The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Relating to the size of solids.
The act of BREATHING in.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The contamination of indoor air.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms. (1/1739)

A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms.  (+info)

Exposure of farmers to phosmet, a swine insecticide. (2/1739)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure dermal and inhalation exposures to phosmet during application to animals and to identify what determinants of exposure influence the exposure levels. METHODS: Ten farmers were monitored using dermal patches, gloves, and air sampling media during normal activities of applying phosmet to pigs for insect control. Exposures were measured on the clothing (outer), under the clothing (inner), on the hands, and in the air. Possible exposure determinants were identified, and a questionnaire on work practices was administered. RESULTS: The geometric mean of the outer exposure measurements was 79 microg/h, whereas the geometric mean of the inner exposure measurements was 6 microg/h. The geometric mean for hand exposure was 534 microg/h, and the mean air concentration was 0.2 microg/m3. Glove use was associated with the hand and total dermal exposure levels, but no other determinant was associated with any of the exposure measures. The average penetration through the clothing was 54%, which dropped to 8% when the farmers wearing short sleeves were excluded. The farmers reported an average of 40 hours a year performing insecticide-related tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Farmers who applied phosmet to animals had measurable exposures, but the levels were lower than what has been seen in other pesticide applications. Inhalation exposures were insignificant when compared with dermal exposures, which came primarily from the hands. Clothing, particularly gloves, provided substantial protection from exposures. No other exposure determinant was identified.  (+info)

Increase in interleukin-6 and fibrinogen in peripheral blood after swine dust inhalation. (3/1739)

OBJECTIVES: The inhalation of dust from swine confinement buildings causes inflammatory responses in the airways with a rise of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The purpose of this study was to confirm the increase in serum IL-6 after inhalation of swine dust and investigate a possible increase in plasma fibrinogen. METHODS: Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers inhaled dust for 4 hours inside a swine confinement building. Inhalable dust and endotoxin were sampled. The concentrations of IL-6 and fibrinogen were determined in serum and plasma. RESULTS: The study showed a clear increase in the concentrations of IL-6 and fibrinogen after exposure. CONCLUSIONS: As fibrinogen is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease, the increased concentration of fibrinogen among persons exposed to swine dust may increase the risk for this disease.  (+info)

Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure. (4/1739)

Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO.  (+info)

Should we be frightened of bracken? A review of the evidence. (5/1739)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk to human health of the plant bracken (Pteridium sp). DESIGN: An evaluation of studies of human and animal populations exposed to bracken, together with a review of expert reports and advice to the public. MAIN RESULTS: Bracken induced disease has been demonstrated in animals in both laboratory and field studies. Depending on the species, diseases in animals associated with the plant have included; cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract, lung and breast; haematuria; retinal degeneration; and, thiamine deficiency. Potential exposure of human populations is through: food either directly (people in some parts of the world eat bracken as a traditional dish) or indirectly by consuming animals fed on bracken; milk; water; inhalation and ingestion of spores; and insect vectors. Four studies of human populations (two analytical and two observational) failed to assess adequately confounding factors and other sources of bias, so that conclusions about a risk to human health from bracken cannot firmly be drawn. Establishing exposure is also extremely difficult in populations (such as the United Kingdom) where direct consumption of bracken is rare. CONCLUSION: Bracken is a common plant worldwide. It is toxic to many animal species and to several organ systems. There is no tumour (or other disease) that is pathognomic of exposure in animals, though cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract seem to be the most commonly associated. It is not possible to extrapolate from animal models to humans. Studies of human populations, do not establish a clear risk of bracken to human health, largely because of methodological problems. Testing the evidence against traditional criteria of causality only fulfils the criterion of biological plausibility. Despite this, current public information implies a serious risk to human health from bracken, and increasing media coverage of the subject is likely to lead to greater public concern. Further epidemiological studies are required.  (+info)

Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment. (6/1739)

In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.  (+info)

Occupational exposure to dust in quartz manufacturing industry. (7/1739)

Owing to the abundance of a sedimentary rock, 65 small-scale quartz manufacturing enterprises, employing 650 workers, have been established in the region studied. Quartz powder manufacturing involves various processes and operations, such as manual handling of quartz stones, crushing, grinding, sieving, screening, mixing, storing and bagging. Results demonstrate that each of these operations generates high concentrations of airborne 'total' dust and respirable dust, which contain a very high percentage (> 75%) free silica. The estimated average exposure to airborne 'total' dust was 22.5 mg m-3 (Permissible Limit of Exposure 1.08 mg m-3), and respirable dust 2.93 mg m-3 (PLE 0.36 mg m-3). This shows that 'total' dust exposure was 7.7 times higher than respirable dust. Since the present work systems and practices may pose a serious health risk to the workers, public and the environment, suitable preventive and control measures have been suggested for improvement in the workplace.  (+info)

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in two iron ore mines. (8/1739)

Six males with systemic sclerosis were observed in the work forces of two iron ore mines. The usual spectrum of clinical features encountered in systemic sclerosis patients were present. Histologic examination of pulmonary tissue was performed on three of the cases and showed features of both silicosis and scleroderma but to different degrees and stages of development. Exposure to high levels of silica-containing dusts had occurred in all six cases.  (+info)

The potential adult adverse health outcomes that result from exposures during early life are recognized. However, only limited attention has been paid to the effect(s) of environmentally relevant toxicant exposures during critical periods of development and even fewer studies have examined whether early life inhalation exposures leads to adult disease. Our research is investigating whether inhalation exposures to real world dust during development can lead to changes in lung function and structure in adults. If so, what are the critical times of exposure that lead to those changes? Using metal-containing real world dusts collected from an abandoned mine tailings site, we have exposed male and female mice only in utero, only post-natally or continuously (in utero and postnatal inhalation exposures). We have found that significant changes in lung function and structure are only seen in adult male mice following continuous exposures. In addition, alterations in protein expression of airway cells ...
INTRODUCTION: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material ... read more and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. METHODS: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). The dose is expressed as 6 h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2 mg/m(3) CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2-14 nm and an MMAD of 1.5 μm. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung ...
To assess acute inhalation toxicity, MRD-95 -247 was administered via individual whole-body inhalation chambers for four hours to two groups of ten Crl:CDBR rats at either an estimated aerosol concentration of 5247 mg/m3 or an analytical concentration of 5266 mg/m3 (5213 mg/m3 aersol, 53 mg/m3 vapor). Animals were observed for fourteen days following exposure. No mortality was observed, and all animals that received the estimated aerosol concentration of 5247 mg/m3 were free of gross pathological abnormalities. In the second group (5266 mg/m3 aerosol), 4 males and 1 female exhibited red foci on the lungs, one male displayed dark red nasal turbinates, and 3 males and 1 female had alopecia and/or scabs on the dorsal surface, extremities, and/or head. Based on the conditions of this study, the LC50 for acute inhalation exposure to an aerosol atmosphere of MRD-95 -247 is greater than 5266 mg/m3. This finding does not warrant classification of MRD-95-247 as an acute inhalation toxicant under the new ...
The behavioral effects induced by methyl-n-amyl ketone (110430) (MAK) exposure were studied. Rats received from one to eight intraperitoneal injections (group I) of 18, 37, 74, or 175 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) MAK, or were exposed to MAK aerosols (Group II) of 800 to 1,900 parts per million (ppm) daily for 6 or 8 hours. Following inhalation exposures, the rats were given injections of 37, 74
OBSH is used as a blowing agent in industrial processing and for professional uses. For systemic effects from long term inhalational exposure, no inhalational study is available. A DNEL of 0.7 mg/m3 was established based on a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral OECD 408 90D study. For local effects in respiratory tract from long term inhalational exposure a DNEL of 0.1 mg/m3 is applicable based on a ACGIH TLV of 0.1 mg/m3 for OBSH derived to protect against effects from hydrazine liberated from hydrolysis of OBSH. For systemic effects from long term dermal exposure, no dermal study is available. A DNEL of 0.1 mg/kg/d was established based on a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral OECD 408 90D study with rats. Short term exposure is controlled by conditions for long-term exposure, therefore no DNEL has been established. Further, as OBSH has been identified as a skin sensitizer, strict control measures should apply. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies. AU - Miettinen, Mirella. AU - Tapper, Unto. AU - Backman, Ulrika. AU - Joutsensaari, Jorma. AU - Auvinen, Ari. AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Conference article. T2 - European Aerosol Conference 2008, EAC 2008. Y2 - 25 August 2008 through 29 August 2008. ER - ...
Complete solutions for a variety of inhalation exposure test assays. We develop and produce a wide range of equipment and components for in-vivo and in-vitro studies with aerosols and vapors.. Our exposure systems are suitable for long- and short-term inhalation investigations with test animals or cell cultures involving toxicity and impact of particulate matter, e.g. in pharmacology, environmental and occupational safety, and bio-defense studies.. The exposure system design and Daco inhalation software for automatic control and regulation of experiments support you in achieving compliance with the OECD, EPA and GLP guidelines.. ...
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Adverse health effects by inhaled and deposited particles are of great concern. In addition, therapeutic aerosols become increasingly important for the treatment of lung and other diseases. The interaction of particles with the inner surface of the lungs is fundamental for their biological effectiveness in the organism, though poorly understood and precluded from being studied in humans. A large number of animals are used to test the effects of aerosol particles on a living system by whole-body or nose-only exposures. Such experiments are time consuming and they are stressful for the animals. Furthermore, the increase of knowledge in the use of animal models is hampered for various reasons, such as the long time lapse between aerosol application and lung fixation, the lack of methods for direct studies, or artefacts produced by chemical lung fixation. Cell cultures which are in common use today are deficient in important structural components of the inner lung surface, such as macrophages, ...
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The general population is exposed to CDFs by inhalation, ingestion of drinking water, consumption of food, and through the use of certain consumer products. Since the concentrations of CDFs in ambient air and drinking water are low (see Section 5.4), the intake of CDFs by inhalation and ingestion of drinking water would be low. It has been shown that inhalation exposure was not a major pathway of human exposure to CDFs (Travis and Hattermer-Frey 1989). The estimate that inhalation exposure.... ...
In case of a radioactive release, it is important to have good preparedness with the right actions to contribute the best protection for the vulnerable section of the population. Immediately after a release theexposure through inhalation will be the biggest problem, since particles and gases have not beendeposited on land, clouds and so on. Buildings contribute to protection against inhalation. The reason forthis is that the air outside and inside the dwelling is changed relatively slowly. How much of the pollutionthat enter the indoor air and how long time it takes is important information to determine if thepopulation is sufficiently protected inside buildings or if evacuation is needed. In this work knowledgefrom existing literature and modelling has been used to describe general conditions with which apollutant moves in and out of a building. Differential equations with main processes and parameters havebeen studied to give a estimation as to the protection a building can provide against ...
ECHA guidance recommends that a factor of 2 be applied when doing route to route extrapolation for oral to inhalation exposure; this has been included in this case due to a lack of data or the percentage of oral absorption. Therefore a factor of 2 was applied. Allometric scaling is applied by taking account for the different breathing rates between rats and humans, as described in ECHA technical guidance the oral NOAEL in the rat mg/kg/day *1/0.38 * 6.7/10 = mg/m3 inhalation NOAEC for workers. An additional adjust was made as recommended in ECHA guidance R8.4.3. The oral exposure for the rats was 7 days a week but inhalation exposure of workers is considered to be 5 days a week. This is adjusted by dividing the NOEC by 5/7 or 0.714286. ...
Felix, Human infection with hanta-virus occurs through inhalation of infected material, so as long as you werent breathing, or picking your nose when you were around the moose droopings, youll be OK, other-wise, head for the nearest epidemiologist. ,Al ...
The inhalation toxicity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) was examined in acute (single exposure), subacute (4-wk repeated exposure) and subchronic (13-wk repeated exposure) studies in rats. The 4-hr LC50 was found to be 95 ppm. In the 4-wk study rats were exposed to 0, 0.9, 4.1 or 11.8 ppm PAN vapor for 6 hr/day, 5 days/wk. Exposure to 11.8 ppm ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is the cancer research and monitoring arm of the World Health Organization (WHO). On June 12 2012, IARC, after a week-long meeting of international experts on carcinogenic health effects of diesel engine exhaust fumes, has made a press release announcing the classification of diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. The classification was announced from Lyon, France, after considering the scientific findings on the health effects and cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust fumes ...
PRN: RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials. RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials [03-May-2012] - RIFM 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model Is An Alternative Method To Calculate Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance WOODCLIFF LAKE, New Jersey, May 3, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) is beta testing its innovative 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model software, an alternative method for assessing inhalation exposure to fragrance materials. RIFM Database subscribers can download the model for individual use by selecting Tools and Models from the RIFM Database home page and then selecting the model for download.
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A training exercise in subjectively estimating inhalation exposures. AU - Semple, Sean. AU - Proud, L. A.. AU - Tindall, M. E.. AU - Tannahill, S. N.. AU - Cherrie, John. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives This study examined whether it is possible to train occupational hygienists to estimate inhalation exposures reliably from limited occupational information using a new method and assessed improvements in the quality of the estimate using the aggregate from multiple assessors.Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. The measured exposure levels were used to determine the validity of the method. The correlation coefficients of the log-transformed data were used to assess the discriminative power of the method, and the ratio of the mean estimate to measured values was used to measure accuracy.Results There ...
Heavy Metals Inhalation Exposure Analysis from Particulate Matter Emitted from Dry and Wet Recycling Processes of Waste Electrical and Electronic ...
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Background: Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that exposure to traffic-derived pollution worsens respiratory symptoms in asthmatics, but controlled human exposure studies have failed to provide a mechanism for this effect. Here we investigated whether diesel exhaust (DE) would induce apoptosis or proliferation in the bronchial epithelium in vivo and thus contribute to respiratory symptoms.. Methods: Moderate (n = 16) and mild (n = 16) asthmatics, atopic non-asthmatic controls (rhinitics) (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 21) were exposed to filtered air or DE (100 μg/m 3 ) for 2 h, on two separate occasions. Bronchial biopsies were taken 18 h post-exposure and immunohistochemically analysed for pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bak, p85 PARP, Fas, Bcl-2) and a marker of proliferation (Ki67). Positive staining was assessed within the epithelium using computerized image analysis.. Results: No evidence of epithelial apoptosis or proliferation was observed in healthy, allergic or ...
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) announced the release of 17 new, updated, corrected or deleted Test Guidelines. The Test Guidelines include three that are specifically developed for nanomaterials.. A full list of publications in the Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials is available on the OECD WPMN website via http://www.oecd.org/env/ehs/nanosafety/publications-series-safety-manufactured-nanomaterials.htm. (1) Test No. 318: Dispersion Stability of Nanomaterials in Simulated Environmental Media (PDF, 1.5 MB). This document offers guidelines on a test procedure to gain information on dispersion stability of manufactured nanomaterials in simulated environmental media. It allows the users to understand the nanomaterials fate in natural waters and their potential behaviour in test media.. (2) Test No. 412: 28 days (Subacute) Inhalation Toxicity Study (PDF, 354 KB). (3) Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study (PDF, 354 KB). Both ...
Video articles in JoVE about inhalation exposure include Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures, Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System, A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii, Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping, The Lambda Select cII Mutation Detection System, An Experimental Model to Study Tuberculosis-Malaria Coinfection upon Natural Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium berghei, Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry, Direct Tracheal Instillation of Solutes into Mouse Lung, Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Latex Agglutination.
A colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. Fumes strongly in moist air. Nonflammable. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Heavier than air. Long-term inhalation of low concentrations or short-term inhalation of high concentrations has adverse health effects. Prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat may result in the violent rupture and rocketing of the container. Used in the manufacture of rubber, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and in gasoline refining and metals processing.. Rate of onset: Immediate. Persistence: Minutes to hours. Odor threshold: 0.77 ppm. Source/use/other hazard: Ore, other metal refining/cleaning; food/pickling; petroleum; corrosive liq.. ...
The information was provided to the workers from the year of introduction of diesel equipment at each facility , a surrogate for diesel exhaust exposure, from a variety of sources, including a 1998-2001 survey of diesel exhaust exposure at each facility, data from the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration Mine Information data Analysis system compliance database, data on diesel equipment usage over time and historical data at each facility mine ventilation... Its really no secret to deal with the sleep deprivation with a new baby with a new baby after Reynolds practicing Nurture try a healthy diet, and not on any additional take on tasks outside the home - you won t have time for them and nap when stay stay. Calm with a dramatic change in the life and routine, it can be difficult to stay cool and collected, but thats the key your baby your baby on an even keel. Even if something is wrong, reflects your mood and response to[ their] disposition. Are are freaking out, they do not ...
Background: Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially in individuals with cardiovascular disease including hypertension. PM inhalation causes several adv ...
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10-deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines ...
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10-deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines ...
Disclaimer: These masks should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat source or flammable gas. Wear Boise LLC makes no warranties, either express or implied, that the face cover prevents infection or the transmission of viruses or diseases ...
(Non Medical) Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat sour
(Non Medical) Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat sour
Buy Novidat Online! Novidat is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. Novidat oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure.
Buy Ciproxina Online! Ciproxina is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It is not effective against syphilis infections. Ciproxina oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure.
Cloth face coverings are not intended for use in the diagnosis of a disease or other conditions or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease or for any other medical purposes. Avoid using these cloth face coverings (1) in any surgical or medical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk levels through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high-intensity heat source or flammable gas ...
The breathing system comprises a canister carrying layered filtering material, including activated carbon granules, a dessicant, a catalyst for the catalyzation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, optionally lithium peroxide, for conversion of CO2 to O2, and electrostatically charged filters between the layers of filtering material. A mouthpiece carrying a noseclip, and inhalation and exhalation check valves and a whistle is disposed within a flexible, substantially completely transparent hear-through hood, both the mouthpiece and hood being disposed in the canister between the filtering material and a cover for the canister. In use, the cover is removed, air inlet apertures are uncovered, and the hood is drawn about an individuals head and substantially sealed about the neck. With the mouthpiece in the individuals mouth, and noseclip closing off the users nose, inhalation causes air to flow through the filtering material and the inhalation check valve and past the exhalation check valves. When
A rodent model for microplastic ingestion inducing a gut response and modification similar to that of type II diabetes. Exposure to non-biodegradable pollutants such as BPA can have many adverse health effects on humans, including diabetes and insulin resistance. However, there is less research on the human health effects of microplastic exposure. Microplastics are a unique contaminant suite that humans are exposed to on a regular basis through inhalation or ingestion exposure pathways. For instance, microplastic exposure can arise from the consumption of seafood, as microplastics bio-accumulate in marine organisms such as fish or bivalves. Research conducted in complementary fields have illustrated the potential for microplastics to impact intestinal permeability and microbiome composition. Additionally, research in type 2diabetes and metabolic diseases have reported a reduced permeability of the intestinal tract. We plan to use a lab-controlled study of mice to study a diabetic-induced control ...
1. Locate a current SDS for one of the fixatives described in todays lab. Identify the properties and hazards associated with that chemical. Methanol that is used in Precipitation fixation Dangerous Good Class: 3 (Flammable liquid) Subsidiary Risk(s): 6.1 (Toxic) Risk: - Highly flammable. - Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Safety Phrases: - Keep container tightly closed. - Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking. - Avoid contact with skin. - Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). ...
1. The activities or operations where the workers are exposed to the chemical agents shall be considered unhealthy when the tolerance limits in Table 1 of this Annex are exceeded.. 2. All values given in Table 1 (Table of Tolerance Limits) are only for the absorption through inhalation.. 3. All values given in Table 1 as simple asphyxiant determine that, in the presence of these substances in the work environment, the minimum concentration of oxygen must be 18% by volume. The activities and operations in which the oxygen concentration is below, this value shall be considered as an imminent and serious risk.. 4. The chemical agents whose tolerance limits cannot be exceeded at any time during the working day are marked in the Ceiling Limit column.. 5. The chemical agents that can be absorbed through the skin and therefore requiring the use of gloves while handling, in addition to necessary PPE for protection of other body parts, are shown in the Absorption through skin column.. 6. The ...
Darkened lips can result from months and years of smoking. Nicotine and tar transfer to the lips through inhalation of the cigarette smoke, causing...
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سلامت کار ایران Iran Occupational Health (IOH) seeks to publish Original Research Papers and Case Reports, Review Articles and Technical Reports related to the fields of Public Health and Occupational Health particularly. IOH is an official publication of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health and is published quarterly. The following guidelines refer to the Journal requirements for receiving your manuscripts for possible publication. Complying with guidelines will expedite the process of evaluation and publication of the submitted manuscripts. IOH regrets to reject those contributions that deviate from the Journal style.
Acutely toxic chemicals may cause harm if it enters the body. They may enter the body in different ways: the most common is through inhalation (breathing it into the lungs) or through skin contact or ingestion.
Inuit throat-singing is done in the following way: two women face each other; they may be standing or crouching down; one is leading, while the other responds; the leader produces a short rhythmic motif that she repeats with a short silent gap in-between, while the other is rhythmically filling in the gaps. The game is such that both singers try to show their vocal abilities in competition, by exchanging these vocal motives. The first to run out of breath or be unable to maintain the pace of the other singer will start to laugh or simply stop and will thus lose the game. It generally lasts between one and three minutes. The winner is the singer who beats the largest number of people.. Originally, the lips of the two women were almost touching, each one using the others mouth cavity as a resonator. Today, most singers stand straight, facing one another and holding each others arms. The sounds used include voiced sounds as well as unvoiced ones, both through inhalation or exhalation. Because of ...
Viral fever is a condition where viral infections are associated with the elevations of body temperature. These viruses enter the body through inhalation, direct contact, vectors, and contaminated water and food. These viral infections are easily contracted in person with low immune status. It affects all age groups but infants and old age people are more vulnerable.. ...
Question by Amit Varma. In the book The World of _____ by Bennett Alan Weinberg and Bonnie K Bealer, there is a photograph of a label from a jar of pharmaceutical-grade crystals. It reads:. WARNING: MAY BE HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED. HAS CAUSED MUTAGENIC AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS IN LABORATORY ANIMALS. INHALATION CAUSES RAPID HEART RATE, EXCITEMENT, DIZZINESS, PAIN, COLLAPSE, HYPOTENSION, FEVER, SHORTNESS OF BREATH. MAY CAUSE HEADACHE, INSOMNIA, VOMITING, STOMACH PAIN, COLLAPSE AND CONVULSIONS.. Fill in the blank.. ...
A new long-term study by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health found that miners exposed to diesel engine exhaust are three times more likely to contract fatal lung cancer, and that commuters on busy highways in smoggy, urban areas might face a similar risk ...
Brands: STELLAR Telemetry sets new standards in wireless animal physiology monitoring where the animal can move anytime, anywhere and still record your data gap-free and loss-less using the latest technology. TSE DACO is a comprehensive software solution for inhalation exposure studies. The Daco software package allows unparalleled flexibility in experimental design and data recording. The flexibility is reflected in the control of the experimental setup, allowing a mix of different exposure systems, all the way through the analysis parameters and even offers an advanced software version with implementation of specific GLP checkpoints and audit trails termed Daco-GLP.. ...
Researchers are now adding additional data to the obesity puzzle, citing that diesel exhaust exposure while in utero could also be to blame for the rise in
The 3M™ Inhalation Valve 6893/07144 (AAD), Respiratory Protection Replacement Part works with the 3M™ Full and Half Facepiece Respirators 6000 Series (sold separately). Using this replacement part can extend the service life of respiratory protection equiment.
HSE has highlighted the importance of managing health risks effectively after a Gateshead company admitted exposing its workers to hazardous soldering fumes. View press release
In the aftermath of the large spill of crude 4-methylcyclohexylmethanol (MCHM) into the Elk River in 2014, there were reports of a strong licorice-smelling odor and reports of respiratory illness/cough suggestive of chemical-induced adverse airway effects. Levels of MCHM in the air were predicted to be as high as 0.39 ppm after 10 minutes of showering, suggesting that inhalation of MCHM vapors was a potential route of chemical exposure. NTP conducted prenatal developmental toxicity and 5-day toxicogenomic oral gavage studies that showed minimal MCHM-induced adverse effects; however, no in vivo inhalation studies for MCHM have been performed to date. In this study, we utilized an organotypic human air-liquid interface (ALI) culture model (EpiAirwayTM) derived from a single donor to determine if there was any potential for MCHM-induced airway toxicity in vitro following acute exposure to MCHM vapors for 6 hours, which might warrant future inhalation toxicity testing in vivo. ALI tissues were ...
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This presentation will address some of the obstacles with studies in juvenile animals related to specialty endpoints or routes of delivery as well as approaches to overcome them. Discussion topics include cardiovascular assessment, immunophenotyping, and T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) evaluation in juvenile dogs, and approaches to inhalation exposure of neonatal/juvenile rodents, and dogs.. ...
Find patient medical information for Asmanex Twisthaler Inhalation on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Inhalation exposure[edit]. Allergic reactions to airborne particles or vapors of known food allergens have been reported as an ... Early exposure to potential allergens[2][3]. Treatment. Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, ... In some cases, hypersensitive reactions can be triggered by exposures to allergens through skin contact, inhalation, kissing, ... Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective.[2] Specifically, early exposure to eggs and peanuts reduces the risk ...
Ingestion or inhalation may be fatal. Effects of exposure may be delayed. There have been several accidents involving uranium ... Presence of this aerosol elevates the risk of potentially chemotoxic or radiotoxic exposure via inhalation or ingestion". ... The U.S. Department of Defense claims that no human cancer of any type has been seen as a result of exposure to either natural ... Specific exposures during deployment have not resulted in a subsequent increased risk of cancer. The long latent period for ...
Toxicity following inhalation was not identified. Symptoms following acute exposure include cyanosis (blue or purple coloration ... Only oral short-term exposure in rats was researched of o-toluidine. Dermal exposure affected the ovarian cycle, ovary ... Inhalation exposure was not identified. Rats were administered with the compound with a dose of 1125 mg/kg bodyweight over five ... o-Toluidine exposure has been researched in a number of different degrees in animals. o-Toluidine was found to be harmful to ...
Most thorium exposure occurs through dust inhalation; some thorium comes with food and water, but because of its low solubility ... this exposure is negligible. Exposure is raised for people who live near thorium deposits or radioactive waste disposal sites, ... Exposure to an aerosol of thorium, such as contaminated dust, can lead to increased risk of cancers of the lung, pancreas, and ... Internal exposure to thorium leads to increased risk of liver diseases. The decay products of 232Th include more dangerous ...
Routes of exposure include contact and inhalation. The EPA obtained hundreds of air samples during the spill and a review ... "The Exposure App". The Exposure App. Retrieved 8 November 2016. "NOAA researchers release study on emissions from BP/Deepwater ... Sampling for chemicals, particulates, and noise exposures were found to be below occupational exposure limits for ... Exposure occurs through skin contact, inhalation of contaminated air or soil/sand, and ingestion of contaminated water or food ...
0.1%) if exposure by inhalation is impossible. On the 20th of April 2018, the european commission decided to ban preservative ...
Nanomaterials in dry powder form tend to pose the greatest risk for inhalation exposure, while nanomaterials suspended in a ... Dustiness increases the risk of inhalation exposure. Dusty materials tend to generate aerosols with high particle ... The full life cycle of a nanomaterial should be considered when planning to control for dust exposure. Nanomaterial synthesis ... This standard is especially related to human exposure in workplace (EN 15051). It describes two methods: the rotating drum ...
This can be calculated as an inhalation exposure. This would account for daily exposure in various settings (e.g. different ... For some pollutants such as black carbon, traffic related exposures may dominate total exposure despite short exposure times ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ... and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office ...
Inhalation and skin exposure should be strictly avoided. As many dioxirane oxidations depend subtly on reaction conditions, ...
Hine, C.H.; Lyons, J.; Eisenlord, G.H.; Wright, J.A.; Long, J.E. (1979). "Three-month inhalation exposure study with methane ... during one hour of exposure or between 1 and 1.2 ppm during 7 hours of exposure. MSF produced no subtle biological effects from ... Repeated exposures to 1/10 of the LCt50 did not produce overt systemic toxicity or significant pathology. MSF can also cause ...
Prolonged exposure may result in skin burns and ulcerations. Over-exposure by inhalation may cause respiratory irritation. Skin ... Repeated or prolonged exposure can produce organ damage. Repeated or prolonged inhalation of vapors may lead to chronic ... Zinc peroxide is very hazardous in case of skin contact, of eye contact, ingestion, or inhalation. It has been shown to be ...
The main exposure to UFPs is through inhalation. Owing to their size, UFPs are considered to be respirable particles. Contrary ... Exposure to UFPs, even if components are not very toxic, may cause oxidative stress, inflammatory mediator release, and could ... In order to quantify exposure and risk, both in vivo and in vitro studies of various UFP species are currently being done using ... 2010). "Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers". Atmospheric Environment. 44 ( ...
Calls to US poison control centers related to e-cigarette exposures involved inhalations, eye exposures, skin exposures, and ... inhalation/nasal exposure resulted in nausea, vomiting, dizziness, agitated, or headache; ocular exposure resulted in eye ... Although it has become a popular replacement for diacetyl, acute inhalation exposure to 2, 3-pentanedione has been shown to ... If exposure of aerosols to propylene glycol and glycerin rises to levels that one would consider the exposure in association ...
A 1980 study on inhalation exposure of cadmium workers identified a single worker who always used his respirator correctly. The ... Que Hee, Shane; Lawrence, Philip (1983). "Inhalation Exposure of Lead in Brass Foundry Workers: The Evaluation of the ... Smith, Thomas; Ferrel, Willard; Varner, Michael; Putnam, Robert (1980). "Inhalation exposure of cadmium workers: effects of ... The permissible exposure limit [PEL] for several types of respirators was reduced. For example, for negative pressure air- ...
Exposure occurs through inhalation, ingestion or occasionally skin contact. Lead may be taken in through direct contact with ... Cumulative exposure over a prolonged period may have a more important effect on some aspects of health than recent exposure. ... Beyond exposure from gasoline, the frequent use of pesticides in developing countries adds a risk of lead exposure and ... Concerns for low levels of exposure begin in the 1970s with there being no safe threshold for lead exposure. Classically, "lead ...
Human inhalation effects[edit]. There is data for human exposure to HCCPD for numerous organ systems. Waste water treatment ... Animal inhalation effects[edit]. For prolonged exposure, significant differences occur between lab animal species. Where all ... For a very low exposure of 0.04 ppm, 3 out of 20 mice died and none of the rats died. Chronic exposure of HCCPD at very low ... Because respiratory exposure seems to be the most prevalent route of exposure, people suffering from asthma are probably more ...
... medical geology studies exposure to or deficiency of trace elements and minerals; inhalation of ambient and anthropogenic ... Lead and other heavy metal exposure resulting from dust and other particulates Asbestos exposure such as amphibole asbestos ... Rocks are also one of the leading sources in exposure to these elements. "They are essentially the source of all the naturally ... mineral dusts and volcanic emissions; transportation, modification and concentration of organic compounds; and exposure to ...
Transmission by ingestion or inhalation of coughed on fomites is a second, less likely route of infection. The genome of ... Other transmission routes include exposure to laboratory specimens. 1987 Carroll County Cryptosporidiosis outbreak 1993 ... resulting in cyst stages that are excreted in feces or through inhalation of coughed on fomites and are capable of transmission ... which may have been acquired by inhalation of expectorated droplets or by contact with fomites. ... This finding suggests that ...
Inhalation exposure is the most common route of exposure to airborne particles in the workplace. The deposition of ... Of the possible hazards, inhalation exposure appears to present the most concern, with animal studies showing pulmonary effects ... Ingestion may also accompany inhalation exposure because particles that are cleared from the respiratory tract via the ... October 2013). "Carbon nanotube dosimetry: from workplace exposure assessment to inhalation toxicology". Particle and Fibre ...
The risk estimates are limited to consideration of inhalation exposure. People receive substantial additional exposures to air ... Studies have shown that many people receive substantial additional inhalation exposure to common indoor air pollutants such as ... Bus depots, sanitation centers, and shipping facilities also account for the higher rates of emission exposure. Health ... Exposures, and Risks. 2002. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2011. ...
"Nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure from inhalation of cigarillo smoke". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 139 (Pt A): ... The depth of inhalation of cigar smoke into the lungs appears to be an important determinant of lung cancer risk: When cigar ... When 5 or more cigars are smoked per day and there is moderate inhalation, the lung cancer risks of cigar smoking approximate ... tobacco smoke exposure of the lung in cigar smokers increases to approximate the frequency of smoking and depth of inhalation ...
Exposure to any of the above-listed organophosphates may occur through inhalation, skin absorption, and ingestion, most ... OP pesticide exposure occurs through inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. Because OP pesticides degrade quickly when ... Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. The effects of OP exposure on infants and children ... Exposure can be from drinking, breathing in the vapors, or skin exposure. The underlying mechanism involves the inhibition of ...
Systemic and respiratory tract (RT) toxicity was analyzed for 28 days in a nose specific inhalation 2008 study in Wistar rats; ... TEOA seems to be less potent in regard to systemic toxicity and RT irritancy than diethanolamine (DEA). Exposure to TEOA ... Gamer, A. O.; Rossbacher, R.; Kaufmann, W.; van Ravenzwaay, B. (2008). "The inhalation toxicity of di- and triethanolamine upon ... repeated exposure". Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (6): 2173-2183. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.020. PMID 18420328. Lessmann, H.; Uter, W ...
Both inhalation and dermal routes of exposure are considered hazardous. "IARC Monographs- Classifications". monographs.iarc.fr ... Long-term skin exposure to these compounds can produce "tar warts", which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Coal tar was ... Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles can occur in the workplace by breathing, skin contact, or eye contact. The Occupational ... Long-term, consistent exposure to coal tar likely increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers. Evidence is inconclusive ...
Human exposure to chromium is ingestion, skin contact, and inhalation. Chromium-III and VI will accumulate in the tissues of ... This introduces health risks such as inhalation potential and leaching of toxins into the environment. ...
Chronic inhalation exposure in humans results in reversible respiratory toxicity. A study conducted between 1954 and 1972 of ... People that live near an area that has high toxaphene contamination are at high risk to toxaphene exposure through inhalation ... The three main paths of exposure to toxaphene are ingestion, inhalation, and absorption. For humans, the main source of ... Eating large quantities of fish on a daily basis also increases susceptibility to toxaphene exposure. Finally, exposure is rare ...
Gamer AO, Rossbacher R, Kaufmann W, van Ravenzwaay B (2008). "The inhalation toxicity of di- and triethanolamine upon repeated ... In a mouse study of chronic exposure to inhaled DEA at high concentrations (above 150 mg/m3), DEA was found to induce body and ... "Dose response effects of dermally applied diethanolamine on neurogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus and potential exposure of ... exposure". Food Chem Toxicol. 46 (6): 2173-83. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.020. PMID 18420328. Libralato G, Volpi Ghirardini A, ...
Exposure may be by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or direct contact. In type 1 hypersensitivity, B-cells are stimulated (by ... Mast cells and basophils coated by IgE antibodies are "sensitized". Later exposure to the same allergen cross-links the bound ... Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by re-exposure to a specific type of ... The immediate hypersensitivity reaction occurs minutes after exposure and includes release of vasoactive amines and lipid ...
Exposure to lead occurs through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Lead enters the bloodstream through exposure and ... A major source of exposure to lead comes from inhalation. Factories and industries, vehicle exhaust (especially from vehicles ... Environmental exposure to lead is not the only source of lead-related health effects. Many industrial workers in the United ... Effects of lead exposure cannot be corrected". "The absence of an identified BLL without deleterious effects, combined with the ...
Therefore, toxic exposure may occur by inhalation, physical contact, or ingestion. It is acutely toxic, causing a variety of ... Exposure to even small amounts may cause convulsions or death. LD50 orally in rats is reported as 25-50 mg/kg. The recommended ...
Some consider oral candidiasis a change in the normal oral environment rather than an exposure or true "infection" as such. The ... Where it is associated with inhalation steroids (often used for treatment of asthma), erythematous candidiasis commonly appears ...
... depending on exposure.[18] Lethal dose through inhalation typically ranges from 100 to 150 milligrams (1.5 to 2.3 grains). ... Inhalation can lead to headache, dizziness, rapid pulse, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, convulsions, and death, ... Inhalation of 900 ppm over a period of 10 minutes is considered lethal.[19] ...
... concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of ... The Nuclear Regulatory Commission defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway ...
Inhalation of tiny particles of infectious material (aerosol) is believed to be the most significant means of exposure. It is ... Infection typically occurs by direct or indirect exposure to animal excrement through the respiratory or gastrointestinal ... it will excrete the virus throughout the rest of its lifetime through feces and urine creating ample opportunity for exposure.[ ...
It has been observed that the inhalation of hydrocarbons can cause hyperosmia, most likely due to the destruction of ... ISBN 0-684-85394-9. Henkin, RI (1990-12-05). "Hyperosmia and depression following exposure to toxic vapors". JAMA: the Journal ...
... making the case fatality rate among patients with inhalation anthrax 45% (5/11). The six other individuals with inhalation ... Prolonged exposure to ionising radiation, such as x-rays and gamma rays, will also kill most endospores. ... once outside the host, sporulation commences upon exposure to the air and the spore forms are essentially the exclusive phase ... This intentional distribution lead to 22 known cases of anthrax (11 inhalation and 11 cutaneous) ...
US maximum allowed exposure in air (40 h/week) is 1900 mg/m³ for ethanol, 900 mg/m³ for gasoline, and 1260 mg/m³ for methanol. ... Inhalation risk is mitigated by a characteristic pungent odor. At concentrations greater than 2,000 ppm (0.2%) it is generally ... However, it is much less volatile than gasoline, and therefore has lower evaporative emissions, producing a lower exposure risk ... While methanol offers somewhat different toxicity exposure pathways, the effective toxicity is no worse than those of benzene ...
... and difficult to quantify risks posed by various methods of exposure (inhalation or ingestion).[citation needed] A link between ... Prenatal exposure of BaP to rats is known to affect learning and memory in rodent models. Pregnant rats eating BaP were shown ... Lee, BM; Shim, GA (Aug 2007). "Dietary exposure estimation of benzo[a]pyrene and cancer risk assessment". Journal of Toxicology ... In experiments with male rats, sub-chronic exposure to inhaled BaP has been shown to generally reduce the function of testicles ...
... smoke inhalation, drug overdoses, crushing of the trachea, status asthmaticus, and shock.[9] It is also recreationally self- ... Space exposure. *Ulegyria. ReferencesEdit. *^ Malhotra R, et al. (Nov 2001). "Hypoxia induces apoptosis via two independent ...
Because chlorine is a gas at room temperature, most exposure occurs via inhalation. Exposure may also occur through skin or eye ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Secondary effects of sulfur mustard exposure lead to chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. A common exposure ... The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. Irritant ...
... a higher one during inhalation and a lower pressure during exhalation. This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used ... is also a theory that long-term snoring might induce local nerve lesions in the pharynx in the same way as long-term exposure ... in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements of inhalation, but the movements typically become even more ...
Exposure to toxic chemicals[edit]. Chronic exposure to some airborne toxins such as herbicides, pesticides, solvents, and heavy ... Damage to the olfactory system can occur by traumatic brain injury, cancer, infection, inhalation of toxic fumes, or ... Doty, RL; Hastings, L. (2001). "Neurotoxic exposure and olfactory impairment". Clin Occupat Environ Med. 1: 547-575.. ... The common causes of olfactory dysfunction: advanced age, viral infections, exposure to toxic chemicals, head trauma, and ...
Inhalation may cause coughing, sneezing, and labored breathing. It may then evolve into burns with perforation of the nasal ... NIOSH (US health exposure limits): PEL (Permissible). TWA 5 mg/m3[4]. ...
exposure to feces, urine, saliva or bodily fluids Henipavirus Henipavirus spp. horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or ... inhalation of spores, contact with bodily fluid or faeces Rabies Rabies virus commonly - dogs, bats, monkeys, raccoons, foxes, ... exposure to urine, feces, or saliva Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei various animals direct contact with contaminated soil ... "Inhalation Anthrax". cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.. ...
Routes of entry for these insults can include ingestion, dermal exposure and inhalation. ... The duration of exposure, the frequency of exposure and the concentration of the insult (exposure) are elements in triggering ... Exposure sources and preventionEdit. The main sources of mold exposure are from the indoor air in buildings with substantial ... Exposure to mold may also cause heightened sensitivity depending on the time and nature of exposure. People at higher risk for ...
"Concentrations of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in Blood and Urine After Passive Exposure ... 10-35% (inhalation), 6-20% (oral)[3]. Protein binding. 97-99%[3][4][5]. ...
The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin.[3][61] The U.S. Institute ... C supplementation reduces the risk of lung cancer in healthy people or those at high risk due to smoking or asbestos exposure.[ ...
The (detrimental) reaction may result after exposure via ingestion, inhalation, injection, or contact with skin. ... Exogenous antigens are antigens that have entered the body from the outside, for example, by inhalation, ingestion or injection ...
Aluminum fluoride reported oral animal lethal dose (LD50) is 0.1 g/kg.[17] Repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause ... Human exposure to aluminum fluoride can occur in an industrial setting, such as emissions from an aluminum reduction processes, ... sources of human exposure to aluminum include drinking water, tea, food residues, infant formula, aluminum-containing antacids ... Data on the potential neurotoxic effects of chronic exposure to the aluminum species existing in water is limited.[22] ...
Moderate alcohol consumption 30-60 minutes before bedtime results in disruptions in sleep maintenance and sleep architecture that are mediated by blood alcohol levels.[2] Disruptions in sleep maintenance are most marked once alcohol has been completely metabolized from the body. Under conditions of moderate alcohol consumption where blood alcohol levels average 0.06-0.08% and decrease 0.01-0.02% per hour, an alcohol clearance rate of 4-5 hours would coincide with disruptions in sleep maintenance in the second half of an 8-hour sleep episode.[2] In terms of sleep architecture, moderate doses of alcohol facilitate "rebounds" in rapid eye movement (REM) and stage 1 sleep; following suppression in REM and stage 1 sleep in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode, REM and stage 1 sleep increase well beyond baseline in the second half. Moderate doses of alcohol also increase slow wave sleep (SWS) in the first half of an 8-hour sleep episode.[2] Enhancements in REM sleep and SWS following moderate ...
However, chronic exposure has been linked to abnormalities in the liver, kidneys, and heart. Pregnant women should avoid ... A 13-year-old male was found dead in the woods subsequent to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE) inhalation.. ... Winekab, Charles L.; Wahba, Wagdy W.; Huston, Robert; Rozin, Leon (6 June 1997). "Fatal inhalation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane". ... Fatal poisonings and illnesses linked to intentional inhalation of trichloroethane have been reported.[7][8][9][10] The removal ...
Inhalation for intoxication[edit]. Inhaled (huffed) gasoline vapor is a common intoxicant. Users concentrate and inhale ... Users have been advised to keep gasoline containers more than half full and properly capped to reduce air exposure, to avoid ... Gasoline inhalation has become epidemic in some poorer communities and indigenous groups in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and ... such as glue inhalation) emerged in Australia in the late 1960s.[citation needed] Chronic, heavy petrol sniffing appears to ...
High hemoglobin levels may also be caused by exposure to high altitudes, smoking, dehydration (artificially by concentrating Hb ... and after several months of exposure to the elements. ...
Exposure to nail dust and the associated risk will vary with the policies and practices in place, the type of podiatry drill ... "Inhalation of nail dust: A podiatric hazard". In McCarthy DJ, Abramson C, Rupp MJ (eds). Infectious Diseases of the Lower ... Exposure to nail dust was first discussed and described in the literature as an occupational hazard in the early 70's. In 1975 ... Chronic exposure to human nail dust is a serious occupational hazard that can be minimized by not producing such dust. Best ...
... indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms of inhalation exposure to these compounds. While ... Extended exposure often leads to massive discoloration usually reducing the colors to white and typically very faded blue.[14] ... The OSHA highest allowable peak concentration (5 minute exposure for five minutes in a 4-hour period) is 200 ppm,[28] twice as ... Inhalation of bleach fumes can damage the lungs. Personal protective equipment should always be used when using bleach. Bleach ...
Díez S (2009). "Human health effects of methylmercury exposure". Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 198: ... because the death of neurons in the cerebellum as a result of gluten exposure is irreversible.[29][31] It accounts for 40% of ... Exposure to high levels of methylmercury, through consumption of fish with high mercury concentrations, is also a known cause ...
exposure limit (PEL) none[1]. Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 ... Inhalation can lead to death by asphyxiation due to displacement of oxygen in the lungs. Contact with the skin can lead to ...
Exposure to these can lead to a wide range of negative health outcomes such as cancer, respiratory issues, dental loss ... through inhalation of dust/smoke particles either as an occupational hazard or due to proximity to contaminated sites such as ... The argument that low levels of thorium in the ore make it safer doesn't make sense, he says, because radiation exposure is ... What toxicity is shown appears to be at very high levels of exposure through ingestion of contaminated food and water, ...
... lost his life on the evening of 13 September 2013 because of a heart attack triggered by extreme inhalation of OC spray and ... was hospitalized after suffering a mild heart attack caused by exposure to tear gas on 31 May.[35] ...
These systems are necessary for determining the dose-response relationship of toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions ... to expose laboratory animals to carefully controlled concentrations of gases and aerosols are an important tool in inhalation ... Toxicology; Air-flow; Air-sampling-techniques; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-equipment; Exposure-chambers; Exposure-methods; ... The overall goals of this study were (1) to develop a system capable of automatically controlling the ozone exposure levels so ...
... by the US EPA Inhalation disorders Institution of Occupational Safety and Health Toolkit Trends in inhalation exposure: mid ... Inhalation is a major route of exposure that occurs when an individual breathes in polluted air which enters the respiratory ... Exposure to carbon monoxide is dangerous because of its toxic, odorless nature. Since the gas takes time to build up in the ... Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. ...
... would be effective for the estimation of blood levels of MeOH after inhalation or dermal exposures in a work setting. Four ... human subjects were exposed to MeOH at concentrations of up to 800 parts per million (ppm) for 8 hours (hr). Exposures occurred ... Exposure of one hand in MeOH for 8min gave peak blood MeOH levels equivalent to inhalation exposure at the threshold limit ... NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Skin-exposure; Biological-monitoring; Blood-samples; Breathing-atmospheres; Inhalation-studies ...
... inhalation exposure include Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures, Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol ... Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System, A Robust Pneumonia Model in ... Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them. Whole-Body ... Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System. Jonathan E ...
Home , Resources , The Synergist , Industry News , New Report Examines Controlled Human Inhalation Exposure Studies at EPA ... New Report Examines Controlled Human Inhalation Exposure Studies at EPA Published April 5, 2017 ... A free PDF download of Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA is available on NAPs website. ... A new report published by the National Academies Press (NAP) focuses on EPAs controlled human inhalation exposure (CHIE) ...
An Inhalation Dose. No dose calculation is needed for an inhalation dose. ... For inhalation doses, the amount of a chemical that is in the air is considered to be the amount that enters the lungs when a ... Therefore, the amount of the chemical measured in the air is the inhalation dose. ... A dose calculation for dermal contact is rarely needed for the following exposures: ...
No dose calculation is needed for an inhalation dose.. Why?. For inhalation doses, the amount of a chemical that is in the air ... Therefore, the amount of the chemical measured in the air is the inhalation dose. ... A dose calculation for dermal contact is rarely needed for the following exposures: ...
RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials [03-May-2012] - RIFM 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion ... an alternative method for assessing inhalation exposure to fragrance materials. RIFM Database subscribers can download the ... Model Is An Alternative Method To Calculate Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance WOODCLIFF LAKE, New Jersey, May 3, 2012 / ... RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials. ...
Potential for inhalation exposure to engineered nanoparticles from nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders.(Research, Report) by ... exposure+to+engineered+nanoparticles+from...-a0304320692. *APA style: Potential for inhalation exposure to engineered ... inhalation exposure, nanoaerosol, nanomaterials, nanoparticles, personal exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120:885-892 (2012). ... To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to determine the potential for human inhalation exposure to nanomaterials ...
HIT at sea level and hypobaric exposures of 2,438 m (8,000 feet) above sea level. Normal subjects and patients with COPD formed ... A comparison of the hypoxia inhalation test with hypobaric exposure Chest. 1995 Feb;107(2):352-7. doi: 10.1378/chest.107.2.352 ... Group 1 received exposure to 15.1% oxygen at sea level, the HIT. Groups 2 and 3 received hypobaric chamber exposure equivalent ... PaO2 during exposure = 0.417 (PaO2SL)] + 17.802 (n = 42; r = 0.756; p , 0.001). Neither the type of hypoxic exposure (HIT vs ...
nanoparticles; inhalation; exposure evaluation; nanotechnology. Descriptors (secondary). USA; sampling and analysis; public OSH ... Nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) for the identification and measurement of potential inhalation exposure to ... that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that ... There are currently no exposure limits specific to engineered nanomaterials, nor any national or international consensus ...
Catalog Record: An animal inhalation exposure unit for toxicity screening , HathiTrust Digital Library. * Skip to main ... An animal inhalation exposure unit for toxicity screening / by L.J. Leach, C.J. Spiegl. ... The chemical toxicity of thorium dioxide following inhalation by laboratory animals /. Author. Hodge, Harold C. (Harold ... The effect of inhaled radon on the survival, body weight and hemogram of the mouse following single exposures / ...
Specific DNEL derivation for PSPs following inhalation exposure. In general, REACH requires the establishment of DNELs also for ... Carcinogen classifications of relevance to inhalation exposure to PSP *United Nations Globally Harmonized System (UN GHS) and ... Other non-tumorigenic classifications of relevance to PSP inhalation exposure *United Nations Globally Harmonized System (`UN ... However, it should be noted that epidemiology studies show that even under worst case exposure scenarios (exposures during ...
Overview of Inhalation Exposure Facility Capabilities. The Environmental Health Sciences Centers Inhalation Exposure Facility ... There are very few inhalation exposure facilities in the world, each with a unique focus: at Rochester, the specialty area is ... The broad capabilities of the Facility include aerosol generation, exposure monitoring, and exposure characterization. The ... was established to focus the combined skills of biology, chemistry, and aerosol physics that are critical for inhalation ...
The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound ... Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, ... Barbecue Grill Inhalation exposure Particulate matter Pollution Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons This is a preview of ... Zhang S, Peng SC, Chen TH, Wang JZ (2015) Evaluation of inhalation exposure to carcinogenic PM10-bound PAHs of people at night ...
Criteria and Methods for Preparing Emergency Exposure Guidance Lev... ... and Continuous Exposure Guidance Level (CEGL) Documents (1986) Chapter: Appendix D: Extrapolation of Data--Oral to Inhalation ... Appendix D: Extrapolation of Data--Oral to Inhalation and Animal to Human 22 ... Criteria and Methods for Preparing Emergency Exposure Guidance Level (EEGL), Short-Term Public Emergency Guidance Level (SPEGL ...
Effects of the inhalation of hydrogen fluoride, III. Fluorine storage following exposure to sub-lethal. Author: Machle W, Scott ... However, prolonged exposure to high concentration of F is found to be deleterious to teeth, bones and other organs. Besides ... Fluorine absorbed from exposure atmospheres containing hydrogen-fluoride was distributed in the tissues, chiefly the bones, and ... 1. Round-the-clock exposure to hydrogen fluoride concentrations of 0.10 and 0.03 mg/m3 causes inhibition in the central nervous ...
... exposure, airborne particulate matter, San Joaquin Valley, cardiac arrest, human exposure, inhalation, ambient particle health ... Title: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol. Investigators: Pinkerton, Kent E. , Bonham, ... 2009 Progress Report: Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol. EPA Grant Number: R832414C003 ... R832414C003 Project 3 -- Inhalation Exposure Assessment of San Joaquin Valley Aerosol. R832414C004 Project 4 -- Transport and ...
... awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from institutions in the UK, US, and Belgium who are leading ... Non Animal Testing, Alternative Test Methods, In Vitro Toxicology, IIVS , Awards of VITROCELL In Vitro Inhalation Exposure ... The PETA International Science Consortium (PISC) awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from ...
The effects of the inhalation of hydrogen fluoride. II. The response following exposure to low concentration.. Author: Machle W ... Exposure was discontinued but he died 3 weeks later. After 134 hours of exposure, a second guinea-pig also began to lose weight ... There was no pronounced response following introduction of the animals into the exposure chamber. After 160 hours of exposure, ... Effect of chronic exposure to sodium fluoride and 7,12- dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on some blood parameters and hepatic, renal, ...
Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to ... Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure.. [ ... In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. The incidence of chronic ... There were also increases in renal tubule hyperplasia at all exposure concentrations, and in adenoma and adenoma or carcinoma ( ...
Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.. J P Zacny, M L Stitzer, F J Brown, J E ... Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.. J P Zacny, M L Stitzer, F J Brown, J E ... Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.. J P Zacny, M L Stitzer, F J Brown, J E ... inhalation volume and lung exposure duration on biological measures of smoke exposure. A microcomputer-based auditory feedback ...
Buy Human Exposure to Pollutants Via Dermal Absorption and Inhalation (9789048186624): NHBS - Edited By: Mihalis Lazaridis and ... Human Exposure to Pollutants Via Dermal Absorption and Inhalation Series: Environmental Pollution Volume: 17 ... The human body is exposed to pollution on a daily basis via dermal exposure and inhalation. This book reviews the information ... Many epidemiological studies have focused on inhalation exposure. Whilst this is appropriate for many substances, failure to ...
Longer duration of exposure to silica and inhalation of larger amounts of silica (complicated silicosis) : *Larger nodules of ... Silica Exposure, Dust Inhalation - Signs, Symptoms of Silicosis. Posted by Dr. Chris ... Shorter duration of exposure and inhalation of minimal amounts of silica (simple silicosis) : *Development of tiny nodules does ... It arises from inhalation of silica particles with subsequent chronic lung disease that develops over years and decades. Most ...
Inhalation exposure to T-2 toxin caused vomiting, cyanosis, anorexia, lethargy, lateral recumbency and even death. Elevated ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Welcome to the ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Pang, Fei Victor ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. ...
Lung function changes in rats after chronic inhalation exposure to 4,4-methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (MDI). ... Lung function measurements after 6, 12 and 17 months of exposure carried out on the same animals of satellite groups showed a ... Relationships between respiratory disease and exposure to air pollution. Washington: ILSI Press, 1998 (ILSI Monographs). ISBN: ... beginning earlier than 6 months of exposure, increasing at 12 months but not much further at 17 months. This correlates very ...
Described is the cell culture and exposure method of an in vitro bronchial model for realistic, repeated inhalation exposure to ... Described is the cell culture and exposure method of an in vitro bronchial model for realistic, repeated inhalation exposure to ... Characteristics of both the cell model and of the exposure system are essential for achieving a realistic inhalation exposure ... Selection of exposure concentrations can be difficult for any air-liquid exposure experiment. For the DQ12 exposures, the aim ...
Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking Water Pipe Repairs - ... Results of the new study suggest the importance of both inhalation and dermal exposure routes. No organic vapor respiratory ... 22 comments on "Cured-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, ... Cured-in-Place-Pipe (CIPP): Inhalation and Dermal Exposure Risks Associated with Sanitary Sewer, Storm Sewer, and Drinking ...
Bromberg P.A. (1993) New Approaches to Evaluating the Pulmonary Effects of Controlled Inhalation Exposures in Human Volunteers ... New Approaches to Evaluating the Pulmonary Effects of Controlled Inhalation Exposures in Human Volunteers. ... Pre-exposure to low ozone concentrations does not diminish the pulmonary function response on exposure to higher ozone ... Keefe MJ, Bennett WD, DeWitt P, Seal E, Strong AA, Gerrity TR (1991) The effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled ...
... ... aerosol; benzo(a)pyrene; carbon-black; carcinogen; Carcinogenesis; experimental; inhalation toxicology; lung; particle; ...
  • The toxicity values resulting from dose-response assessment are used as part of a larger calculation to estimate risk from exposure to environmental contaminants. (epa.gov)
  • According to the report, CHIE studies allow measurements to be made of "biomarker or physiologic responses to those exposures that can indicate pathways of toxicity and mechanisms of air-pollution responses. (aiha.org)
  • 2010). We present an integrative approach to derive inhalation specific threshold values, which are based on a dataset of 296 chemicals with repeated-dose toxicity studies (www.fraunhofer-repdose.de). (fraunhofer.de)
  • An animal inhalation exposure unit for toxicity screening / by L.J. Leach, C.J. Spiegl. (hathitrust.org)
  • Daily exposure of a grill operator, while grilling meat, to PM 2.5 -bound PAHs, adjusted to benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (BaP eq ), was 326.9, 401.6, and 0.04 ng/d for lump charcoal, charcoal briquettes, and gas powered grill, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The PETA International Science Consortium (PISC) awarded four VITROCELL in vitro exposure systems to researchers from institutions in the UK, US, and Belgium who are leading the development of non-animal methods to test the toxicity of airborne substances. (iivs.org)
  • Toxicity and carcinogenicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in F344N rats and B6C3F1 mice following 2-year inhalation exposure. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Described is the cell culture and exposure method of an in vitro bronchial model for realistic, repeated inhalation exposure to particles for toxicity testing. (jove.com)
  • For toxicity testing of airborne particles, air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure systems have been developed for in vitro tests in order to mimic realistic exposure conditions. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, this bronchial model, in combination with the continuous flow exposure system, is able to mimic realistic, repeated inhalation exposure conditions that can be used for toxicity testing. (jove.com)
  • To assess the potential toxicity of airborne particles, progress has been made to develop air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure systems 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . (jove.com)
  • CONCLUSION: A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in rats, which almost completely resolved during a 3-week post-exposure period. (uu.nl)
  • For this reason, the current study investigated the inhalation toxicity potential of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs). (oup.com)
  • According to the REACh Regulation Annex IX, Section 8.7, Column 2, reproductive toxicity studies do not need to be conducted if the substance is of low toxicological activity (no evidence of toxicity seen in any of the tests available), it can be proven from toxicokinetic data that no systemic absorption occurs via relevant routes of exposure and there is no or no significant human exposure. (europa.eu)
  • The oral biovailability of (CAHC), aluminium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide is negligible, the acute oral toxicity studies with (CAHC), aluminium hydroxide have shown no effects and there is no systemic exposure to (CAHC), aluminium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide from its intended uses. (europa.eu)
  • Within the framework of a systems toxicology approach, the inhalation toxicity of aerosol from a novel tobacco-heating potentially modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), the carbon-heated tobacco product (CHTP) 1.2, was characterized and compared with that of mainstream smoke (CS) from the 3R4F reference cigarette in a 90-day nose-only rat inhalation study in general accordance with OECD TG 413. (pmiscience.com)
  • RSEI Score and RSEI Hazard use the higher cancer/noncancer toxicity weight for each (oral/inhalation) exposure route. (epa.gov)
  • Cancer Score and Cancer Hazard results use only the cancer toxicity weights (IUR for inhalation route or OSF for oral route), and do not use the RfC- or RfD-based weights even if the IUR or OSF is missing. (epa.gov)
  • In addition, the RSEI Score, Cancer Score and NonCancer Score all use the inhalation route toxicity weight (RfC or IUR as appropriate) for the portion of the transfer to Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) that volatilizes during treatment and the oral route toxicity weight (RfD or OSF as appropriate) for the remainder that is released with the POTW effluent. (epa.gov)
  • Because the inhalation toxicity of POSF on repeated exposure has not been previously reported, the current study evaluated the inhalation toxicity of POSF at 30, 100, and 300ppm (v/v) in rats for up to 13 weeks with a four-week recovery period. (hepaton.com)
  • Acute pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to aerosolized VX in anesthetized rats. (qxmd.com)
  • Acute respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to soman in guinea pigs. (qxmd.com)
  • Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX. (qxmd.com)
  • In order to evaluate the potential of MIBK to induce toxic and carcinogenic effects following chronic exposure, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to MIBK at concentrations of 0, 450, 900, or 1800ppm by inhalation, 6h/day, 5 days per week for 2 years. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In male rats, there was increased mineralization of the renal papilla at all exposure concentrations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In female rats, there were increases in the incidence of CPN in all exposure concentrations and in the severity at 1800ppm, indicating that CPN was increased by mechanisms in addition to those related to alpha2micro-globulin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The retention, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [ 14 C]octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ) were studied in Fischer 344 rats after single and multiple exposures to 7, 70, or 700 ppm [ 14 C]D 4 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • A Pilot Study for the Determination of 14 C-Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D 4 ) Pharmacokinetics in Fischer 344 Rats following a Single Nose-Only Vapor Inhalation Exposure to 700 ppm 14 C-D 4 , EPA DCN 86960000517. (aspetjournals.org)
  • METHODS: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). (uu.nl)
  • Tissue deposition patterns after chronic inhalation exposures of rats and guinea pigs to aluminum chlorhydrate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lung cells were then isolated from five rats in each group on day 0 and 1 month after the 5-day exposure, respectively. (oup.com)
  • Methods: We exposed rats once by nose-only inhalation for 4 hr to residual oil fly ash (ROFA), an emission source particle rich in transition metals, or to air and then sacrificed them 1 or 48 hr later. (ecu.edu)
  • In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera ( B. papyrifera ) and Boswellia carterii ( B. carterii ) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. (mdpi.com)
  • At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. (mdpi.com)
  • Apart from its therapeutic values, boswellic acid exposure has been shown to cause severe pulmonary changes and impair the lung function in rats [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In a recent study, the incense smoke exposure to rats significantly decreased the liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and significantly increased the lipid peroxidation [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The objective of our pilot study was to determine whether ultrafine elemental carbon particles translocate to the liver and other extrapulmonary organs following inhalation as singlet particles by rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxicological response of Sprague Dawley rats from inhalation exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride (POSF). (hepaton.com)
  • To study the long-term biological effects of repeated inhalation exposure to 239 PuO 2 , 84-day-old rats were exposed to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 to re-establish desired 239 Pu lung burdens of 26, 80 or 250 Bq every other month for 1 year (seven exposures). (allenpress.com)
  • Times to death of rats with lung tumors were compared among groups with similar α-particle doses to the lungs after single or repeated exposure to 239 PuO 2 . (allenpress.com)
  • It was concluded that α-particle doses to the lung of rats exposed repeatedly to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 were not more carcinogenic and possibly were less carcinogenic than the dose after a single inhalation exposure when rats with similar lifetime α-particle doses to the lungs were compared. (allenpress.com)
  • In previous studies, inhalation cancer risk was estimated using conventional risk assessment method, which was normally based on compound-specific analysis, and cannot provide substantial data for source-specific particulate matter concentrations and pollution control. (springer.com)
  • Personal exposure particulate matter samples referring to an elderly panel were collected in a community of Tianjin, Northern China, in 2009, and 12 PAH compounds were measured using GC-MS. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to extract the potential sources and quantify the source contributions to the PAH mixture. (springer.com)
  • Background: Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially in individuals with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. (ecu.edu)
  • Objectives: To identify high-risk worker groups by measuring relative levels of personal inhalation exposure to particulate matter (PM) of fine (≤2.5 μm) and coarse (2.5-10 μm) fractions (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively) across work activities among e-waste workers, and to assess how wind conditions modify levels of PM by activity and site location. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental particulate matter exacerbates symptoms of asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accurate systems designed to expose laboratory animals to carefully controlled concentrations of gases and aerosols are an important tool in inhalation toxicology studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The mean MeOH concentration in breath were 72 and 77ppm after 6 and 8hr exposures compared to mean MeOH blood concentrations of 3 to 6ppm. (cdc.gov)
  • Breath MeOH concentrations closely corresponded to predicted values using a blood/air partition coefficient after both inhalation and dermal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Traditionally exposure is estimated based on outdoor concentrations at the residential address. (wikipedia.org)
  • The model allows the user to determine air concentrations, over time, to assess potential inhalation exposure for different air care products under defined conditions of consumer use. (comunicati.net)
  • Alomirah H, Al-zenki S, Al-hooti S, Zaghloul S, Sawaya W, Ahmed N, Kannan K (2011) Concentrations and dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from grilled and smoked foods. (springer.com)
  • A quantitative study of the distribution of fluorine (7782-41-4) in animals that had been exposed to sublethal concentrations of hydrogen-fluoride (7664-39-3) by inhalation in comparison to the distribution with that found in normal animals is reported. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In general, the relationship between the amounts of fluorine found in the muscle, lungs and central nervous system and the total amount in the animal tended to remain the same with different exposure concentrations. (fluoridealert.org)
  • This limits the exposure conditions that can be used in these models: usually relatively high concentrations are applied as a cloud (i.e., droplets containing particles, which settle down rapidly) within a short period of time. (jove.com)
  • Such experimental conditions do not reflect realistic long-term exposure to low concentrations of particles. (jove.com)
  • In addition, this bronchial model is suitable for testing the effects of repeated exposures to low, realistic concentrations of airborne particles using an ALI exposure system. (jove.com)
  • Gliner JA, Horvath SM, Folinsbee LJ (1983) Pre-exposure to low ozone concentrations does not diminish the pulmonary function response on exposure to higher ozone concentration. (springer.com)
  • Maximum concentrations of radioactivity in plasma and tissues (except fat) occurred at the end of exposure and up to 3 h postexposure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • With minor exceptions, there were no consistent gender effects on the distribution of radioactivity and the concentrations of radioactivity were nearly proportional to exposure concentration over the exposure range. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The MWCNTs were generated by a newly designed generation system, and the MWCNT concentrations in the exposure chambers monitored in accordance with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 0500 using a membrane filter. (oup.com)
  • evaluates an exposure as it occurs, by using direct methods to measure the chemical concentrations at the interface between the person and the environment as a function of time, resulting in an exposure profile. (epa.gov)
  • Exposure to concentrations of ydrogen sulphide of 500 ppm or greater have been associated with chronic headaches, short attention spans, memory problems and decreased motor function. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Chlorine's odor provides early warning signs of exposure but causes olfactory fatigue or adaptations, reducing awareness of exposure at low concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to high concentrations can cause bronchiolar and alveolar edema and airway destruction resulting in respiratory distress or failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential for inhalation exposure to engineered nanoparticles from nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There are very few inhalation exposure facilities in the world, each with a unique focus: at Rochester, the specialty area is the toxicology of airborne ultrafine and nanoparticles. (rochester.edu)
  • The VITROCELL® 6 CF module system has been specifically designed and engineered to facilitate research of the direct exposure of human cell cultures to airborne substances such as gases, complex mixtures, nanoparticles and fibers. (vitrocell.com)
  • Occupational Inhalation Exposures to Nanoparticles at Six Singapore Printing Centers. (harvard.edu)
  • While exposure to pollutants in air is via inhalation that for water may occur via the ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation routes. (springerprofessional.de)
  • These incidental contaminations suggest that further studies should be carried out to develop a new model for inhalation of transuranic compounds that would follow neither the S nor the M absorption type of the respiratory tract model of ICRP publication 66. (radioprotection.org)
  • quick favorite Thanks read moments to edit and just be your view Human Exposure to Pollutants via Dermal Absorption. (mosedavis.net)
  • We were our view Human Exposure to Pollutants via Dermal Absorption and Inhalation far never in NZ with BookPrint! (mosedavis.net)
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  • Ocular and pulmonary exposure may cause incapacitating inflammation, systemic absorption and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation and systemic absorption may result in pulmonary edema, necrotizing bronchiolitis, and pulmonary thrombosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation and systemic absorption may cause pulmonary edema, necrotizing bronchiolitis and pulmonary thrombosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The item Health risk assessment : dermal and inhalation exposure and absorption of toxicants, edited by Rhoda G. M. Wang, James B. Knaak, Howard I. Maibach represents a specific, individual, material embodiment of a distinct intellectual or artistic creation found in University of Oklahoma Libraries . (ou.edu)
  • Inhalation is a major route of exposure that occurs when an individual breathes in polluted air which enters the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the pollutant uptake by the respiratory system can determine how the resulting exposure contributes to the dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • A milestone for the Respiratory Science Program, this computational model is a great alternative risk assessment tool that will provide useful information for everyday inhalation exposure calculations. (comunicati.net)
  • Avol EL, Linn WS, Shamoo DA, Valencia LM, Venet TG, Trim SC, Hackney JD (1987) Short-term respiratory effects of photochemical oxidant exposure in exercising children. (springer.com)
  • When assessing respiratory effects in vitro , reliable exposure systems that deliver aerosols to cellular/tissue cultures at the air-liquid interface are needed. (iivs.org)
  • In persons with acute and chronic respiratory disease the inhalation of pyrethrins may exacerbate symptoms due to its sensitising properties (Mackison FW et al 1981). (inchem.org)
  • Additionally, the data shows that soot exposure annually causes almost 300,000 asthma attacks and 2 million lost workdays due to respiratory problems. (missionrestorations.com)
  • Compromised immune systems, additional respiratory problems, and heart conditions can all be impacted by soot exposure. (missionrestorations.com)
  • At equal or twice the nicotine concentration in the test atmospheres, inhalation of CHTP1.2 aerosol led to a significantly lower exposure to harmful constituents and induced less respiratory tract irritation, systemic, and pathological effects compared with CS. (pmiscience.com)
  • Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory response, usually from the release of acidic or alkaline radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term exposure to and inhalation of asbestos fibers lead to severe respiratory diseases. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Other pathologies such as pleural lesions and thickening of the pleural wall appear within 15 years of the first exposure to asbestos and cause chest pain and respiratory difficulty. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Acute toxic effects of nerve agent VX on respiratory dynamics and functions following microinsillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs. (qxmd.com)
  • Gerrity TR, Bennett WD, Keefe M, DeWitt P, Chapman W (1991) The response of tracheobronchial clearance of inhaled particles to acute ozone exposure in healthy humans. (springer.com)
  • Passive sampling is often more appropriate for measuring long-term exposure rather than acute exposure since the level of detection might be higher for a passive sampling device than an active one. (epa.gov)
  • Acute inhalation injury may result from frequent and widespread use of household cleaning agents and industrial gases (including chlorine and ammonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, mechanical ventilation remains the therapeutic mainstay for pulmonary dysfunction following acute inhalation injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present until several hours after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two cases of acute tetramine poisoning due to dermal exposure were reported (Fan, 2001). (inchem.org)
  • For treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm or prevention of symptoms associated with bronchospasm, the usual dosage for adults and children 4 years and older is two inhalations repeated every 4 to 6 hours. (rxlist.com)
  • Several environmental factors are key determinants of the clinical consequences of acute smoke inhalation: the source of the fire and resulting combustion products, the duration of the exposure, and ventilation of the environment. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In addition, histopathology results also suggest that inhalation exposure to VX induces acute lung injury. (qxmd.com)
  • We sought to compare arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) relationships between a 15.1% hypoxia inhalation test (HIT) at sea level and a hypobaric chamber exposure equivalent to 2,438 m (8,000 feet) of altitude above sea level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy subjects. (nih.gov)
  • It arises from inhalation of silica particles with subsequent chronic lung disease that develops over years and decades. (healthhype.com)
  • The potential for chronic health effects from smoke inhalation are great. (missionrestorations.com)
  • There are no data regarding potential effects of chronic exposure to phosgene oxime. (cdc.gov)
  • Signs of chronic carbon monoxide exposure may be subtle. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Therefore, the continuous flow system is suitable for repeated and prolonged exposure to airborne particles while continuously monitoring the particle characteristics, exposure concentration, and delivered dose. (jove.com)
  • The lungs are vulnerable to inhalation exposure to airborne particles. (jove.com)
  • ALI exposure systems allow more relevant and realistic exposure models compared to traditional submerged exposure via culture medium that alters the characteristics and kinetics of the particles 6 . (jove.com)
  • The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. (ruc.dk)
  • Amador-Munoz O et al (2010) Solvent extracted organic matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons distributed in size-segregated airborne particles in a zone of Mexico City: seasonal behavior and human exposure. (springer.com)
  • Nonallergic (healthy) and ovalbumin-sensitized (asthmatic) mice were exposed via inhalation to two different sizes of titanium dioxide particles, nanosized (nTiO 2 ) and fine (fTiO 2 ), for 2 hours a day, three days a week, for four weeks at a concentration of 10 mg/m 3 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results suggest that repeated airway exposure to TiO 2 particles modulates the airway inflammation depending on the immunological status of the exposed mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We demonstrate that contrary to expectations exposure to fine or nanosized particles inhibits most soluble and cellular mediators of allergic asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Linking Exposures of Particles Released From Nano-Enabled Products to Toxicology: An Integrated Methodology for Particle Sampling, Extraction, Dispersion, and Dosing. (harvard.edu)
  • What Are the Medical Effects of Exposure to Smoke Particles? (burningissues.org)
  • It is strongly recommended that smoke inhalation and soot exposure is avoided. (missionrestorations.com)
  • If your age or health places you at greater risk from smoke inhalation then you should speak with your doctor about ways to avoid these situations. (missionrestorations.com)
  • Smoke inhalation injury, either by itself but more so in the presence of body surface burn, can result in severe lung-induced morbidity and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The September 11 attacks in 2001 and forest fires in U.S. states such as California and Nevada are examples of incidents that have caused smoke inhalation injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoke inhalation is an often lethal injury in house fires and is encountered by trauma surgeons who treat burn patients. (insidesurgery.com)
  • The mortality seen in smoke inhalation patients is sometimes greater than would be expected from the carboxyhemoglobin levels. (insidesurgery.com)
  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for smoke inhalation after burn injury in closed space is very good option. (insidesurgery.com)
  • Inhalation injury, including smoke inhalation, affects millions of people worldwide and is potentially life-threatening. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Several well-publicized events, such as the fire at the Coconut Grove nightclub in Boston in 1942, the collapse of, the World Trade Center in New York in 2001, and the devastating nightclub fire in Rhode Island in 2005, highlight the possibility of mass casualties related to smoke inhalation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Are you sure your patient has thermal injury or smoke inhalation injury? (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The symptoms and signs of smoke inhalation can be divided into general findings in inhalational injury and those attributable to specific toxins, the most common of which are carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • In general OEL settings, the "critical effect" refers to the first "adverse" response (or measure of response) within the MoA that occurs at a dose / concentration below which neither this "critical effect" nor any other effects of health concern will appear (EU Key Documentation, Version 7, Methodology for the Derivation of Occupational Exposure Limits, 2013). (ecetoc.org)
  • To date, CIPP air monitoring studies have been unable to comprehensively characterize occupational exposures because of a narrow focus on VOC vapors and the use of nonspecific detectors. (cdc.gov)
  • See below for information on the October 5th free webinar "Public Health Implications and Occupational Exposures during Water Pipe Repair Activities" (to view webinar, click here ). (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives This study examined whether it is possible to train occupational hygienists to estimate inhalation exposures reliably from limited occupational information using a new method and assessed improvements in the quality of the estimate using the aggregate from multiple assessors. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Objectives This study examined whether it is possible to train occupational hygienists to estimate inhalation exposures reliably from limited occupational information using a new method and assessed improvements in the quality of the estimate using the aggregate from multiple assessors.Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. (elsevier.com)
  • Jobs were also categorised according to the risk of exposures related to occupational asthma. (univr.it)
  • Associations between asthma and subsequent occupational exposures were assessed using logistic regression models, with a random intercept for study centre and fixed adjustment for age, sex, type of study sample and smoking status. (univr.it)
  • The associations were consistent across exposure types (dusts, gases or fumes) and for jobs with a high risk of occupational asthma. (univr.it)
  • This section applies to all occupational exposures to _____, or to (specify the uses of classes of uses of _____ [Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 00000], which are covered by the standard, including, where appropriate, the type of exposure to be regulated by the standard) except as provided in paragraph (a)(2). (osha.gov)
  • The 2-Box Air Dispersion Model has been instrumental to the Systemic Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) Task Force for the inhalation aspect of their analysis of exposure from dermal, oral, and inhalation routes, and for aggregate exposure. (comunicati.net)
  • and (3) systemic injury as a result of inhalation of toxic compounds and immunologic responses to injury. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • systemic exposure may be increased. (drugs.com)
  • Inhalation is, however, an important route in human risk assessment e.g. for workers and consumers. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Some of the existing techniques lack specificity and field portability, and are difficult to use and expensive when applied to routine exposure assessment. (ilo.org)
  • This article describes the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT) that uses a combination of measurement techniques and instruments to assess potential inhalation exposures in facilities that handle or produce engineered nanomaterials. (ilo.org)
  • This book reviews the information necessary to address the steps in exposure assessment relevant to air pollution. (nhbs.com)
  • and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. (uu.nl)
  • The overall objectives of the IPCS are to establish the scientific basis for assessment of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, through international peer review processes, as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemical safety, and to provide technical assistance in strengthening national capacities for the sound management of chemicals. (inchem.org)
  • Risk assessment of total aluminium exposure from different sources for different age groups. (springer.com)
  • Considering the frequent discussion about the use of aluminium and its toxicological safety, the aim of this study was to estimate the overall exposure for consumers of different age groups and to perform a comprehensive risk assessment. (springer.com)
  • The HERAG project consisted of exposure assessment, effects assessment and risk characterisation. (nordic-ilibrary.org)
  • 2008). Use of nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders and sprays could lead to especially high levels of dermal and inhalation exposure, the latter being a consequence of product application leading to aerosol generation in the personal breathing zone (Hansen et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Environmental Health Sciences Center's Inhalation Exposure Facility was established to focus the combined skills of biology, chemistry, and aerosol physics that are critical for inhalation toxicology research. (rochester.edu)
  • The broad capabilities of the Facility include aerosol generation, exposure monitoring, and exposure characterization. (rochester.edu)
  • Special sealing and connection mechanisms guarantee a hermetic connection of the base module with the aerosol exposure top. (vitrocell.com)
  • The aerosol exposure top features an in/outlet for heating the water circuit, ensuring corresponding temperatures with the base module. (vitrocell.com)
  • In the following step the aerosol is guided the Automated Exposure Station where cells are exposed at the air/liquid interface. (vitrocell.com)
  • Many other toxicological endpoints evaluated did not show CHTP1.2 aerosol exposure-related effects, and no effects not seen for 3R4F were observed. (pmiscience.com)
  • The active ingredient of ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol is albuterol sulfate, a racemic salt, of albuterol. (rxlist.com)
  • ProAir HFA Inhalation Aerosol is a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit with a dose counter. (rxlist.com)
  • PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients 4 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease. (rxlist.com)
  • PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm in patients 4 years of age and older. (rxlist.com)
  • These systems are necessary for determining the dose-response relationship of toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Often, as the internal dose or exposure level increases, the response or health effect also increases-though there are exceptions to this. (epa.gov)
  • No dose calculation is needed for an inhalation dose. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the amount of the chemical measured in the air is the inhalation dose. (cdc.gov)
  • The application of the Cramer decision tree to datasets of repeated-dose studies with inhalation exposure resulted in very low thresholds compared to oral TTC values. (fraunhofer.de)
  • In general, REACH requires the establishment of DNELs also for the inhalation route of exposure following a generic scheme involving, e.g. identification of the mode of action (MoA), determination of the relevant dose descriptor and point of departure (PoD) as well as applying a set of AFs. (ecetoc.org)
  • Lung function measurements after 6, 12 and 17 months of exposure carried out on the same animals of satellite groups showed a dose-dependent deterioration of lung function: significant reduction of lungvolumes, lung complianc, forced expiratory flow-volume parameters, CO diffusing capacity and marked inhomogeneity of alveolar ventilation. (fraunhofer.de)
  • These findings revealed a dose-depending increasing impairment of the lung functions in the sense of a combined restrictive/periveral-obstructive malfunction with diffusions disorder, beginning earlier than 6 months of exposure, increasing at 12 months but not much further at 17 months. (fraunhofer.de)
  • After multiple exposures, the elimination pathways were dose- and gender-independent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. (uu.nl)
  • These estimates require accurate data on the pollutant exposure and dose to the population as well as the dose-response relationships to calculate the health impact. (springerprofessional.de)
  • One microbalance sensor can remain in the module to monitor the dose -during exposure. (vitrocell.com)
  • Defining dose by different exposure times is a valuable alternative if a dilution system can not be integrated. (vitrocell.com)
  • Travelers with high-risk exposures (including animal bites and scratches) not vaccinated for tetanus will require a dose of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine (Tdap, Td, or DTaP). (cdc.gov)
  • Reference Dose The Reference Dose (RfD) is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of daily exposure [RfD] to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a lifetime. (epa.gov)
  • PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is an inhalation-driven multi-dose dry powder inhaler containing a formulation of 1 mg per actuation of micronized budesonide and micronized lactose monohydrate which contains trace levels of milk proteins [see CONTRAINDICATIONS and Post-marketing Experience ]. (rxlist.com)
  • There have been no animal studies of the health effects of repeated inhalation of mixtures representing downwind pollution from coal combustion. (nih.gov)
  • The human body is exposed to pollution on a daily basis via dermal exposure and inhalation. (nhbs.com)
  • Many people are exposed to small amounts of benzene in their everyday lives through cigarette smoke, air pollution, and contact with gasoline, but these exposures usually do not have the serious health effects which are common to the excessive benzene exposures experienced by various workers. (lamblawoffice.com)
  • We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (osti.gov)
  • Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. (uu.nl)
  • Exposures to high levels of benzene frequently occur in the work place or at the job site, and particular types of workers are more likely to experience unsafe benzene exposures. (lamblawoffice.com)
  • In addition to the diversity of the environments where exposure may occur, the many different activities and the potential number of chemicals present all pose a challenge in investigating the health risks posed by air pollutants. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Home or office exposures to toxic levels of sewer gas occur rarely, but you should have persistent noxious smells from bathrooms investigated by trained plumbing professionals. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When taking into account the overall aluminium exposure from foods, cosmetic products (cosmetics), pharmaceuticals and FCM from uncoated aluminium, a significant exceedance of the EFSA-derived TWI and even the PTWI of 2 mg/kg bw/week, derived by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, may occur. (springer.com)
  • Given the volume and ease of chlorine for industrial and commercial use, exposure could occur from an accidental spill or a deliberate attack. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure may also occur through skin or eye contact or by ingesting chlorine-contaminated food or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ammonia is generally used in household cleaning products, as well as on farms and in some industrial and commercial locations, and this makes it easy for accidental or deliberate exposure to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • More poisoning exposures occur where the substance is applied in rural areas for the control of rodents (Chi et al, 2000). (inchem.org)
  • Most hydrogen fluoride exposures occur by inhalation of the gas and dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Most hydrogen fluoride exposures occur by cutaneous contact with the aqueous solution. (cdc.gov)
  • In this context, a recent APSGB/HESI workshop on how to discriminate adverse effects from normal physiological lung responses concluded that increases in alveolar macrophages/neutrophils (hyperplasia) following exposure to PSP should not be interpreted as "adverse" in the absence of other lung effects like inflammation or fibrotic tissue changes (Kirsten et al, 2012). (ecetoc.org)
  • Badyda A, Grellier J, Dąbrowiecki P (2016) Ambient PM 2.5 exposure and mortality due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases in Polish Cities. (springer.com)
  • This study determined effects of three smoking behavior components: puff volume, inhalation volume and lung exposure duration on biological measures of smoke exposure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In Experiment I, both nicotine and CO levels were influenced systematically as puff volume was varied from 15 to 60 ml (inhalation volume = 50% of vital capacity, lung exposure time = about 9 sec). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In Experiment II, nicotine levels were unaffected when average lung exposure times varied from 5 to 21 sec (puff volume = 50 ml, inhalation volume = 50% of vital capacity), suggesting that all the nicotine available may be absorbed during a normal smoking inhalation cycle with no breathholding. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In Experiments III and IV, inhalation volumes from 10% and 20% to 60% of vital capacity had no effect on either nicotine or CO levels, and this was true whether lung exposure time was about 8 sec (Experiment III) or about 4 sec (Experiment IV). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Silicosis is a type of pneumoconiosis - lung diseases that are caused by inhalation of mineral dusts. (healthhype.com)
  • Most in vitro lung models used for ALI exposure contain other cell lines such as A549, BEAS-2B, and 16HBE14o- (16HBE) or primary cells as a basis 8 . (jove.com)
  • Devlin RB, McDonnell WF, Mann R, Becker S, House DE, Schreinemachers D, Koren HS (1991a) Exposure of humans to ambient levels of ozone for 6.6 hours causes cellular and biochemical changes in the lung. (springer.com)
  • Medical experts are now agreed that exposure to asbestos can cause lung cancer subject to certain criteria being met. (asbestosvictimadvice.com)
  • Lung cancer can take around 20 - 40 years to develop from when the exposure to asbestos occurred. (asbestosvictimadvice.com)
  • However the combined effect is very significant in that a person who has been exposed to asbestos and also smokes is 50 times more likely to develop lung cancer than someone who does not smoke and has not had any exposure to asbestos. (asbestosvictimadvice.com)
  • Opposition has come from the American Lung Association -- Executive Director Marge Stoneking has promised to fight on-site inhalation "every step of the way. (ktuu.com)
  • Normalized to exposure concentration, the added 13C per gram of lung on average in the postexposure period was ~9 ng/ g organ/ µg/ m3. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to POSF at 300ppm was associated with reduction in body weight-gain, necrosis of laryngeal cartilage, increased lung and bronchi weight with septal thickening, and changes in alveolar macrophages. (hepaton.com)
  • A microinstillation technique of inhalation exposure was utilized to assess lung injury following chemical warfare nerve agent VX [methylphosphonothioic acid S-(2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl) O-ethyl ester] exposure in guinea pigs. (qxmd.com)
  • Butyrylcholinesterase in guinea pig lung lavage: a novel biomarker to assess lung injury following inhalation exposure to nerve agent VX. (qxmd.com)
  • Computer-controlled ozone inhalation exposure system. (cdc.gov)
  • Bascom R, Naclerio RM, Fitzgerald TK, Kagey-Sobotka A, Proud D (1990) Effect of ozone inhalation on the response to nasal challenge with antigen of allergic subjects. (springer.com)
  • This is attributable, in part, to the synergistic effects of the methemoglobin resulting from the cyanide exposure - in addition to the carbon monoxide exposure. (insidesurgery.com)
  • Effects of the inhalation of hydrogen fluoride, III. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Fluorine absorbed from exposure atmospheres containing hydrogen-fluoride was distributed in the tissues, chiefly the bones, and was held in abnormal amounts for as long as 14 months following exposure. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The effects of the inhalation of hydrogen-fluoride (7664-39-3) (HF) on several animals was investigated. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Inhalation hazards result not only from exposure to hydrogen fluoride gas, but also from fumes arising from concentrated hydrogen fluoride liquid. (cdc.gov)
  • A nanoproduct's type and intended use determine the most plausible routes and extent of exposure (Oberdorster et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Personal exposure monitoring directly measures an individual's exposure as it occurs. (epa.gov)
  • [1] This typically occurs within minutes to several hours of exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [3] Management primarily involves avoiding the food in question and having a plan if exposure occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onset generally occurs 18 to 36 hours after exposure (range, 6 hours to 8 days). (inchem.org)
  • Because chlorine is a gas at room temperature, most exposure occurs via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irritation occurs with exposures to 0.2 mg-min/m³ and becomes unbearable at 3 mg-min/m³. (cdc.gov)
  • Environmental exposures typically follow atmospheric processing and mixing with pollutants from other sources. (nih.gov)
  • The new Right side door model desktop Inhalation Exposure System provides the same reproducible animal exposure to droplet-borne contaminants and infectious agents as our standard larger unit. (glascol.com)
  • It can be used to measure exposure of an individual to contaminants in the breathing zone, in food and drink, and on the skin. (epa.gov)
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the potential for human contact and inhalation exposure to nanomaterials when using nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders and compare them with analogous products not marketed as nanotechnology based. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 2011b) is cause for concern regarding potential human exposure to nanomaterials and possible health risks. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There are currently no exposure limits specific to engineered nanomaterials, nor any national or international consensus standards on measurement techniques for nanomaterials in the workplace. (ilo.org)
  • However, facilities engaged in the production and use of engineered nanomaterials have expressed an interest in learning whether the potential for worker exposure exists. (ilo.org)
  • Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO 2 ), though one of the most utilized and produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), diminishes cardiovascular function through dysregulation of metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics following inhalation exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The TTC concept derives thresholds to structural groups of compounds below which a risk for human health is not assumed for a life-time exposure. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Two incidents involving internal exposure by inhalation of transuranic compounds are presented herein. (radioprotection.org)
  • Here, we assessed the health risks resulting from total consumer exposure towards aluminium and various aluminium compounds, including contributions from foodstuffs, food additives, food contact materials (FCM), and cosmetic products. (springer.com)
  • A multi-pronged approach is being applied to examine the cardiopulmonary consequences of particle exposure, i.e., using both whole body to 1) evaluate cellular and inflammatory indicators in the lungs by bronchopulmonary lavage and cytokine measurements, 2) measure vascular components in platelets and other blood elements, 3) examine heart tissues directly for histopathology and 4) measure neurological changes in gene expression for pro-inflammatory cytokines. (epa.gov)
  • In the present study we investigated the modulatory effects of titanium dioxide particle exposure in an experimental allergic asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our product catalogue provides brief information about Inhalation and particle exposure systems provided by us. (inhalation.in)
  • Particle exposure leads to around 20,000 premature deaths in America each year. (missionrestorations.com)
  • To do this, scientists calculate how different amounts (exposures or doses) of a chemical can impact health effects (responses) in humans. (epa.gov)
  • For inhalation doses, the amount of a chemical that is in the air is considered to be the amount that enters the lungs when a person breathes. (cdc.gov)
  • 5 years before their exposure and those who have not received ≥3 doses of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Though short-term effects may include irritation, coughing and many of the usual side effects of inhaling smoke or vapour, long-term exposure may have potentially life-threatening health risks. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Long-term inhalation of benzene fumes is the most harmful method of exposure, and is unfortunately quite common in many different types of industries . (lamblawoffice.com)
  • For each respondent, a current or previously held job was linked to a job exposure matrix assigning high, low or no exposure to dust, gases or fumes. (univr.it)
  • 0.80-1.03) exposure to dust, gases or fumes. (univr.it)
  • Abdominal bloating and irritable bowel syndrome like symptoms following microinstillation inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX in guinea pigs. (qxmd.com)
  • Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acetylcholinesterase levels following microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in Guinea pigs. (qxmd.com)
  • Post-exposure treatment with nasal atropine methyl bromide protects against microinstillation inhalation exposure to sarin in guinea pigs. (qxmd.com)
  • Once we know what such hazards are, how do we know what levels of exposure will cause those health effects in humans? (epa.gov)
  • Inhalation of vapors is the most likely route of exposure in the work place. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim is to identify available information including data sources and models, and show that an integrated multi-route exposure model can be built, validated and used as part of an air quality management process. (nhbs.com)
  • Although hydrofluoric acid is weak compared with most other mineral acids, it can produce serious health effects by any route of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • An estimate of the increased cancer risk from a lifetime of oral exposure to a substance. (epa.gov)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee (PADAC) voted 9 to 7 on Wednesday to recommend mannitol inhalation powder ( Bronchitol , Chiesi) for oral inhalation to improve pulmonary function in adults aged 18 years and older with cystic fibrosis (CF), together with standard therapies. (medscape.com)
  • ProAir HFA is for oral inhalation only. (rxlist.com)
  • Administer PROAIR HFA by oral inhalation only. (rxlist.com)
  • Inhalation: For oral inhalation only. (drugs.com)
  • Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation). (drugs.com)
  • The purpose of this communication is first, to describe an apparatus which, with modifications, allows pertinent information to be obtained on each individual small animal exposed and secondly, to set forth the pre- and post-exposure procedure adopted for obtaining required quantitative data regarding respiration, deposition. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess whether asthma onset prior to entering the workforce influences whether a person holds a subsequent job with asthma-related inhalation exposures. (univr.it)
  • abstract = "The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. (hw.ac.uk)
  • All rabbits studied stored abnormal amounts of fluorine as a result of sublethal concentration exposures, sometimes as much as ten times that normally found. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Prolonged exposure to substantial amounts of benzene can cause serious health effects , including leukemia as well as other cancers and diseases. (lamblawoffice.com)
  • It was found that the average weekly aluminium exposure resulting from food intake amounts to approx. (springer.com)
  • This webinar will outline the findings of a research project on indoor exposures from vapour intrusion. (casanz.org.au)
  • Exposure to gasoline vapour is considerably lower during disassembly operations (maximum exposure of 10mg/m 3 ). (ilo.org)
  • Becker S, Madden M, Newman SL, Devlin RB, Koren HS (1991b) Modulation of human alveolar macrophage properties by ozone exposure in vitro. (springer.com)
  • Advanced in vitro exposure systems. (vitrocell.com)
  • Each actuation of PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) 180 mcg delivers 160 mcg budesonide from the mouthpiece and each actuation of PULMICORT FLEXHALER 90 mcg delivers 80 mcg budesonide from the mouthpiece (based on in vitro testing at 60 L/min for 2 sec). (rxlist.com)
  • This system needed the capability of maintaining exposures at selected levels between 0.2 to 3.0 ppm over specified periods ranging between 1 and 8 h in order to evaluate health risks associated with ozone. (cdc.gov)
  • The overall goals of this study were (1) to develop a system capable of automatically controlling the ozone exposure levels so the steady-state error remained less than 1% and (2) to optimize the system's response time. (cdc.gov)
  • A study was conducted to determine the conditions under which breath measurements of methanol (67561) (MeOH) would be effective for the estimation of blood levels of MeOH after inhalation or dermal exposures in a work setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Significant increases in blood and breath MeOH levels were seen after 6 and 8hr sedentary exposure to 400ppm MeOH. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure of one hand in MeOH for 8min gave peak blood MeOH levels equivalent to inhalation exposure at the threshold limit value of 200ppm. (cdc.gov)
  • First, it helps us understand what happens in the human body at different levels of exposure to a chemical, and it allows us to see that relationship presented graphically. (epa.gov)
  • This series of studies has shown that puff volume is an important determinant of tobacco smoke exposure, but that inhalation components of smoking behavior, at least within the range of parameters tested, have no effect on nicotine exposure levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics of 14 C-Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane in the Rat following 14 Repeat Daily Nose-Only Vapor Inhalation Exposures to Unlabeled D 4 and a Single (Day 15) Exposure to 14 C-D 4 at Two Exposure Levels, EPA DCN 86970000875. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Specifically, high exposure levels were found for adolescents aged 11-14 years. (springer.com)
  • If you know that you will be coming into contact with vaporised hydraulic oil, use a respirator approved for filtering organic solvents or a supplied air filter for exposure to dangerous levels of smoke or gas. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The measured exposure levels were used to determine the validity of the method. (elsevier.com)
  • There was a tendency for assessors to overestimate the exposure levels by, on the average, two- to fourfold. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions Overall, the assessors found the method to be useful in generating exposure estimates that correlate well with measured levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Using more than three assessors for aggregate estimates did not improve the reliability of the method.Conclusions Overall, the assessors found the method to be useful in generating exposure estimates that correlate well with measured levels. (elsevier.com)
  • It contains the VITROCELL® Abrasive Dust Generator, the VITROCELL® external dilution system and the extended VITROCELL® Automated Exposure Station. (vitrocell.com)
  • Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In many respects, the effects of T-2 toxin on pigs dosed by inhalation are similar those following intravascular injection. (illinois.edu)
  • In the present study we explored the effects of repeated inhalation exposure in asthmatic and healthy mice to two different sizes of TiO 2 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Frequent exposure to smoke for brief periods may also cause long-term health effects. (missionrestorations.com)
  • Within (insert appropriate time period) of the effective date of this section, the employer shall (If eye exposure to _____ does not create a risk of cancer, insert exposure level or criteria which will prevent other adverse effects of eye exposure to if any. (osha.gov)
  • The Inhalation Exposure System provides whole-body exposure for approximately 10-15 mice. (glascol.com)
  • Personal exposure measurements. (nhbs.com)
  • Air quality management and personal exposure. (nhbs.com)
  • Many sampling techniques for personal exposure monitoring are available and continue to be developed. (epa.gov)
  • We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (osti.gov)
  • To ensure human safety, careful steps must also be taken to ensure monitoring methods do not subject individuals to any more exposure than necessary. (epa.gov)
  • Design work methods and organisation to minimise exposure. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Changes to the wording of the duty to maintain exposure control measures to make it clear that the scope of the duty extends to methods of work and supervision in addition to plant and equipment. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Population exposure to various air pollutants is likely to be higher in the indoor micro-environment than outdoors due to the amount of time people spend there. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Hence, an understanding of the concentration of pollutants in different micro-environments is of great importance for improving exposure estimates and, in turn, for developing efficient control strategies to reduce human exposure and health risk. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Chemistry takes place all around us, regulating the intensity and nature of our exposure to pollutants in water, air and soil. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Human exposure to air pollutants is ubiquitous. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Drechsler-Parks DM, Bedi JF, Horvath SM (1987) Pulmonary function response of older men and women to ozone exposure. (springer.com)
  • A list of exposure determinants underlying each of these principal MFs is proposed to describe the exposure process at a more detailed level. (hw.ac.uk)
  • A new report published by the National Academies Press (NAP) focuses on EPA's controlled human inhalation exposure (CHIE) studies, which are also referred to as human clinical studies or human challenge studies. (aiha.org)
  • A free PDF download of Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA is available on NAP's website . (aiha.org)
  • To overcome these limitations, the culture and exposure protocol for a bronchial model consisting of the human bronchial epithelial cell line Calu-3 7 was optimized. (jove.com)
  • When comparing different human bronchial epithelial cell lines (16HBE, Calu-3, H292, and BEAS-2B), only the Calu-3 cells fulfill all criteria needed for realistic, repeated ALI exposure: they remain viable for weeks while cultured at the ALI, provide a high barrier integrity, do not overgrow, and are easy to culture and maintain. (jove.com)
  • Observational human exposure studies require strict adherence to ethical guidelines. (epa.gov)
  • I are him are what I played and he became I be over a view Human Exposure to request of my Word moon. (mosedavis.net)
  • I are be the view Human Exposure to with the time on your Project, offers that Zodiac together close? (mosedavis.net)
  • The usual dosage for adults and children 4 years of age or older is two inhalations 15 to 30 minutes before exercise. (rxlist.com)
  • BACKGROUND: The market of nanotechnology-based consumer products is rapidly expanding, and the lack of scientific evidence describing the accompanying exposure and health risks stalls the discussion regarding its guidance and regulation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Little is known about CIPP worker exposures and health risks. (cdc.gov)
  • A large part of the population has impaired health conditions that will make them more susceptible to develop health problems from particulate exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • a health care professional should treat high-risk exposure immediately. (cdc.gov)
  • We know today that these pathologies are due to the inhalation of asbestos fibers, but it was only in the 1970's that asbestos-related risks became a public health issue. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In the absence of relevant data from humans (e.g. epidemiological data), animal inhalation studies using rodents as preferred animal species generally represent the basis for the calculation of such DNELs (for more details see Appendix B). (ecetoc.org)
  • We have now completed a total of six field measurement and exposure studies in the San Joaquin Valley. (epa.gov)
  • The results of these exposure studies are complete and peer-reviewed journal articles are in preparation documenting the results. (epa.gov)
  • Many epidemiological studies have focused on inhalation exposure. (nhbs.com)
  • Based on proceedings from an expert panel workshop, EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory produced The Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies (SEAOES) (U.S. EPA, 2008) . (epa.gov)
  • The method is likely to be of use in epidemiologic studies in which limited exposure data are available. (elsevier.com)
  • Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system allows you to vary the concentration of airborne pathogens, the rate of air flow, and the length of exposure, so experiments can be reproduced accurately and adjusted easily. (glascol.com)
  • Action level means an airborne concentration of ___ of (insert appropriate level of exposure). (osha.gov)
  • Within (insert appropriate time) from the effective date of this emergency temporary standard, the employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of _____ in excess of: (insert appropriate exposure limit representing a level that can be complied with immediately) as an eight (8)-hour-time-weighted average. (osha.gov)
  • The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of _____ in excess of: (insert appropriate exposure limit representing a level that can be complied with immediately) as averaged over any: (insert appropriate time period) during the working day. (osha.gov)
  • Yet, if the airborne contaminant is not drawn into, or contained within, the LEV hood, exposure is likely to be poorly controlled. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Hypersensitivity reactions from exposure to pyrethrins range from allergic rhinitis, bronchitis, and bronchial asthma to anaphylactic shock. (inchem.org)
  • Healthy hire effect, job selection and inhalation exposure among young adults with asthma. (univr.it)
  • Adults with asthma onset prior to entering the workforce may be less likely to hold jobs involving inhalation exposures. (univr.it)
  • The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. (springer.com)
  • The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Duration of the exposure - Individuals exposed to smoke-filled environments for a more extended time will have greater cumulative exposure to the toxic materials generated. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)