Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)EthersAnesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia, Closed-Circuit: Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Anesthesia Recovery Period: The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedAnesthetics, Combined: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Akathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Prenatal Injuries: Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.Anesthesia, Intravenous: Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Consciousness Monitors: Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Gas Scavengers: Apparatus for removing exhaled or leaked anesthetic gases or other volatile agents, thus reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to such agents, as well as preventing the buildup of potentially explosive mixtures in operating rooms or laboratories.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Glossectomy: Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Anesthesiology: A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Anesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ketamine: A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Anesthesia, IntratrachealAirway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Anesthetics, Dissociative: Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Anesthesia, Caudal: Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Rats, Inbred F344Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.CarboxyhemoglobinAlfentanil: A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Methohexital: An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.SmokeHypnosis, Anesthetic: Procedure in which an individual is induced into a trance-like state to relieve pain. This procedure is frequently performed with local but not general ANESTHESIA.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Neuromuscular Blockade: The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Anesthesia and Analgesia: Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.

*Anesthetic

... and are given by inhalation for induction and/or maintenance of general anesthesia. Nitrous oxide and xenon are gases at room ... In fact, newer volatile agents (e.g., sevoflurane, desflurane) have been popular not due to their potency (minimum alveolar ... give the anesthesia provider greater rapidity in titrating the depth of anesthesia, and permit a more rapid emergence from the ... anesthesia awareness'. In this situation, patients paralyzed may awaken during their anesthesia, due to an inappropriate ...

*Dental anesthesia

Sevoflurane gas in combination with nitrous oxide and oxygen is often used during general anesthesia followed by the use of ... scent is used with the gas to inspire deep inhalation. General anesthesia drugs such as midazolam, ketamine, propofol and ... Dental anesthesia (or dental anaesthesia) is a field of anesthesia that includes not only local anesthetics but sedation and ... page 216 Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist, Logothetis, Elsevier, 2012 Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist, ...

*Veterinary anesthesia

... reptiles makes it difficult to induce and maintain anesthesia solely with inhalation agents such as isoflurane and sevoflurane ... of which must be in anesthesia), 40 hours of continuing education related to anesthesia, demonstrate proficiency in anesthesia ... Veterinary anesthesia includes anesthesia of the major species: dogs, cats, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs, as well as ... In addition to anesthesia, analgesia is often managed by anesthesiologists or is included in the considerations for anesthesia ...

*Blood-gas partition coefficient

doi:10.1016/0378-3812(84)87009-0. Nagelhout, J.J. (2014). Pharmacokinetics of Inhalation Anesthetics. Nurse anesthesia (5th ed ... isoflurane and sevoflurane in horse blood". British journal of anaesthesia. 91 (2): 276-8. doi:10.1093/bja/aeg151. PMID ... these are preferred because they lead to faster onset of anesthesia and faster emergence from anesthesia once application of ...

*Obstetric anesthesia (medical specialty)

... and fentanyl Inhalation agents: volatile anesthestics such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane or nitrous oxide. ... regional anesthesia, transplant anesthesia and trauma anesthesia. Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve as consultants to ... This practice revealed the pain-annulling properties of ether inhalation during surgery. Pioneers of obstetric anesthesia ... Obstetric anesthesia or obstetric anesthesiology, also known as ob-gyn anesthesia or ob-gyn anesthesiology is a sub-specialty ...

*Methoxyflurane

Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: ... Kharasch, E.; Hankins, D.; Thummel, K. (1995). "Human kidney methoxyflurane and sevoflurane metabolism. Intrarenal fluoride ... In dogs, methoxyflurane anesthesia causes a moderate decrease in blood pressure with minimal changes in heart rate, and no ... Intermittent inhalation of methoxyflurane and trichloroethylene as an analgesic in burns dressings procedures. Br. J. Anaesth. ...

*Breathing gas

It is common to provide the additional oxygen as a pure gas added to the breathing air at inhalation, or though a life-support ... Miller's Anesthesia Seventh edition. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06959-8. altitude.org. "Altitude oxygen ... Agents of significant contemporary clinical interest include volatile anaesthetic agents such as isoflurane, sevoflurane and ... Medical use of breathing gases other than air include oxygen therapy and anesthesia applications. Oxygen therapy, also known as ...

*Desflurane

... desflurane is infrequently used to induce anesthesia via inhalation techniques. Though it vaporises very readily, it is a ... John Varkey (2012). "Cost Analysis of Desflurane and Sevoflurane: An Integrative Review and Implementation Project Introducing ... Anesthesia & Analgesia. San Francisco, CA: International Anesthesia Research Society. 111 (1): 92-98. doi:10.1213/ane. ... It has the most rapid onset and offset of the volatile anesthetic drugs used for general anesthesia due to its low solubility ...

*Halogenated ether

Inhalation anesthetics are vaporized and mixed with other gases prior to their inhalation by the patient before or during ... but halogenated ethers remain a mainstay of general anesthesia. Anesthesia Ether Halogen Halogenation Hydrocarbon. ... Examples of halogenated ethers include the general anesthetics isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane. However, not all ... All inhalation anesthetics in current clinical use are halogenated ethers, except for halothane (which is a halogenated ...

*General anaesthetic

For gases that have minimal tissue solubility, termination of anesthesia generally occurs as rapidly as the onset of anesthesia ... Desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane are the most widely used volatile anaesthetics today. They are often combined with ... Many compounds have been used for inhalation anaesthesia, but only a few are still in widespread use. ... Induction of anesthesia is facilitated by diffusion of an inhaled anesthetic drug into the brain and spinal cord. Diffusion ...

*Sevoflurane

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) "Propofol and Sevoflurane Anesthesia". ... Sakai EM; Connolly LA; Klauck JA (December 2005). "Inhalation anesthesiology and volatile liquid anesthetics: focus on ... The rights for sevoflurane worldwide were held by AbbVie. It is now available as a generic drug. Sevoflurane is an inhaled ... Sevoflurane is the preferred agent for mask induction due to its lesser irritation to mucous membranes. Sevoflurane was ...

*Halothane

Its lack of airway irritation made it a common inhalation induction agent in pediatric anesthesia. Due to its cardiac ... sevoflurane, excellent for inhalation induction, had largely replaced the use of halothane in children. Halothane sensitises ... Its use in developed countries has been mostly replaced by newer agents such as sevoflurane. It is no longer commercially ... By 2005, the most common volatile anesthetics used were isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. Since the risk of halothane ...

*Anaesthetic machine

An anesthesia cart holds extra IV push meds for anesthesia, sedation and reversal, extra equipment that the person giving ... By using this machine, the dentist can administer a mild inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen, in order to keep ... oxide Updated vaporizers to provide accurate dosage control when using volatile anaesthetics such as isoflurane and sevoflurane ... Virtual Anesthesia Machine (VAM) - a free transparent reality simulation of a generic anesthesia machine from the University of ...

*Inhalational anaesthetic

For example, sevoflurane is pleasant to inhale and is rapid in onset and offset. It is also safe for all ages. However, it is ... Other gases or vapors which produce general anaesthesia by inhalation include nitrous oxide, cyclopropane and xenon. These are ... "Clinical and experimental study of xenon anesthesia". Anesteziol Reanimatol (6): 56-60. Retrieved 2008-11-03. John Travis, " ... Desflurane Isoflurane Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Xenon[citation needed] Although some of these are still used in clinical ...

*Tracheal intubation

Tobias, JD (2009). "Helium insufflation with sevoflurane general anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation during airway surgery ... Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... It can however be performed in the awake patient with local or topical anesthesia or in an emergency without any anesthesia at ... The tube is then secured to the face or neck and connected to a T-piece, anesthesia breathing circuit, bag valve mask device, ...

*General anaesthetic

History of general anesthesia. References[edit]. *^ Franks, Nicholas P. (May 2008). "General anaesthesia: from molecular ... Many compounds have been used for inhalation anaesthesia, but only a few are still in widespread use. Desflurane, isoflurane ... and sevoflurane are the most widely used volatile anaesthetics today. They are often combined with nitrous oxide. Older, less ... termination of anesthesia generally occurs as rapidly as the onset of anesthesia. For gases that have high tissue solubility, ...

*एनेस्थेसिया - विकिपिडिया

New York School of Regional Anesthesia, par excellence resource for regional anesthesia ... Sevoflurane) ... Inhalation. Ethers. Diethyl ether • Methoxypropane • Vinyl ... On-Line Anesthesia Journal Club (via JournalReview.org). *World Anaesthesia Online, international resource of anaesthetic ...

*Anesthesia

Early Arab writings mention anesthesia by inhalation. This idea was the basis of the "soporific sponge" ("sleep sponge"), ... given to ensure amnesia and sevoflurane (inhaled) during the procedure to maintain the effects. More recently, several ... Regional anesthesia and local anesthesia, which block transmission of nerve impulses between a targeted part of the body and ... Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ...

*Tracheal intubation

"Helium insufflation with sevoflurane general anesthesia and spontaneous ventilation during airway surgery" (PDF). Canadian ... Magill, I (1921). "Warming Ether Vapour for Inhalation". The Lancet. 197 (5102): 1270. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)24908-3.. ... It can however be performed in the awake patient with local or topical anesthesia or in an emergency without any anesthesia at ... Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. 41 (10): 996-1007, discussion 1007-8. doi:10.1007/BF03010944. PMID 8001220.. ...

*Nitrous oxide

Inhalation of nitrous oxide is used frequently to relieve pain associated with childbirth, trauma, oral surgery, and acute ... Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Vaidya, Jayant S.; Badwe, Rajendra A.; Hawaldar, Rohini W. "Omission of Nitrous Oxide during Anesthesia ... for more powerful general anaesthetic drugs such as sevoflurane or desflurane. It has a minimum alveolar concentration of 105% ... Recreational inhalation of nitrous oxide, with the purpose of causing euphoria and/or slight hallucinations, began as a ...

*Isopropyl alcohol

53000 mg/m3 (inhalation, mouse)[citation needed]. 12,000 ppm (rat, 8 hr)[7] ... Symptoms of isopropyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, ... Although isopropyl alcohol can be used for anesthesia, its many negative attributes or drawbacks prohibit this use. Isopropyl ...
Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of a vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus. MAC is used to compare the strengths, or potency, of anaesthetic vapours. MAC was introduced in 1965. MAC actually is a median value, not a minimum as term implies. The original paper proposed MAC as the minimal alveolar concentration, which was shortly thereafter revised to minimum alveolar concentration. A lower MAC value represents a more potent volatile anesthetic. Other uses of MAC include MAC-BAR (1.7-2.0 MAC), which is the concentration required to block autonomic reflexes to nociceptive stimuli, and MAC-awake (0.3-0.5 MAC), the concentration required to block voluntary reflexes and control perceptive awareness. The MAC is the concentration of the vapour (measured as a percentage at 1 atmosphere, i.e. the partial pressure) that prevents patient movement in response to a supramaximal stimulus ...
OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaesthetic recovery quality after sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. The clinical signs, anaesthetic recovery times, hypnotic component of the anaesthetic state measured by bispectral index and the autonomic nervous system reactivity (ANSr) measured by Anemon-I were studied. The influence of the kind of surgery on the anaesthetic recovery quality was also analyzed.. MATERIALS. 10 dogs treated in Veterinary Teaching Hospital for several diseases were anaesthetized with sevoflurane to perform major surgery. Soft tissue surgery was performed in 5 dogs and orthopaedic surgery was performed in the other 5. Dogs were premedicated with acepromazine (0.04 mg/kg), buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg) and atropine (0.04 mg/kg). Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane (7-8 %) by facial mask. Sevoflurane was administered for maintenance, beginning at a concentration of 3 % to rapidly achieve minimal alveolar ...
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE); Advance Notice of Intent to InitiateRulemaking Under the Toxic Substances Control Act to Eliminate or Limit the Use ofMTBE as a Fuel Additive in Gasoline
Extracted from text ... Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia ? March 2006 21 Spectral entropy and haemodynamic response to surgery during sevoflurane anaesthesia Introduction Apart from somatic responses, surgery also evokes autonomic responses, including haemodynamic responses. Spectral entropy has been validated as a means to monitor the hypnotic state during sevoflurane anaesthesia. Aim To investigate the relationship between spectral entropy, heart rate, and blood pressure during sevoflurane anaesthesia. FJ Smith, E Dannhauser Patients and methods The sample consisted of 43 patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients were premedicated with oral midazolam. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved with alfentanil 15 mg/kg, ..
The anti-inflammatory actions of sevoflurane postconditioning are suggested as an important mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Here, we determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane postconditioning were mediated via inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: (1) control (10 min of ischemia, n = 10); (2) sevoflurane postconditioning (two periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min with a wash period of 10 min, n = 10); (3) resatorvid (intraperitoneal injection of a selective TLR-4 antagonist (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia, n = 10); (4) sevoflurane postconditioning plus resatorvid (n = 10), and sham (n = 5). The numbers of ...
Definition of inhalation anesthetic in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is inhalation anesthetic? Meaning of inhalation anesthetic as a legal term. What does inhalation anesthetic mean in law?
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
Taking into account that there are controversial antioxidative effects of inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane and absence of comparison of genotoxicity of both anesthetics in animal model, the aim of this study was to compare DNA damage and antioxidant status in Wistar rats exposed to a single time to isoflurane or sevoflurane. The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was performed in order to evaluate DNA damage in whole blood cells of control animals (unexposed; n = 6) and those exposed to 2% isoflurane (n = 6) or 4% sevoflurane (n = 6) for 120 min. Plasma antioxidant status was determined by 3( 4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. There was no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and sevoflurane groups regarding hemodynamic and temperature variables (P > 0.05). Sevoflurane significantly ...
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells play a pivotal role in tissue repair, and thus are used for cell replacement therapies in "regenerative medicine." We tested whether the anesthetic sevoflurane would modulate growth or mobilization of these angiogenic cells. METHODS: In an in vitro model, mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were preconditioned with sevoflurane (3 times 30 min at 2 vol% interspersed by 30 min of air). Colony-forming units were determined after 9 days in culture and compared with time-matched untreated control. Using magnetic cell sorting, CD133+/CD34+ endothelial progenitors were enriched from human umbilical cord blood, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGFR2 (KDR), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), STAT3, c-kit, and CXCR4 expressions were determined in sevoflurane-treated and untreated cells by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In a volunteer study ...
This pathway was contributed by Charlotte Rosendahl Pedersen and updated by Carla Essenberg and Michael Turnbull, University of Minnesota. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), an additive to gasoline, is used to replace other toxic components such as lead. This additive reduces the emissions of airborn toxics, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds. This compound was first used in the US in the 70s, but since the 1990 Clean Air Act, its use has gone up immensely. It is now the second most produced chemical in the US with more than 24 billion pounds used per year. There are problems with the storage of MTBE; it is now the second most common contaminant of urban aquifers in the US. MTBE is becoming a problem in drinking water too, and the toxicity of MTBE is not very well known. Some studies show that, in humans exposed to high amounts of MTBE in drinking water, it might induce programmed cell death. While a number of microorganisms are known to metabolize MTBE, not much is known about the ...
We present an advanced system for on-line position-specific carbon isotope analysis. The main limitation of on-line intramolecular isotope ratio measurements has been that optimal pyrolytic fragments are obtained mostly at temperatures where the analyte has not completely reacted. As a result of undetermined isotopic fractionation, the isotopic signatures of the pyrolysis products are not strictly equal to these of the equivalent moieties in the parent molecule. We designed a pyrolytic unit in which both temperature and reaction time are variable parameters, enabling determination of the enrichment factor of the pyrolysis at optimal temperature by construction of a Rayleigh plot. In the case of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) presented here, a pre-pyrolysis fractionation of MTBE leading to a depletion of 0.9 parts per thousand was discovered and the enrichment factor of the optimal pyrolysis reaction was determined at -1.7 parts per thousand. Absolute delta C-13 values of two functional groups ...
Global Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether Market Professional Survey Report 2018 1 Industry Overview of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 1.1.1 Definition of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 1.1.2 Specifications of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 1.2 Classification of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 1.2.1 Industrial Grade 1.2.2 Excellent Grade 1.3 Applications of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 1.3.1 Coating 1.3.2 Ink 1.3.3 Solvent 1.3.4 Other 1.4 Market Segment by Regions 1.4.1 North America 1.4.2 Europe 1.4.3 China 1.4.4 Japan 1.4.5 Southeast Asia 1.4.6 India 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers 2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether 3.1 Capacity and ...
Rivenes SM, Lewin MB, Stayer SA, Bent ST, Schoenig HM, McKenzie ED, et al. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and fentanyl-midazolam in children with congenital heart disease: an echocardiographic study of myocardial contractility and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2001; 94(2):223-9. Pagel PS. Cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics: Established scientific principle or lingering clinical uncertainty? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009; 23(5):589-93. Regueiro-Purriños M, Fernández-Vázquez F, de Prado AP, Altónaga JR, Cuellas-Ramón C, Ajenjo-Silverio JM, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias and mortality associated with isoflurane and sevoflurane in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011; 50(1):73-8. Eger EI. Isoflurane (Forane): a compendium and reference: Anaquest; 1985. Hornbein TF, Eger EI, Winter PM, Smith G, Wetstone D, Smith KH. The minimum alveolar concentration of nitrous oxide in man. Anesth Analg. 1982; ...
BACKGROUND Xenon, an inert gas with anesthetic properties (minimum alveolar concentration [MAC] = 71%), has an extremely low blood:gas partition coefficient (0.14). Therefore, we predicted that xenon would provide more rapid emergence from anesthesia than does N2O+isoflurane or N2O+sevoflurane of equivalent MAC. METHODS Thirty American Society of Anesthsiologists class I or II patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy were randomly assigned to receive 60% xenon, 60% N2O + 0.5% isoflurane, or 60% N2O + 0.70% sevoflurane (all concentrations are end-tidal: n = 10 per group). After placement of an epidural catheter, anesthesia was induced with standardized doses of midazolam, thiopental, and fentanyl. Thirty minutes later, xenon, N2O+isoflurane, or N2O+sevoflurane was started as previously assigned. These regimens were supplemented with epidural anesthesia with mepivacaine so that the mean arterial ...
Numerous studies demonstrate that patients have improved immediate recovery characteristics following desflurane anesthesia compared to other volatile agents, including sevoflurane. There is limited evidence in the literature to suggest that patients undergoing sevoflurane, compared to desflurane anesthesia, may suffer from limitation in function and cognitive ability for an undetermined, but prolonged period of time following surgery. These differences are not explained pharmacokinetically and may be a result of a direct neurotoxic effect of sevoflurane. An unresolved question is the time required for the ability to return to complex tasks, such as driving, following anesthesia. Commonly, patients are advised not to drive or make important decisions for 24 hours following anesthesia, but this is not well-studied and proscribed on an empiric, rather than scientific, basis with very limited ...
INTRODUCTION. Nitrous oxide is a gaseous anesthetic agent of low potency. Its minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is 104% (± 10), which corresponds to a partial pressure of 805 mmHg (at sea level), only experimentally obtained with a hyperbaric chamber 1 or by calculated estimates.. It is used in non-hypoxic concentrations, never above 70%. Nitrous oxide has moderate analgesic properties, weak amnesic action, minor immobilizing power and very mild hypnotic effect 2-4. Hence, its indications as sole anesthetic agent are very limited, being used mostly a coadjuvant of more potent inhalational anesthetic to decrease their doses and, as a consequence, their side-effects.. Nitrous oxide low blood and tissue solubility (blood/gas coefficient of 0.47 and brain/blood coefficient of 1.1) 5 provides it with very special and desirable pharmacokinetic properties, especially as a coadjuvant, since its uptake and distribution are very fast , as well as its excretion. Its pharmacodynamic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of inhaled anesthetics on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine. AU - Steffey, Eugene. AU - Eisele, J. H.. AU - Baggot, J. D.. AU - Woliner, M. J.. AU - Jarvis, K. A.. AU - Elliott, A. R.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We determined the magnitude and duration of the effect of morphine (1.0 mg/kg intravenous bolus) on isoflurane and halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in six dogs anesthetized on two occasions in cross-over fashion. Plasma morphine concentration-time profiles and changes in PaCO2 were determined after morphine injection. After morphine injection, the end- tidal anesthetic dose was manipulated over the course of a 4-h observation period to account for the decline in plasma morphine concentration and to maintain an anesthetic level equivalent to 1.0 MAC isoflurane or halothane alone. Morphine decreased the MAC of halothane and isoflurane. The magnitude of MAC decrease was related to time after morphine injection and was ...
To compare the effects of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the respiratory control system, we have studied the acute ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) in 12 adults with and without three different concentrations of propofol and halothane. Target doses for propofol were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the effective plasma concentration (EC50 = 8.1 micrograms ml-1). Target doses for halothane were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC = 0.77%). The doses achieved experimentally were 0.01, 0.06, 0.13 and 0.26 of the EC50 for propofol and 0, 0.05, 0.11 and 0.20 MAC for halothane. During the experiment subjects breathed via a mouthpiece from an end-tidal forcing system. End-tidal PO2 (PEO2) was held at 13.3 kPa for 5 min, and then at 6.7 kPa for 5 min. End-tidal PCO2 (PECO2) was held constant at 0.13-0.27 kPa greater than the subjects natural level throughout. The mean values for AHVR with propofol were: 12.8 (SEM 2.4) litre min-1 (0.01 EC50), 10.0 (1.9
0058] Several adsorption studies have shown the adsorbent dosage to influence the adsorbate removal efficiencies, because it determines the adsorption capacity of adsorbents based on the number of adsorption sites available (Etim, U. J., Umoren S. A., Eduok U. M. (2012). Coconut coir dust as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye from aqueous solution, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society--incorporated herein by reference in its entirety). FIG. 5 shows that with the exception of silver nanoparticles doped carbon fly ash, there was no significant variation in the percentage removal of MTBE for all other fly ash based adsorbent materials tested, with change in dosage. Silver oxide impregnated fly ash showed an increase in adsorption with increase in dosage of adsorbent material until a peak dosage was reached, beyond which a slight decrease in adsorption was observed with increase in adsorbent material. A peak reduction of 24% was noted at 50 mg of adsorbent and further increase in ...
Endothelium-independent vasodilation was increased in control rats by isoflurane pretreatment. Since sodium nitroprusside provides NO at the level of the vascular smooth muscle, this indicates that distal portions of the NO-3′5′cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway may be up-regulated. The etiology of this is unclear since isoflurane is thought to have either no effect or inhibit guanylate cyclase activity. 21,22 Endothelium-independent vasodilation was decreased by lipopolysaccharide but not altered by isoflurane pretreatment. It would be expected that if isoflurane pretreatment increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation in lipopolysaccharide rats, that endothelium-independent vasodilation would also be increased since endothelium-dependent vasodilation evaluates the entire NO-3′5′cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. However, it is possible that alterations of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor or the cyclooxygenase pathway may be responsible for the increase in ...
Methods 36 patients who had signed informed consent form and had been scheduled for CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were included into the study. Age of the enrolled subjects ranged from 50 to 65 years of age (mean 58.5 ± 4.6). 30 subjects were males and 6 were females. In all cases patients underwent general anaesthesia on the base of sevoflurane and fentanyl. Anesthetic concentration (from 0.75 to 2.5 vol.%.) was adjusted according to spectral EEG analysis data (Entropy, General Electric) to ensure target anaesthesia depth, corresponding to Entropy index not exceeding 40. Analgesia was provided by fentanyl infusion 5 mcg/kg/hour. To assess the influence of the cardiac output on sevoflurane pharmacodynamics we measured cardiac index (CI) simultaneously with anaesthetic concentration in the end tidal gas mixture (ETsev) and anaesthesia depth based on Entropy monitor data. Studied variables were measured at the following time points: 1 - 5 minutes after sternotomy, 2 - ...
Definition of Volatile anesthetic in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Volatile anesthetic? Meaning of Volatile anesthetic as a finance term. What does Volatile anesthetic mean in finance?
The anti-inflammatory actions of sevoflurane postconditioning are suggested as an important mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Here, we determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane postconditioning were mediated via inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: (1) control (10 min of ischemia, n = 10); (2) sevoflurane postconditioning (two periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min with a wash period of 10 min, n = 10); (3) resatorvid (intraperitoneal injection of a selective TLR-4 antagonist (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia, n = 10); (4) sevoflurane postconditioning plus resatorvid (n = 10), and sham (n = 5 ...
A potentially major use of dimethyl ether is as substitute for propane in LPG used as fuel in household and industry.[11] It is also a promising fuel in diesel engines,[12] petrol engines (30% DME / 70% LPG), and gas turbines. For diesel engines, an advantage is the high cetane number of 55, compared to that of diesel fuel from petroleum, which is 40-53.[13] Only moderate modifications are needed to convert a diesel engine to burn dimethyl ether. The simplicity of this short carbon chain compound leads during combustion to very low emissions of particulate matter, NOx, and CO. For these reasons as well as being sulfur-free, dimethyl ether meets even the most stringent emission regulations in Europe (EURO5), U.S. (U.S. 2010), and Japan (2009 Japan).[14] Mobil uses dimethyl ether in their methanol to gasoline process.[citation needed] Dimethyl ether is being developed as a synthetic second generation biofuel (BioDME), which can be manufactured from lignocellulosic biomass.[15] Currently the EU is ...
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Dimethyl Ether market analysis report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with four points Manufacturers, regional analysis, Segment by Type & Applications and the actual process of whole Dimethyl Ether industry.. Dimethyl Ether Market analysis is provided for global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of the Dimethyl Ether market.. Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean energy source and as Technology generates no sulfur oxide or soot during combustion, environmental impact is low. Owing to non-toxic and easy liquefaction properties, DME is easy to handle and therefore can be used as a domestic-sector fuel (subst for LPG), transportation fuel (diesel vehicles, fuel cell vehicles), power plant fuel (thermal plants, cogeneration plants, stationary fuel cells), and as a raw material for chemical products.. Browse Detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts ...
... from ischemia-reperfusion (We/R) damage. anesthetic gas monitor (Datex Capnomac Ultima Department of Instrumentarium Corp Helsinki Finland). The respiratory rate was adjusted to maintain partial pressure of carbon dioxide within physiologic limits (end-tidal carbon dioxide 35 mmHg). After exposure of the heart a 6.0 silk ligation suture was looped round the LAD for subsequent occlusion. The ligature success of the LAD was judged by a color switch at the area at risk (AAR) which was further confirmed by a QRS wave switch during electrocardiography (ECG). Ultrastructure examination Thirty minutes after reperfusion the rat hearts were removed. Two samples of new myocardial tissue (approximately 1 mm3 in size) were obtained 3 mm above the apex from your AAR of the left ventricle (LV). The tissues were fixed with 5% glutaraldehyde overnight at 4 °C washed 3 times with phosphate-buffered saline and fixed again ...
Results Patients with retinoblastoma 55.26% (21), meduloblastoma 23.68% (9) and malignant neoplasm of cerebellum 21.10% (8) which received radiotherapy 27.79±2.16 sessions were studied.. Sevoflurane 8% were administered to 100% of these patients for anesthesia induction and maintenance.. The anesthesia duration was 32.62±2.41 minutes.. Emergence agitation, nausea and allergic reaction were observed.. The incidence of emergence agitation during the anesthesia recovery was observed in 84.21 % (32) compared to 15.79% (6) no agitation side effect patients.. Nausea was observed in 10.53% and allergic reaction recorded in 5.26% of patients.. Either propofol 0.5-4.4 mg/kg administered to 34.38% (11) patients or nalbuphine 0.1-0.15 mg/kg given to 6.25% (2) patients or fentanyl 2-3.6 mg/kg given to 3.12% (1), controlled the emergence agitation induced by sevoflurane anesthesia.. No treatment was applied to 56.25% ...
This study extends our previous work regarding isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia. 1 The decrease of mean CGU observed in rats during 1 MAC and 2 MAC desflurane anesthesia (52 to 62%) was similar to that obtained during sevoflurane (34 to 59%)1 anesthesia. Lutz et al. 11 measured a smaller decrease in the metabolic rate of oxygen (26%) in dogs, when the end-tidal concentration of desflurane was increased from 0.5 MAC to 2.0 MAC. 11 This difference may be explained by the light anesthesia of the control group in the study of Lutz et al. , 11 decreasing baseline values of metabolic rate of oxygen, whereas conscious animals were used as controls in the current investigation. LCGU during desflurane anesthesia showed a more uniform decrease in the current study compared with the metabolic effects observed during sevoflurane anesthesia 1 and other anesthetics ...
The cation-chloride cotransporters Na+-K+-2Cl--1 (NKCC1) and K+-2Cl--2 (KCC2) critically regulate neuronal responses to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). NKCC1 renders GABA excitatory in immature neurons while expression of KCC2 signals GABA maturation to its inhibitory role. Imbalances in NKCC1/KCC2 alter GABA neurotransmission, which may contribute to hyperexcitability and blunted inhibition in neurocircuitry after neonatal exposure to anesthesia. Thus, we hypothesized that anesthetics may dysregulate NKCC1 and/or KCC2 in developing brain. We exposed postnatal day (PND) 7 mice to sevoflurane or carrier gases and assessed NKCC1 and KCC2 expression across three brain regions 6 h and 24 h after initial exposure. To test differences in behavior, we challenged pups receiving sevoflurane or carrier gases on PND7 with propofol on PND8 and recorded parameters of anesthesia induction and maintenance. Sevoflurane exposure increased ...
BACKGROUND: In pre-school aged children, the occurrence of emergence delirium (ED) is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if intravenous inducting agents such as propofol, ketamine or thiopental sodium affected the development of ED. METHODS: A total of 62 children between 3 and 6 years of age scheduled for elective tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were divided into 3 groups in a double-blinded manner. Anesthesia was induced using one of the three drugs intravenously: 5 mg/kg of sodium thiopental, 1 mg/kg of ketamine or 2 mg/kg of propofol. Anesthesia was then maintained with sevoflurane. The development of ED was assessed in the post-anesthetic care unit. RESULTS: The propofol and ketamine group showed a significantly lower pediatric anesthesia emergence agitation (PAEA) score and a lower incidence of ED compared with the thiopental group. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol ...
Sevoflurane, an inhaled anesthetic is currently recommended for anesthesia during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).. Inhaled sevoflurane during CABG reduces postoperative Troponin levels and may be associated with improved outcome. A dose-response effect of Sevoflurane cardioprotection has been demonstrated by de Hert et al, with greatest reductions of Troponin when Sevoflurane was used during the entire operation, as compared to Sevoflurane during parts of the operation or not at all.. Postoperative sedation after CABG is currently achieved with intravenous propofol.. Sevoflurane, as other inhaled anesthetic agents, is sedative in low doses. A new simplified method of administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane has been developed and tested by members of the research group. The Anesthetic Conserving Device (AnaConDa®) is a modified heat-moisture exchanger (HME) that ...
Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) has been traditionally used to measure the potency of an inhalational anesthetic agent. Recently, bispectral index (BIS) derived from the frontal cortical electroencephalogram has been used frequently for quantify
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There has been growing concern about the detrimental effects of certain anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Preclinical studies in small animal models as well as nonhuman primates suggested loss or death of brain cells and consequent impaired neurocognitive function following anesthetic exposure in neonates and late gestation fetuses. Human studies in this area are limited and currently inconclusive. On Dec. 14, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding impaired brain development in children following exposure to certain anesthetic agents used for general anesthesia, namely the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, and the intravenous agents propofol and midazolam, in the third trimester of pregnancy ...
For most of the 1900s, it was widely believed that ethanol and the volatile anesthetics exerted their effects in vivo in a nonspecific manner, through the disordering of cell membrane lipids. The Meyer-Overton correlation of anesthetic potency with lipophilicity and the observation that agents with markedly dissimilar structures could all produce the same behavioral end point made it appear unlikely that volatile anesthetic agents had discrete protein binding sites. By analogy, inhaled drugs of abuse, which also vary greatly in their chemical structures, were also thought to nonspecifically influence neuronal function (Balster, 1998). The demonstration that pharmacologically relevant concentrations of volatile anesthetic agents and alcohols affect the functioning of lipid-free proteins such as firefly luciferase (Franks and Lieb, 1984) promoted a shift in research focus toward protein sites of anesthetic action. Among these protein sites, the ligand-gated ion channels, particularly the GABAA, ...
Dyslipidemia Therapeutics Market. Products Overview. Sevoflurane. Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetic agents. It is administered to babies and children. Sevoflurane is ideal for patients with asthma or sensitive air passages. But its side-effects include delirium and agitation. It can be given quickly without the use of intravenous instruments.. Sevoflurane would capture over 70% of the worldwide sevoflurane, isoflurane and desflurane market by 2022. The agent is expected to exceed USD 1 billion by the same year. Its widely utilized for being low-priced and possessing therapeutic benefits.. Isoflurane. Isoflurane is a halogen ether utilized frequently by veterinarians. It is administered intravenously, relaxes the muscles and reduces pain. Isoflurane has also been used for inducing sleepiness for long durations during surgery. It is expected to register a CAGR of about 10% by 2022.. Desflurane. ...
Market study report Titled Global ""Methyl Ether Ketone Market"" 2019 Industry Research Report recently published on e-marketresearch.com is the key document for industries/clients to understand current global competitive market status. The Methyl Ether Ketone market study report base year is 2018 and provides market research data status (2013-2017) and forecast (2019-2025) and also categorizes the Methyl Ether Ketone market into key industries, region, type and application. Global Methyl Ether Ketone Market 2019 study report covers all major geographical regions and sub-regions in the world and concentrates on product sales, value, market size and growth opportunities in these regions. Competitive Analysis for Methyl Ether Ketone market industries/clients :- BASF, Dow Chemical, Solvay, Ashland, Celanese, Shell Chemicals Limited. Global Methyl Ether Ketone Market 2019 Industry Research Report provides current competitive analysis as well as valuable insights to industries/clients, which will ...
Interestingly, a functional role for PKC-ε was recently established during sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection in guinea pig hearts in addition to studies showing that ischemic preconditioning is mediated by PKC-ε. 22,29-31 Some studies even indicate that PKC-δ inhibition is cardioprotective, as was demonstrated by the increased resistance against ischemia-reperfusion damage in mice hearts overexpressing a δ V1 inhibitor peptide. 32 Nevertheless, the latter study also established the necessity of an active form of the PKC-δ because overexpression of the δ V1 inhibitor peptide at intermediate or very high doses resulted in cytoskeletal deformations, a lethal phenotype and less protection to ischemia-reperfusion, respectively. Liu et al. 19 demonstrated that ischemic preconditioning resulted in a translocation of both PKC-δ and PKC-ε, whereas on pharmacologic preconditioning with opioids, only PKC-δ translocated. This is in accordance with our observations that sevoflurane ...
There are a number of factors related to the animal that impact on the quality of anesthesia. These factors should be considered when the type of anesthetic agent is being chosen.. Species: Different species require different doses of anesthetic agents. This applies particularly to the injectable anesthetics. In general, the smaller animals require a higher dose in mg/kg of a given anesthetic than larger animals. Familiarity with the effects of an anesthetic agent in one species should not be assumed in another species. The volatile anesthetics are more consistent in their application between species. The mean alveolar concentration of the anesthetic agent required for anesthesia is similar among species and this is controlled by the concentration of the agent in the inspired gases. Differences in the respiratory tract in birds (fixed lungs, air sacs) and other non-mammalian species must be considered when administering inhalation ...
Dortmund Data bank - Thermophysical Properties | Heptane, CAS Number: 142-82-5 | Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), CAS Number: 1634-04-4 | SpringerMaterials 2014
Volatile anesthetics protect myocardium against reversible and irreversible ischemic injury. Experimental evidence from several in vitro and in vivo animal models demonstrates that volatile agents enhance the recovery of stunned myocardium and reduce the size of myocardial infarction after brief or prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, respectively. This protective effect persists after the anesthetic has been discontinued, a phenomenon known as anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC). Recent clinical data also demonstrates evidence of APC in patients during cardiac surgery. Thus, administration of volatile anesthetics may represent a novel therapeutic approach that reduces morbidity and mortality associated with perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. The mechanisms responsible for APC appear to be similar to those implicated in ischemic preconditioning, but nonetheless have subtle differences. Accumulating evidence indicates that APC is characterized by complex signal
The aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a widely used fuel oxygenate, was investigated using an innovative pilot-scale biomass-retaining bioreactor called a Biomass Concentrator Reactor (BCR). The BCR was developed based on the porous pot reactor design that proved effective in remediating co-mingled groundwater contaminated with MTBE, gasoline hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and p-xylene), and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The BCR was operated for approximately five years treating flow rates as high as 5000 L/d of dechlorinated tap water spiked with MTBE alone, MTBE + BTEX, and MTBE + BTEX + other gasoline oxygenates (di-isopropyl ether, tert-amyl methyl ether, tert-amyl alcohol, and ethyl tert-butyl ether). The bioreactor affected excellent removal of all the aforementioned contaminants throughout the study, with effluent concentrations always lower than the 5 µg/L Drinking Water advisory set for MTBE in California. The BCR proved its ...
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Cover - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (September 2010). A. Lesarri, A. Vega-Toribio, R. D. Suenram, D. J. Brugh, J.-U. Grabow, The conformational landscape of the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 9624-9631 (2010). E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, N-methyl stereochemistry in tropinone: The conformational flexibility of the tropane motif, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 6076-6083 (2010). N. Craig, R. D. Suenram, B. H. Pate, A. Lesarri, J. Neill, S. Shipman, R. Holmes, M. Leyden, A semi-experimental equilibrium structure for the C6 backbone of cis-1,3,5-hexatriene; Structural evidence for greater pi-electron delocalization with increasing chain length in polyenes, J. Phys. Chem. A, 113, 1864-1868 (2009). I. León, E. Aguado, A. Lesarri, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Molecular recognition in the gas-phase: Benzocaine-phenol as a model of anaesthetic-receptor interaction. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, 11608-11616 (2009). I. ...
Glycerol is a major by-product in the biodiesel production process. Every 100 kg of biodiesel produced generates approximately 10 kg of crude glycerol. As the biodiesel industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, finding new uses of the excess crude glycerol is important. Many studies have examined alternative uses of crude glycerol. One of them is the use of glycerol derivatives, such as glycerol tert-butyl ethers as fuel additives. In this paper, the etherification kinetics of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol to glycerol tert-butyl ethers was studied using an Amberlyst catalyst. The influences of the catalyst type and loading, reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature were investigated in detail.
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Some types of anaesthetics cause an increase in the level of lactate production in unconscious childrens brains, causing delirium.. Two commonly used anaesthetics produce different metabolic patterns in the brains of children, according to a study from Anesthesiology. Researchers from Stony Brook University, New York, found the inhalant gas anaesthetic sevoflurane produced more lactate, a marker for enhanced or changed brain metabolism, compared to the intravenous anaesthetic propofol.. While past paediatric literature has reported that sevoflurane may be associated with emergence delirium, a state of consciousness in which a child is inconsolable, irritable or uncooperative, the study explored the potential association between emergence delirium and specific brain metabolites like lactate.. Applied proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) was used to investigate the metabolic consequences of general anaesthesia in the brains of rodents. Findings revealed inhalant gas ...
H.188. AN ACT RELATING TO PROHIBITING THE SALE AND STORAGE OF FUEL PRODUCTS CONTAINING THE ADDITIVE MTBE. It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont: Sec. 1. FINDINGS. (a) Methyl tertiary butyl ether ("MTBE"), the most common oxygenate added to gasoline and other fuel products used in the state and throughout the United States, may leak into and contaminate groundwater supplies.. (b) MTBE is water soluble and, therefore, difficult and costly to remove from water. (c) MTBE, while colorless, has a turpentine-like taste and smell which can be detected at extremely low concentrations. (d) MTBE and other chemically similar oxygenates may be human carcinogens and pose other potential health risks, including, but not limited to, memory loss, asthma, and skin irritation. (e) As water is a precious and vital resource to the states growing population, agricultural and tourism industries, and unique environment, it is imperative that the state halt further contamination and ...
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There are 17 Chapters to deeply display the Europe Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) for Electronic Materials market.. Chapter 1, to describe Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) for Electronic Materials Introduction, product type and application, market overview, market analysis by countries, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2, to analyze the manufacturers of Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) for Electronic Materials, with profile, main business, news, sales, price, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 3, to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers in Europe, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 4, to show the Europe market by countries, covering Germany, UK, France, Italy and Russia, with sales, price, revenue and market share of Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) for Electronic Materials, for each country, from 2012 to 2017;. Chapter 5 and 6, to show the ...
were kept at submicromolar concentrations by foam fractioning and biological filtration (e.g., live sand).. Variable Fluorescence. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic transients were measured with a custom-built fast repetition-rate fluorometer using protocols described by Kolber et al. (14).. Lipid Analysis. Lipids were saponified, methylated, and extracted into hexane/methyl tertiary butyl ether as described (15). Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by GC/MS with an Agilent series 6890 GC system and 5973 mass selective detector, equipped with an HP5MS capillary column (i.d., 30 m × 0.25 mm; film thickness, 0.25 μm) with helium as the carrier gas.. Membrane Inlet MS. Light-dependent production and consumption of oxygen was measured by using a membrane inlet system attached to a Prisma QMS-200 (Pfeiffer, Nashua, NH) quadruple mass spectrometer with closed ion source recording at mass/charge (m/z) ratios of 32 (16O16O), 36 (18O18O), and 40 (Ar). The membrane inlet system was modified ...
The present study investigates the oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by conventional ozonation and the advanced oxidation process (AOP) ozone/hydrogen peroxide under drinking water treatment conditions. The major degradation products identified were tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), 2-methoxy-2-methyl propionaldehyde (MMP), acetone (AC), methyl acetate (MA), hydroxyisobutyraldehyde (HiBA), and formaldehyde (FA). The rate constants of the reaction of ozone and OH radicals with MTBE were found to be 0.14 and 1.9 x 10(9) M-1 s(-1), respectively. The rate constants for the same oxidation processes were also measured fort he degradation products TBF, MMP, MA, and HiBA (k(O3-TBF) = 0.78 M-1 S-1; k(OH-TBF) = 7.0 x 10(8) M-1 s(-1); k(O3-MMP) = 5 M-1 s(-1); k(OH-MMP) = 3 x 10(9) M-1 s(-1), k(O3-MA) = 0.09 M-1 s(-1), k(O3- HiBA) = 5 M-1 s(-1); k(OH-HiBA) = 3 x 10(9) M-1 s(-1)). Since all compounds reacted slowly with molecular ozone only the degradation pathway of MTBE with OH ...
After induction, anesthesia will be maintained with 1MAC (minimum alveolar concentration) of Isoflurane according to age and end-expiratory concentration. Thirty minutes before the anticipated inflow occlusion and commencement of liver transaction, Isoflurane concentration will be gradually increased to 2 MAC over a period of 5 minutes (induction) and maintained at 2 MAC for 10 minutes (preconditioning). Then the concentration of Isoflurane will be decreased to 1 MAC during next 15 minutes (washout ...
All inhaled anesthetics increase cerebral blood flow and decrease cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2). Nitrous oxide, however, will increase CMRO2. Nitrous oxide, as well as inhaled anesthetics, causes cerebral vasodilation. However, if the patients blood pressure drops, the increase in cerebral blood flow will be attenuated or abolished because volatile anesthetics inhibit autoregulation. Isoflurane causes the least cerebral vasodilation, maintaining autoregulation better than other volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane also has no effect on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production and decreases resistance to CSF absorption. Desflurane increases CSF production without significantly effecting CSF reabsorption. ...
The researchers assessed chronic (long-term) pain after mastectomy for breast cancer in 175 women. Chronic pain was compared for women receiving two different types of general anesthetics commonly used for surgery: propofol and sevoflurane.. When assessed up to four years after breast cancer surgery, 56 percent of the women said they had chronic pain. Chronic pain was less common for women who received propofol anesthesia: 44 percent, compared to 67 percent for those receiving sevoflurane anesthesia.. On analysis adjusting for other factors, women receiving sevoflurane were about 50 percent more likely to develop chronic pain after mastectomy. Among women with chronic pain, there was no difference in pain severity or duration between the propofol and sevoflurane groups.. Other factors associated with an increased risk of chronic pain after mastectomy were younger age, more extensive surgery (axillary lymph ...
Request a free sample copy of the report: http://www.imarcgroup.com/request?type=report&id=650&flag=B. In the energy sector, methanol is used to manufacture Dimethyl ether (DME), a clean fuel that can be used as a substitute to propane. It is also used to manufacture Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), an anti-knock agent and oxygenate in gasoline engines. Moreover, it is an important component of biodiesel and is used as an alternative fuel for internal combustion. In the chemical sector, it is used to produce formaldehyde and acetic acid, which are further used in the production of adhesives, paints, plywood, solvents, foams, plastics, explosives, antifreeze, etc. Other applications of methanol are in fuel cells, gasoline blending, alcohol denaturation, wastewater treatment, methanol-to-olefins and methanol-to-gasoline conversions. Owing to the extensive applications of methanol in energy and chemical sectors, the global methanol market is further expected to reach a value of US$ 68 Billion by ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The mention of the grant of patent No. 0 071 032 in respect of European patent application No. 82 105 793.2, filed on 29 June 1982, was published on 2 May 1985 (cf. Bulletin 85/18) on the basis of three claims. The only independent Claim 1 reads as follows:. Process for the preparation of methyl tert-butyl ether or ethyl tert-butyl ether by the selective reaction of methanol or ethanol respectively with isobutylene contained in a C4-hydrocarbon fraction, in the liquid phase, in the presence of acid catalysts, with a molar ratio of the alcohol to the isobutylene of from 1:1 to 1.25:1, at a temperature of from 40° to 100°C and at a pressure of from 15 to 40 bars, the reaction medium being diluted by an aliphatic hydrocarbon or mixtures of aliphatic hydrocarbons which are liquid under the operating conditions and inert to the other constituents of the reaction medium and which are the recycle product obtained from the reaction mixture after separation of at ...
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The subject of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is important because hundreds of thousands of patients receive prolonged mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs). Many of these patients require difficult and prolonged weaning, accounting for 40% to 60% of the total time on mechanical ventilation. Difficulty weaning from ventilation increases ICU stay and health care costs. There is some evidence that ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction may develop after 6 hours or less of mechanical ventilation. If so, then patients undergoing long surgeries might be at risk. Perhaps subsets of patients undergoing cancer resection, trauma reconstruction, or complex cardiovascular operations bear a higher inflammatory burden from ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction.. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is multifactorial. Diaphragm inactivity is obviously one major contributor. In this issue of Anesthesia & Analgesia, Breuer et al.1 present evidence that ...
title:Comparison of Recovery Profiles of Propofol & Sevoflurane Anesthesia With Bispectral Index Monitoring (BIS) in General Anesthesia. Author:Mukesh Somvanshi, Deepti Agarwal, Archana Tripathi. Keywords:Propofol, Sevoflurane, Bispectral index, Recovery profile.. Type:Original Article. Abstract:Background: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of propofol & sevoflurane with respect to hemodynamic changes, recovery profiles and complications in patients scheduled for various elective surgical procedures under general anesthesia.Method: Fifty ASA physical status I-II patients of either sex, aged between 18 and 60 years were randomly divided into two groups to receive either propofol infusion (group P, n=25) or sevoflurane (group S, n=25). Cardiovascular parameters, SpO2 and bispectral index (BIS) scores were recorded. Time to eye opening, hand squeezing and achieve modified Aldretes ...
Background: The use of clinical signs may not be reliable to measure the hypnotic component of anaesthesia. Bispectral Index monitoring provides a direct measurement of the hypnotic effect of the anaesthetic agent used and it may have certain clinical advantages over clinical signs. Objective: This study consists of dose requirement of propofol with bispectral Index monitoring and without bispectral Index monitoring. Material and Methods: In the present study, 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group), one group received Standard dose of propofol while the other received propofol infusion with BIS monitoring. Results: Mean amount of propofol for induction used was 1.6 vs 2.24 mg/kg in bispectral index group and standard group respectively. The inference was that the induction dose of propofol by Bispectral index and by standard practice was statistically highly significant with P. Key words: Bispectral Index monitoring system, propofol, anaesthetic drug consumption, ...
Press Release issued Mar 20, 2017: The motive of this strategic research report entitled Global Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate Market 2017-2022 is to provide company officials, industry investors, and Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) for Electronic Materials industry members with consequential insights to enable them make reliable strategic decisions regarding the opportunities in the global Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) for Electronic Materials market.
0039] The zinc oxide coatings formed by the CVD process described herein may utilize any combination of suitable gaseous precursor compounds. However, in an embodiment, the zinc-containing compound is an organic zinc-containing compound. Suitable organic zinc-containing compounds for use in practicing the CVD process include compounds of the general formula R1R2Zn, R1R2ZnLz or R1R2Zn--[R3R4N(CHR5)n(CH2)m(CHR.s- up.6)nNR7R8], where [0040] R1-8 can be the same or different alkyl or aryl groups such as methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, sec-butyl, phenyl or substituted phenyl, and may include one or more fluorine-containing substituents; [0041] L is an oxygen-based, commercial, neutral ligand such as tetrahydrofuran, methyl trihydrofuran, furan, diethyl or dibutyl ether, methyl tert-butyl ether, or dioxane and z=1-2; [0042] R5 and R6 can be H or alkyl or aryl groups, n can be 0 or 1, and m can be 1-6 if n is 0, and m can be 0-6 if n is 1; [0043] Preferred zinc containing compounds include ...
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Summary: Many studies have shown that inhalation anaesthetics such as isoflurane, enflurane and halothane have potent cardioprotective effects. The cardioprotective effects can be attributed to several factors: preservation of energy levels during ischaemia; alteration of intracellular calcium concentrtations; inhibition of free radicals; and interactions with KATP channels. Potent inhalation agents also have preconditioning effects which may be beneficial, particularly in patients who are susceptible to myocardial infarction during and after surgery. The article in brief: Ischaemia and subsequent reperfusion of the myocardium can lead to reversible or irreversible injury depending on the severity and duration of the preceding ischaemia. Some anaesthetics, particularly potent inhalational agents, can afford protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury Reversible ischaemia-reperfusion injury: ...
Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the January 2010 reporting period. All Other Oxygenates includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending (e.g., isopropyl ether (IPE) or n-propanol). Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table ...
Notes: Other Oxygenates includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending (e.g., isopropyl ether (IPE) or n-propanol). Stocks are reported as of the last day of the month. RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the January 2010 reporting period. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table ...
Combustion of waste for cogeneration of heat and power is the most convenient and practical choice to carry out through combined heat and power (CHP) plants. But, seasonal variation in heat demand throughout the year affects the operation of CHP plants. This fluctuation in the CHP operation cause less annual operating hours for the plant equipment and is also not profitable for stakeholders. This study aims to assess the technical potential of integrated gasification process with existing CHP plants for either dimethyl ether (DME) or methanol production through refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Process integration considers that the CHP plant provides the necessary heat for biofuel synthesis during off-peak hours. Mass and heat integration methods are used to develop and simulate the polygeneration processes for heat, power, and biofuel production. Both technical and economic indicators are reported and compared to assess the potential for both biofuels through process integration. Annual operation ...
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Background: To evaluate general anesthesia with sevoflurane vs spinal anesthesia with low dose lidocaine 5% onhemodynamics changes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.Methods: In this randomized double blind trial 100 patients (50 patients in each group) older than 60 years underhip surgery were randomized in general anesthesia with sevoflurane and spinal anesthesia with lidocaine 5%.Hemodynamic changes including mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate, blood loss, pain severity, nausea andvomiting and opioids consumption were compared in two groups.Results: During surgery, difference between two groups regarding changes in mean arterial pressure was notsignificant, but the changes in heart rate were significantly different. Mean arterial pressure changes during recoverybetween two groups were significantly different. But there was no significant difference in heart rate changes. Bleedingin the ...
AB amphiphilic comb-like block copolymers of poly(oligo[ethylene glycol] methyl ether methacrylate) and polydimethylsiloxane were synthesised with a methodology based on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The anionic ring opening polymerisation of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane followed by reaction with 3-(chlorodimethylsilyl) propyl 2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate propyldimethylchlorosilane gave suitable macroinitiators for the ATRP of oligo[ethylene glycol] methyl ether methacrylate. The latter synthetic procedure was optimised by performing a number of syntheses varying the reaction solvent, catalytic complex and the temperature used. Copolymers with relatively high polydispersity indices (Mw/Mn,1.3) could be synthesised at room temperature by employing a Cu(I)Br:N,N,N′,N′,N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine complex in n-propanol with Cu(II)Br. The optimum reaction conditions employed a Cu(I)Cl:N-(n-propyl)-2-pyridyl(methanimine) complex with an n-propanol/water mixture or toluene as ...
Other Course Information A. Objectives OBJECTIVES: DURING THIS COURSE THE STUDENTS WILL HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO: 1. INTERPRET THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF INHALATION ANESTHETIC AGENTS. 2. COMPARE THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USE OF THE MODERN INHALATION ANESTHETICS. 3. EVALUATE THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USAGE OF VARIOUS NARCOTIC AGENTS USED IN ANESTHESIA INCLUDING NARCOTIC ANTAGONISTS, TOLERANCE, AND ADDICTION. 4. DISTINGUISH THE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL USE OF NON-NARCOTIC AGENTS USED IN ANESTHESIA, INCLUDING THE BARBITURATES, BENZODIAZEPINES, AND NON-BARBITURATE INDUCTION DRUGS. 5. EXAMINE THE INDICATION FOR THE USE OF VARIOUS INDUCTION AGENTS, LOCAL ANESTHETICS, ANTICHOLINESTERASE AND ANTICHOLINERGIC DRUGS, MUSCLE RELAXANTS, AND NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS. 6. DISCUSS THE EFFECT OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGICAL THERAPY, CHEMOTHERAPY, NUTRITIONAL THERAPY AND ...
Before any dental procedure under general anesthesia, a pre-anesthesia evaluation of the patient by the dentist / anesthesiologist is necessary in order to determine not only the suitability of the patient for undergoing general anesthesia, but also the necessity of using GA versus conscious sedation.. During the pre-operative consultation the dentist will explain the procedure and the risks involved. Finally the patient is given a list of general anesthesia pre-operative instructions to follow on the evening before and on the day of the procedure.. General anesthesia can be achieved with the action of several anesthetic medications. During the general anesthesia procedure these anesthetic drugs can be administered either by breathing a volatile anesthetic through a breathing mask (inhalation induction of general anesthesia), or by injecting the medications ...
Principal Investigator:SOMETY Genji, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:外科・放射線系歯学
Issue: Desiccated (or dry) CO2 absorbers such as soda lime and Baralyme can degrade inhaled anesthetics to carbon monoxide, and my produce carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in excess of 30%.. Mechanism: These CO2 absorbers contain strong bases (sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide) that can extract labile protons from anesthetic molecules, resulting in the production of CO. (There are new CO2 absorbers that do not contain KOH or NaOH, such as Amsorb. These do not react with inhaled agents to produce CO, but they are fairly expensive).. Incidence: The incidence of CO exposure is 0.46% for the first case of the day (2.9% in non-OR settings) and overall incidence is 0.26%.. Factors that increase the production of CO and carboxyhemoglobin:. 1. Inhaled anesthetic used: des,/=enflurane,iso,,halothane=sevo. 2. Absorbent dryness. 3. Type of absorbent (Baralyme,soda lime). 4. Increased temperature. 5. Low fresh gas flow. 6. Increasing anesthetic concentration. 7. Size of patient compared to amount of ...
Comparison of effects of propofol and ketofol (Ketamine-Propofol mixture) on emergence agitation in children undergoing tonsillectomy
NotesProduction, means the output of Ethylene Glycol Butyl EtherRevenue, means the sales value of Ethylene Glycol Butyl EtherThis report studies Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether in Global market, especially in North
Page contains details about carbonate-incorporated copper acetate monohydrate/poly((ethylene glycol)6 methyl ether methacrylate)-block-poly(2-(acetoacetoxy) ethyl methacrylate) nanobelts . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Tidal volume (VT) 7ml Kg-1 of ideal body weight, respiratory rate 10 breaths.min-1, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 5 cmH2O, inspiratory plateau time (time of inspiratory hold) equal with 50% of total inspiratory time and fresh gas flow (FGF) 5 L.min-1. A screen pneumotachograph with a differential pressure-based flow sensor (RSS100-HR; Hans Rudolph, Kansas City, MO) and a pressure transducer will be inserted between the endotracheal tube and the Y piece of the respiratory circuit, for the measurement of flow and tidal volume and inspiratory pressures respectively. At the beginning of the study a first baseline measurement was obtained after endotracheal intubation and initiation of mechanical ventilation, before the administration of the volatile agents. Thereafter, anaesthesia was maintained with 1 MAC end tidal concentration of sevoflurane, isoflurane or desflurane. Measurements of flow and pressures were recorded for five consecutive breaths every five minutes for thirty minutes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracranial elastance in isoflurane - Anesthetized horses. AU - Brosnan, Robert J. AU - Lecouteur, Richard A. AU - Steffey, Eugene. AU - Imai, Ayako. AU - Farver, Thomas B. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Objective - To determine whether high intracranial pressure (ICP) during spontaneous ventilation (SV) in anesthetized horses coincides with an increase in intracranial elastance (ie, change in ICP per unit change of intracranial volume). Animals - 6 adult horses. Procedure - Vinesthesia was induced and maintained in each horse for 5 hours with isoflurane at a constant dose equal to 1.2 times the minimum alveolar concentration. Direct ICP measurements were obtained by use of a strain gauge transducer inserted in the subarachnoid space, and arterial blood pressure was measured from a carotid artery. Physiologic responses were recorded after 15 minutes of normocapnic controlled ventilation (CV) and then after 10 minutes of SV. Aliquots (3 mL) of CSF were removed from each horse ...
Propofol is a general anesthetic commonly used in pediatric clinical practices. Experimental findings demonstrate that anesthetics induce widespread apoptosis and cognitive decline in a developing brain. Although anesthesia-mediated neurotoxicity is the most prominent during intense period of synaptogenesis, the effects of an early anesthesia exposure on the synapses are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of neonatal propofol anesthesia on the expression of key proteins that participate in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity and to evaluate long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities in the mature adult brain. Propofol-injected 7-day-old rats were maintained under 2-, 4-, and 6-h-long anesthesia and sacrificed 0, 4, 16, and 24 h after the termination of each exposure. We showed that propofol anesthesia strongly influenced spatiotemporal expression and/or proteolytic processing of crucial ...
Halothane and other halogenated inhalational anesthetic agents, such as enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, are known to cause severe liver dysfunction. The National Halothane Study, a retrospective analysis, reviewed the incidence and mortality rates of postoperative hepatic necrosis from 1959-1962.
Postoperative neurocognitive disorders are common complications in elderly patients following surgery or critical illness. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is rapidly released after tissue trauma and critically involved in response to sterile injury. Herein we assessed the role of HMGB1 after liver surgery in aged rats and explored the therapeutic potential of a neutralizing anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody in a clinically relevant model of postoperative neurocognitive disorders. 19-22 months Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned as: (1) control with saline; (2) surgery, a partial hepatolobectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia and analgesia, + immunoglobulin G as control antibody; (3) surgery + anti-HMGB1. A separate cohort of animals was used to detect His-tagged HMGB1 in the brain. Systemic anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment exerted neuroprotective effects preventing postoperative memory deficits and anxiety in aged rats by preventing surgery-induced reduction of ...
All digital images copyright 2007, The Curators of the University of Missouri. The Copyright Law of the United States (Title 17, U.S. Code) governs the making of photocopies or reproductions of copyrighted materials. The University Archives of the University of Missouri-Columbia reserves the right to refuse photocopying or reproducing an image if, in its judgment, the reproduction would be used for purposes other than personal or private scholarship, use, or research. If a user employs a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of fair use, that user may be liable for copyright infringement ...
Pediatric Anesthesia: Android app (2.4 ★, 500+ downloads) → The Pediatric Anesthesia Calculator is an application for anesthesiologists, CRNAs and emergency service...
Nationwide Childrens Hospital, Columbus, Ohio , United States. Background: Piglets are recognized alternative to large animal research for neuroscience. Their gyrencephalic brains have striking similarities with human newborn brain structure and function. Although studies have examined apoptosis after anesthesia, none reported effects of anesthetics on neuroinflammation, an arguably more important process when considering lasting neurodegeneration that leads to severe neurocognitive deficits. CNS inflammatory response in children undergoing anesthesia has become our primary focus in an attempt to elucidate the true consequence on the brain in development.. Methods: 35 neonatal piglets (10-14 days old, 2-3 kg) are studied. Animals are divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) LPS and 3) Isoflurane 2%. Sevoflurane 8% in 100% O2 via face cone is used to induce anesthesia followed by isoflurane 2% in 50% O2/50% air for 3 hours. An IV catheter is ...
Teng WN, Tsou MY, Chen PT, Liou JY, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, A desflurane and fentanyl dosing regimen for wake-up testing during scoliosis surgery: Implications for the time-course of emergence from anesthesia. J Formos Med Assoc 2017 Aug;116(8):606-612. Hsu WC, Orr J, Lin SP, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Efficiency of oxygen delivery through different oxygen entrainment devices during sedation under low oxygen flow rate: a bench study. J Clin Monit Comput 2017 May 2;:. Chang KC, Orr J, Hsu WC, Yu L, Tsou MY, Westenskow DR, Ting CK, Accuracy of CO2 monitoring via nasal cannulas and oral bite blocks during sedation for esophagogastroduodenoscopy. J Clin Monit Comput 2016 Apr;30(2):169-73. Ting CK, Johnson KB, Teng WN, Synoid ND, Lapierre C, Yu L, Westenskow DR, Response surface model predictions of wake-up time during scoliosis surgery. Anesth Analg 2014 Mar;118(3):546-53. Yu L, Ting CK, Hill BE, Orr JA, Brewer LM, Johnson KB, Egan TD, Westenskow DR, Using the Entropy of ...
ABSTRACT: Response surface methodology based on a 3-variable, 5-level central composite rotatable design matrix was used to optimize the synthesis. The influence of selected variables, namely, enzyme/substrate (E/S) ratio, substrate concentration, and temperature was investigated. E/S ratio and temperature had a strong effect on esterification, while substrate concentration did not. Reaction time did not show significant effect on ester yields, and conversions could be completed in less than 24 h. The response surface model has been found to describe the experimental results adequately. Product yield at optimum conditions (24 g/mol E/S ratio, 1.5 M substrate concentration 20 °C) was 1.4 M, representing 93% conversion, which is in good agreement with the predicted one. ...
Sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and halothane depress uterine activity equally at equipotent doses; all cause dose-dependent uterine relaxation.
Find Soda Lime Scrubber related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - a trusted source of Soda Lime Scrubber information.
Premeditation with amnestic reduces the chance of awareness. Also, allowing that awareness occurs, psychological trauma is smaller quantity likely without recall. Light inauguration doses and liberal use of muscle relaxants ,out of giving adequate concern to the profundity of anaesthesia can increase the uncertainty of awareness.. Better to give re-bole with i.v. hypnotic during multiple intubation attempts. Consider using inhalation induction technique. Beta-blockers,can reduce MAC-Awake and may moreover decrease the likelihood of PTSD. We can consider ear plugs or headphones to make awareness of noises in the OR. Nitrous oxide, Ketamine and Opioids conceal cortical arousal during painful stimulation, which may reduce the probability of awareness. But BIS and other EEG monitors conclude not accurately predict the depth of anesthesia with these drugs. (Because, even though they yield hypnosis, they do not modulate GABA-A receptors and are associated by ...
At 15:04 00-02-14 -0500, you wrote: , , ,We are investigating Tertiary-Butyl Acetate as a replacement for current ,hand wipe & paint prep techniques such as MEK. Apparently, the EPA is ,looking into delisting it as a VOC, but I have not been able to find any ,technical data concerning this solvent. Were also exploring other possible ,substitutions as this could be a replacement for VOCs in paints thereby ,reducing our VOC emissions at the depots and field units. , ,I have exhausted all the common solvent databases from the EPA and the DOD, ,but have come up empty handed. If anyone has any information concerning ,this solvent, please reply. Thanks! , ,Tim Provens ,Environmental Engineer, USAF ,WPAFB, Ohio Tim, Try typing t-Butyl Acetate (or its CAS No.: 540-88-5) in the Chemfinder Web site at : http://chemfinder.camsoft.com/ Try also HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank) at : http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/sis1/ Denis Begin, M.Sc. Research Assistant University of Montreal Dept. of Occupational and ...
40 patients were randomised to receive either propofol target controlled infusion with a thoracic epidural at the level of T9-12 or to sevoflurane with intraoperative sufentanyl and postoperative patient controlled analgesia. Venous blood samples were taken preoperatively and 24 hours postoperatively. Both groups were similar in patient demographics and tumour stage. The ability of colon cancer cells to proliferate in the propofol-epidural patients serum was significantly reduced compared to the sevoflurane-opioid patients serum. The number of invasive colon cancer cells and cell viability ratio was significantly reduced in the propofol-epidural exposed patients serum compared to the sevoflurane opioid group serum. Apoptosis of colon cancer cells was significantly reduced in sevoflurane-opioid exposed patients serum. The neutrophil/leukocyte ratio, a marker of inflammation, was lower in patients serum who received propofol-epidural ...
Author summary Currently we do not understand how anesthesia leads to loss of consciousness (LOC). One popular idea is that we loose consciousness when brain areas lose their ability to communicate with each other-as anesthetics might interrupt transmission on nerve fibers coupling them. This idea has been tested by measuring the amount of information transferred between brain areas, and taking this transfer to reflect the coupling itself. Yet, information that isnt available in the source area cant be transferred to a target. Hence, the decreases in information transfer could be related to less information being available in the source, rather than to a decoupling. We tested this possibility measuring the information available in source brain areas and found that it decreased under isoflurane anesthesia. In addition, a stronger decrease in source information lead to a stronger decrease of the information transfered. Thus, the input to the connection between brain areas ...
Proven Ventilation Versatility. The electrically driven and electronically controlled Fabius GS E-vent ventilator requires no drive gas. This makes it more flexible and economical to use than traditional gas-driven bellows ventilators by limiting the consumption of expensive medical grade gas to patient use only. Motor-driven hardware and software-controlled functionality also offer virtually unlimited upgradeability. The Fabius GS is suitable for any patient - pediatric to adult - and provides Volume Controlled Ventilation, Pressure Controlled Ventilation, Synchronized Volume Control (SIMV), Pressure Support and Manual/Spontaneous modes. Pressure Support mode facilitates spontaneous breathing by removing the work of breathing due to circuit resistance, improving comfort levels and enhancing quality of patient care.. The Fabius GS is the worlds first anesthesia machine with vertical flow controls and electronic fresh gas flow indicators, enabling you to compare gas flows more easily and ...
Childrens offers a Pediatric Anesthesia Residency that provides experience with children of all ages in elective and emergency situations.

Dental anesthesia - WikipediaDental anesthesia - Wikipedia

Sevoflurane gas in combination with nitrous oxide and oxygen is often used during general anesthesia followed by the use of ... scent is used with the gas to inspire deep inhalation. General anesthesia drugs such as midazolam, ketamine, propofol and ... Dental anesthesia (or dental anaesthesia) is a field of anesthesia that includes not only local anesthetics but sedation and ... page 216 Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist, Logothetis, Elsevier, 2012 Local Anesthesia for the Dental Hygienist, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_anesthesia

Carboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin as Markers of Postoperative Pulmonary ComplicationsCarboxyhemoglobin and Methemoglobin as Markers of Postoperative Pulmonary Complications

Material and Methods: Thirty patients scheduled for elective urologic surgery under general endotracheal anesthesia were ... and one hour after completing the anesthesia. Postoperative pulmonary complications were assessed and recorded during the ... Introduction: The inhalation of tobacco smoke can substantially raise the level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. ... This is reduced to 40 to 60 minutes with inhalation of 100% oxygen[18]. In our study the influence of preoxygenation with 100% ...
more infohttps://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/Carboxyhemoglobin-and-Methemoglobin-as-Markers-of-Postoperative-Pulmonary-Complications/1828

Cancer and Anesthesia: Survival After Radical Surgery - a Comparison Between Propofol or Sevoflurane Anesthesia - Full Text...Cancer and Anesthesia: Survival After Radical Surgery - a Comparison Between Propofol or Sevoflurane Anesthesia - Full Text...

Active Comparator: Sevoflurane Sevoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia. Drug: Sevoflurane Sevoflurane will be administered by ... Cancer and Anesthesia: Survival After Radical Surgery - a Comparison Between Propofol or Sevoflurane Anesthesia (CAN). The ... Effects of propofol anesthesia and sevoflurane anesthesia on the differentiation of human T-helper cells during surgery. Chin ... A Randomized, Open-label Study to Compare Propofol Anesthesia With Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Terms of Overall Survival in ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01975064?recr=Open&cond=%22Rectal+Neoplasms%22&rank=6

Markers of Liver Apoptosis After Anesthesia With Sevoflurane or Propofol - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govMarkers of Liver Apoptosis After Anesthesia With Sevoflurane or Propofol - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... sevoflurane group will receive an inhalation induction with sevoflurane via a primed anesthetic circle system and anesthesia ... Active Comparator: sevoflurane Volatile anesthetic. Drug: Sevoflurane Sevoflurane concentration for induction of anesthesia 7-8 ... Markers of Liver Apoptosis After Anesthesia With Sevoflurane or Propofol. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... The investigators hypothesis is that intravenous or inhalation anesthesia does not impair liver function as assessed by more ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01000337

General anesthesia with sevoflurane decreases myocardial blood volume and hyperemic blood flow in healthy humans.General anesthesia with sevoflurane decreases myocardial blood volume and hyperemic blood flow in healthy humans.

Data related to the influence of general anesthesia on the normal myocardial circulation are limited. In t ... Preservation of myocardial perfusion during general anesthesia is likely important in patients at risk for perioperative ... Anesthesia, General*. Anesthetics, Inhalation*. Blood Volume / drug effects*. Catecholamines / blood. Cold Temperature. ... increased under sevoflurane anesthesia when compared with baseline. In contrast, hyperemic MBF was reduced during anesthesia ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/General-Anesthesia-with-Sevoflurane-Decreases/23385053.html

Drug Research and Children | FDADrug Research and Children | FDA

Ultane (sevoflurane) volatile liquid for inhalation. Used in general anesthesia. Pediatric studies revealed rare reports of ...
more infohttps://www.fda.gov/drugs/drug-information-consumers/drug-research-and-children

Changes in Heart Rate Variability During Anaesthesia Induction Using Sevoflurane or Isoflurane With Nitrous Oxide - PubMedChanges in Heart Rate Variability During Anaesthesia Induction Using Sevoflurane or Isoflurane With Nitrous Oxide - PubMed

The balance of cardiac parasympathetic/sympathetic activity was higher in sevoflurane anaesthesia … ... while sevoflurane-nitrous oxide decreased both cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. ... Anesthesia, Inhalation* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Sevoflurane or isoflurane concentration was increased by 0.5% every 2 to 3 breaths until 5% was attained for sevoflurane, or 3 ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27689429/

Zimba Mission Hospital, Zimba, ZambiaZimba Mission Hospital, Zimba, Zambia

Available inhalation agents include halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane. Spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine is also done. ... Anesthesia: There 3 anesthesia machines available in the theater. 2 machines are Ohmeda and 1 is a Drager. ... A Zambian medical licentiate provides anesthesia.. Ophthalmology: There is a free standing eye hospital on the main hospital ...
more infohttps://www.samaritanspurse.org/medical/zimba-mission-hospital-zimba-zambia/

Effect of Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Brain Is Mediated by lncRNA HOTAIR | SpringerLinkEffect of Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Brain Is Mediated by lncRNA HOTAIR | SpringerLink

Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive... ... within rat hippocampus following sevoflurane anesthesia compared with sham. Sevoflurane inhalation resulted in significant ... Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Given the advantages ... Kobayashi K, Takemori K, Sakamoto A (2007) Circadian gene expression is suppressed during sevoflurane anesthesia and the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12031-018-1029-y

Inhalation Anesthesia Market Size, Outlook and Growth Opportunities, 2019- 2025Inhalation Anesthesia Market Size, Outlook and Growth Opportunities, 2019- 2025

Sevoflurane, Desflurane, and Isoflurane), By Application (Induction, Maintenance), By End User (Hospitals, Ambulatory Surgical ... Global Inhalation Anesthesia Market Size, Outlook and Growth Opportunities to 2025: By Product ( ... 1. Inhalation Anesthesia market size, US$, 2018- 2025. 2. Inhalation Anesthesia market drivers. 3. Inhalation Anesthesia market ... 4. Inhalation Anesthesia market opportunities. 5. Inhalation Anesthesia market trends. 6. Inhalation Anesthesia market size ...
more infohttps://www.aarkstore.com/healthcare/1673713/inhalation-anesthesia-market-size-outlook-and-growth-opportunities

HEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF COMBINED NIFEDIPINE AND SEVOFLURANE I... : Anesthesia & AnalgesiaHEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF COMBINED NIFEDIPINE AND SEVOFLURANE I... : Anesthesia & Analgesia

It may depress cardiovascular function in particular when combined with inhalation anesthetics. These effects may be masked by ... sevoflurane anesthesia was induced by mask (Fi=2.5% sevoflurane). In case of ANS blockade 3 mg/kg atropinemethylnitrate, 2 mg/ ... RESULTS: Induction of sevoflurane-anesthesia led to a decrease of MAP. LVdP/dt and WTF and an increase in HR. Bolus injection ... This reversal is also present during sevoflurane anesthesia in chronically instrumented dogs with intact autonomic nervous ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/anesthesia-analgesia/Fulltext/1998/02001/HEMODYNAMIC_EFFECTS_OF_COMBINED_NIFEDIPINE_AND.96.aspx

Sevoflurane, Isoflurane and Desflurane Market to Hit USD 1.5 Billion Globally by 2022 | Hexa Research | MedgadgetSevoflurane, Isoflurane and Desflurane Market to Hit USD 1.5 Billion Globally by 2022 | Hexa Research | Medgadget

The Sevoflurane, Isoflurane And Desflurane Market is expected to reach USD 1.5 billion by 2022 in comparison to USD 1.2 billion ... This has led the region of North America to occupy the biggest share in the worldwide inhalation anesthesia market in 2014. ... Growing accidents and emergency cases also add income to the inhalation anesthesia market. Universal insurance coverage as well ... Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetic agents. It is administered to babies and children. Sevoflurane ...
more infohttps://www.medgadget.com/2017/05/sevoflurane-isoflurane-and-desflurane-market-to-hit-usd-1-5-billion-globally-by-2022-hexa-research.html

Global Inhalation Anesthesia Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 - QY ResearchGlobal Inhalation Anesthesia Market Insights, Forecast to 2025 - QY Research

Research Report on Global Inhalation Anesthesia Market Insights, Forecast to 2025. The Report includes market price, demand, ... Figure Global Inhalation Anesthesia Production Market Share by Types (Product Category) in 2017. Figure Sevoflurane Product ... Table Inhalation Anesthesia Customers List. Table Inhalation Anesthesia Sales Channels. Table Inhalation Anesthesia ... Table Global Inhalation Anesthesia Sales by Type (2016-2025) (K Units). Table Global Inhalation Anesthesia Sales Share by Type ...
more infohttps://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-inhalation-anesthesia-market-insights-forecast-to-2025.htm

Sevoflurane (Inhalation Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo ClinicSevoflurane (Inhalation Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic

Sevoflurane belongs to the group of medicines known as general anesthetics. Sevoflurane is used to cause general anesthesia ( ... Information about this sevoflurane-inhalation-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. B. Animal studies have ... Sevoflurane may cause children to become agitated (excited) when it is used to start anesthesia when they are awake. Also, ... While you are receiving and recovering from an inhalation anesthetic like sevoflurane, your health care professional will ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/sevoflurane-inhalation-route/description/drg-20065933?p=1

Sofnolime with Different Water Content Causes Different Effects in Two Sevoflurane Inhalational Induction Techniques with...Sofnolime with Different Water Content Causes Different Effects in Two Sevoflurane Inhalational Induction Techniques with...

Keywords: anesthesia, inhalation, inhalation, sevoflurane, compound-A, Sofnolime, model lung. This is an open access article ... Objective: During sevoflurane anesthesia with Sofnolime for CO2 absorption, the factors affecting the production of compound A ... The inspired sevoflurane was maintained at 8%, the concentrations of compound-A were assayed using Gas-spectrum technique, and ... However, with dehydrated Sofnolime, the effects of the two inhalation induction techniques on compound-A output were not ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v09p0435

Six-week inhalation of CdO nanoparticles in mice: The effects on immune response, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense,...Six-week inhalation of CdO nanoparticles in mice: The effects on immune response, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense,...

... and inhalation anesthesia are two anesthesia methods that can be preferred for the maintenance of anesthesia. Sevoflurane and ... Effects of TIVA and Inhalation Anesthesia on Oxidative Stress Factors During Hypotensive Anesthesia ... Six-week inhalation of CdO nanoparticles in mice: The effects on immune response, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, ... Home » Topics » Mental Health » Research » Six-week inhalation of CdO nanoparticles in mice: The effects on immune response, ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2529642/Six-week-inhalation-of-CdO-nanoparticles-in-mice-The-effects-on-immune.html

Sojourn (Sevoflurane) Inhalation: Uses, Dosage & Side EffectsSojourn (Sevoflurane) Inhalation: Uses, Dosage & Side Effects

Sojourn is used to cause general anesthesia (loss of consciousness) before and during surgery.... ... Sevoflurane) belongs to the group of medicines known as general anesthetics. ... Sojourn (Sevoflurane) belongs to the group of medicines known as general anesthetics. Sojourn is used to cause general ... anesthesia (loss of consciousness) before and during surgery. Sojourn is given to patients as a gas for inhalation. Although ...
more infohttps://www.findatopdoc.com/Medical-Library/Drugs-and-Supplements/Sojourn

Final Exam Flashcards by Kelsey  Ellard | BrainscapeFinal Exam Flashcards by Kelsey Ellard | Brainscape

Depth of anesthesia may be changed most rapidly with what inhalation gas? ... 1. the corneal reflex should be active throughout anesthesia, and the palpebral reflex is depressed by gas anesthesia ... If the anesthesia machine is assembles so that the F circuit breathing tubes are attached opposite the way intended to the ... What is the surgical stage/plane of anesthesia, and how do you know that your patient has progressed to that level? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/final-exam-6849646/packs/10796507

Frontiers | Brain Mechanisms during Course of Anesthesia: What We Know from EEG Changes during Induction and Recovery |...Frontiers | Brain Mechanisms during Course of Anesthesia: What We Know from EEG Changes during Induction and Recovery |...

During isoflurane, sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia similar raw electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern sequences are observed. ... Meanwhile, anesthesia is usually considered to be a reversible phenomenon. The question is, then, do the changes in the brain ... a hemi-frontal lead of the type commonly used with EEG-based anesthesia monitors.The relation between consciousness and EEG ... based mainly on EEG evidence gathered during anesthesia, I will discuss this question.Are induction and recovery mirror ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnsys.2017.00039/full

https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Our+Anesthetic+Management+for+Brainstem+Evoked+a+Response+Audiometry...-a0572716874https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Our+Anesthetic+Management+for+Brainstem+Evoked+a+Response+Audiometry...-a0572716874

... general Anesthesia Health aspects Gastroesophageal reflux Seizures (Medicine) ... Anesthesia was maintained with (50%/50%) medical air/oxygen and 2% sevoflurane (via inhalation). The test lasted 1 h without ... After preoxy-genation, inhalation induction was performed with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen. Subsequently, anesthesia was induced ... inhalation agents, muscular relaxants, and benzodiazepines. Sevoflurane seems to be more suitable due to its rapid ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Our+Anesthetic+Management+for+Brainstem+Evoked+a+Response+Audiometry...-a0572716874

Europe Anesthesia Drugs Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecasts 2017 - 2022Europe Anesthesia Drugs Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecasts 2017 - 2022

7.3.1 Inhalation. 7.3.2 Injection. 8. Market segmentation by geography. 8.1 Europe. 8.1.1 Introduction. 8.1.2 Germany. 8.1.3 ... 7.1.1.2 Sevoflurane. 7.1.1.3 Desflurane. 7.1.1.4 Dexmedetomidine. 7.1.1.5 Remifentanil. 7.1.1.6 Midazolam. 7.1.1.7 Others. 7.1. ... The European anesthesia drugs market has been segmented by the type into general and local anesthetics. The general anesthetics ... Europe Anesthesia Drugs Market - Growth, Trends, and Forecasts 2017 - 2022. * ID: 4388622 ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4388622/europe-anesthesia-drugs-market-growth-trends

Effect of Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Brain Is Mediated by lncRNA HOTAIR | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEffect of Sevoflurane Anesthesia on Brain Is Mediated by lncRNA HOTAIR | Springer for Research & Development

Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive... ... within rat hippocampus following sevoflurane anesthesia compared with sham. Sevoflurane inhalation resulted in significant ... Sevoflurane anesthesia has been implicated in both postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Given the advantages ... Kobayashi K, Takemori K, Sakamoto A (2007) Circadian gene expression is suppressed during sevoflurane anesthesia and the ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12031-018-1029-y

Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats | Anesthesiology ...Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats | Anesthesiology ...

Bito H, Ikeda K: Closed-circuit anesthesia with sevoflurane in humans-effects on renal and hepatic function, and concentrations ... Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Anesthesiology ... Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats ... Inhalation Toxicity Study of a Haloalkene Degradant of Sevoflurane, Compound A (PIFE), in Sprague-Dawley Rats ...
more infohttps://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=2323548

Inhalation Anesthesia Market Analysis Forecast 2026Inhalation Anesthesia Market Analysis Forecast 2026

The research report on Inhalation Anesthesia Market is segmented by Drug Type, by End User and by Geography - Size, Share, ... Inhalation Anesthesia Market, by Drug Type (Nitrous Oxide and Halogenated Agents [Sevoflurane, Desflurane, Isoflurane, ... Inhalation Anesthesia Market - Market Taxonomy On the basis of drug type, the global inhalation anesthesia market is segmented ... Inhalation Anesthesia Market - Regional Insights On the basis of geography, the global inhalation anesthesia market is ...
more infohttps://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/ongoing-insight/inhalation-anesthesia-market-2377

Inhalation anesthesia | definition of inhalation anesthesia by Medical dictionaryInhalation anesthesia | definition of inhalation anesthesia by Medical dictionary

What is inhalation anesthesia? Meaning of inhalation anesthesia medical term. What does inhalation anesthesia mean? ... Looking for online definition of inhalation anesthesia in the Medical Dictionary? inhalation anesthesia explanation free. ... Comparative investigations on inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane (Forene) and sevoflurane (SEVOrane) in racing pigeons ( ... inhalation anesthesia. anesthesia achieved by the inhalation of an anesthetic gas or a vapor. Although general anesthesia by ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/inhalation+anesthesia
  • Pressure anesthesia - pressure with a cotton swab in the area to distract the nerve sensation of pain when the needle enters certain areas such as palatal tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerves lying near the point where the inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandible often are also anesthetized during inferior alveolar anesthesia, such as affecting hearing (auriculotemporal nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, this study investigates the effects of nifedipine on cardiovascular function in sevoflurane anesthetized chronically instrumented dogs with and without blockade of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (lww.com)
  • This reversal is also present during sevoflurane anesthesia in chronically instrumented dogs with intact autonomic nervous system. (lww.com)
  • The European region is also expected to have growth opportunities in the anesthesia drug market due to supportive norms and policies considering the healthcare mainly in the United Kingdom and Germany, and presence of many clinical research labs working towards the innovation and development of new anesthetic drugs in the European market. (marketresearch.com)
  • Further, the technological advancements in drug delivery devices, development of specific targeted drugs and patient monitoring devices for monitoring physiological parameters of patients during and after anesthesia, and minimized side effects of anesthetic drugs are drivers which are likely to boost the market growth during the forecast period. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The Major organizations operating in the anesthesia drug market includes Piramal, Novartis, Mylan NV, Hospira Inc, ABBOT laboratories and Baxter International PLC. (marketresearch.com)
  • Glymphatic system activity increases during sleep or ketamine/xylazine (K/X) anesthesia, yet the mechanism(s) facilitating CSF influx are poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previous studies of glymphatic function have shown that anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine (K/X) emulates sleep in that fluorescent CSF tracer influx and that the rate of radiolabeled Aβ efflux from the brain is comparable to findings in naturally sleeping animals ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Although it remains largely unknown whether anesthetics other than K/X influence fluid movement from the CSF compartment into the brain, one experimental magnetic resonance imaging study showed that anesthesia with isoflurane (ISO) combined with the α 2 -agonist dexmedetomidine (dex) facilitated glymphatic transport of a contrast agent compared to ISO alone ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • however, the scope is expanding to involve anesthesia for both maternal as well as fetal procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the advent of obstetric anesthesia facilitated the use of instruments during delivery as obstetricians were afforded greater scope in terms of these materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geographically, the anesthesia drug market is divided mainly into regions such as North America, Europe, Asia-pacific and rest of the world. (marketresearch.com)
  • This market research report administers a broad view of the Anesthesia Drugs market on a Global basis, presenting a forecast and statistics in terms of revenue during the forecast period. (openpr.com)
  • The report analyzes factors affecting Anesthesia Drugs market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. (openpr.com)
  • The "Global Anesthesia Drugs Market Analysis to 2027" is a specialized and in-depth study of the pharmaceutical industry with a special focus on the global market trend analysis. (openpr.com)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the leading Anesthesia Drugs market players and offers key trends and opportunities in the market. (openpr.com)
  • It provides overview and forecast of the global Anesthesia Drugs market based on various segments. (openpr.com)
  • The Anesthesia Drugs market by each region is later sub-segmented by respective countries and segments. (openpr.com)
  • In the practice of obstetric anesthesia, John Snow greatly differed from Simpson in that Snow emphasized proper quantity measurements and the delay of administration until the second stage of labor commenced. (wikipedia.org)