Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedAlbuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Pregnadienediols: Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Hydrofluoric Acid: Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Adrenal Cortex HormonesGram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods: A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Ozone Depletion: A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Patient Preference: Individual's expression of desirability or value of one course of action, outcome, or selection in contrast to others.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Community Pharmacy Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.Apraxia, Ideomotor: A form of apraxia characterized by an acquired inability to carry out a complex motor activity despite the ability to mentally formulate the action. This condition has been attributed to a disruption of connections between the dominant parietal cortex and supplementary and premotor cortical regions in both hemispheres. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p57)ChlorobenzenesMucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Air Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Procaterol: A long-acting beta-2-adrenergic receptor agonist.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
... , also known as beclometasone dipropionate, and sold under the brand name Qvar among others, is a steroid medication.[1] It is available as an inhaler, cream, pills, and nasal spray.[2] The inhaled form is used in the long-term management of asthma.[1] The cream may be used for dermatitis and psoriasis.[3] The pills have been used to treat ulcerative colitis.[4] The nasal spray is used to treat allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps.[5] Common side effects with the inhaled form include respiratory infections, headaches, and throat inflammation.[1] Serious side effects include an increased risk of infection, cataracts, Cushing's syndrome, and severe allergic reactions.[1] Long-term use of the pill form may cause adrenal insufficiency.[4] The pills may also cause mood or personality changes.[4] The inhaled form is generally regarded as safe in pregnancy.[6] Beclometasone is mainly a glucocorticoid.[1] Beclometasone dipropionate was first patented in 1962 and used medically in 1972.[7] It ...
An inhaler (or puffer) is a medical device used for delivering medication into the body via the lungs. It is mainly used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Zanamivir, used to treat influenza, must be administered via inhaler. To reduce deposition in the mouth and throat, and to reduce the need for precise synchronization of the start of inhalation with actuation of the device, MDIs are sometimes used with a complementary spacer or holding chamber device. The most common type of inhaler is the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (MDI) which is made up of 3 standard components- a metal canister, plastic actuator, and a metering valve. H&T Presspart, based in Blackburn, UK, provide over 75% of the world's can and actuator components to the pharmaceutical market. The metering valve is supplied by a number of companies including Aptar and Coster. In MDIs, medication is typically stored in solution in a pressurized ...
... is a glucocorticoid or corticosteroid used topically to reduce inflammation of the skin or in the airways. It is a prodrug of the free form mometasone (INN).[citation needed] Mometasone furoate is used in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (such as eczema and psoriasis) (topical form), allergic rhinitis (such as hay fever) (topical form), asthma (inhalation form) for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids, and penile phimosis. In terms of steroid strength, it is more potent than hydrocortisone, and less potent than dexamethasone. Some low-quality evidence suggests the use of mometasone for symptomatic improvement in children with adenoid hypertrophy. Mometasone is used to alleviate inflammation and itchiness in skin conditions that respond to treatment with glucocorticoids such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Nasal mometasone is used in adults (including the elderly) and children over 2 years to diminish the symptoms such as hay fever (seasonal ...
In medicine, a nebulizer or nebuliser (see spelling differences) is a drug delivery device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs. Nebulizers are commonly used for the treatment of cystic fibrosis, asthma, COPD and other respiratory diseases or disorders. Analytical nebulizers are another form of nebulizer and are used primarily in laboratory settings for elemental analysis. Nebulizers use oxygen, compressed air or ultrasonic power to break up solutions and suspensions into small aerosol droplets that can be directly inhaled from the mouthpiece of the device. An aerosol is a mixture of gas and solid or liquid particles. Various asthma guidelines, such as the Global Initiative for Asthma Guidelines [GINA], the British Guidelines on the management of Asthma, The Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines, and United States Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma each recommend metered dose inhalers in place of nebulizer-delivered therapies. The ...
... (trade name Maxair) is a short-acting β2 adrenoreceptor agonist with bronchodilating action used in the treatment of asthma, available (as pirbuterol acetate) as a breath-activated metered-dose inhaler (Maxair Autohaler). Pirbuterol is used in asthma for reversal of acute bronchospasm, and also as a maintenance medication to prevent future attacks. It should be used in patients 12 years of age and older with or without concurrent theophylline and/or inhaled corticosteroid. After inhalation of doses up to 800 μg (twice the maximum recommended dose) systemic blood levels of pirbuterol are below the limit of assay sensitivity (2-5 ng/ml). A mean of 51% of the dose is recovered in urine as pirbuterol plus its sulfate conjugate following administration by aerosol. Pirbuterol is not metabolized by catechol-O-methyltransferase. The plasma half-life measured after oral administration is about two hours. "Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol acetate inhalation aerosol) For Oral ...
The "Simple Depot" mission was proposed by NASA in 2011 as a potential first PTSD mission, with launch no earlier than 2015, on an Atlas V 551. Simple Depot would utilize the "used" (nearly-emptied) Centaur upper stage LH2 tank for long-term storage of LO2 while LH2 will be stored in the Simple Depot LH2 module, which is launched with only ambient-temperature gaseous Helium in it. The SD LH2 tank was to be 3 metres (9.8 ft) diameter and 16 metres (52 ft) long, 110 cubic metres (3,900 cu ft) in volume, and store 5 mT of LH2. "At a useful mixture ratio (MR) of 6:1 this quantity of LH2 can be paired with 25.7 mT of LO2, allowing for 0.7 mT of LH2 to be used for vapor cooling, for a total useful propellant mass of 30 mT. ... the described depot will have a boil-off rate of approaching 0.1 percent per day, consisting entirely of hydrogen."[36] In September 2010, ULA released a Depot-Based Space Transportation Architecture concept to propose propellant depots that could be used as way-stations for ...
Sometimes, diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make the bronchi get narrower. This makes it harder for oxygen to get to the lungs. This can cause trouble breathing or even respiratory failure, which means the body is not getting enough oxygen to survive.[2][3]. Every part of the body needs oxygen to live. Without enough oxygen, parts of the body - like the brain - will start to die. Finally, a person's heart can stop if they do not get enough oxygen for a long enough time. Albuterol can often keep these things from happening. Often, people with diseases like asthma or COPD are prescribed albuterol inhalers.[3] As soon as they start having trouble breathing, they can use the inhaler to breathe albuterol right into their lungs. The albuterol will stop the bronchi from getting narrower, and will make them wider again. This makes it possible for normal amounts of oxygen to get to the lungs.[2][3]. ...
Sometimes, diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) make the bronchi get narrower. This makes it harder for oxygen to get to the lungs. This can cause trouble breathing or even respiratory failure, which means the body is not getting enough oxygen to survive.[2][3] Every part of the body needs oxygen to live. Without enough oxygen, parts of the body - like the brain - will start to die. Finally, a person's heart can stop if they do not get enough oxygen for a long enough time. Albuterol can often keep these things from happening. Often, people with diseases like asthma or COPD are prescribed albuterol inhalers.[3] As soon as they start having trouble breathing, they can use the inhaler to breathe albuterol right into their lungs. The albuterol will stop the bronchi from getting narrower, and will make them wider again. This makes it possible for normal amounts of oxygen to get to the lungs.[2][3] ...
The amount of propellant is normally measured either in units of mass or weight. If mass is used, specific impulse is an impulse per unit mass, which dimensional analysis shows to have units of speed, and so specific impulses are often measured in meters per second and are often termed effective exhaust velocity. However, if propellant weight is used, an impulse divided by a force (weight) turns out to be a unit of time, and so specific impulses are measured in seconds. These two formulations are both widely used and differ from each other by a factor of g0, the dimensioned constant of gravitational acceleration at the surface of the Earth.. Note that the rate of change of momentum of a rocket (including its propellant) per unit time is equal to the thrust.. The higher the specific impulse, the less propellant is needed to produce a given thrust during a given time. In this regard a propellant is more efficient the greater its specific impulse. This should not be confused with energy efficiency, ...
Marking in OSCEs is done by the examiner. Occasionally written stations, for example, writing a prescription chart, are used and these are marked like written examinations, again usually using a standardized mark sheet. One of the ways an OSCE is made objective is by having a detailed mark scheme and standard set of questions. For example, a station concerning the demonstration to a simulated patient on how to use a metered dose inhaler [MDI] would award points for specific actions which are performed safely and accurately. The examiner can often vary the marks depending on how well the candidate performed the step. At the end of the mark sheet, the examiner often has a small number of marks that they can use to weight the station depending on performance and if a simulated patient is used, then they are often asked to add marks depending on the candidates approach. At the end, the examiner is often asked to give a "global score". This is usually used as a subjective score based on the ...
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... (HNF) is a salt of the hydrazinium ion (N2H5+) and nitroformate anion (C(NO2)3−). It is an energetic oxidizer, and is soluble in most solvents. Research is being conducted at the European Space Agency to investigate its use in solid rocket propellants. It tends to produce propellants which burn very rapidly and with very high combustion efficiency. Its high energy leads to high specific impulse propellants. It is currently an expensive research chemical available only in limited quantities. A disadvantage of HNF is its limited thermal stability. 1996 newsgroup posting on HNF "Preparing for the Future". Vol. 6 no. 1. European Space Agency. March 1996. Tydon, Walter (31 July 1970). Minimum Cost Design Launch Vehicle Design/Costing Study TOR-0059(6526-01)2. vol. 2, Background Studies. The Aerospace Corporation. pp. 4-13, 4-14 ...
Use of a parking orbit requires a rocket upper stage to perform the injection burn while under zero g conditions. Often, the same upper stage which performs the parking orbit injection is used for the final injection burn, which requires use of a restartable liquid-propellant rocket engine. During the parking orbit coast, the propellants will drift away from the bottom of the tank and the pump inlets.[4] This must be dealt with through the use of tank diaphragms, or ullage rockets to settle the propellant back to the bottom of the tank. A reaction control system is needed to orient the stage properly for the final burn, and perhaps to establish a suitable thermal orientation during coast. Cryogenic propellants must be stored in well-insulated tanks, to prevent excessive boiloff during coast. Battery life and other consumables must be sufficient for the duration of the parking coast and final injection. The Centaur and Agena families of upper stages were designed for such restarts and have often ...
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Learn side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and more. ... PROVENTIL® HFA Inhalation Aerosol (N=193). CFC 11/12 Propelled Albuterol Inhaler (N=186). HFA-134a Placebo Inhaler (N=186). ... 193 patients) in comparison to a CFC 11/12 propelled albuterol inhaler (186 patients) and an HFA-134a placebo inhaler (186 ... of the patients receiving PROVENTIL HFA Inhalation Aerosol, and by a greater proportion of PROVENTIL HFA Inhalation Aerosol ...
You will need to talk about the benefits and risks of using Proventil HFA (albuterol inhalation aerosol) while you are pregnant ... Enrolled patients had a weight of 40 to 110 kg with at least 10 nodular lesions on the face valtrex and/or trunk. There have ... This puffer (inhaler) may have a dose counter to keep track of how many doses are left. But there was more work lined up as ... Follow how to take Proventil HFA (albuterol inhalation aerosol) as you have been told by your doctor. Ophthalmologic: If visual ...
Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) is an inhalation aerosol for the relief of bronchospasm in patients 12 years or older. Dulera ... is an oral dry-powder corticosteroid inhaler for first-line maintenance treatment of asthma in patients 4 and older. ... Varivax, RotaTeq, Pneumovax and Zostavax are vaccines to help prevent shingles (herpes zoster) in patients aged 50 and older. ... is a fixed-dose combination asthma treatment in patients 12 years of age or older. Gardasil, ProQuad and M-M-R II [Measles, ...
Subjects will also recieve Proventil HFA Inhaler 2 puffs, after 5 minutes will recieve a second dose of Proventil 2 puffs prior ... Number of HIV COPD patients with increased immune cell and lung cellular aging. [ Time Frame: 3 yrs ]. We will attempt to ... In addition to the usual ATS protocol, the patient is monitored with wireless pulse oximetry and the time and distance recorded ... Lung epithelial cells in HIV- COPD patients display increased senescent markers including decreased telomere length18,19,26-28 ...
Shake the inhaler well and test spray it in the air 3 times for ProAir® HFA or 4 times for Proventil® HFA before using it for ... are used with a special inhaler that comes with patient instructions. Read the directions carefully before using this medicine ... The Proventil® HFA inhaler has a window that shows the number of doses remaining. This tells you when you are getting low on ... Store Proventil® HFA inhaler with the mouthpiece down. Throw away the ProAir® Digihaler™ or ProAir® Respiclick® 13 months after ...
Physician education may help allay patient fears, but some patient advocates say po ... Some asthma patients say the new HFA-propelled inhalers arent as effective as their CFC counterparts. ... In fact, each inhaler has a different formula. Ventolin has no extra inactive ingredients. ProAir has ethanol and Proventil has ... If a patient feels an HFA inhaler works, he tells them to continue with it. In other cases, he still prescribes MaxAir, the ...
A) PATIENTS WERE ADEQUATELY SERVED by Proventil HFA and Ventolin HFA replacement inhalers, and B) THERE WAS (as of March 31, ... with the HFA inhaler(s)- one complaint per brand- (Ventolin HFA, Xopenex HFA, Proventil HFA, ProAir HFA, Atrovent HFA, Flovent ... ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Xopenex HFA, Ventolin HFA) and the DETAILS OF YOUR MEDICAL COMPLAINT WITH THE HFA INHALER... and OLD ... Proventil HFA) and Sepracor (Xopenex HFA). The HFA-134a PROPELLANT ITSELF WAS NEVER TESTED ON PULMONARY PATIENTS, only on ...
Virginia Medicaid and its wonderful HMOs all cover different inhalers. Straight Medicaid covers Proventil HFA, Anthem HMO ... I have patients who cannot afford the new inhalers and now I need to put them on oral albuterol. One guy told me he is simply ... Thats right, he said no Ventolin HFA, no Proventil HVA, no ProAir HFA, nada.. You know whats covered? Xopenex HFA. 29.99 a pop ... The last inhaler my Doctor let me try 2 of was the new Ventolin HFA inhalers that have the auto-counter on the bottom. These ...
Read the Patient Information Leaflet provided by your pharmacist before you start using this medication and each time you get a ... Also count test sprays used to prime the inhaler.. Learn which of your inhalers you should use every day (controller drugs) and ... Always have this quick-relief inhaler with you. Keep track of the number of inhalations you use, and discard the inhaler after ... or if the inhaler has been dropped. A fine mist is a sign that the inhaler is working properly. Avoid spraying the medication ...
... clinicaltrials.gov This study is examining how well a dry powder inhaler albuterol medication (DPI) works to help adult and ... Controlled, 12-Week Study of Albuterol HFA Versus the Active Control, Proventil(R)-HFA in Asthmatic Patients ... A Dose-ranging Study to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Albuterol in a Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) and an HFA MDI. 2014-08-27 ... During the trial the participant will also be given an HFA (hydrofluoroalkane), metered dose inhaler. albuterol. These ...
Generic Albuterol Inhaler Approved. The FDA has approved the first generic version of Proventil HFA Metered Dose Inhaler, 90 μg ... Inhalation Parameters In Patients With Asthma Using Albuterol Electronic Multi-dose Dry Powder Inhaler. Inhalation therapy is ... Impact of inhalation delay on medication delivery from a salbutamol HFA pressurized metered dose inhaler used with and without ... Real-life inhaler technique in asthma patients using the electronic ProAir Digihaler. Introduction: A challenge when managing ...
Proventil HFA (albuterol). The usual dosing for Proventil is 1 to 2 inhalations every 4 to 6 hours. In clinical trials, the ... The dose counter will allow the patient to know if there is still medicine in the inhaler. In clinical trials, the average ... One advantage Ventolin HFA may have over the other inhalers is that there is a dose counter on the inhaler. ... of patients on placebo. At the end of a second 16-week therapy with a decreased dose of steroids 21.3% of patients on Xolair ...
Brand names Accuneb, Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA.. Albuterol inhaler. Dictionary browser ? ... which treats bronchospasm in patients 2 to 12 years of age with asthma.. Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. (New York) and Sanofi-Aventis ... Proventil, Ventolin. bronchodilator - a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of ... albuterol - a bronchodilator (trade names Ventolin or Proventil) used for asthma and emphysema and other lung conditions; ...
2019/09/14/star-trek-picard-first-episode-date-viagra Discount prices from psychotherapy and nebulizers proventil hfa inhaler ... 10 mg is how much insulin diabetes medical alert tag, module 11 although certain patients to three hours. forum ... From a patient relationship that could wisdom of large proportion ofhma. The authentic information about fats and emotionally ... http://gocruisewithjane.co.uk/go/se3.html Blood urea nitrogen or obese patients, counters &. Can be examined inferior or her ...
Proventil, Inhaled Terbutaline, Brethaire, Pirbuterol, Maxair, Levalbuterol, Xopenex. ... Albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil, ProAir HFA, ProAir RespiClick). *Preparations. *ProAir HFA Inhalers. *Replaced CFC Inhalers ... Patients should address specific medical concerns with their physicians.. Although access to this page is not restricted, the ... Technique: Hydrofluoroalkane Inhaler (HFA Inhaler). *Prior to first use. *Shake new Inhaler for 45 seconds ...
Proventil, Inhaled Terbutaline, Brethaire, Pirbuterol, Maxair, Levalbuterol, Xopenex. ... Albuterol (Ventolin, Proventil, ProAir HFA, ProAir RespiClick). *Preparations. *ProAir HFA Inhalers. *Replaced CFC Inhalers ... Patients should address specific medical concerns with their physicians.. This page was written by Scott Moses, MD, last ... Technique: Hydrofluoroalkane Inhaler (HFA Inhaler) *Prior to first use. *Shake new Inhaler for 45 seconds ...
... proventil HFA Inhalation Aerosol (N193) CFC 11/12 Propelled Albuterol Inhaler (N186) HFA-134a Placebo Inhaler (N186) ... Therefore, proventil HFA Inhalation Aerosol, like all sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with ... Prescribing Information for proventil HFA and, proventil HFA with Dose Indicator also are available. Users Useful 1 100.0 1 ... Drug Description, find Lowest Prices on, proventil HFA ( albuterol sulfate). These medications can prevent clopidogrel from ...
The public health advisory alerts patients, caregivers, and health care professionals to switch to hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)- ... Three HFA-propelled albuterol inhalers have been approved by the FDA: Proair HFA Inhalation Aerosol, Proventil HFA Inhalation ... The spray of an HFA-propelled albuterol inhaler may feel softer than that of a CFC-propelled albuterol inhaler. Patients must ... FDA is urging patients to talk with their health care professionals now about switching to HFA-propelled albuterol inhalers. ...
A price proventil hfa inhalers which are attracted to buy phentermine topirimate. ... Antibiotics online or in patients with a connection looks like those on tabs look. Want to talk over over monitoring ofexpert ... 1 million patients with marvelous zxt pollen adipex discount viagra online no prescription, diabetics, including. Sexual ...
Instruct patient on inhaler technique. Wash the mouthpiece and air dry thoroughly at least once a week (may cease to deliver ... Albuterol: Proair-HFA, Proventil-HFA, Ventolin-HFA. Key Patient Counseling Points:. *Instruct patient on inhaler technique. ... Dictionaries Forensic Pharmacy/Medicine Gallery Home Hospital Pharmacy Industrial Pharmacy Instrumentation Pharmacy Key Patient ...
  • MINO was reported to have a neuroprotective effect mediated through inhibition of inflammation, flovent hfa inhaler reviews reduction of cyt c release and inhibition of caspase-9 and -3 activation ! (imperialcatfish.com)
  • In 2008, the FDA's Adverse Events Reporting system (AERS) received more than 330 complaints about the new inhalers, although FDA spokesperson Christopher Kelly said not all of them can be classified as adverse events because some patients were only reporting financial problems obtaining the drug. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Table 3 lists adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1 of neurontin-treated patients with effects postherpetic neuralgia participating in placebo-controlled trials and that were numerically more frequent in the neurontin group than in the placebo group. (sportsrubbish.com)
  • The adverse reactions most commonly associated with withdrawal in patients 12 years of age effects were somnolence (1.2 ataxia (0.8 fatigue (0.6 nausea and/or vomiting (0.6 and dizziness (0.6). (sportsrubbish.com)
  • Among the adverse reactions occurring at an incidence of at least 10 in neurontin-treated patients, somnolence and ataxia appeared to exhibit a positive dose-response neurontin relationship. (sportsrubbish.com)
  • Adverse Reactions with Ventolin HFA with 3 Incidence and ventolin More Common than Placebo in Adult and Adolescent Subjects Adverse Reaction Percent of Subjects Ventolin HFA (n 202) overnight CFC 11/12-Propelled Albuterol Inhaler (n 207) Placebo HFA-134a (n 201) Ear, nose. (koudum.nl)
  • As with other beta-agonists, albuterol may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential overnight to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. (koudum.nl)
  • Serious adverse reactions, including proventil coupon pulmonary edema, have proventil been reported during or following treatment of premature labor with beta2-agonists, including albuterol. (artisanwoman.com)
  • Several studies have suggested that short-acting beta2-agonists such as albuterol may produce adverse outcomes (eg, decreased peak flow or increased risk of exacerbations) in patients homozygous for arginine (Arg/Arg) at the 16th amino acid position of beta-adrenergic receptor gene compared with patients homozygous for glycine (Gly-Gly). (medscape.com)
  • Discontinuations for adverse reactions side other than progression of tumor occurred in 10/455 (2) of patients on Femara and in 15/455 (3) of patients on tamoxifen. (denverista.com)
  • The therapeutic response to isotretinoin and some of the adverse effects are dose-related and vary between patients. (barbsfavorites.com)
  • Common adverse hfa effects of treatment with inhaled albuterol include palpitations, chest hfa pain, rapid heart rate, tremor, or nervousness. (fjcm.org)
  • The following table lists the incidence of all adverse events (whether considered by the investigator drug related or unrelated to drug) from this study which occurred at a rate of 3 or greater in the Proventil HFA Inhalation Aerosol. (fjcm.org)
  • Overall, the incidence and nature of the adverse reactions reported for proventil HFA Inhalation phoenix Aerosol and a CFC 11/12 propelled albuterol inhaler were comparable. (forumnobis.org)