y1 - 2003/10/21. N2 - The solution structures of isolated monomeric actins in their Mg 2+-ATP and Ca2+-ATP bound forms and in complexes with gelsolin segment-1 have been probed using hydroxyl radicals (·OH) generated by synchrotron X-ray radiolysis. Proteolysis and mass spectrometry analysis of 28 peptides containing 58 distinct reactive probe sites within actin were used to monitor conformational variations linked to divalent cation and gelsolin segment-1 binding. The solvent accessibilities of the probe sites, as measured by footprinting in solution for the Ca2+-G-actin and Mg2+-G-actin complexes with gelsolin segment-1, were consistent with available crystallographic data. This ...
In the presence of ferrous ions (Fe2+), the anti-tumour agent bleomycin will induce DNA degradation. Degradation of DNA into substances detectable by the thiobarbituric acid test has been used previously for the detection of iron in a form that is capable of catalysing the formation of the potentially harmful hydroxyl free radical. In the present paper, we describe the application of the ethidium-binding assay of DNA damage to the measurement of bleomycin-detectable iron, comparing its performance with the conventional method in the assessment of iron standard solutions and plasma samples from haemochromatosis patients. The ethidium-binding assay proved to be more responsive than the thiobarbituric acid test in the detection of DNA damage induced by very low concentrations of iron, but became saturated at higher iron concentrations. Agreement between the two versions of the assay in the identification of plasma samples ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional studies of frataxin. AU - Isaya, G.. AU - O'Neill, H. A.. AU - Gakh, O.. AU - Park, S.. AU - Mantcheva, R.. AU - Mooney, S. M.. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Mitochondria generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but also dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). One-electron reduction of dioxygen in the early stages of the electron transport chain yields a superoxide radical that is detoxified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase to give hydrogen peroxide. The hydroxyl radical is derived from decomposition of hydrogen peroxide via the Fenton reaction, catalyzed by Fe 2+ ions. Mitochondria require a constant supply of Fe 2+ for heme and iron-sulfur cluster biosyntheses and therefore are particularly susceptible to ROS attack. Two main antioxidant defenses are known in mitochondria: enzymes that catalytically remove ROS, e.g. superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and ...
1. A pyrrolyltriazine derivative of general formula (I):whereinn=1;R1 represents an atom of hydrogen; a linear or branched alkyl radical having from 1 to 3 atoms, optionally substituted; or a substituted R2, R3 phenyl radical;R2, R2, R3 and R3 are the same as or different from each other and represent an atom of hydrogen; an optionally substituted linear or branched alkyl radical having from 1 to 3 carbon atoms; an alkoxy radical having from 1 to 3 carbon atoms; an aryl radical; halogen or hydroxyl radical; or elseR2 and R3 are condensates that form with the phenyl a naphthalene ring, optionally substituted;R4 and R5 are the same as or different from each other and represent an atom of hydrogen; an optionally substituted linear or branched alkyl ...
Tilapia frame protein was hydrolyzed by different proteases, including properase E, pepsin, trypsin, flavourzyme, neutrase, gc106 and papain, to obtain antioxidant peptides. The tilapia frame protein hydrolysate (TFPH) obtained by trypsin exhibited the highest degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. Three series of peptides (TFPH1, TFPH 2 and TFPH 3) were obtained by ultrafiltration of TFPH through molecular weight cut-off membranes of 5, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively, and their IC50 values on scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical (•O2), hydrogen peroxides (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (•OH) activities were determined and compared with glutathione (GSH). The results showed that TFPH1 had the highest antioxidant activity. TFPH1 was further purified using ion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and reversed phase ...
Dephosphorylates several organic phosphate monoesters including 3- and 5-nucleotides, 2-deoxy-5-nucleotides, pNPP, phenyl phosphate, glycerol 2-phosphate, ribose 5-phosphate, O-phospho-L-amino acids and phytic acid, showing the highest activity with aryl phosphoesters (pNPP, phenyl phosphate and O-phospho-L-tyrosine), and to a lesser extent with 3- and 5-nucleotides. No activity toward ATP, phosphodiesters, glycerol-1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, NADP, GTP or 3,5-cAMP, ADP or ATP. Also has a phosphotransferase activity catalyzing the transfer of low-energy phosphate groups from organic phosphate monoesters to free hydroxyl groups of various organic compounds. Capable of transferring phosphate from either pNPP or UMP to adenosine or uridine. Does not exhibit nucleotide phosphomutase activity.
0047] Adherent, dense-coverage, phosphate coatings bound to the native oxide surface of a titanium material (hereinafter, "a coating of Ti-phosphate") may be prepared by treatment of the surface under mild conditions with phosphoric acid according to the general procedure described above. For purposes of the present invention, "phosphoric acid" is defined according to its well-understood meaning, H3PO4. In the process of the present invention, treatment of a native oxide surface with phosphoric acid forms an inorganic phosphate coating that is rich in free hydroxyl groups. When the native oxide surface of a titanium material is coated with a phosphate coating of the present development and analyzed by XRD, two different titanium phosphate species were identified on its surface. One component, Ti4H11(PO4)9H2O, could be easily removed by rinsing with water, but the other, Ti-phosphate, remained on the surface. Indeed, XRD analysis of the rinsed foil, which had a dull purplish ...
BioAssay record AID 768961 submitted by ChEMBL: Antioxidant activity assessed as superoxide anion radical scavenging activity at 2 mg/ml.
A method is provided for converting therapeutic glycosidase inhibitors to novel prodrugs by phosphorylation of a free hydroxyl group on the molecule to substantially reduce the glycosidase inhibitory activity without thereby substantially reducing the therapeutic activity.
The antiradical activity was expressed as an inhibition of deoxyribose degradation. Contributing factors include high prevalence of diabetes, and possibly insulin resistance. The experiments described here were viagra pills designed to investigate this possibility further. Cells with immunoreactivity for both glial-specific proteins are already present in sildenafil generic the 10th week of gestation. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. To increase awareness of the anatomical variation of the posterior lumbar tributaries of the left renal vein in retroperitoneoscopic left living donor nephrectomy.. The classification results show superior performance of the algorithm in comparison to other methods from literature. Characterisation of novel protein families secreted by muscle stage larvae viagra generic availability of Trichinella spiralis. Re: endovascular versus conventional open repair of acute abdominal aortic aneurysm: feasibility ...
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The hydroxyl free radical (OH) is the major oxidizing species in the lower atmosphere. Measuring the OH concentration is generally difficult and involves elaborate, expensive, custom-made experimental setups. Thus other more economical techniques, capable of determining OH concentrations at environmental chambers, would be valuable. This work is based on an indirect method of OH concentration measurement, by monitoring an appropriate OH tracer by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). 3-pentanol, 3-pentanone and pinonaldehyde (PA) were used as OH tracers in α-pinene (AP) secondary organic aerosol (SOA) aging studies. In addition we tested butanol-d9 as a potential "universal" OH tracer and determined its reaction rate constant with OH: k butanol-d9 = 3.4(±0.88) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. In order to make the chamber studies more comparable among each other as well as to atmospheric measurements we suggest ...
Tender Cocos nucifera L. (Palmacea) water (CW( variety Chandrasankara, was tested for its ability to scavenge free radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation and protect hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation. Fresh sample of CW scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH( 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and superoxide radicals but promoted the production of hydroxyl radicals and increased lipid peroxidation. The activity was most significant for fresh samples of CW and diminished significantly upon heat, acid or alkali treatment or dialysis. Maturity of coconut drastically decreased the scavenging ability of CW against DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radicals. CW protected hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation to methemoglobin when added before the autocatalytic stage of the oxidation. Acid, alkali or heat treated ...
The possibility that cerebral ischemia may initiate a series of pathological free radical reactions within the membrane components of the CNS was investigated in the cat. The normally occurring electron transport radicals require adequate molecular oxygen for orderly transport of electrons and protons. A decrease in tissue oxygen removes the controls over the electron transport radicals, and allows them to initiate pathologic radical reactions among cell membranes such as mitochondria. Pathologic radical reactions result in multiple products, each of which may be present in too small a concentration to permit their detection at early time periods. It is possible to follow the time course, however, by the decrease of a major antioxidant as it is consumed by the pathologic radical reactions. For this reason, ...
Chronic inflammation with oxidative stress emerged as an important pathogenic mechanism in sickle cell disease (SCD) [1-3]. SCD is primarily a disorder of RBCs, which are a significant source of free radicals in biological systems [4]. Oxidative stress may thus contribute to the abnormalities that underlie the clinical course of SCD [4]. Oxidative stress is one of the factors that modulate the phenotypic expression of SCD [5]. Oxygen has the ability to form highly reactive metabolites such as superoxide anion radical (O2 −2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical (•OH). These reduced metabolites of oxygen are referred to as "reactive oxygen species ROS" [6]. Oxidative stress can damage specific molecular targets (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates etc.), resulting in cell dysfunction and/or death. Oxidative stress level increases during vaso-occlusive crises and acute ...
I personally believe EMF exposure may be one of the most significant factors for the observed decrease in male sperm count, and the increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, autism and Alzheimers. It is also highly likely a contributing factor to cancer.. While not widely publicized, in May 2011, the cancer research arm of the World Health Organization, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, classified radiofrequency EMF - such as the radiation from cellphones - a class 2B carcinogen, meaning it is possibly carcinogenic to humans.12. Pall has made a significant contribution to public welfare with his discovery of how EMFs cause biological harm, and it would be wise to take notice. I personally believe he deserves a Nobel Prize for his contribution to the science.. Again, the damage is not done through heat or ionizing radiation; its done by activating your VGCCs, thereby triggering a chain-reaction that produces excessive amounts of ROS, peroxynitrites and ...
base - A compound that dissociates to produce hydroxyl (OH-) anions when dissolved in water (also called "caustic" or "alkali"). See also pH. Bases in water solutions show these popular Houses: they style bitter; flip litmus paper blue; and really feel slippery. Bases may be categorized as natural or inorganic. Some examples of organic bases are: pyridine and ethylamine. Some typical inorganic bases are: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, calcium hydroxide, and calcium carbonate. Brownian movement - Chaotic movement of moment particle suspended in a gas or liquid. Extra ... cathode - A adverse electrode . In electrophoresis cations are attracted to the cathode. cation - A positively billed ion, i.e. an ion that may be attracted to the cathode in electrophoresis . The title is derived from cathode ion. The charge benefits because there are far more protons than electrons while in the cation resulting from missing orbital electrons ...
A metal oxide high-k dielectric is deposited on a semiconductor wafer in a manner that reduces dangling bonds in the dielectric without significantly thickening interfacial oxide thickness. A metal oxide precursor and radical oxygen and/or radical nitrogen are co-flowed over the semiconductor wafer to form the high-k dielectric. The radicals bond to dangling bonds of the metal of the metal oxide during the deposition process that is performed at the regular deposition temperature of less than about 400 degrees Celsius. The radical oxygen and radical nitrogen do not require the higher temperatures generally required in an anneal in order to attach to the dangling bonds of the metal. Thus, a high temperature post deposition anneal, which tends to cause interfacial oxide growth, is not required. The dielectric is of higher quality than is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 12T061A and 12T061C, two new julichrome family compounds, as radical scavengers from Streptomyces sp. AU - Komoda, Toshikazu. AU - Saeki, Naoko. AU - Koseki, Yoshitaka. AU - Kiyota, Hiromasa. PY - 2016/2/29. Y1 - 2016/2/29. N2 - We identified two new radical scavengers, 12T061A (1, C19H20O7) and 12T061C (2, C20H22O7), from a culture of the Streptomyces sp. Spectroscopic analysis indicated that these compounds are new julichrome family compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 of 370 μM and 18 μM, respectively. Moreover, 1 showed tumor cell growth suppressive activity in HepG2 cells, (IC50: 3.6 μM); however, no suppressive activity was shown in 2 (IC50: , 100 μM).. AB - We identified two new radical scavengers, 12T061A (1, C19H20O7) and 12T061C (2, C20H22O7), from a culture of the Streptomyces sp. Spectroscopic analysis ...
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological systems ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals that damage all components of the cell, including proteins, lipids, and DNA. Oxidative stress from oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated, e.g. O2− (superoxide radical), OH (hydroxyl radical) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, oxidative stress can cause disruptions in normal mechanisms of cellular signaling. In humans, oxidative ...
Abstract: After the onset of a stroke, blood flows disrupted in areas affected by vascular occlusion limit the delivery of oxygen and metabolic substrates to neurons causing ATP reduction and energy depletion. The glucose and oxygen deficit that occurs after severe vascular occlusion is the origin of the mechanisms that lead to cell death and cerebral injury caused of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress constitutes mechanism of injury of many types of disease processes. On oxidative stress occurs on the increase in ROS and RNS. This paper will discuss about cerebral ischemia that causes activation of ROS and RNS, also themechanisms that play a role in cell death after cerebral ischemia, for example the role of phospholipase, Haber-Weiss reaction, and lipid peroxidation. It is also described about anti-oxidants to fight free radicals, for examples glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. ...
Aerobic organisms face challenges associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (-OH) and the peroxyl radical (ROO•), which can damage biological molecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1999). Some ROS can initiate lipid peroxidation (LPO), a self-propagating process in which a peroxyl radical is formed when a ROS has sufficient reactivity to abstract a hydrogen atom from an intact lipid (Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1999). The peroxidized portion of a phospholipid exists in the nonpolar interior of the membrane bilayer, disrupting hydrophobic lipid-lipid interactions and placing membrane integrity at risk (Kagan, 1988; Kühn and Borchert, 2002). Cells are protected from ROS-induced damage by two classes of antioxidant defense: low-molecular-mass antioxidants (e.g. glutathione, ...
Title: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Exercise. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):C. Leeuwenburgh and J. W. Heinecke. Affiliation:University of Florida, Biochemistry of Aging Laboratory, College of Health and Human Performance, P.O. Box 118206, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.. Keywords:Oxidative Stress, Antioxidants, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, Electron Spin Resonance, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Abstract: Increased aerobic metabolism during exercise is a potential source of oxidative stress. In muscle, mitochondria are one important source of reactive intermediates that include superoxide,hydrogen peroxide, and possibly hydroxyl radical . The recent discovery that mitochondria may generate nitric oxide also has implications for oxidant production and mitochondrial function. In this review, we critically examine the concept that production of reactive intermediates increases during exercise. Because the health ...
Research in the Xia laboratory is focused on exploring the gasphase ion chemistry of bio-radicals. With the aid of the ASMS Research Award, Dr. Xias group has developed devices to perform radical reactions of peptides and lipids within the plume region of an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Radical reactions facilitate the formation of gas-phase bio-radical species (e.g. cysteine sulfinyl radicals), allowing detailed investigations of their intrinsic chemical properties (structure, unimolecular dissociation, and reactivity) via mass spectrometry. These fundamental studies provide mechanistic insights into radical transfer and reactions within or between proteins in biological systems, which are important for understanding enzyme catalysis and the fate of proteins after ...
The present invention relates to an algal adduct of the citrullinylarginine natural dipeptide as well as to its dermatological use and the use of chemical analogs issued from the same dipeptide displaying no toxic potential, as skin and phanera care and treatment agents, the said analogs having the following general formula (I): in which: R 1 represents an acyl or acycloxy radical, R 2 represents a hydroxyl, amine, alkylamine or alcoxy radical, R 3 represents a hydrogen atom or a hydroxyl radical.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperoxia and self- or neutrophil-generated O2 metabolites inactivate xanthine oxidase. AU - Terada, L. S.. AU - Beehler, C. J.. AU - Banerjee, A.. AU - Brown, J. M.. AU - Grosso, M. A.. AU - Harken, A. H.. AU - McCord, J. M.. AU - Repine, J. E.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) activities decreased in lungs isolated from rats and cultured lung endothelial cells that had been exposed to hyperoxia. Purified XO activity also decreased after addition of a variety of chemically generated O2 metabolite species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, or hypochlorous acid), hypoxanthine, or stimulated neutrophils in vitro. XO inactivation by chemically, self-, or neutrophil-generated O2 metabolites was decreased by simultaneous addition of various O2 metabolite scavengers but not their inactive analogues. Since XO appears to contribute to a variety of biological ...
To evaluate and compare the antioxidant and acetylcholinestrase (AChE)-inhibitory properties of aerial parts of Strophanthus preussii (leaves, stem and root named as SPL, SPS and SPR, respectively) while catechin served as standard. The antioxidant and AchE-inhibitory properties of the methanol extracts of SP were evaluated by standard in vitro methods viz: DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical (OH-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assays as well as reducing power, Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and AChE inhibition assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also estimated. High phenolic and flavonoid contents were found in the aerial parts of Strophanthus preussii. The amount of phenolic and flavonoids contents followed the order SPL , SPR , SPS at 250─1000 µg/ml. The results revealed that all the extracts ...
In Ayurveda, which is an ancient Indian medical practice the name of which means "long life," turmeric is described as a powerful anti-inflammatory. How does it do it? Over the last 50 years, research has shown that the spices anti-inflammatory properties comes from curcumin, which is found in the spice. Curcumin has been found to slow or stop enzymes that cause inflammation, like cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipooxygenase. It works through several other mechanisms as well. Studies have shown that curcumin can modulate over 700 different genes.. Turmeric has antioxidants that can prevent free radical damage to cells. The antioxidant properties in turmeric come from curcuminoids. The antioxidants it delivers can be stronger than vitamin C, and up to eight times more powerful than vitamin E. It is three times as powerful as pine bark extract or grape seeds, and it is strong enough to fight the hydroxyl radical, ...
Inflammatory reactions mediated by oxidative stress (OS) have been implicated in the deterioration of oocyte quality, which may lead to subfertility. Oxidative stress generated from enhancement of activated macrophages secondary to an inflammatory response are the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (•OH), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as, the pro-inflammatory enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Previously, it has been shown that these ROS have deleterious effect on oocytes; however the link between inflammation through macrophage activity and oocyte quality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated: 1) the mechanism through which direct exposure of ROS and MPO, or through their generation by activated macrophages, deteriorate oocyte quality and whether melatonin (MLT), a potent MPO inhibitor and ROS scavenger, can protect oocyte quality; and 2) the ...
When deprived of oxygen, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-activated macrophages no longer lysed P388 lymphoma cells. Both H2O2 release and cytotoxicity by BCG-activated macrophages and by granulocytes triggered with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were markedly inhibited when the glucose concentration in the medium was reduced to 0.03 mM or less, or if glucose were replaced with galactose. Catalase abolished PMA-triggered cytotoxicity by both types of effector cells, whereas superoxide dismutase had no effect. Ferricytochrome C reduced the cytotoxicity of BCG-activated macrophages, an effect which was largely reversed by superoxide dismutase. 10 drugs, thought to quench singlet oxygen and/or scavenge hydroxyl radical, did not affect cytotoxicity in this system. Neither azide nor cyanide reduced cytolysis, but there was marked inhibition by lactoperoxidase and iodide. This suggested that cytotoxicity was not dependent upon myeloperoxidase, and ...
Silver ions undergo reduction reactions induced by radiolytically produced products of tert-butanol, a commonly used solvent and scavenger for hydroxyl radicals. Radiolytic reduction of silver ions and the subsequent formation of their clusters are compared with the corresponding processes in aqueous solution. The surface plasmon UV-Vis absorption band of silver nanocrystallites obtained by bombardment of tert-butanol solutions of silver salts with electron pulses showed an absorption maximum at 400 nm. Formation of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was found to be dependent on the dose rate. The nanocrystallites were found to have an average size of 20 nm.

Neutrophil degranulation inhibits potential hydroxyl-radical formation. Relative impact of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin...Neutrophil degranulation inhibits potential hydroxyl-radical formation. Relative impact of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin...

Neutrophil degranulation inhibits potential hydroxyl-radical formation. Relative impact of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin ... Neutrophil degranulation inhibits potential hydroxyl-radical formation. Relative impact of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin ... Neutrophil degranulation inhibits potential hydroxyl-radical formation. Relative impact of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin ... Neutrophil degranulation inhibits potential hydroxyl-radical formation. Relative impact of myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/264/2/447

Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze) seeds in in vitro models | BMC Complementary...Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L.) Kuntze) seeds in in vitro models | BMC Complementary...

... inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct ... The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ... The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, ... ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-11-40

Potential of clove of Syzygium aromaticum in development of a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease: A reviewPotential of clove of Syzygium aromaticum in development of a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease: A review

It promotes DPPH scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging and inhibits lipid peroxidation.59-62 It exhibits antifungal ... OH and per-oxyl radicals, and inhibit LPO in different systems.64-66 High DPPH scavenging activity as well as O2 radical ... Eugenol derivatives as potential anti-oxidants: is phenolic hydroxyl necessary to obtain an effect? J Pharm Pharmacol 2014; 66: ... as it inhibited production of IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-10. Likewise, Thompson and Eling54 demonstrated that eugenol inhibited ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0011-85162015000300010

MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
	MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1

But-LI effectively scavenged hydroxyl radicals in deoxyribose degradation assay (IC 149.12 g/ml). Fraction also inhibited lipid ... In vivo protective potential of But-LI was assessed at 3 doses [100, 200 & 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)] against 2- ... Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Lawsonia inermis L. leaves against 2-acetylaminofluorene induced hepatic damage ... OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to identify potential anti-candidal agents from natural resources and elucidate the ...
more infohttp://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&nextAction=lnk&base=MEDLINE&lang=p&format=detailed.pft&indexSearch=EX&exprSearch=B01.650.940.800.575.912.250.665.437

Free radical scavenging activity and antiproliferative potential of Polygonum cuspidatum root extracts.  - PubMed - NCBIFree radical scavenging activity and antiproliferative potential of Polygonum cuspidatum root extracts. - PubMed - NCBI

... and hydroxyl free radical scavenging activities, total phenolics content, protective effect against DNA damage, and ... Furthermore, the extracts of P. cuspidatum induced apoptosis and inhibited cell growth in A549 and H1650 cell lines, suggesting ... Free radical scavenging activity and antiproliferative potential of Polygonum cuspidatum root extracts.. Lin YW1, Yang FJ, Chen ... cuspidatum had significant scavenging effects on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Total phenolics content of ethanol and ethyl ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20082145

11 Potential Health Benefits of Echinacea - with Side Effects - Selfhacked11 Potential Health Benefits of Echinacea - with Side Effects - Selfhacked

Echinacea extracts have antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals (hydroxyl and DPPH radicals). They also inhibit cell ... In cells, echinacea inhibited collagen breakdown by free radicals. It also aided in wound healing (cicatrizing) after topical ... Echinacea inhibited the growth of yeast (Candida albicans) [R]. In mice, echinacea treatment protected against lethal ... Echinacea can aid in the treatment of acne by inhibiting the growth of the bacteria P. acnes and limiting inflammation [R]. ...
more infohttps://www.selfhacked.com/blog/health-benefits-echinacea/

Plus itPlus it

... and peroxyl radicals, and to inhibit superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide production. As potential antitumor-promoting ... IX was equally effective as Trolox in inactivating hydroxyl radicals and even more potent than XN in peroxyl radical scavenging ... This indicated that in addition to direct superoxide anion radical scavenging potential, XN might inhibit the signal ... dihydrochloride as a peroxyl radical generator, and H2O2-CuSO4 as a hydroxyl radical generator. Results were expressed as ORAC ...
more infohttp://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/1/11/959

Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Through Alteration in Production of TNF...Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Through Alteration in Production of TNF...

Furthermore, anti-inflammatory role of EEA is also revealed through its inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation. Notably EEA ... EEA inhibits expression of another pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-1β and downregulates cycloxygenase 2 (COX2) gene ... EEA can effectively inhibit DTH reaction and bring back normalcy to the paw much earlier than the controls. Efficacy of EEA on ... Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. Through Alteration in Production of TNF ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/471074/abs/

Polyamines Interact with Hydroxyl Radicals in Activating Ca2+ and K+ Transport across the Root Epidermal Plasma Membranes |...Polyamines Interact with Hydroxyl Radicals in Activating Ca2+ and K+ Transport across the Root Epidermal Plasma Membranes |...

... which tends to increase the negative surface potential and the local concentration of cations; surface potential also may be ... Contrary to expectations, polyamines (PAs) did not inhibit the OH•-induced cation fluxes. The net OH•-induced Ca2+ efflux was ... and the two free oxygen radicals, namely superoxide radical (•O2−) and hydroxyl radical (OH•), the latter being the most ... 2001) Hydroxyl radical-induced cell-wall loosening in vitro and in vivo: implications for the control of elongation growth. ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/157/4/2167

Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds ofPhenolic profile and antioxidant activity from peels and seeds of

The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the ... The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results ... antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma ...
more infohttps://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/melon-extracts-display-high-antioxidant-activity-vitro-assays-and-have-effecti

Mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides and their potential mechanism.  - PubMed - NCBIMitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides and their potential mechanism. - PubMed - NCBI

The scavenging activities of APS on superoxide anion (O(2) (•-)) and hydroxyl radical (•OH), which were produced by reduced ... The Na(2)S(2)O(3) titration method was used to measure the scavenging activities of APS on H(2)O(2). APS could inhibit TBARS ... and anti-hydroxyl radical which were assayed by using commercial monitoring kits were increased significantly in vivo by APS. ... Mitochondrial protection and anti-aging activity of Astragalus polysaccharides and their potential mechanism.. Li XT1, Zhang YK ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?cmd=Search&term=Feng-Xin%20Jin

Isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside from Nitraria retusa leaves enhance antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity in human chronic...Isorhamnetin 3-O-robinobioside from Nitraria retusa leaves enhance antioxidant and antigenotoxic activity in human chronic...

... reflecting a significant antioxidant potential. The same two products inhibited the genotoxicity induced by hydroxyl radicals ... have a great antioxidant and antigenotoxic potential on human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. ... The same natural compound and ethyl acetate extract inhibited oxidation induced by 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) ... reflecting a significant antioxidant potential. The same two products inhibited the genotoxicity induced by hydroxyl radicals ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-12-135

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Valeri V. Mossine (Translated to Dutch)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Valeri V. Mossine (Translated to Dutch)

FruHis nearly completely protected hydroxyl radical-mediated fragmentation of polymeric DNA in the presence of the Cu/H2O2/ ... These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA and identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target ... Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. ... All hydroxyl and carboxyl oxygen atoms, all nitrogen atoms and the water molecule are involved in an extensive hydrogen bonding ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Valeri+V._Mossine?language=Dutch

Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Thomas P. Mawhinney (Translated to Korean)Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Thomas P. Mawhinney (Translated to Korean)

FruHis nearly completely protected hydroxyl radical-mediated fragmentation of polymeric DNA in the presence of the Cu/H2O2/ ... These results highlight the important role of Gal-3 in the biology of ASA and identify Gal-3 as a potential therapeutic target ... Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 cells. ... All hydroxyl and carboxyl oxygen atoms, all nitrogen atoms and the water molecule are involved in an extensive hydrogen bonding ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/author/Thomas+P._Mawhinney?language=Korean

Swiss chardSwiss chard

... betalains in Swiss chard are able to scavenge free radicals, including hydroxyl radicals. Antioxidant phenolic acids are also ... Other Potential Health Benefits from Swiss Chard. From a research standpoint, Swiss chard lags a good bit behind its fellow ... For example, research findings have documented the ability of betalains in Swiss chard to inhibit activity of pro-inflammatory ... the ability of betalains in this vegetable to scavenge free radicals-including hydroxyl radicals-has been recently reaffirmed. ...
more infohttp://www.whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=16

Ergothioneine - WikipediaErgothioneine - Wikipedia

Under laboratory conditions, it scavenges hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid, inhibits production of oxidants by metal ... Although potential effects of ergothioneine are under preliminary research, its physiological role in vivo is unknown. In ... In vitro assays, as well as in vivo animal models, are used in basic research to identify its potential biological properties. ... Cheah, Irwin K.; Halliwell, Barry (2012-05-01). "Ergothioneine; antioxidant potential, physiological function and role in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergothioneine

The Worldwide Anaesthetist : Journal Club 16 August 2000The Worldwide Anaesthetist : Journal Club 16 August 2000

Effect of free radicals inhibited by halothane, isoflurane and enflurane. Halothane shown to inhibit production of hydroxyl ... Channel opening before ischaemia can protect ischaemic heart, attributed to shortening of action potential duration or ... Free radical formation (superoxide, hydroxyl and hydrogen peroxide *Calcium overload Considered to be the ultimate culprit in ... The ability of propofol to inhibit the formation of lipid peroxides has been found in various media in which free radicals are ...
more infohttp://anaesthetist.com/anaes/jnl/2000/2000au16.htm

Anethole reduces oxidative stress and improves in vitro survival and activation of primordial folliclesAnethole reduces oxidative stress and improves in vitro survival and activation of primordial follicles

The anethole acts like antioxidants, by inhibiting lipid-peroxidation as well as hydroxyl radical scavengers. However, Chainy ... the above potential mechanism may have been responsible for the improvement in follicular morphology maintenance observed in ... The assessment of ROS production has been an important tool to determine the presence of free radicals that may exert a ... with potential translational aspects for assisted reproductive techniques in human. Several similarities do exist between human ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018000800602&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

The degree of hydroxyl radical generation was inhibited by superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and deferoxamine, and enhanced by ... The oxygen species generating potential and genotoxic effects of freshly fractured quartz (14808607) were examined. Wet ... hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen (7782447) by freshly fractured quartz particles. ... Lipid peroxidation was inhibited by superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and sodium-benzoate (532321). Freshly fractured silica ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=hydrogen+peroxide&f1=%2A&Adv=0&terms=1&PageNo=14&RecNo=131&View=f&

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

The degree of hydroxyl radical generation was inhibited by superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and deferoxamine, and enhanced by ... The oxygen species generating potential and genotoxic effects of freshly fractured quartz (14808607) were examined. Wet ... hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen (7782447) by freshly fractured quartz particles. ... Lipid peroxidation was inhibited by superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and sodium-benzoate (532321). Freshly fractured silica ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=Genotoxin+OR+Genotoxic+OR+Genotoxicity+&f1=TI&Startyear=&t1=1&s2=Genotoxin+OR+Genotoxic+OR+Genotoxicity+&terms=3&Adv=1&ct=&B1=Search&f2=KW&Limit=500&Sort=DP+DESC&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=26&RecNo=254&View=f&

Induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cells through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI]...Induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cells through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI]...

Induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic MiaPaCa-2 cells through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential ([DELTA][[PSI]. ... depicted by its ability to inhibit DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radical generated by FeS[O.sub.4] and [H.sub.2][0.sub.2] in ... Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay Hydroxyl radical (HO*) is a highly reactive oxygen centred free radical formed in biological ... Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay Hydroxyl radical, generated from the [Fe.sup.3+]-ascorbate-[H.sub.2][O.sub.2] (Fenton ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Induction+of+apoptosis+in+human+pancreatic+MiaPaCa-2+cells+through+the...-a0336402488

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

The degree of hydroxyl radical generation was inhibited by superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and deferoxamine, and enhanced by ... The oxygen species generating potential and genotoxic effects of freshly fractured quartz (14808607) were examined. Wet ... hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, and singlet oxygen (7782447) by freshly fractured quartz particles. ... Lipid peroxidation was inhibited by superoxide-dismutase, catalase, and sodium-benzoate (532321). Freshly fractured silica ...
more infohttp://www2.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=%27silica%2A%27&f1=TI&Startyear=&t1=1&s2=%27silica%2A%27&B1=Search&terms=3&Adv=1&f2=KW&Limit=500&Sort=DP+DESC&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=108&RecNo=1076&View=f&

JB Handley To Oregon Senate Committee on SB442 Vaccine Exemptions Bill - AGE OF AUTISMJB Handley To Oregon Senate Committee on SB442 Vaccine Exemptions Bill - AGE OF AUTISM

We find that ethylmercury not only inhibits mitochondrial respiration leading to a drop in the steady state membrane potential ... and Fenton/Haber-Weiss generated hydroxyl radical. Additionally, we find a five-fold increase in the levels of oxidant damaged ... A nurse I know recently argued with me while agreeing that all the potential side effects listed in a vaccines package insert ... This history is now rarely spoken about, yet present vaccine policies are just as frightening because they hold the potential ...
more infohttps://www.ageofautism.com/2015/02/jb-handley-to-oregon-senate-committee-on-sb442-vaccine-exemptions-bill.html?cid=6a00d8357f3f2969e201b8d0d8eb2d970c

Health information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus DatabaseHealth information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus Database

SPC exhibited antioxidant effects on DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values ranging from 23.22 to 35.62 ?gmL-1 and inhibit ... against CCl4-induced in vitro hepato-toxicity symptoms like microsomal lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical formation was ... Their protective potential was comparable to that of standard phenolic antioxidants such as BHT; BHA and a -tocopherol (IC50 ... SPC exhibited antioxidant effects on DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values ranging from 23.22 to 35.62 ?gmL-1 and inhibit ...
more infohttp://indexmedicus.afro.who.int/aim/opac_css/index.php?lvl=more_results&mode=keyword&user_query=Spirulina&tags=ok

Health information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus DatabaseHealth information and publications in Africa African Index Medicus Database

SPC exhibited antioxidant effects on DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values ranging from 23.22 to 35.62 ?gmL-1 and inhibit ... against CCl4-induced in vitro hepato-toxicity symptoms like microsomal lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical formation was ... Their protective potential was comparable to that of standard phenolic antioxidants such as BHT; BHA and a -tocopherol (IC50 ... SPC exhibited antioxidant effects on DPPH radical scavenging with IC50 values ranging from 23.22 to 35.62 ?gmL-1 and inhibit ...
more infohttp://indexmedicus.afro.who.int/aim/opac_css/index.php?lvl=more_results&mode=keyword&user_query=Antioxidants&tags=ok
  • Copper zinc water filtration is a high-purity brass water filtration process that relies on the redox potential of dissolved oxygen in water in the presence of a zinc anode and copper cathode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microalgae are aquatic chlorophyll-containing organisms comprising unicellular microscopic forms, and their biomasses are potential sources of bioactive compounds, biofuels and food-based products. (ejbiotechnology.cl)
  • This study aimed to determine bioactive components and radical scavenging capacity of black raspberry seed extracts as byproducts obtaining during the juice (FSE) and wine (WSE) making process. (springer.com)
  • The oxygen species generating potential and genotoxic effects of freshly fractured quartz (14808607) were examined. (cdc.gov)
  • This study reveals the modulatory effects of C. sorokiniana and C. minutissima extracts on some mediators of Alzheimer's disease and provides insights into their potential benefits as functional food, nutraceutics or therapeutic agent for the management of this neurodegenerative disease. (ejbiotechnology.cl)
  • Clove and its derivatives have a definite potential to be used as specific anti-plaque and anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of periodontal disease. (scielo.org.za)
  • Aiming to identify novel potential chemopreventive agents, we have established an interrelated series of bioassay systems targeting molecular mechanisms relevant for the prevention of tumor development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Channel opening before ischaemia can protect ischaemic heart, attributed to shortening of action potential duration or attenuation of membrane depolarisation. (anaesthetist.com)