The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Relating to the size of solids.
The act of BREATHING in.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The contamination of indoor air.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms. (1/1739)

A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms.  (+info)

Exposure of farmers to phosmet, a swine insecticide. (2/1739)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure dermal and inhalation exposures to phosmet during application to animals and to identify what determinants of exposure influence the exposure levels. METHODS: Ten farmers were monitored using dermal patches, gloves, and air sampling media during normal activities of applying phosmet to pigs for insect control. Exposures were measured on the clothing (outer), under the clothing (inner), on the hands, and in the air. Possible exposure determinants were identified, and a questionnaire on work practices was administered. RESULTS: The geometric mean of the outer exposure measurements was 79 microg/h, whereas the geometric mean of the inner exposure measurements was 6 microg/h. The geometric mean for hand exposure was 534 microg/h, and the mean air concentration was 0.2 microg/m3. Glove use was associated with the hand and total dermal exposure levels, but no other determinant was associated with any of the exposure measures. The average penetration through the clothing was 54%, which dropped to 8% when the farmers wearing short sleeves were excluded. The farmers reported an average of 40 hours a year performing insecticide-related tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Farmers who applied phosmet to animals had measurable exposures, but the levels were lower than what has been seen in other pesticide applications. Inhalation exposures were insignificant when compared with dermal exposures, which came primarily from the hands. Clothing, particularly gloves, provided substantial protection from exposures. No other exposure determinant was identified.  (+info)

Increase in interleukin-6 and fibrinogen in peripheral blood after swine dust inhalation. (3/1739)

OBJECTIVES: The inhalation of dust from swine confinement buildings causes inflammatory responses in the airways with a rise of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The purpose of this study was to confirm the increase in serum IL-6 after inhalation of swine dust and investigate a possible increase in plasma fibrinogen. METHODS: Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers inhaled dust for 4 hours inside a swine confinement building. Inhalable dust and endotoxin were sampled. The concentrations of IL-6 and fibrinogen were determined in serum and plasma. RESULTS: The study showed a clear increase in the concentrations of IL-6 and fibrinogen after exposure. CONCLUSIONS: As fibrinogen is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease, the increased concentration of fibrinogen among persons exposed to swine dust may increase the risk for this disease.  (+info)

Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure. (4/1739)

Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO.  (+info)

Should we be frightened of bracken? A review of the evidence. (5/1739)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk to human health of the plant bracken (Pteridium sp). DESIGN: An evaluation of studies of human and animal populations exposed to bracken, together with a review of expert reports and advice to the public. MAIN RESULTS: Bracken induced disease has been demonstrated in animals in both laboratory and field studies. Depending on the species, diseases in animals associated with the plant have included; cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract, lung and breast; haematuria; retinal degeneration; and, thiamine deficiency. Potential exposure of human populations is through: food either directly (people in some parts of the world eat bracken as a traditional dish) or indirectly by consuming animals fed on bracken; milk; water; inhalation and ingestion of spores; and insect vectors. Four studies of human populations (two analytical and two observational) failed to assess adequately confounding factors and other sources of bias, so that conclusions about a risk to human health from bracken cannot firmly be drawn. Establishing exposure is also extremely difficult in populations (such as the United Kingdom) where direct consumption of bracken is rare. CONCLUSION: Bracken is a common plant worldwide. It is toxic to many animal species and to several organ systems. There is no tumour (or other disease) that is pathognomic of exposure in animals, though cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract seem to be the most commonly associated. It is not possible to extrapolate from animal models to humans. Studies of human populations, do not establish a clear risk of bracken to human health, largely because of methodological problems. Testing the evidence against traditional criteria of causality only fulfils the criterion of biological plausibility. Despite this, current public information implies a serious risk to human health from bracken, and increasing media coverage of the subject is likely to lead to greater public concern. Further epidemiological studies are required.  (+info)

Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment. (6/1739)

In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.  (+info)

Occupational exposure to dust in quartz manufacturing industry. (7/1739)

Owing to the abundance of a sedimentary rock, 65 small-scale quartz manufacturing enterprises, employing 650 workers, have been established in the region studied. Quartz powder manufacturing involves various processes and operations, such as manual handling of quartz stones, crushing, grinding, sieving, screening, mixing, storing and bagging. Results demonstrate that each of these operations generates high concentrations of airborne 'total' dust and respirable dust, which contain a very high percentage (> 75%) free silica. The estimated average exposure to airborne 'total' dust was 22.5 mg m-3 (Permissible Limit of Exposure 1.08 mg m-3), and respirable dust 2.93 mg m-3 (PLE 0.36 mg m-3). This shows that 'total' dust exposure was 7.7 times higher than respirable dust. Since the present work systems and practices may pose a serious health risk to the workers, public and the environment, suitable preventive and control measures have been suggested for improvement in the workplace.  (+info)

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in two iron ore mines. (8/1739)

Six males with systemic sclerosis were observed in the work forces of two iron ore mines. The usual spectrum of clinical features encountered in systemic sclerosis patients were present. Histologic examination of pulmonary tissue was performed on three of the cases and showed features of both silicosis and scleroderma but to different degrees and stages of development. Exposure to high levels of silica-containing dusts had occurred in all six cases.  (+info)

The potential adult adverse health outcomes that result from exposures during early life are recognized. However, only limited attention has been paid to the effect(s) of environmentally relevant toxicant exposures during critical periods of development and even fewer studies have examined whether early life inhalation exposures leads to adult disease. Our research is investigating whether inhalation exposures to real world dust during development can lead to changes in lung function and structure in adults. If so, what are the critical times of exposure that lead to those changes? Using metal-containing real world dusts collected from an abandoned mine tailings site, we have exposed male and female mice only in utero, only post-natally or continuously (in utero and postnatal inhalation exposures). We have found that significant changes in lung function and structure are only seen in adult male mice following continuous exposures. In addition, alterations in protein expression of airway cells ...
INTRODUCTION: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material ... read more and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. METHODS: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). The dose is expressed as 6 h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2 mg/m(3) CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2-14 nm and an MMAD of 1.5 μm. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung ...
The behavioral effects induced by methyl-n-amyl ketone (110430) (MAK) exposure were studied. Rats received from one to eight intraperitoneal injections (group I) of 18, 37, 74, or 175 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) MAK, or were exposed to MAK aerosols (Group II) of 800 to 1,900 parts per million (ppm) daily for 6 or 8 hours. Following inhalation exposures, the rats were given injections of 37, 74
OBSH is used as a blowing agent in industrial processing and for professional uses. For systemic effects from long term inhalational exposure, no inhalational study is available. A DNEL of 0.7 mg/m3 was established based on a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral OECD 408 90D study. For local effects in respiratory tract from long term inhalational exposure a DNEL of 0.1 mg/m3 is applicable based on a ACGIH TLV of 0.1 mg/m3 for OBSH derived to protect against effects from hydrazine liberated from hydrolysis of OBSH. For systemic effects from long term dermal exposure, no dermal study is available. A DNEL of 0.1 mg/kg/d was established based on a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral OECD 408 90D study with rats. Short term exposure is controlled by conditions for long-term exposure, therefore no DNEL has been established. Further, as OBSH has been identified as a skin sensitizer, strict control measures should apply. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies. AU - Miettinen, Mirella. AU - Tapper, Unto. AU - Backman, Ulrika. AU - Joutsensaari, Jorma. AU - Auvinen, Ari. AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Conference article. T2 - European Aerosol Conference 2008, EAC 2008. Y2 - 25 August 2008 through 29 August 2008. ER - ...
Methanol was investigated for chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity in two long-term whole-body inhalation studies (24 months in rats and 18 months in mice for 20 and 19 hours per day, respectively). There was no evidence of a carcinogenic potential in rats and mice exposed to air concentrations of up to 1.3 mg/L. Overall tumour frequencies showed no statistically significant differences between treatment groups and controls in either rats or mice. There was a non-statistically significant increase in phaeochromocytoma incidence among aged female high-dose rats; the biological significance of this observation was considered to be low. On balance, these results did not suggest that methanol is carcinogenic in rodents from this exposure route. In studies with oral administration in rats (drinking water; Soffritti et al., 2002) and mice (gavage; Apaja, 1980) the number of tumor-bearing animals in the rat study showed a clear dose-related trend. Target organs were less pronounced (some indication of ...
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
Adverse health effects by inhaled and deposited particles are of great concern. In addition, therapeutic aerosols become increasingly important for the treatment of lung and other diseases. The interaction of particles with the inner surface of the lungs is fundamental for their biological effectiveness in the organism, though poorly understood and precluded from being studied in humans. A large number of animals are used to test the effects of aerosol particles on a living system by whole-body or nose-only exposures. Such experiments are time consuming and they are stressful for the animals. Furthermore, the increase of knowledge in the use of animal models is hampered for various reasons, such as the long time lapse between aerosol application and lung fixation, the lack of methods for direct studies, or artefacts produced by chemical lung fixation. Cell cultures which are in common use today are deficient in important structural components of the inner lung surface, such as macrophages, ...
The general population is exposed to CDFs by inhalation, ingestion of drinking water, consumption of food, and through the use of certain consumer products. Since the concentrations of CDFs in ambient air and drinking water are low (see Section 5.4), the intake of CDFs by inhalation and ingestion of drinking water would be low. It has been shown that inhalation exposure was not a major pathway of human exposure to CDFs (Travis and Hattermer-Frey 1989). The estimate that inhalation exposure.... ...
In case of a radioactive release, it is important to have good preparedness with the right actions to contribute the best protection for the vulnerable section of the population. Immediately after a release theexposure through inhalation will be the biggest problem, since particles and gases have not beendeposited on land, clouds and so on. Buildings contribute to protection against inhalation. The reason forthis is that the air outside and inside the dwelling is changed relatively slowly. How much of the pollutionthat enter the indoor air and how long time it takes is important information to determine if thepopulation is sufficiently protected inside buildings or if evacuation is needed. In this work knowledgefrom existing literature and modelling has been used to describe general conditions with which apollutant moves in and out of a building. Differential equations with main processes and parameters havebeen studied to give a estimation as to the protection a building can provide against ...
Felix, Human infection with hanta-virus occurs through inhalation of infected material, so as long as you werent breathing, or picking your nose when you were around the moose droopings, youll be OK, other-wise, head for the nearest epidemiologist. ,Al ...
PRN: RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials. RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials [03-May-2012] - RIFM 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model Is An Alternative Method To Calculate Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance WOODCLIFF LAKE, New Jersey, May 3, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) is beta testing its innovative 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model software, an alternative method for assessing inhalation exposure to fragrance materials. RIFM Database subscribers can download the model for individual use by selecting Tools and Models from the RIFM Database home page and then selecting the model for download.
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A training exercise in subjectively estimating inhalation exposures. AU - Semple, Sean. AU - Proud, L. A.. AU - Tindall, M. E.. AU - Tannahill, S. N.. AU - Cherrie, John. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives This study examined whether it is possible to train occupational hygienists to estimate inhalation exposures reliably from limited occupational information using a new method and assessed improvements in the quality of the estimate using the aggregate from multiple assessors.Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. The measured exposure levels were used to determine the validity of the method. The correlation coefficients of the log-transformed data were used to assess the discriminative power of the method, and the ratio of the mean estimate to measured values was used to measure accuracy.Results There ...
Background: Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that exposure to traffic-derived pollution worsens respiratory symptoms in asthmatics, but controlled human exposure studies have failed to provide a mechanism for this effect. Here we investigated whether diesel exhaust (DE) would induce apoptosis or proliferation in the bronchial epithelium in vivo and thus contribute to respiratory symptoms.. Methods: Moderate (n = 16) and mild (n = 16) asthmatics, atopic non-asthmatic controls (rhinitics) (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 21) were exposed to filtered air or DE (100 μg/m 3 ) for 2 h, on two separate occasions. Bronchial biopsies were taken 18 h post-exposure and immunohistochemically analysed for pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bak, p85 PARP, Fas, Bcl-2) and a marker of proliferation (Ki67). Positive staining was assessed within the epithelium using computerized image analysis.. Results: No evidence of epithelial apoptosis or proliferation was observed in healthy, allergic or ...
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) announced the release of 17 new, updated, corrected or deleted Test Guidelines. The Test Guidelines include three that are specifically developed for nanomaterials.. A full list of publications in the Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials is available on the OECD WPMN website via http://www.oecd.org/env/ehs/nanosafety/publications-series-safety-manufactured-nanomaterials.htm. (1) Test No. 318: Dispersion Stability of Nanomaterials in Simulated Environmental Media (PDF, 1.5 MB). This document offers guidelines on a test procedure to gain information on dispersion stability of manufactured nanomaterials in simulated environmental media. It allows the users to understand the nanomaterials fate in natural waters and their potential behaviour in test media.. (2) Test No. 412: 28 days (Subacute) Inhalation Toxicity Study (PDF, 354 KB). (3) Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study (PDF, 354 KB). Both ...
Video articles in JoVE about inhalation exposure include Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures, Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System, A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii, Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping, The Lambda Select cII Mutation Detection System, An Experimental Model to Study Tuberculosis-Malaria Coinfection upon Natural Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium berghei, Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry, Direct Tracheal Instillation of Solutes into Mouse Lung, Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Latex Agglutination.
A colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. Fumes strongly in moist air. Nonflammable. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Heavier than air. Long-term inhalation of low concentrations or short-term inhalation of high concentrations has adverse health effects. Prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat may result in the violent rupture and rocketing of the container. Used in the manufacture of rubber, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and in gasoline refining and metals processing.. Rate of onset: Immediate. Persistence: Minutes to hours. Odor threshold: 0.77 ppm. Source/use/other hazard: Ore, other metal refining/cleaning; food/pickling; petroleum; corrosive liq.. ...
The information was provided to the workers from the year of introduction of diesel equipment at each facility , a surrogate for diesel exhaust exposure, from a variety of sources, including a 1998-2001 survey of diesel exhaust exposure at each facility, data from the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration Mine Information data Analysis system compliance database, data on diesel equipment usage over time and historical data at each facility mine ventilation... Its really no secret to deal with the sleep deprivation with a new baby with a new baby after Reynolds practicing Nurture try a healthy diet, and not on any additional take on tasks outside the home - you won t have time for them and nap when stay stay. Calm with a dramatic change in the life and routine, it can be difficult to stay cool and collected, but thats the key your baby your baby on an even keel. Even if something is wrong, reflects your mood and response to[ their] disposition. Are are freaking out, they do not ...
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10-deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines ...
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10-deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines ...
Disclaimer: These masks should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat source or flammable gas. Wear Boise LLC makes no warranties, either express or implied, that the face cover prevents infection or the transmission of viruses or diseases ...
(Non Medical) Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat sour
(Non Medical) Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat sour
Buy Novidat Online! Novidat is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. Novidat oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure.
Buy Ciproxina Online! Ciproxina is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It is not effective against syphilis infections. Ciproxina oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure.
Cloth face coverings are not intended for use in the diagnosis of a disease or other conditions or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease or for any other medical purposes. Avoid using these cloth face coverings (1) in any surgical or medical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk levels through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high-intensity heat source or flammable gas ...
The breathing system comprises a canister carrying layered filtering material, including activated carbon granules, a dessicant, a catalyst for the catalyzation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, optionally lithium peroxide, for conversion of CO2 to O2, and electrostatically charged filters between the layers of filtering material. A mouthpiece carrying a noseclip, and inhalation and exhalation check valves and a whistle is disposed within a flexible, substantially completely transparent hear-through hood, both the mouthpiece and hood being disposed in the canister between the filtering material and a cover for the canister. In use, the cover is removed, air inlet apertures are uncovered, and the hood is drawn about an individuals head and substantially sealed about the neck. With the mouthpiece in the individuals mouth, and noseclip closing off the users nose, inhalation causes air to flow through the filtering material and the inhalation check valve and past the exhalation check valves. When
1. Locate a current SDS for one of the fixatives described in todays lab. Identify the properties and hazards associated with that chemical. Methanol that is used in Precipitation fixation Dangerous Good Class: 3 (Flammable liquid) Subsidiary Risk(s): 6.1 (Toxic) Risk: - Highly flammable. - Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Safety Phrases: - Keep container tightly closed. - Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking. - Avoid contact with skin. - Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). ...
1. The activities or operations where the workers are exposed to the chemical agents shall be considered unhealthy when the tolerance limits in Table 1 of this Annex are exceeded.. 2. All values given in Table 1 (Table of Tolerance Limits) are only for the absorption through inhalation.. 3. All values given in Table 1 as simple asphyxiant determine that, in the presence of these substances in the work environment, the minimum concentration of oxygen must be 18% by volume. The activities and operations in which the oxygen concentration is below, this value shall be considered as an imminent and serious risk.. 4. The chemical agents whose tolerance limits cannot be exceeded at any time during the working day are marked in the Ceiling Limit column.. 5. The chemical agents that can be absorbed through the skin and therefore requiring the use of gloves while handling, in addition to necessary PPE for protection of other body parts, are shown in the Absorption through skin column.. 6. The ...
Darkened lips can result from months and years of smoking. Nicotine and tar transfer to the lips through inhalation of the cigarette smoke, causing...
سلامت کار ایران Iran Occupational Health (IOH) seeks to publish Original Research Papers and Case Reports, Review Articles and Technical Reports related to the fields of Public Health and Occupational Health particularly. IOH is an official publication of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health and is published quarterly. The following guidelines refer to the Journal requirements for receiving your manuscripts for possible publication. Complying with guidelines will expedite the process of evaluation and publication of the submitted manuscripts. IOH regrets to reject those contributions that deviate from the Journal style.
Acutely toxic chemicals may cause harm if it enters the body. They may enter the body in different ways: the most common is through inhalation (breathing it into the lungs) or through skin contact or ingestion.
Question by Amit Varma. In the book The World of _____ by Bennett Alan Weinberg and Bonnie K Bealer, there is a photograph of a label from a jar of pharmaceutical-grade crystals. It reads:. WARNING: MAY BE HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED. HAS CAUSED MUTAGENIC AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS IN LABORATORY ANIMALS. INHALATION CAUSES RAPID HEART RATE, EXCITEMENT, DIZZINESS, PAIN, COLLAPSE, HYPOTENSION, FEVER, SHORTNESS OF BREATH. MAY CAUSE HEADACHE, INSOMNIA, VOMITING, STOMACH PAIN, COLLAPSE AND CONVULSIONS.. Fill in the blank.. ...
A new long-term study by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health found that miners exposed to diesel engine exhaust are three times more likely to contract fatal lung cancer, and that commuters on busy highways in smoggy, urban areas might face a similar risk ...
Brands: STELLAR Telemetry sets new standards in wireless animal physiology monitoring where the animal can move anytime, anywhere and still record your data gap-free and loss-less using the latest technology. TSE DACO is a comprehensive software solution for inhalation exposure studies. The Daco software package allows unparalleled flexibility in experimental design and data recording. The flexibility is reflected in the control of the experimental setup, allowing a mix of different exposure systems, all the way through the analysis parameters and even offers an advanced software version with implementation of specific GLP checkpoints and audit trails termed Daco-GLP.. ...
Researchers are now adding additional data to the obesity puzzle, citing that diesel exhaust exposure while in utero could also be to blame for the rise in
HSE has highlighted the importance of managing health risks effectively after a Gateshead company admitted exposing its workers to hazardous soldering fumes. View press release
In the aftermath of the large spill of crude 4-methylcyclohexylmethanol (MCHM) into the Elk River in 2014, there were reports of a strong licorice-smelling odor and reports of respiratory illness/cough suggestive of chemical-induced adverse airway effects. Levels of MCHM in the air were predicted to be as high as 0.39 ppm after 10 minutes of showering, suggesting that inhalation of MCHM vapors was a potential route of chemical exposure. NTP conducted prenatal developmental toxicity and 5-day toxicogenomic oral gavage studies that showed minimal MCHM-induced adverse effects; however, no in vivo inhalation studies for MCHM have been performed to date. In this study, we utilized an organotypic human air-liquid interface (ALI) culture model (EpiAirwayTM) derived from a single donor to determine if there was any potential for MCHM-induced airway toxicity in vitro following acute exposure to MCHM vapors for 6 hours, which might warrant future inhalation toxicity testing in vivo. ALI tissues were ...
Human, Manganese, Rat, Rats, Cells, Cell, Concentrations, Tissue, Tissues, Adult, Sexual Development, Testes, Inhalation, Fetus, Testosterone, Risks, Brain, Diet, Inhalation Exposures, Liver
This presentation will address some of the obstacles with studies in juvenile animals related to specialty endpoints or routes of delivery as well as approaches to overcome them. Discussion topics include cardiovascular assessment, immunophenotyping, and T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) evaluation in juvenile dogs, and approaches to inhalation exposure of neonatal/juvenile rodents, and dogs.. ...
Find patient medical information for Asmanex Twisthaler Inhalation on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Many studies have been carried out, using several animal species, to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of exposure to whole exhaust and to components of exhaust from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled internal combustion engines. The studies are considered within six subgroupings: (i) whole diesel engine exhaust; (ii) gas-phase diesel engine exhaust (with particles removed); (iii) diesel engine exhaust particles or extracts of diesel engine exhaust particles; (iv) whole gasoline engine exhaust; (v) condensates/extracts of gasoline engine exhaust; and (vi) engine exhausts in combination with known carcinogens. Whole diesel engine exhaust Mice, rats, Syrian hamsters and monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed by inhalation to a range of concentrations of whole diesel engine exhaust, with observations in some studies extending to the lifespan of the animals. Five studies conducted using two different strains of rats showed an increased incidence of benign and malignant lung tumours that was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoradiographic analyses of Guinea pig airway tissues following inhalation exposure to C-labeled methyl isocyanate. AU - Kennedy, Amy L.. AU - Singh, Gurmukh. AU - Alarie, Yves. AU - Brown, William E.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Through the use of radioactively labeled methyl isocyanate (MIC), the deposition, penetration, and clearance of this highly reactive compound in the airway at the tissue and cellular levels have been directly examined. Guinea pigs were exposed to 14C-MIC vapors at concentrations ranging from 0.38 to 15.2 ppm for periods of 1-6 hr. Solubilization of tissues from these animals showed the airway tissues to have the highest level of radioactivity. In the nasal region, 14C deposition, as monitored by histoautoradiography, was limited to the epithelial layer, was related to dose, and was dependent on the specific epithelial cell type. The squamous epithelium was minimally labeled on the surface and the label did not penetrate the cell layer. However, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. AU - Lan, Qing. AU - Vermeulen, Roel. AU - Dai, Yufei. AU - Ren, Dianzhi. AU - Hu, Wei. AU - Duan, Huawei. AU - Niu, Yong. AU - Xu, Jun. AU - Fu, Wei. AU - Meliefste, Kees. AU - Zhou, Baosen. AU - Yang, Jufang. AU - Ye, Meng. AU - Jia, Xiaowei. AU - Meng, Tao. AU - Bin, Ping. AU - Kim, Christopher. AU - Bassig, Bryan A.. AU - Hosgood, H. Dean. AU - Silverman, Debra. AU - Zheng, Yuxin. AU - Rothman, Nathaniel. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE causes lung cancer in humans is not well understood. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study in a diesel engine truck testing ...
A Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) convened in Lyon, France, June 5-12 to scrutinise the available knowledge base on the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust, gasoline engine exhaust and some nitroarenes.1 Diesel and gasoline engine exhaust and nitroarenes were previously evaluated by IARC in 1989.2 For gasoline engine exhaust the classification remained Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) as well as for seven of the nitroarenes. The newly evaluated nitroarene 3-nitrobenzanthrone was also added to this group. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene were classified as 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans. 6-Nitrochrysene and 1-nitropyrene are important exposure markers for diesel exhaust since metabolites of these substances have been found in workers exposed to diesel exhaust.3-5 The most prominent outcome of the IARC evaluation meeting was the upgrade of the classification of diesel exhaust, now in Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans with sufficient ...
Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancerrisk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. ...
2-Chloronitrobenzene and 4-chloronitrobenzene are oily yellow solids that are used primarily as chemical intermediates in the production of dyes, lumber preservatives, drugs, and photographic chemicals. Although these chemicals are solids at room temperature, the vapor pressures of these chemicals are sufficiently high to result in significant inhalation exposure. Toxicity studies of 2-chloronitrobenzene and 4-chloronitrobenzene were performed by exposing male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to the chemicals by whole-body inhalation 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 2 weeks or 13 weeks. Animals were evaluated for histopathology, clinical chemistry (rats), hematology (rats), and reproductive system effects. In separate studies, the dermal absorption ofthe chemicals was compared, and the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion were partially characterized following oral administration to male F344/N rats. 2-Chloronitrobenzene and 4-chloronitrobenzene were also administered ...
A new report published by the National Academies Press (NAP) focuses on EPAs controlled human inhalation exposure (CHIE) studies, which are also referred to as human clinical studies or human challenge studies. These studies involve individuals who volunteer to be exposed to air pollutants intentionally in controlled laboratory settings. According to the report, CHIE studies allow measurements to be made of biomarker or physiologic responses to those exposures that can indicate pathways of toxicity and mechanisms of air-pollution responses. The results of this research are used to help inform policy decisions and establish or revise standards intended to protect public health and improve air quality. The report provides guidance on the conduct of CHIE studies, assesses the utility of these studies to inform and reduce uncertainties in setting air-pollution standards, assesses whether the continuation of CHIE studies is warranted, and evaluates the potential health risks to test subjects who ...
A blood agent is a toxic chemical agent that affects the body by being absorbed into the blood. Blood agents are fast-acting, potentially lethal poisons that typically manifest at room temperature as volatile colorless gases with a faint odor. They are either cyanide- or arsenic-based. Blood agents work through inhalation or ingestion. As chemical weapons, blood agents are typically disseminated as aerosols and take effect through inhalation. Due to their volatility, they are more toxic in confined areas than in open areas. Cyanide compounds occur in small amounts in the natural environment and in cigarette smoke. They are also used in several industrial processes and as pesticides. Cyanides are released when synthetic fabrics or polyurethane burn, and may thus contribute to fire-related deaths. Arsine gas, formed when arsenic encounters an acid, is used as a pesticide and in the semiconductor industry; most exposures to it occur accidentally in the workplace. The symptoms of blood agent ...
Acrylonitrile is a monomer used extensively as a raw material in the manufacturing of acrylic fibers, plastics, synthetic rubbers, and acrylamide. It has been classified as a probable human carcinogen according to the results of numerous chronic rat bioassays. The present report summarizes the toxicity data on acrylonitrile and reviews available data concerning the mechanism (genetic versus epigenetic) by which acrylonitrile is carcinogenic in rats. From the evaluation of the relevant toxicity data, it can be concluded that acrylonitrile is indeed carcinogenic to rats after either oral or inhalational exposure. However, information on other mammalian species is lacking, and, moreover, the exact mechanism of the carcinogenic process is unclear. Therefore, it is recommended to conduct an additional long-term inhalation carcinogenicity study with acrylonitrile in mice, as well as studies into the mechanism by which acrylonitrile induces (brain) tumors in rats (genetic versus epigenetic).. ...
There are consistent temporal associations between exposure to air pollutants and HF hospitalizations and mortality (10,11). To our knowledge, this trial is the first randomized study to show that a simple filter intervention could reduce endothelial dysfunction and BNP increases associated with short-term exposure to DE in patients with HF. Our findings suggest that PM2.5 is the most important cause of endothelial dysfunction associated with air pollution exposure. Surprisingly, we also found a reduction in arterial stiffness during DE, which was unaffected by the filter.. Our findings on endothelial dysfunction during DE are consistent with experimental HF mouse models (26) and similar to reports in healthy volunteers (27,28) and patients with diabetes (29). Two pathways have been proposed to explain these effects: first, a pulmonary acute phase response could release inflammatory mediators into the circulation and be a causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease (30); ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also referred to as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a pulmonary disease that occurs due to inhalational exposure to a variety of antigens leading to an inflammatory response of the alveoli and small airways. Systemic manifestations such as fever and fatigue can accompany respiratory symptoms. Although sensitization to an inhaled antigen as manifested by specific circulating IgG antibodies is necessary for the development of HP, sensitization alone is not sufficient as a defining characteristic, because many sensitized individuals do not develop HP. The incidence and prevalence of HP are variable, depending on geography, occupation, avocation, and environment of the cohort being studied. As yet unexplained is the decreased risk of developing HP in smokers. ...
Maintenance of lipid metabolism is crucial for cellular function in all tissues, and perturbations in lipid homeostasis occur in a range of human diseases. Pulmonary surfactant, which maintains alveolar surface tension, is approximately 90% lipid (18). There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pulmonary surfactant and associated lipid metabolism has broader roles in maintenance of pulmonary immune homeostasis and host defense. Thus, any exposure that interferes with these critical processes may be expected to have profound effects on the lung microenvironment.. In this issue, Madison et al. employed a mouse model of chronic inhalational exposure to study the in vivo effects of ENDS-associated vehicle solvents PG and VG in comparison to conventional tobacco smoke exposure (19). In contrast with tobacco smoke, the authors observed no emphysematous changes nor increased airway inflammation following 4 months of exposure to ENDS (with or without nicotine). Despite not showing any ...
IN STOCK. If your order only contains facemarks and we can ship for less that standard shipping charged, we will refund the shipping overage.. Daily Face Cover. This fabric face cover serves as a barrier. Ultra-soft and lightweight jersey fabric makes this one-piece face mask comfortable and breathable, ideal for daily wear. A one-size-fits-all design with two ear holes and a contoured shape makes the mask versatile for many different face sizes and shapes.. Two ear holes accommodate diverse face shapes and sizes. Contoured design to cover the wearers nose and mouth. One size fits all. The fabric is 52% Airlume combed and ring-spun cotton, 48% polyester, 32 single 4.2 oz.. Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat source or flammable gas. ...
Looking for a great looking Football Resuable Fabric Masks? Then look no further. This masks work for any and all occasions. * Washable * Re-Usable * One size fits all * Raw edges * Two ear holes accommodate diverse face shapes and sizes * Contoured design to cover the wearers nose and mouth * Moisture wicking fabric * 100% Poly filament *Disclaimer: The face cover should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high-intensity heat source or flammable gas*
Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat source or flammable gas. Bella+Canvas, LLC and S&S Activewear make no warranties, either express or implied, that the face cover prevents infection or the transmission of viruses or diseases.. The product has been authorized by FDA under an EUA for use as source control by the general public as well as by HCP in healthcare settings as to help prevent the spread of infection or illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. The product has not been FDA cleared or approved. This product is authorized only for the duration of the declaration that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of the emergency use of medical devices, including alternative products used as medical devices, during the COVID-19 ...
ABSTRACT Particle deposition on indoor surfaces has lately received great attention due to increasing concern about the effects of particle exposure on human health. In this study, we developed an easy and low-cost method of measuring the deposition amounts of different-sized particles and evaluated it through particle concentration measurement and theory calculation. First, a clean charge-coupled device (CCD) chip was exposed to air in order to receive the deposition of airborne particles. After sedimentation, images generated by the CCD of the deposited particles were analyzed, and the quantity of particles in each size range (> 2 µm) was identified based on the unique pixel sizes. Using a particle counter and a dust monitor, we also measured the concentrations of airborne particles with different sizes near the chip during sedimentation and compared them with the numbers of settled particles. The results show that the particle deposition can be quantified with this method and that a positive
Healthcare personnel handling cytostatic antineoplastic agents may be exposed to these drugs. Exposure may occur through inhalation, skin contact, skin absorption, ingestion, or injection during preparation, administration, and disposal. Since the late 70s, occupational exposure to these drugs has been recognized as a potential health hazard.. Since then, several countries have published guidelines and recommendations with the objective to improve operating procedures and safety workplace, and keep exposure levels as low as possible. As a consequence, operating procedures have been improved,biological and environmental monitoring have been used to assess contamination and exposure levels, and a lot of analytical methods have been developed and validated.. In general, the strategy used to prevent or minimize occupational exposure applies a combination of interventions, such as engineering controls, administrative and work practice controls, and personal protective equipment.. In Italy, the ...
Results: The sampling and analytic methodology used in the study presents the potential to characterize nanoparticle exposure for a variety of operational processes. We found the highest mass exposure occurred at bagging job whereas the highest number and surface area concentration was found at modification. Modification is suspected to be the primary emission source. It is discovered nanoparticles in the size range of 20-300nm dominate in this workplace, which consists of 90-98% of particle counts in the respirable fraction. Based on the sampling results from 2012, there was a strong relationship between number concentration in 5-25um range and the respirable mass concentration (r= 0.908); however, no such correlation was found between number concentration in nanoscale and respirable mass (r= 0.018). The deposited surface area in TB (r=0.66) and alveolar region (r=0.46) was modestly correlated with number concentration of particles in the nanoscale ...
This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.. ...
The biological effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) in humans stimulated many research activities in recent years. One type of particles …
Upon analysis, an inhalable elemental carbon mass concentration arithmetic mean of 10.6 μg/m3 (geometric mean 4.21 μg/m3) was found among workers exposed to MWCNT. The concentration equates to a deposited dose of approximately 4.07 μg/d in a human, equivalent to 2 ng/d in the mouse. For MWCNT inhalation, mice were exposed for 19 d with daily depositions of 1970 ng (equivalent to 1000 d of a human exposure; cumulative 76 yr), 197 ng (100 d; 7.6 yr), and 19.7 ng (10 d; 0.76 yr) and harvested at 0, 3, 28, and 84 d post-exposure to assess pulmonary toxicity. The high dose showed cytotoxicity and inflammation that persisted through 84 d after exposure. The middle dose had no polymorphonuclear cell influx with transient cytotoxicity. The low dose was associated with a low grade inflammatory response measured by changes in mRNA expression. Increased inflammatory proteins were present in the lavage fluid at the high and middle dose through 28 d post-exposure. Pathology, including epithelial ...
RUTGERS (US) - Delivering chemotherapy through inhalation significantly improves the rate of successfully treating cancer tumors in the lungs, new animal studies show.. Lung cancer kills about 1.5 million men and women around the world-more than the number of people who die from breast, colon, pancreatic, and prostate cancers combined.. Researchers say this happens, in part, because many patients with lung cancer are not diagnosed until they are in the advanced or metastatic stage of the disease and treatment options are limited mainly to surgery and conventional intravenous chemotherapy.. [sources]. The new research indicates that inhalation therapy reduces systemic damage done to healthy lung cells and other organs while improving the treatment of lung tumors.. The development of additional more effective and safe approaches to treatment of this disease is vitally important, says Tamara Minko, professor and chair of the department of pharmaceutics at Rutgers.. Up until now, limited clinical ...
By Xu, Cheng-Xiong Jere, Dhananjay; Jin, Hua; Chang, Seung-Hee; Chung, Youn-Sun; Shin, Ji-Young; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Yong- Hoon; Chae, Chan-Hee; Lee, Kee Ho; Beck, George R Jr; Cho, Chong- Su; Cho, Myung-Haing Rationale: The low efficiency of conventional therapies in achieving long-term survival of patients with lung cancer calls for the development of novel therapeutic options. Recent advances in aerosol-mediated gene delivery have provided the possibility of an alternative for the safe and effective treatment of lung cancer. Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility and emphasize the importance of noninvasive aerosol delivery of Akt1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) as an effective and selective option for lung cancer treatment. Methods: Nanosized poly(ester amine) polymer was synthesized and used as a gene carrier. An aerosol of poly(ester amine)/Akt1 siRNA complex was delivered into K-ras^sup LA1^ and urethane-induced lung cancer models through a nose-only inhalation system. The ...
BACKGROUND: Vermeulen et al. 2014 published a meta-regression analysis of three relevant epidemiological US studies (Steenland et al. 1998, Garshick et al. 2012, Silverman et al. 2012) that estimated the association between occupational diesel engine exhaust (DEE) exposure and lung cancer mortality. The DEE exposure was measured as cumulative exposure to estimated respirable elemental carbon in μg/m(3)-years. Vermeulen et al. 2014 found a statistically significant dose-response association and described elevated lung cancer risks even at very low exposures. METHODS: We performed an extended re-analysis using different modelling approaches (fixed and random effects regression analyses, Greenland/Longnecker method) and explored the impact of varying input data (modified coefficients of Garshick et al. 2012, results from Crump et al. 2015 replacing Silverman et al. 2012, modified analysis of Moehner et al. 2013). RESULTS: We reproduced the individual and main meta-analytical results of Vermeulen ...
BACKGROUND: Vermeulen et al. 2014 published a meta-regression analysis of three relevant epidemiological US studies (Steenland et al. 1998, Garshick et al. 2012, Silverman et al. 2012) that estimated the association between occupational diesel engine exhaust (DEE) exposure and lung cancer mortality. The DEE exposure was measured as cumulative exposure to estimated respirable elemental carbon in μg/m(3)-years. Vermeulen et al. 2014 found a statistically significant dose-response association and described elevated lung cancer risks even at very low exposures. METHODS: We performed an extended re-analysis using different modelling approaches (fixed and random effects regression analyses, Greenland/Longnecker method) and explored the impact of varying input data (modified coefficients of Garshick et al. 2012, results from Crump et al. 2015 replacing Silverman et al. 2012, modified analysis of Moehner et al. 2013). RESULTS: We reproduced the individual and main meta-analytical results of Vermeulen ...
Histoplasmosis is caused by H.capsulatum, which is found in the stool of birds and bats and in soil contaminated by their stool, such as that near roosts, chicken coops, barns, caves, and underneath bridges. Transmission occurs through inhalation of H. capsulatumor H. capsulatum var.duboisii spores or through the invasion of spores after minor skin trauma.…. Details ...
Do you know essential oils can be used topically, through inhalation, cooking and even on pets? Explore the full uses of essential oils here!
Increased level of DNA damage, but not FPG sensitive sites, in lung cells by the alkaline comet assay in guinea pigs after intratracheal instillation of diesel engine exhaust particles. / Pedersen, L.M.; Møller, Per; Danesvar, B.; Wallin, H.; Autrup, H.; Loft, S.; Dragsted, L.O.. In: Neoplasma, Vol. 46, No. Suppl. S, 1999, p. 85-85.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Conference abstract in journal - Annual report year: 1999 ...
Article Use of an exposure chamber to maintain aqueous‐phase nanoparticle dispersions for improved toxicity testing in fish. A novel chamber for maintaining aqueous phase dispersions of nanoparticles (NPs) to enable improved toxicity testing in larva...
Lynch, D.W., Lewis, R.T., Moorman, W.J., Burge, J.R., Lal, J.B., Setzer, J.V., Groth, D.H., Gulati, D.K., Zavos, P.M., Sabharwal, P.S., Ackerman, L.J., Cockrell, B.Y., and Sprinz, H.: Effects on monkeys and rats of long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide: Major findings of the NIOSH study. In: Hospital Ethylene Oxide Sterilization, Current Issues in EO Toxicity and Occupational Exposure. 8:7-10, 1984 ...
A link has been found between diesel fumes and cancer and it lies in the ability of diesel exhaust to grow new blood vessels supplying solid tumors. The new research, forthcoming in Toxicology Letters, found that more new blood vessels sprouted in mice exposed to diesel exhaust than in mice exposed to clean filtered air. […]
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With only one high-performance industrial camera, the ANALYSETTE 28 ImageSizer covers an extremely wide measuring range and ensures thanks to its 5 megapixels, highest resolution of even smallest particles. Your advantage: In one image, large and small particles can be directly captured, displayed, edited and deleted. And a direct USB connection to the computer ensures the fastest possible data transmission for evaluation of the results. And the duration of the measurement can be varied depending on the desired number of images (up to 75 images/sec.) or on the number of measured particles. Highest shape precision due to telecentric lenses ...
Features: ValvTect Diesel Guard™ Supreme Plus High Performance Diesel Additive is specially formulated for heavy duty marine diesel engines
Objective: A DPI should be used with an IM that is as deep and as fast as possible from the start of inhalation (Laube BL et al Eur Respir J 2011;37:1308-1331). We have determined the effect of enhanced training using the In-Check Dial (IC) while subjects inhaled through a S and a T DPI.. Method: Child (CA: 6-17y) and adult (AA:18-45y) patients with asthma (mean FEV1 57 and 69% pred), COPD (52 % pred) and HA were randomised in an open-label design to receive IC with a S and a T. Two separate inhalations were measured using an inhalation profile recorder. The profile with the highest peak inhalation flow (PIF, L/min) was used for data analysis.. Results: Figures 1 and 2 show the % improvement in the maximum pressure change (MPC, kPa) and the acceleration of the flow (ACC, kPa/sec) inside each DPI during an inhalation after IC. ...
As local emissions regulations and programs continue to evolve to address the emissions of diesel powered construction equipment, more of the compliance burden is being placed on equipment owners.
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If you have questions or problems with My Account, please contact us.. Since 2007, Inhalation has been providing valuable information to people involved in development and production of pulmonary or nasal delivered pharmaceuticals. The archive of these in-depth features and cutting-edge technical articles is now available to you free of charge, allowing you access to years of information. Through the support of our Partners, this resource is now free and you may be contacted by our sponsors.. ...
Toxicity following inhalation was not identified. Symptoms following acute exposure include cyanosis (blue or purple coloration ... Only oral short-term exposure in rats was researched of o-toluidine. Dermal exposure affected the ovarian cycle, ovary ... Inhalation exposure was not identified. Rats were administered with the compound with a dose of 1125 mg/kg bodyweight over five ... o-Toluidine exposure has been researched in a number of different degrees in animals. o-Toluidine was found to be harmful to ...
Routes of exposure include contact and inhalation. The EPA obtained hundreds of air samples during the spill and a review ... "The Exposure App". The Exposure App. Retrieved 8 November 2016. "NOAA researchers release study on emissions from BP/Deepwater ... Sampling for chemicals, particulates, and noise exposures were found to be below occupational exposure limits for ... Exposure occurs through skin contact, inhalation of contaminated air or soil/sand, and ingestion of contaminated water or food ...
0.1%) if exposure by inhalation is impossible. On the 20th of April 2018, the european commission decided to ban preservative ...
Nanomaterials in dry powder form tend to pose the greatest risk for inhalation exposure, while nanomaterials suspended in a ... Dustiness increases the risk of inhalation exposure. Dusty materials tend to generate aerosols with high particle ... The full life cycle of a nanomaterial should be considered when planning to control for dust exposure. Nanomaterial synthesis ... This standard is especially related to human exposure in workplace (EN 15051). It describes two methods: the rotating drum ...
Prolonged exposure may result in skin burns and ulcerations. Over-exposure by inhalation may cause respiratory irritation. Skin ... Repeated or prolonged exposure can produce organ damage. Repeated or prolonged inhalation of vapors may lead to chronic ... Zinc peroxide is very hazardous in case of skin contact, of eye contact, ingestion, or inhalation. It has been shown to be ...
2005). "Ethylene glycol exposure: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management". Clinical Toxicology. ... Wills JH, Coulston F, Harris ES, McChesney EW, Russell JC, Serrone DM (1974). "Inhalation of aerosolized ethylene glycol by man ... Ethylene glycol is not well absorbed through skin meaning poisoning following dermal exposure is also uncommon. As many of the ... Hess, R; Bartels, MJ; Pottenger, LH (December 2004). "Ethylene glycol: an estimate of tolerable levels of exposure based on a ...
... the animals are exposed to a high dose of HCCPD concentration by inhalation. When dealing with low exposure levels, HCCPD ... For a very low exposure of 0.04 ppm, 3 out of 20 mice died and none of the rats died. Chronic exposure of HCCPD at very low ... Because respiratory exposure seems to be the most prevalent route of exposure, people suffering from asthma are probably more ... The pigmentation did not disappear after the exposure stopped. For acute high exposures (1 hour, 42 ppm) all animals died, ...
The risk estimates are limited to consideration of inhalation exposure. People receive substantial additional exposures to air ... Studies have shown that many people receive substantial additional inhalation exposure to common indoor air pollutants such as ... Bus depots, sanitation centers, and shipping facilities also account for the higher rates of emission exposure. Health ... Exposures, and Risks. 2002. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2011. ...
... medical geology studies exposure to or deficiency of trace elements and minerals; inhalation of ambient and anthropogenic ... Lead and other heavy metal exposure resulting from dust and other particulates Asbestos exposure such as amphibole asbestos ... Rocks are also one of the leading sources in exposure to these elements. "They are essentially the source of all the naturally ... mineral dusts and volcanic emissions; transportation, modification and concentration of organic compounds; and exposure to ...
Exposure to any of the above-listed organophosphates may occur through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, most ... OP pesticide exposure occurs through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Because OP pesticides degrade quickly when ... Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. The effects of OP exposure on infants and children ... Exposure can be from drinking, breathing in the vapors, or skin exposure. The underlying mechanism involves the inhibition of ...
Chronic inhalation exposure in humans results in reversible respiratory toxicity. A study conducted between 1954 and 1972 of ... People that live near an area that has high toxaphene contamination are at high risk to toxaphene exposure through inhalation ... The three main paths of exposure to toxaphene are ingestion, inhalation, and absorption. For humans, the main source of ... Eating large quantities of fish on a daily basis also increases susceptibility to toxaphene exposure. Finally, exposure is rare ...
Gamer AO, Rossbacher R, Kaufmann W, van Ravenzwaay B (2008). "The inhalation toxicity of di- and triethanolamine upon repeated ... In a mouse study of chronic exposure to inhaled DEA at high concentrations (above 150 mg/m3), DEA was found to induce body and ... "Dose response effects of dermally applied diethanolamine on neurogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus and potential exposure of ... exposure". Food Chem Toxicol. 46 (6): 2173-83. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.020. PMID 18420328. Libralato G, Volpi Ghirardini A, ...
Exposure may be by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or direct contact. In type 1 hypersensitivity, B-cells are stimulated (by ... Mast cells and basophils coated by IgE antibodies are "sensitized". Later exposure to the same allergen cross-links the bound ... Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by re-exposure to a specific type of ... The immediate hypersensitivity reaction occurs minutes after exposure and includes release of vasoactive amines and lipid ...
Inhalation may result in lung injuries. Exposure to gadolinium compounds may cause lung and/or liver damage. Gloves are highly ... An approved respirator should be worn if exposure to dust could occur when working with gadolinium oxysulfide. ...
... of fracked wells to reduce exposure to crystalline silica besides restricting the limit of exposure. SiO2, more so than almost ... Inhalation of amorphous silicon dioxide, in high doses, leads to non-permanent short-term inflammation, where all effects heal ... Regulations restricting silica exposure 'with respect to the silicosis hazard' specify that they are concerned only with silica ... 1991). "Subchronic inhalation toxicity of amorphous silicas and quartz dust in rats". Food Chem. Toxicol. 29 (5): 341-54. doi: ...
Human Radiation Exposures Related to Nuclear Weapons Industries. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Inhalation Toxicology Research ... Measurements taken after Patapsco had returned to Pearl Harbor suggested an exposure range of 0.18 to 0.62 R/hr. Total exposure ... and below-deck exposure. On 2 March 1955, she departed Pearl Harbor for Astoria, Oregon, and inactivation. Decommissioning 29 ...
Measurements taken after Patapsco had returned to Pearl Harbor suggested an exposure range of 0.18 to 0.62 R/hr. Total exposure ... Albuquerque, New Mexico: Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Lovelace Biomedical & Environmental Research Institute. p. ... The exposure to fallout has been linked to increase the likelihood of several types of cancer such as leukemia and thyroid ... One member died of a secondary infection six months later after acute radiation exposure, and another had a child that was ...
The primary route of exposure to radon and its progeny is inhalation. Radiation exposure from radon is indirect. The health ... An exposure to 1 WL for 1 working month (170 hours) equals 1 WLM cumulative exposure. A cumulative exposure of 1 WLM is roughly ... Aside from the exposure in the home, one of the major contributors to radon exposure in children are the schools in which they ... The physical composition of children leads to faster rates of exposure through inhalation given that their respiratory rate is ...
... of exposures are due to dust inhalation or ingestion.[50][51]. In addition to this, 20% to 40% of adult U.S. exposure to PBDEs ... High concentration can be found in meat, dairy and fish with the remaining exposure largely due to dust inhalation or ingestion ... Lorber, M. (2008). "Exposure of Americans to polybrominated diphenyl ethers". Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental ... Exposure to PBDEs has been studied the most widely. As PBDEs have been phased out of use due to health concerns, ...
... s are specific to dietary exposure. When assessing inhalation exposure, EPA uses "reference concentrations" (RfCs ... According to the EPA, "[a]n aggregate daily exposure to a [chemical] at or below the RfD (expressed as 100 percent or less of ... The EPA then looked at dietary exposure to endosulfan, and found that for the most exposed 0.1% of children age 1-6, their ... To remedy this, the EPA revoked the use of endosulfan on the crops that contributed the most to exposure of children: certain ...
Workers may come into contact with chemicals via inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Short-term exposure risks include eye ... In the home, exposure transferred from contaminated work clothes can mix with dust particles in the air, which may be inhaled. ... Migrant workers can be affected by pesticides depending on the toxicity, the intensity or the duration of their exposure. ... Migrant workers in the field experience direct exposure to pesticide chemicals. Family members, including spouses and children ...
"Transfluthrin indoor air concentration and inhalation exposure during application of electric vaporizers" (PDF). Environment ... It is a relatively volatile substance and acts as a contact and inhalation agent. Transfluthrin, if used contrary to product ... In experiments, transfluthrin was shown to kill 85 percent of mosquitos within one hour of exposure at concentrations below 0.3 ... The data suggests that transfluthrin is effective at these concentrations within much less than an hour of exposure.) Various ...
Prolonged exposure may have mutagenic effects. Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety ... Chloromethane was also once used for producing lead-based gasoline additives (tetramethyllead). Inhalation of chloromethane gas ...
First aid measures include artificial respiration to treat inhalation exposures, eye irrigation for eye exposures, and ... Routes of exposure to crufomate include inhalation, eye contact, skin absorption, and ingestion. Symptoms include eye ... with a short-term limit of up to 20 milligrams per cubic meter for brief exposures of no longer than 15 minutes. ... the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a time-weighted average exposure limit of 5 milligrams per ...
Typical routes of exposure to trichothecene toxins include topical absorption, ingestion, and inhalation. Severity of symptoms ... The first step in most exposure cases is to remove potentially contaminated clothing and to flush the sites of exposure ... UV exposure has also been shown to be effective under the right conditions. Outside of the strategies for physcial and chemical ... The effects of poisoning will depend on the concentration of exposure, length of time and way the person is exposed. A highly ...
Occupational skin exposure limits are set at 0.5 ppm. The substance may be hazardous to the environment, and special attention ... Bromoform can be absorbed into the body by inhalation and through the skin. The substance is irritating to the respiratory ...
Exposure through inhalation, ingestion, soil, and dermal contact are incorporated in these models. Research studies have also ... Specific pollutant exposures, such as high levels of nitrogen dioxide, have been cited in community-led complaints relating to ... Small pieces of fly ash may be somewhat thick, and too brief an exposure to high temperature may only degrade dioxin on the ... For a large volume air chamber, too brief an exposure may also result in only some of the exhaust gases reaching the full ...
As compared to inhalation, intratracheal instillation allows greater control over the dose and location of the substance, is ... "Occupational Exposure to Refractory Ceramic Fibers". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. May 2006. pp. ... "Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. April ... It is widely used to test the respiratory toxicity of a substance as an alternative to inhalation in animal testing. ...
Radioactive contamination can enter the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection. This will result in a ... Beyond terrorism incidents, common exposures may be related to factory spills, agricultural incidents, and vehicle accidents. ... Following a major contamination incident, all potential pathways of internal exposure should be considered. Successfully used ...
Exposure to dazomet can occur through several means; interaction with unincorporated granules, inhalation of it decomposition ...
Some consider oral candidiasis a change in the normal oral environment rather than an exposure or true "infection" as such. The ... Where it is associated with inhalation steroids (often used for treatment of asthma), erythematous candidiasis commonly appears ...
... depending on exposure.[18] Lethal dose through inhalation typically ranges from 100 to 150 milligrams (1.5 to 2.3 grains). ... Inhalation can lead to headache, dizziness, rapid pulse, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, convulsions, and death, ... Inhalation of 900 ppm over a period of 10 minutes is considered lethal.[19] ...
... concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of ... The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway ...
Inhalation of tiny particles of infectious material (aerosol) is believed to be the most significant means of exposure. It is ... Infection typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal ... it will excrete the virus throughout the rest of its lifetime through feces and urine creating ample opportunity for exposure.[ ...
It has been observed that the inhalation of hydrocarbons can cause hyperosmia, most likely due to the destruction of ... ISBN 0-684-85394-9. Henkin, RI (1990-12-05). "Hyperosmia and depression following exposure to toxic vapors". JAMA: the Journal ...
... making the case fatality rate among patients with inhalation anthrax 45% (5/11). The six other individuals with inhalation ... Prolonged exposure to ionising radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays, will also kill most endospores. ... once outside the host, sporulation commences upon exposure to the air and the spore forms are essentially the exclusive phase ... This intentional distribution lead to 22 known cases of anthrax (11 inhalation and 11 cutaneous) ...
US maximum allowed exposure in air (40 h/week) is 1900 mg/m³ for ethanol, 900 mg/m³ for gasoline, and 1260 mg/m³ for methanol. ... Inhalation risk is mitigated by a characteristic pungent odor. At concentrations greater than 2,000 ppm (0.2%) it is generally ... However, it is much less volatile than gasoline, and therefore has lower evaporative emissions, producing a lower exposure risk ... While methanol offers somewhat different toxicity exposure pathways, the effective toxicity is no worse than those of benzene ...
... and difficult to quantify risks posed by various methods of exposure (inhalation or ingestion).[citation needed] A link between ... Prenatal exposure of BaP to rats is known to affect learning and memory in rodent models. Pregnant rats eating BaP were shown ... Lee, BM; Shim, GA (Aug 2007). "Dietary exposure estimation of benzo[a]pyrene and cancer risk assessment". Journal of Toxicology ... In experiments with male rats, sub-chronic exposure to inhaled BaP has been shown to generally reduce the function of testicles ...
... smoke inhalation, drug overdoses, crushing of the trachea, status asthmaticus, and shock.[9] It is also recreationally self- ... Space exposure. *Ulegyria. ReferencesEdit. *^ Malhotra R, et al. (Nov 2001). "Hypoxia induces apoptosis via two independent ...
Because chlorine is a gas at room temperature, most exposure occurs via inhalation. Exposure may also occur through skin or eye ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Secondary effects of sulfur mustard exposure lead to chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. A common exposure ... The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. Irritant ...
... a higher one during inhalation and a lower pressure during exhalation. This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used ... is also a theory that long-term snoring might induce local nerve lesions in the pharynx in the same way as long-term exposure ... in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements of inhalation, but the movements typically become even more ...
Inhalation may cause coughing, sneezing, and labored breathing. It may then evolve into burns with perforation of the nasal ... NIOSH (US health exposure limits): PEL (Permissible). TWA 5 mg/m3[4]. ...
exposure to feces, urine, saliva or bodily fluids Henipavirus Henipavirus spp. horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or ... inhalation of spores, contact with bodily fluid or faeces Rabies Rabies virus commonly - dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, ... exposure to urine, feces, or saliva Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei various animals direct contact with contaminated soil ... "Inhalation Anthrax". cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.. ...
Routes of entry for these insults can include ingestion, dermal exposure and inhalation. ... The duration of exposure, the frequency of exposure and the concentration of the insult (exposure) are elements in triggering ... Exposure sources and preventionEdit. The main sources of mold exposure are from the indoor air in buildings with substantial ... Exposure to mold may also cause heightened sensitivity depending on the time and nature of exposure. People at higher risk for ...
"Concentrations of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in Blood and Urine After Passive Exposure ... 10-35% (inhalation), 6-20% (oral)[3]. Protein binding. 97-99%[3][4][5]. ...
The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin.[3][61] The U.S. Institute ... C supplementation reduces the risk of lung cancer in healthy people or those at high risk due to smoking or asbestos exposure.[ ...
The (detrimental) reaction may result after exposure via ingestion, inhalation, injection, or contact with skin. ... Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from the outside, for example, by inhalation, ingestion or injection ...
Inhalation exposure[edit]. Allergic reactions to airborne particles or vapors of known food allergens have been reported as an ... Early exposure to potential allergens[2][3]. Treatment. Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, ... In some cases, hypersensitive reactions can be triggered by exposures to allergens through skin contact, inhalation, kissing, ... Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective.[2] Specifically, early exposure to eggs and peanuts reduces the risk ...
Aluminum fluoride reported oral animal lethal dose (LD50) is 0.1 g/kg.[17] Repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause ... Human exposure to aluminum fluoride can occur in an industrial setting, such as emissions from an aluminum reduction processes, ... sources of human exposure to aluminum include drinking water, tea, food residues, infant formula, aluminum-containing antacids ... Data on the potential neurotoxic effects of chronic exposure to the aluminum species existing in water is limited.[22] ...
Moderate alcohol consumption 30-60 minutes before bedtime results in disruptions in sleep maintenance and sleep architecture that are mediated by blood alcohol levels.[2] Disruptions in sleep maintenance are most marked once alcohol has been completely metabolized from the body. Under conditions of moderate alcohol consumption where blood alcohol levels average 0.06-0.08% and decrease 0.01-0.02% per hour, an alcohol clearance rate of 4-5 hours would coincide with disruptions in sleep maintenance in the second half of an 8-hour sleep episode.[2] In terms of sleep architecture, moderate doses of alcohol facilitate "rebounds" in rapid eye movement (REM) and stage 1 sleep; following suppression in REM and stage 1 sleep in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode, REM and stage 1 sleep increase well beyond baseline in the second half. Moderate doses of alcohol also increase slow wave sleep (SWS) in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode.[2] Enhancements in REM sleep and SWS following moderate ...
However, chronic exposure has been linked to abnormalities in the liver, kidneys, and heart. Pregnant women should avoid ... A 13-year-old male was found dead in the woods subsequent to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) inhalation.. ... Winekab, Charles L.; Wahba, Wagdy W.; Huston, Robert; Rozin, Leon (6 June 1997). "Fatal inhalation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane". ... Fatal poisonings and illnesses linked to intentional inhalation of trichloroethane have been reported.[7][8][9][10] The removal ...
Inhalation for intoxication[edit]. Inhaled (huffed) gasoline vapor is a common intoxicant. Users concentrate and inhale ... Users have been advised to keep gasoline containers more than half full and properly capped to reduce air exposure, to avoid ... Gasoline inhalation has become epidemic in some poorer communities and indigenous groups in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and ... such as glue inhalation) emerged in Australia in the late 1960s.[citation needed] Chronic, heavy petrol sniffing appears to ...
High hemoglobin levels may also be caused by exposure to high altitudes, smoking, dehydration (artificially by concentrating Hb ... and after several months of exposure to the elements. ...
Exposure to nail dust and the associated risk will vary with the policies and practices in place, the type of podiatry drill ... "Inhalation of nail dust: A podiatric hazard". In McCarthy DJ, Abramson C, Rupp MJ (eds). Infectious Diseases of the Lower ... Exposure to nail dust was first discussed and described in the literature as an occupational hazard in the early 70's. In 1975 ... Chronic exposure to human nail dust is a serious occupational hazard that can be minimized by not producing such dust. Best ...
... indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms of inhalation exposure to these compounds. While ... Extended exposure often leads to massive discoloration usually reducing the colors to white and typically very faded blue.[14] ... The OSHA highest allowable peak concentration (5 minute exposure for five minutes in a 4-hour period) is 200 ppm,[28] twice as ... Inhalation of bleach fumes can damage the lungs. Personal protective equipment should always be used when using bleach. Bleach ...
Díez S (2009). "Human health effects of methylmercury exposure". Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 198: ... because the death of neurons in the cerebellum as a result of gluten exposure is irreversible.[29][31] It accounts for 40% of ... Exposure to high levels of methylmercury, through consumption of fish with high mercury concentrations, is also a known cause ...
exposure limit (PEL) none[1]. Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 ... Inhalation can lead to death by asphyxiation due to displacement of oxygen in the lungs. Contact with the skin can lead to ...
Exposure to these can lead to a wide range of negative health outcomes such as cancer, respiratory issues, dental loss ... through inhalation of dust/smoke particles either as an occupational hazard or due to proximity to contaminated sites such as ... The argument that low levels of thorium in the ore make it safer doesn't make sense, he says, because radiation exposure is ... What toxicity is shown appears to be at very high levels of exposure through ingestion of contaminated food and water, ...
... lost his life on the evening of 13 September 2013 because of a heart attack triggered by extreme inhalation of OC spray and ... was hospitalized after suffering a mild heart attack caused by exposure to tear gas on 31 May.[35] ...
Transmission occurred through inhalation of airborne Variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal, or ... Vaccination four to seven days after exposure can offer some protection from disease or may modify the severity of disease.[54] ... Smallpox vaccination within three days of exposure will prevent or significantly lessen the severity of smallpox symptoms in ... created a goddess in response to its exposure to smallpox. The Hindu goddess Shitala was both worshipped and feared during her ...
... DSpace/ ... METHODS: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels ... Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material ... read more ... CONCLUSION: A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in ...
Early Life Inhalation Exposure to Mine Tailings Dust Affects Lung Development. The potential adult adverse health outcomes that ... Early life inhalation exposure to mine tailings dust affects lung development. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Volume 365 ... Our research is investigating whether inhalation exposures to real world dust during development can lead to changes in lung ... The effects of the in utero exposures only become apparent following a subsequent exposure in the pups after birth. These ...
Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies. Mirella Miettinen, Unto Tapper, Ulrika Backman, ... Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies. / Miettinen, Mirella; Tapper, Unto; Backman, Ulrika ... Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies. Paper presented at European Aerosol Conference 2008 ... title = "Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies",. author = "Mirella Miettinen and Unto ...
... by the US EPA Inhalation disorders Institution of Occupational Safety and Health Toolkit Trends in inhalation exposure: mid ... Inhalation is a major route of exposure that occurs when an individual breathes in polluted air which enters the respiratory ... Exposure to carbon monoxide is dangerous because of its toxic, odorless nature. Since the gas takes time to build up in the ... Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. ...
These systems are necessary for determining the dose-response relationship of toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions ... to expose laboratory animals to carefully controlled concentrations of gases and aerosols are an important tool in inhalation ... Toxicology; Air-flow; Air-sampling-techniques; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-equipment; Exposure-chambers; Exposure-methods; ... The overall goals of this study were (1) to develop a system capable of automatically controlling the ozone exposure levels so ...
... would be effective for the estimation of blood levels of MeOH after inhalation or dermal exposures in a work setting. Four ... human subjects were exposed to MeOH at concentrations of up to 800 parts per million (ppm) for 8 hours (hr). Exposures occurred ... Exposure of one hand in MeOH for 8min gave peak blood MeOH levels equivalent to inhalation exposure at the threshold limit ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Skin-exposure; Biological-monitoring; Blood-samples; Breathing-atmospheres; Inhalation-studies ...
... inhalation exposure include Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures, Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol ... Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System, A Robust Pneumonia Model in ... Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them. Whole-Body ... Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System. Jonathan E ...
Home , Resources , The Synergist , Industry News , New Report Examines Controlled Human Inhalation Exposure Studies at EPA ... New Report Examines Controlled Human Inhalation Exposure Studies at EPA Published April 5, 2017 ... A free PDF download of Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA is available on NAPs website. ... A new report published by the National Academies Press (NAP) focuses on EPAs controlled human inhalation exposure (CHIE) ...
An Inhalation Dose. No dose calculation is needed for an inhalation dose. ... For inhalation doses, the amount of a chemical that is in the air is considered to be the amount that enters the lungs when a ... Therefore, the amount of the chemical measured in the air is the inhalation dose. ... A dose calculation for dermal contact is rarely needed for the following exposures: ...
No dose calculation is needed for an inhalation dose.. Why?. For inhalation doses, the amount of a chemical that is in the air ... Therefore, the amount of the chemical measured in the air is the inhalation dose. ... A dose calculation for dermal contact is rarely needed for the following exposures: ...
RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials [03-May-2012] - RIFM 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion ... an alternative method for assessing inhalation exposure to fragrance materials. RIFM Database subscribers can download the ... Model Is An Alternative Method To Calculate Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance WOODCLIFF LAKE, New Jersey, May 3, 2012 / ... RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials. ...
Potential for inhalation exposure to engineered nanoparticles from nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders.(Research, Report) by ... exposure+to+engineered+nanoparticles+from...-a0304320692. *APA style: Potential for inhalation exposure to engineered ... inhalation exposure, nanoaerosol, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, personal exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120:885-892 (2012). ... To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the potential for human inhalation exposure to nanomaterials ...
HIT at sea level and hypobaric exposures of 2,438 m (8,000 feet) above sea level. Normal subjects and patients with COPD formed ... A comparison of the hypoxia inhalation test with hypobaric exposure Chest. 1995 Feb;107(2):352-7. doi: 10.1378/chest.107.2.352 ... Group 1 received exposure to 15.1% oxygen at sea level, the HIT. Groups 2 and 3 received hypobaric chamber exposure equivalent ... PaO2 during exposure = 0.417 (PaO2SL)] + 17.802 (n = 42; r = 0.756; p , 0.001). Neither the type of hypoxic exposure (HIT vs ...
nanoparticles; inhalation; exposure evaluation; nanotechnology. Descriptors (secondary). USA; sampling and analysis; public OSH ... Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to ... that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that ... There are currently no exposure limits specific to engineered nanomaterials, nor any national or international consensus ...
Catalog Record: An animal inhalation exposure unit for toxicity screening , HathiTrust Digital Library. * Skip to main ... An animal inhalation exposure unit for toxicity screening / by L.J. Leach, C.J. Spiegl. ... The chemical toxicity of thorium dioxide following inhalation by laboratory animals /. Author. Hodge, Harold C. (Harold ... The effect of inhaled radon on the survival, body weight and hemogram of the mouse following single exposures / ...
Specific DNEL derivation for PSPs following inhalation exposure. In general, REACH requires the establishment of DNELs also for ... Carcinogen classifications of relevance to inhalation exposure to PSP *United Nations Globally Harmonized System (UN GHS) and ... Other non-tumorigenic classifications of relevance to PSP inhalation exposure *United Nations Globally Harmonized System (`UN ... However, it should be noted that epidemiology studies show that even under worst case exposure scenarios (exposures during ...
Overview of Inhalation Exposure Facility Capabilities. The Environmental Health Sciences Centers Inhalation Exposure Facility ... There are very few inhalation exposure facilities in the world, each with a unique focus: at Rochester, the specialty area is ... The broad capabilities of the Facility include aerosol generation, exposure monitoring, and exposure characterization. The ... was established to focus the combined skills of biology, chemistry, and aerosol physics that are critical for inhalation ...
The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound ... Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, ... Barbecue Grill Inhalation exposure Particulate matter Pollution Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons This is a preview of ... Zhang S, Peng SC, Chen TH, Wang JZ (2015) Evaluation of inhalation exposure to carcinogenic PM10-bound PAHs of people at night ...
Criteria and Methods for Preparing Emergency Exposure Guidance Lev... ... and Continuous Exposure Guidance Level (CEGL) Documents (1986) Chapter: Appendix D: Extrapolation of Data--Oral to Inhalation ... Appendix D: Extrapolation of Data--Oral to Inhalation and Animal to Human 22 ... Criteria and Methods for Preparing Emergency Exposure Guidance Level (EEGL), Short-Term Public Emergency Guidance Level (SPEGL ...
... exposure, airborne particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley, cardiac arrest, human exposure, inhalation, ambient particle health ... Title: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol. Investigators: Pinkerton, Kent E. , Bonham, ... 2009 Progress Report: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol. EPA Grant Number: R832414C003 ... R832414C003 Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol. R832414C004 Project 4 -- Transport and ...
... awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from institutions in the UK, US, and Belgium who are leading ... Non Animal Testing, Alternative Test Methods, In Vitro Toxicology, IIVS , Awards of VITROCELL In Vitro Inhalation Exposure ... The PETA International Science Consortium (PISC) awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from ...
The effects of the inhalation of hydrogen fluoride. II. The response following exposure to low concentration.. Author: Machle W ... Exposure was discontinued but he died 3 weeks later. After 134 hours of exposure, a second guinea-pig also began to lose weight ... There was no pronounced response following introduction of the animals into the exposure chamber. After 160 hours of exposure, ... Effect of chronic exposure to sodium fluoride and 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on some blood parameters and hepatic, renal, ...
Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to ... Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure.. [ ... In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. The incidence of chronic ... There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma ( ...
Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.. J P Zacny, M L Stitzer, F J Brown, J E ... Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.. J P Zacny, M L Stitzer, F J Brown, J E ... Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.. J P Zacny, M L Stitzer, F J Brown, J E ... inhalation volume and lung exposure duration on biological measures of smoke exposure. A microcomputer-based auditory feedback ...
Buy Human Exposure to Pollutants Via Dermal Absorption and Inhalation (9789048186624): NHBS - Edited By: Mihalis Lazaridis and ... Human Exposure to Pollutants Via Dermal Absorption and Inhalation Series: Environmental Pollution Volume: 17 ... The human body is exposed to pollution on a daily basis via dermal exposure and inhalation. This book reviews the information ... Many epidemiological studies have focused on inhalation exposure. Whilst this is appropriate for many substances, failure to ...
Longer duration of exposure to silica and inhalation of larger amounts of silica (complicated silicosis) : *Larger nodules of ... Silica Exposure, Dust Inhalation - Signs, Symptoms of Silicosis. Posted by Dr. Chris ... Shorter duration of exposure and inhalation of minimal amounts of silica (simple silicosis) : *Development of tiny nodules does ... It arises from inhalation of silica particles with subsequent chronic lung disease that develops over years and decades. Most ...
Inhalation exposure to T-2 toxin caused vomiting, cyanosis, anorexia, lethargy, lateral recumbency and even death. Elevated ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Welcome to the ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Pang, Fei Victor ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. ...
Described is the cell culture and exposure method of an in vitro bronchial model for realistic, repeated inhalation exposure to ... Characteristics of both the cell model and of the exposure system are essential for achieving a realistic inhalation exposure ... Selection of exposure concentrations can be difficult for any air-liquid exposure experiment. For the DQ12 exposures, the aim ... 4. Preparing the exposure setup. NOTE: Sections 5-7 describe preparations for particle exposure using an automated exposure ...
Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking Water Pipe Repairs - ... Results of the new study suggest the importance of both inhalation and dermal exposure routes. No organic vapor respiratory ... 21 comments on "Cured-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, ... Cured-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking ...
Bromberg P.A. (1993) New Approaches to Evaluating the Pulmonary Effects of Controlled Inhalation Exposures in Human Volunteers ... New Approaches to Evaluating the Pulmonary Effects of Controlled Inhalation Exposures in Human Volunteers. ... Pre-exposure to low ozone concentrations does not diminish the pulmonary function response on exposure to higher ozone ... Keefe MJ, Bennett WD, DeWitt P, Seal E, Strong AA, Gerrity TR (1991) The effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled ...
Inhalation exposure of rats to tar/pitch condensation aerosol or carbon black alone or in combination with irritant gases. ... aerosol; benzo(a)pyrene; carbon-black; carcinogen; Carcinogenesis; experimental; inhalation toxicology; lung; particle; ...
Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation. / Ritz, Caitlin ... Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation. Mutation ... title = "Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation", ... T1 - Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation ...
... inhalation cancer risk was estimated using conventional risk assessment method, which was normally based on compound-specific ... Zhang Y, Tao S, Shen H, Ma J (2009) Inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lung cancer risk of ... Inhalation cancer risk estimation of source-specific personal exposure for particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic ... Receptor modeling of ambient and personal exposure samples: 1998 Baltimore Particulate Matter Epidemiology-Exposure Study. ...
  • A large number of animals are used to test the effects of aerosol particles on a living system by whole-body or nose-only exposures. (forschung3r.ch)
  • Cell cultures are exposed in our novel exposure system for the efficient and controlled deposition of aerosol particles onto cell cultures (Lang et al. (forschung3r.ch)
  • Using metal-containing real world dusts collected from an abandoned mine tailings site, we have exposed male and female mice only in utero, only post-natally or continuously (in utero and postnatal inhalation exposures). (arizona.edu)
  • Our research is investigating whether inhalation exposures to real world dust during development can lead to changes in lung function and structure in adults. (arizona.edu)
  • The potential adult adverse health outcomes that result from exposures during early life are recognized. (arizona.edu)
  • Particle effects on cells are studied on-line during the exposure as well as off-line post aerosol exposure using laser optic and microscopic techniques including (immuno-) histochemistry, ELISA to assess (pro) inflammatory cytokine release (e.g. (forschung3r.ch)
  • However, only limited attention has been paid to the effect(s) of environmentally relevant toxicant exposures during critical periods of development and even fewer studies have examined whether early life inhalation exposures leads to adult disease. (arizona.edu)
  • The finding that both in utero and early postnatal exposures are required to produce significant alterations suggests that there are in utero effects caused by the mothers' inhalation of the toxicant that "primes" the lung of the off spring for subsequent responses to inhaled toxicants after birth. (arizona.edu)
  • The effects of the in utero exposures only become apparent following a subsequent exposure in the pups after birth. (arizona.edu)
  • The toxicity values resulting from dose-response assessment are used as part of a larger calculation to estimate risk from exposure to environmental contaminants. (epa.gov)
  • According to the report, CHIE studies allow measurements to be made of "biomarker or physiologic responses to those exposures that can indicate pathways of toxicity and mechanisms of air-pollution responses. (aiha.org)
  • 2010). We present an integrative approach to derive inhalation specific threshold values, which are based on a dataset of 296 chemicals with repeated-dose toxicity studies (www.fraunhofer-repdose.de). (fraunhofer.de)
  • An animal inhalation exposure unit for toxicity screening / by L.J. Leach, C.J. Spiegl. (hathitrust.org)
  • Daily exposure of a grill operator, while grilling meat, to PM 2.5 -bound PAHs, adjusted to benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (BaP eq ), was 326.9, 401.6, and 0.04 ng/d for lump charcoal, charcoal briquettes, and gas powered grill, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The PETA International Science Consortium (PISC) awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from institutions in the UK, US, and Belgium who are leading the development of non-animal methods to test the toxicity of airborne substances. (iivs.org)
  • Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For toxicity testing of airborne particles, air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure systems have been developed for in vitro tests in order to mimic realistic exposure conditions. (jove.com)
  • CONCLUSION: A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in rats, which almost completely resolved during a 3-week post-exposure period. (uu.nl)
  • For this reason, the current study investigated the inhalation toxicity potential of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs). (oup.com)
  • According to the REACh Regulation Annex IX, Section 8.7, Column 2, reproductive toxicity studies do not need to be conducted if the substance is of low toxicological activity (no evidence of toxicity seen in any of the tests available), it can be proven from toxicokinetic data that no systemic absorption occurs via relevant routes of exposure and there is no or no significant human exposure. (europa.eu)
  • The oral biovailability of (CAHC), aluminium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide is negligible, the acute oral toxicity studies with (CAHC), aluminium hydroxide have shown no effects and there is no systemic exposure to (CAHC), aluminium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide from its intended uses. (europa.eu)
  • Within the framework of a systems toxicology approach, the inhalation toxicity of aerosol from a novel tobacco-heating potentially modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), the carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) 1.2, was characterized and compared with that of mainstream smoke (CS) from the 3R4F reference cigarette in a 90-day nose-only rat inhalation study in general accordance with OECD TG 413. (pmiscience.com)
  • Based on precautionary principle the proposed classification for this substance is H319 (Eye irritation,cat.2), H315 (Skin irritation cat.2) and H335 (Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure cat.3) according to the CLP Regulation (EC n.1272/2008). (europa.eu)
  • The symptoms of toxicity depend on the route of exposure. (news-medical.net)
  • Two primary organ systems are affected by inhalation hydrocarbon toxicity: the CNS and the cardiopulmonary system. (medscape.com)
  • Gerrity TR, Bennett WD, Keefe M, DeWitt P, Chapman W (1991) The response of tracheobronchial clearance of inhaled particles to acute ozone exposure in healthy humans. (springer.com)
  • Passive sampling is often more appropriate for measuring long-term exposure rather than acute exposure since the level of detection might be higher for a passive sampling device than an active one. (epa.gov)
  • Acute inhalation injury may result from frequent and widespread use of household cleaning agents and industrial gases (including chlorine and ammonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, mechanical ventilation remains the therapeutic mainstay for pulmonary dysfunction following acute inhalation injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present until several hours after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • For treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm or prevention of symptoms associated with bronchospasm, the usual dosage for adults and children 4 years and older is two inhalations repeated every 4 to 6 hours. (rxlist.com)
  • Several environmental factors are key determinants of the clinical consequences of acute smoke inhalation: the source of the fire and resulting combustion products, the duration of the exposure, and ventilation of the environment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is NOT indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm. (rxlist.com)
  • In persons with acute and chronic respiratory disease the inhalation of pyrethrins may exacerbate symptoms due to its sensitising properties (Mackison FW et al 1981). (inchem.org)
  • Two cases of acute tetramine poisoning due to dermal exposure were reported (Fan, 2001). (inchem.org)
  • In a case series by Huang et al, 25% of patients presented after HC exposure with acute lung injury requiring ventilatory support. (medscape.com)
  • Acute bacterial colonization and invasion peaks at 2-3 days after smoke inhalation. (medscape.com)
  • There are no relevant experimental data on acute or short term dermal exposure. (europa.eu)
  • 2008). Use of nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders and sprays could lead to especially high levels of dermal and inhalation exposure, the latter being a consequence of product application leading to aerosol generation in the personal breathing zone (Hansen et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Environmental Health Sciences Center's Inhalation Exposure Facility was established to focus the combined skills of biology, chemistry, and aerosol physics that are critical for inhalation toxicology research. (rochester.edu)
  • The broad capabilities of the Facility include aerosol generation, exposure monitoring, and exposure characterization. (rochester.edu)
  • Special sealing and connection mechanisms guarantee a hermetic connection of the base module with the aerosol exposure top. (vitrocell.com)
  • The aerosol exposure top features an in/outlet for heating the water circuit, ensuring corresponding temperatures with the base module. (vitrocell.com)
  • In the following step the aerosol is guided the Automated Exposure Station where cells are exposed at the air/liquid interface. (vitrocell.com)
  • The active ingredient of ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol is albuterol sulfate, a racemic salt, of albuterol. (rxlist.com)
  • ProAir HFA Inhalation Aerosol is a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit with a dose counter. (rxlist.com)
  • PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients 4 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease. (rxlist.com)
  • PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm in patients 4 years of age and older. (rxlist.com)
  • 3. Dual-chamber design, the inner chamber consists of drug aerosol which directly transporting aerosol to the channel, while the outer chamber collects the breath of the animal.The inner and outer chambers are separated to prevent re-inhalation of the animal's breath. (tow-int.com)
  • 6. Integrated System: It includes aerosol generation and conditioning, animal inhalation exposure, environmental monitoring, drug concentration monitoring and sampling, waste gases treatment, etc. (tow-int.com)
  • At equal or twice the nicotine concentration in the test atmospheres, inhalation of CHTP1.2 aerosol led to a significantly lower exposure to harmful constituents and induced less respiratory tract irritation, systemic, and pathological effects compared with CS. (pmiscience.com)
  • Many other toxicological endpoints evaluated did not show CHTP1.2 aerosol exposure-related effects, and no effects not seen for 3R4F were observed. (pmiscience.com)
  • Computer-controlled ozone inhalation exposure system. (cdc.gov)
  • Bascom R, Naclerio RM, Fitzgerald TK, Kagey-Sobotka A, Proud D (1990) Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects. (springer.com)
  • Identification of the pollutant uptake by the respiratory system can determine how the resulting exposure contributes to the dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • These systems are necessary for determining the dose-response relationship of toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Often, as the internal dose or exposure level increases, the response or health effect also increases-though there are exceptions to this. (epa.gov)
  • No dose calculation is needed for an inhalation dose. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the amount of the chemical measured in the air is the inhalation dose. (cdc.gov)
  • The application of the Cramer decision tree to datasets of repeated-dose studies with inhalation exposure resulted in very low thresholds compared to oral TTC values. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In general, REACH requires the establishment of DNELs also for the inhalation route of exposure following a generic scheme involving, e.g. identification of the mode of action (MoA), determination of the relevant dose descriptor and point of departure (PoD) as well as applying a set of AFs. (ecetoc.org)
  • In general OEL settings, the "critical effect" refers to the first "adverse" response (or measure of response) within the MoA that occurs at a dose / concentration below which neither this "critical effect" nor any other effects of health concern will appear (EU Key Documentation, Version 7, Methodology for the Derivation of Occupational Exposure Limits, 2013). (ecetoc.org)
  • After multiple exposures, the elimination pathways were dose- and gender-independent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • METHODS: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). (uu.nl)
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. (uu.nl)
  • These estimates require accurate data on the pollutant exposure and dose to the population as well as the dose-response relationships to calculate the health impact. (springerprofessional.de)
  • One microbalance sensor can remain in the module to monitor the dose -during exposure. (vitrocell.com)
  • Defining dose by different exposure times is a valuable alternative if a dilution system can not be integrated. (vitrocell.com)
  • Travelers with high-risk exposures (including animal bites and scratches) not vaccinated for tetanus will require a dose of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine (Tdap, Td, or DTaP). (cdc.gov)
  • PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is an inhalation-driven multi-dose dry powder inhaler containing a formulation of 1 mg per actuation of micronized budesonide and micronized lactose monohydrate which contains trace levels of milk proteins [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Post-marketing Experience ]. (rxlist.com)
  • In vitro testing has shown that the dose delivery for PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is dependent on airflow through the device, as evidenced by a decrease in the fine particle dose at a flow rate of 30 L/min to a value that is approximately 40 - 50% of that produced at 60 L/min. (rxlist.com)
  • For patients who do not respond adequately to the starting dose after 1-2 weeks of therapy with PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) , increasing the dose may provide additional asthma control. (rxlist.com)
  • The time-matched change from baseline in QTc after therapeutic dose Technosphere® Inhalation Powder based on an individual correction (QTcI) method. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The maximum change in time-matched, placebo-subtracted QT interval corrected by Fridericia formula (QTcF) and Bazett formula (QTcB), respectively, for supratherapeutic dose of Technosphere® Inhalation Powder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The maximum change in time-matched, placebo-subtracted QT/QTc intervals by Fridericia formula (QTcF), and by Bazett formula (QTcB), respectively, for therapeutic dose of Technosphere® Inhalation Powder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • and (3) systemic injury as a result of inhalation of toxic compounds and immunologic responses to injury. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • systemic exposure may be increased. (drugs.com)
  • Ocular and pulmonary exposure may cause incapacitating inflammation, systemic absorption and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation and systemic absorption may result in pulmonary edema, necrotizing bronchiolitis, and pulmonary thrombosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation and systemic absorption may cause pulmonary edema, necrotizing bronchiolitis and pulmonary thrombosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Catalog Record: An animal inhalation exposure unit for. (hathitrust.org)
  • Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposures occurred at each concentration while at rest or while performing light exercise on a bicycle ergometer. (cdc.gov)
  • The mean breath MeOH concentration dropped to about 10ppm 5min after end of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Breath MeOH concentration peaked 15min after cessation of dermal exposure, then declined rapidly between 15 and 30 after exposure, followed by a slower decrease thereafter. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood MeOH concentration increased up to 45min after exposure, remained constant between 1 and 2hr after exposure before declining. (cdc.gov)
  • The system allows you to vary the concentration of airborne pathogens, the rate of air flow, and the length of exposure, so experiments can be reproduced accurately and adjusted easily. (glascol.com)
  • The response following exposure to low concentration. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Hence, an understanding of the concentration of pollutants in different micro-environments is of great importance for improving exposure estimates and, in turn, for developing efficient control strategies to reduce human exposure and health risk. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Provided measurement techniques are available and accurate, this method is likely to produce the least uncertainty in estimating exposure concentration, at least over the time period of the measurements. (epa.gov)
  • Normalized to exposure concentration, the added 13C per gram of lung on average in the postexposure period was ~9 ng/ g organ/ µg/ m3. (cdc.gov)
  • The estimated LCt 50 (the product of concentration times time that is lethal to 50% of the exposed population by inhalation) is 1,500 to 2,000 mg-min/m³. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: We exposed rats once by nose-only inhalation for 4 hr to residual oil fly ash (ROFA), an emission source particle rich in transition metals, or to air and then sacrificed them 1 or 48 hr later. (ecu.edu)
  • To ensure human safety, careful steps must also be taken to ensure monitoring methods do not subject individuals to any more exposure than necessary. (epa.gov)
  • Changes to the wording of the duty to maintain exposure control measures to make it clear that the scope of the duty extends to methods of work and supervision in addition to plant and equipment. (hse.gov.uk)
  • This book focuses on an important aspect of the methods in laboratory animal inhalation toxicology. (routledge.com)
  • Wearing safety gear and using proper asbestos abatement methods help reduce the asbestos exposure to workers. (asbestos.com)
  • Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Objectives This study examined whether it is possible to train occupational hygienists to estimate inhalation exposures reliably from limited occupational information using a new method and assessed improvements in the quality of the estimate using the aggregate from multiple assessors.Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. (elsevier.com)
  • The symptoms and signs of smoke inhalation can be divided into general findings in inhalational injury and those attributable to specific toxins, the most common of which are carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Signs of chronic carbon monoxide exposure may be subtle. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This is attributable, in part, to the synergistic effects of the methemoglobin resulting from the cyanide exposure - in addition to the carbon monoxide exposure. (insidesurgery.com)
  • The majority of intoxication reports of hydrocarbons are due to inhalation or ingestion, but a few case reports have described intravenous ingestion of gasoline for suicide. (medscape.com)
  • The TTC concept derives thresholds to structural groups of compounds below which a risk for human health is not assumed for a life-time exposure. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Personal exposure particulate matter samples referring to an elderly panel were collected in a community of Tianjin, Northern China, in 2009, and 12 PAH compounds were measured using GC-MS. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to extract the potential sources and quantify the source contributions to the PAH mixture. (springer.com)
  • Two incidents involving internal exposure by inhalation of transuranic compounds are presented herein. (radioprotection.org)
  • Here, we assessed the health risks resulting from total consumer exposure towards aluminium and various aluminium compounds, including contributions from foodstuffs, food additives, food contact materials (FCM), and cosmetic products. (springer.com)
  • Long-term inhalation of benzene fumes is the most harmful method of exposure, and is unfortunately quite common in many different types of industries . (lamblawoffice.com)
  • Death from intentional inhalation of hydrocarbon fumes is not uncommon and is usually due to sudden cardiac events or CNS depression. (medscape.com)
  • Inhalation hazards result not only from exposure to hydrogen fluoride gas, but also from fumes arising from concentrated hydrogen fluoride liquid. (cdc.gov)
  • The Inhalation Exposure System provides whole-body exposure for approximately 10-15 mice. (glascol.com)
  • In the present study we explored the effects of repeated inhalation exposure in asthmatic and healthy mice to two different sizes of TiO 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies involving exposure of mice to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) showed that mice exposed to both a cancer initiator chemical and MWCNT (by inhalation) were significantly more likely to have tumors than mice exposed only to the initiator chemical. (unr.edu)
  • This concern prompted the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to conduct a bioassay of prolonged exposure to evaluate ozone's carcinogenicity in rats and mice. (epa.gov)
  • Selenium sulfide has been linked with the occurrence of liver and lung tumors in mice and rats following oral exposure, and is a Group B2 carcinogen as per EPA classification. (news-medical.net)
  • Accelerated silicosis is where the symptoms are seen much earlier, typically within 5 to 10 years after exposure. (healthhype.com)
  • Intensity of silicosis symptoms depends on the duration and quantity of silica dust inhalation. (healthhype.com)
  • Elemental selenium dust exposure also produces mucous membrane irritation, bleeding from the nose, and coughing, besides the other symptoms. (news-medical.net)
  • A large part of the population has impaired health conditions that will make them more susceptible to develop health problems from particulate exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inhalation is a major route of exposure that occurs when an individual breathes in polluted air which enters the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim is to identify available information including data sources and models, and show that an integrated multi-route exposure model can be built, validated and used as part of an air quality management process. (nhbs.com)
  • PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) should be administered twice daily by the orally inhaled route only. (rxlist.com)
  • Although hydrofluoric acid is weak compared with most other mineral acids, it can produce serious health effects by any route of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The new Right side door model desktop Inhalation Exposure System provides the same reproducible animal exposure to droplet-borne contaminants and infectious agents as our standard larger unit. (glascol.com)
  • It can be used to measure exposure of an individual to contaminants in the breathing zone, in food and drink, and on the skin. (epa.gov)
  • A multi-pronged approach is being applied to examine the cardiopulmonary consequences of particle exposure, i.e., using both whole body to 1) evaluate cellular and inflammatory indicators in the lungs by bronchopulmonary lavage and cytokine measurements, 2) measure vascular components in platelets and other blood elements, 3) examine heart tissues directly for histopathology and 4) measure neurological changes in gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines. (epa.gov)
  • In the present study we investigated the modulatory effects of titanium dioxide particle exposure in an experimental allergic asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our product catalogue provides brief information about Inhalation and particle exposure systems provided by us. (inhalation.in)
  • Particle exposure leads to around 20,000 premature deaths in America each year. (missionrestorations.com)
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the potential for human contact and inhalation exposure to nanomaterials when using nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders and compare them with analogous products not marketed as nanotechnology based. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 2011b) is cause for concern regarding potential human exposure to nanomaterials and possible health risks. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There are currently no exposure limits specific to engineered nanomaterials, nor any national or international consensus standards on measurement techniques for nanomaterials in the workplace. (ilo.org)
  • However, facilities engaged in the production and use of engineered nanomaterials have expressed an interest in learning whether the potential for worker exposure exists. (ilo.org)
  • An estimate of the increased cancer risk from a lifetime of oral exposure to a substance. (epa.gov)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee (PADAC) voted 9 to 7 on Wednesday to recommend mannitol inhalation powder ( Bronchitol , Chiesi) for oral inhalation to improve pulmonary function in adults aged 18 years and older with cystic fibrosis (CF), together with standard therapies. (medscape.com)
  • ProAir HFA is for oral inhalation only. (rxlist.com)
  • Administer PROAIR HFA by oral inhalation only. (rxlist.com)
  • Inhalation: For oral inhalation only. (drugs.com)
  • Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation). (drugs.com)
  • The human body is exposed to pollution on a daily basis via dermal exposure and inhalation. (nhbs.com)
  • Many people are exposed to small amounts of benzene in their everyday lives through cigarette smoke, air pollution, and contact with gasoline, but these exposures usually do not have the serious health effects which are common to the excessive benzene exposures experienced by various workers. (lamblawoffice.com)
  • Though short-term effects may include irritation, coughing and many of the usual side effects of inhaling smoke or vapour, long-term exposure may have potentially life-threatening health risks. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The purpose of this communication is first, to describe an apparatus which, with modifications, allows pertinent information to be obtained on each individual small animal exposed and secondly, to set forth the pre- and post-exposure procedure adopted for obtaining required quantitative data regarding respiration, deposition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The development of prolonged obstructive airways disease after smoke inhalation is of concern to fire victims and fire-fighters. (ilo.org)
  • Smoke inhalation injuries predispose the airways to infection because of cellular injury, reduction of mucociliary clearance, and poor macrophage function. (medscape.com)
  • Becker S, Madden M, Newman SL, Devlin RB, Koren HS (1991b) Modulation of human alveolar macrophage properties by ozone exposure in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Advanced in vitro exposure systems. (vitrocell.com)
  • Each actuation of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) 180 mcg delivers 160 mcg budesonide from the mouthpiece and each actuation of PULMICORT FLEXHALER 90 mcg delivers 80 mcg budesonide from the mouthpiece (based on in vitro testing at 60 L/min for 2 sec). (rxlist.com)
  • First, it helps us understand what happens in the human body at different levels of exposure to a chemical, and it allows us to see that relationship presented graphically. (epa.gov)
  • I are him are what I played and he became I be over a view Human Exposure to request of my Word moon. (mosedavis.net)
  • I are be the view Human Exposure to with the time on your Project, offers that Zodiac together close? (mosedavis.net)
  • R828112C042 Does Inhalation of Methanol Vapor Affect Human Neurobehavior? (epa.gov)
  • At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. (mdpi.com)
  • The default extrapolation factor for exposure duration is used: subacute (starting point) to chronic (end point). (europa.eu)
  • It contains the VITROCELL® Abrasive Dust Generator, the VITROCELL® external dilution system and the extended VITROCELL® Automated Exposure Station. (vitrocell.com)
  • In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera ( B. papyrifera ) and Boswellia carterii ( B. carterii ) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • In a recent study, the incense smoke exposure to rats significantly decreased the liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and significantly increased the lipid peroxidation [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • If they fail to do so, they can be held accountable for any ensuing damages, including injuries caused by smoke exposure and inhalation. (hullandzimmerman.com)
  • Personal exposure measurements. (nhbs.com)
  • Air quality management and personal exposure. (nhbs.com)
  • Many sampling techniques for personal exposure monitoring are available and continue to be developed. (epa.gov)
  • Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory response, usually from the release of acidic or alkaline radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another concern is that long-term exposure to ozone may injure the tissues of the respiratory tract, and lead to the development or exacerbation of chronic lung diseases such as fibrosis and emphysema. (epa.gov)
  • Difficulty arises in defining a significant exposure, since the clinical response is so varied. (medscape.com)
  • Drechsler-Parks DM, Bedi JF, Horvath SM (1987) Pulmonary function response of older men and women to ozone exposure. (springer.com)
  • A study was conducted to determine the conditions under which breath measurements of methanol (67561) (MeOH) would be effective for the estimation of blood levels of MeOH after inhalation or dermal exposures in a work setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Direct exposure measurements could be used to validate or verify results of assessments conducted using indirect estimation, such as scenario or population-based evaluations (U.S. EPA, 1992). (epa.gov)
  • For the estimation of aluminium contents in foodstuff, data from the German "Pilot-Total-Diet-Study" were used, which was conducted as part of the European TDS-Exposure project. (springer.com)
  • Use of data from the European TDS-Exposure project for the estimation of aluminium exposure from foodstuff. (springer.com)
  • Community-Level Estimation of Children's Lead Exposure for Risk Screening and Targeting. (epa.gov)
  • A list of exposure determinants underlying each of these principal MFs is proposed to describe the exposure process at a more detailed level. (hw.ac.uk)
  • It was found that the average weekly aluminium exposure resulting from food intake amounts to approx. (springer.com)
  • The CO 2 inhalation did not change the total plasma Ca significantly. (lu.se)