The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Relating to the size of solids.
The act of BREATHING in.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.
Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.
Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The contamination of indoor air.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms. (1/1739)

A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms.  (+info)

Exposure of farmers to phosmet, a swine insecticide. (2/1739)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to measure dermal and inhalation exposures to phosmet during application to animals and to identify what determinants of exposure influence the exposure levels. METHODS: Ten farmers were monitored using dermal patches, gloves, and air sampling media during normal activities of applying phosmet to pigs for insect control. Exposures were measured on the clothing (outer), under the clothing (inner), on the hands, and in the air. Possible exposure determinants were identified, and a questionnaire on work practices was administered. RESULTS: The geometric mean of the outer exposure measurements was 79 microg/h, whereas the geometric mean of the inner exposure measurements was 6 microg/h. The geometric mean for hand exposure was 534 microg/h, and the mean air concentration was 0.2 microg/m3. Glove use was associated with the hand and total dermal exposure levels, but no other determinant was associated with any of the exposure measures. The average penetration through the clothing was 54%, which dropped to 8% when the farmers wearing short sleeves were excluded. The farmers reported an average of 40 hours a year performing insecticide-related tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Farmers who applied phosmet to animals had measurable exposures, but the levels were lower than what has been seen in other pesticide applications. Inhalation exposures were insignificant when compared with dermal exposures, which came primarily from the hands. Clothing, particularly gloves, provided substantial protection from exposures. No other exposure determinant was identified.  (+info)

Increase in interleukin-6 and fibrinogen in peripheral blood after swine dust inhalation. (3/1739)

OBJECTIVES: The inhalation of dust from swine confinement buildings causes inflammatory responses in the airways with a rise of interleukin-6 (IL-6). The purpose of this study was to confirm the increase in serum IL-6 after inhalation of swine dust and investigate a possible increase in plasma fibrinogen. METHODS: Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers inhaled dust for 4 hours inside a swine confinement building. Inhalable dust and endotoxin were sampled. The concentrations of IL-6 and fibrinogen were determined in serum and plasma. RESULTS: The study showed a clear increase in the concentrations of IL-6 and fibrinogen after exposure. CONCLUSIONS: As fibrinogen is an important risk factor for ischemic heart disease, the increased concentration of fibrinogen among persons exposed to swine dust may increase the risk for this disease.  (+info)

Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure. (4/1739)

Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO.  (+info)

Should we be frightened of bracken? A review of the evidence. (5/1739)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk to human health of the plant bracken (Pteridium sp). DESIGN: An evaluation of studies of human and animal populations exposed to bracken, together with a review of expert reports and advice to the public. MAIN RESULTS: Bracken induced disease has been demonstrated in animals in both laboratory and field studies. Depending on the species, diseases in animals associated with the plant have included; cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract, lung and breast; haematuria; retinal degeneration; and, thiamine deficiency. Potential exposure of human populations is through: food either directly (people in some parts of the world eat bracken as a traditional dish) or indirectly by consuming animals fed on bracken; milk; water; inhalation and ingestion of spores; and insect vectors. Four studies of human populations (two analytical and two observational) failed to assess adequately confounding factors and other sources of bias, so that conclusions about a risk to human health from bracken cannot firmly be drawn. Establishing exposure is also extremely difficult in populations (such as the United Kingdom) where direct consumption of bracken is rare. CONCLUSION: Bracken is a common plant worldwide. It is toxic to many animal species and to several organ systems. There is no tumour (or other disease) that is pathognomic of exposure in animals, though cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract seem to be the most commonly associated. It is not possible to extrapolate from animal models to humans. Studies of human populations, do not establish a clear risk of bracken to human health, largely because of methodological problems. Testing the evidence against traditional criteria of causality only fulfils the criterion of biological plausibility. Despite this, current public information implies a serious risk to human health from bracken, and increasing media coverage of the subject is likely to lead to greater public concern. Further epidemiological studies are required.  (+info)

Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment. (6/1739)

In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.  (+info)

Occupational exposure to dust in quartz manufacturing industry. (7/1739)

Owing to the abundance of a sedimentary rock, 65 small-scale quartz manufacturing enterprises, employing 650 workers, have been established in the region studied. Quartz powder manufacturing involves various processes and operations, such as manual handling of quartz stones, crushing, grinding, sieving, screening, mixing, storing and bagging. Results demonstrate that each of these operations generates high concentrations of airborne 'total' dust and respirable dust, which contain a very high percentage (> 75%) free silica. The estimated average exposure to airborne 'total' dust was 22.5 mg m-3 (Permissible Limit of Exposure 1.08 mg m-3), and respirable dust 2.93 mg m-3 (PLE 0.36 mg m-3). This shows that 'total' dust exposure was 7.7 times higher than respirable dust. Since the present work systems and practices may pose a serious health risk to the workers, public and the environment, suitable preventive and control measures have been suggested for improvement in the workplace.  (+info)

Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in two iron ore mines. (8/1739)

Six males with systemic sclerosis were observed in the work forces of two iron ore mines. The usual spectrum of clinical features encountered in systemic sclerosis patients were present. Histologic examination of pulmonary tissue was performed on three of the cases and showed features of both silicosis and scleroderma but to different degrees and stages of development. Exposure to high levels of silica-containing dusts had occurred in all six cases.  (+info)

The potential adult adverse health outcomes that result from exposures during early life are recognized. However, only limited attention has been paid to the effect(s) of environmentally relevant toxicant exposures during critical periods of development and even fewer studies have examined whether early life inhalation exposures leads to adult disease. Our research is investigating whether inhalation exposures to real world dust during development can lead to changes in lung function and structure in adults. If so, what are the critical times of exposure that lead to those changes? Using metal-containing real world dusts collected from an abandoned mine tailings site, we have exposed male and female mice only in utero, only post-natally or continuously (in utero and postnatal inhalation exposures). We have found that significant changes in lung function and structure are only seen in adult male mice following continuous exposures. In addition, alterations in protein expression of airway cells ...
INTRODUCTION: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material ... read more and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. METHODS: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). The dose is expressed as 6 h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2 mg/m(3) CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2-14 nm and an MMAD of 1.5 μm. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung ...
To assess acute inhalation toxicity, MRD-95 -247 was administered via individual whole-body inhalation chambers for four hours to two groups of ten Crl:CDBR rats at either an estimated aerosol concentration of 5247 mg/m3 or an analytical concentration of 5266 mg/m3 (5213 mg/m3 aersol, 53 mg/m3 vapor). Animals were observed for fourteen days following exposure. No mortality was observed, and all animals that received the estimated aerosol concentration of 5247 mg/m3 were free of gross pathological abnormalities. In the second group (5266 mg/m3 aerosol), 4 males and 1 female exhibited red foci on the lungs, one male displayed dark red nasal turbinates, and 3 males and 1 female had alopecia and/or scabs on the dorsal surface, extremities, and/or head. Based on the conditions of this study, the LC50 for acute inhalation exposure to an aerosol atmosphere of MRD-95 -247 is greater than 5266 mg/m3. This finding does not warrant classification of MRD-95-247 as an acute inhalation toxicant under the new ...
The behavioral effects induced by methyl-n-amyl ketone (110430) (MAK) exposure were studied. Rats received from one to eight intraperitoneal injections (group I) of 18, 37, 74, or 175 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) MAK, or were exposed to MAK aerosols (Group II) of 800 to 1,900 parts per million (ppm) daily for 6 or 8 hours. Following inhalation exposures, the rats were given injections of 37, 74
OBSH is used as a blowing agent in industrial processing and for professional uses. For systemic effects from long term inhalational exposure, no inhalational study is available. A DNEL of 0.7 mg/m3 was established based on a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral OECD 408 90D study. For local effects in respiratory tract from long term inhalational exposure a DNEL of 0.1 mg/m3 is applicable based on a ACGIH TLV of 0.1 mg/m3 for OBSH derived to protect against effects from hydrazine liberated from hydrolysis of OBSH. For systemic effects from long term dermal exposure, no dermal study is available. A DNEL of 0.1 mg/kg/d was established based on a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg bw/d from an oral OECD 408 90D study with rats. Short term exposure is controlled by conditions for long-term exposure, therefore no DNEL has been established. Further, as OBSH has been identified as a skin sensitizer, strict control measures should apply. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Gas phase synthesis of TiO2-nanoparticles for inhalation exposure studies. AU - Miettinen, Mirella. AU - Tapper, Unto. AU - Backman, Ulrika. AU - Joutsensaari, Jorma. AU - Auvinen, Ari. AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Conference article. T2 - European Aerosol Conference 2008, EAC 2008. Y2 - 25 August 2008 through 29 August 2008. ER - ...
Complete solutions for a variety of inhalation exposure test assays. We develop and produce a wide range of equipment and components for in-vivo and in-vitro studies with aerosols and vapors.. Our exposure systems are suitable for long- and short-term inhalation investigations with test animals or cell cultures involving toxicity and impact of particulate matter, e.g. in pharmacology, environmental and occupational safety, and bio-defense studies.. The exposure system design and Daco inhalation software for automatic control and regulation of experiments support you in achieving compliance with the OECD, EPA and GLP guidelines.. ...
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Adverse health effects by inhaled and deposited particles are of great concern. In addition, therapeutic aerosols become increasingly important for the treatment of lung and other diseases. The interaction of particles with the inner surface of the lungs is fundamental for their biological effectiveness in the organism, though poorly understood and precluded from being studied in humans. A large number of animals are used to test the effects of aerosol particles on a living system by whole-body or nose-only exposures. Such experiments are time consuming and they are stressful for the animals. Furthermore, the increase of knowledge in the use of animal models is hampered for various reasons, such as the long time lapse between aerosol application and lung fixation, the lack of methods for direct studies, or artefacts produced by chemical lung fixation. Cell cultures which are in common use today are deficient in important structural components of the inner lung surface, such as macrophages, ...
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The general population is exposed to CDFs by inhalation, ingestion of drinking water, consumption of food, and through the use of certain consumer products. Since the concentrations of CDFs in ambient air and drinking water are low (see Section 5.4), the intake of CDFs by inhalation and ingestion of drinking water would be low. It has been shown that inhalation exposure was not a major pathway of human exposure to CDFs (Travis and Hattermer-Frey 1989). The estimate that inhalation exposure.... ...
In case of a radioactive release, it is important to have good preparedness with the right actions to contribute the best protection for the vulnerable section of the population. Immediately after a release theexposure through inhalation will be the biggest problem, since particles and gases have not beendeposited on land, clouds and so on. Buildings contribute to protection against inhalation. The reason forthis is that the air outside and inside the dwelling is changed relatively slowly. How much of the pollutionthat enter the indoor air and how long time it takes is important information to determine if thepopulation is sufficiently protected inside buildings or if evacuation is needed. In this work knowledgefrom existing literature and modelling has been used to describe general conditions with which apollutant moves in and out of a building. Differential equations with main processes and parameters havebeen studied to give a estimation as to the protection a building can provide against ...
ECHA guidance recommends that a factor of 2 be applied when doing route to route extrapolation for oral to inhalation exposure; this has been included in this case due to a lack of data or the percentage of oral absorption. Therefore a factor of 2 was applied. Allometric scaling is applied by taking account for the different breathing rates between rats and humans, as described in ECHA technical guidance the oral NOAEL in the rat mg/kg/day *1/0.38 * 6.7/10 = mg/m3 inhalation NOAEC for workers. An additional adjust was made as recommended in ECHA guidance R8.4.3. The oral exposure for the rats was 7 days a week but inhalation exposure of workers is considered to be 5 days a week. This is adjusted by dividing the NOEC by 5/7 or 0.714286. ...
Felix, Human infection with hanta-virus occurs through inhalation of infected material, so as long as you werent breathing, or picking your nose when you were around the moose droopings, youll be OK, other-wise, head for the nearest epidemiologist. ,Al ...
The inhalation toxicity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) was examined in acute (single exposure), subacute (4-wk repeated exposure) and subchronic (13-wk repeated exposure) studies in rats. The 4-hr LC50 was found to be 95 ppm. In the 4-wk study rats were exposed to 0, 0.9, 4.1 or 11.8 ppm PAN vapor for 6 hr/day, 5 days/wk. Exposure to 11.8 ppm ...
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is the cancer research and monitoring arm of the World Health Organization (WHO). On June 12 2012, IARC, after a week-long meeting of international experts on carcinogenic health effects of diesel engine exhaust fumes, has made a press release announcing the classification of diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. The classification was announced from Lyon, France, after considering the scientific findings on the health effects and cancer-causing potential of diesel exhaust fumes ...
PRN: RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials. RIFM Innovative Model Calculates Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance Materials [03-May-2012] - RIFM 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model Is An Alternative Method To Calculate Inhalation Exposure To Fragrance WOODCLIFF LAKE, New Jersey, May 3, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) is beta testing its innovative 2-Box Indoor Air Dispersion Model software, an alternative method for assessing inhalation exposure to fragrance materials. RIFM Database subscribers can download the model for individual use by selecting Tools and Models from the RIFM Database home page and then selecting the model for download.
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Double-blind, sham- and placebo-controlled randomized study of effects of freshly-generated diluted diesel exhaust inhalation on vascular function. To examine role of adrenergic system a trial of alpha-blocker terazosin is also used. Each participant completes four study sessions, separated by at least three weeks: 1) Diesel exhaust inhalation (DE, controlled at 300 micrograms/cubic meter for two hours) and terazosin (2 mg prior to inhalation exposure); 2) DE plus placebo (matched for terazosin); 3) filtered air plus terazosin; and 4) filter air plus placebo. The investigators assess outcomes of blood pressure, forearm brachial artery ultrasound, and plasma measures of endothelial activation. The investigators hypothesize that DE exposure will be associated with increased blood pressure, decreased brachial artery diameter, and increased circulating endothelins, and that these effects will be attenuated by terazosin administration ...
Environ Health Perspect: 11/22/13. Background: Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) has recently been classified as a known human carcinogen.. Objective: To derive a meta-exposure-response curve (ERC) for DEE and lung cancer mortality and estimate lifetime excess risks (ELRs) of lung cancer mortality based on assumed occupational and environmental exposure scenarios.. Methods: We conducted a meta-regression of lung cancer mortality and cumulative exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a proxy measure of DEE, based on relative risk (RR) estimates reported by three large occupational cohort studies (including two studies of workers in the trucking industry and one study of miners). Based on the derived risk function, we calculated ELRs for several lifetime occupational and environmental exposure scenarios, and also calculated the fractions of annual lung cancer deaths attributable to DEE. Read more. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A training exercise in subjectively estimating inhalation exposures. AU - Semple, Sean. AU - Proud, L. A.. AU - Tindall, M. E.. AU - Tannahill, S. N.. AU - Cherrie, John. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Objectives This study examined whether it is possible to train occupational hygienists to estimate inhalation exposures reliably from limited occupational information using a new method and assessed improvements in the quality of the estimate using the aggregate from multiple assessors.Methods Five occupational hygienists estimated inhalation exposure for 40 tasks covering a range of chemical hazards using a recently developed subjective modeling technique supplemented by detailed guidance notes. The measured exposure levels were used to determine the validity of the method. The correlation coefficients of the log-transformed data were used to assess the discriminative power of the method, and the ratio of the mean estimate to measured values was used to measure accuracy.Results There ...
Heavy Metals Inhalation Exposure Analysis from Particulate Matter Emitted from Dry and Wet Recycling Processes of Waste Electrical and Electronic ...
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Background: Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that exposure to traffic-derived pollution worsens respiratory symptoms in asthmatics, but controlled human exposure studies have failed to provide a mechanism for this effect. Here we investigated whether diesel exhaust (DE) would induce apoptosis or proliferation in the bronchial epithelium in vivo and thus contribute to respiratory symptoms.. Methods: Moderate (n = 16) and mild (n = 16) asthmatics, atopic non-asthmatic controls (rhinitics) (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 21) were exposed to filtered air or DE (100 μg/m 3 ) for 2 h, on two separate occasions. Bronchial biopsies were taken 18 h post-exposure and immunohistochemically analysed for pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bak, p85 PARP, Fas, Bcl-2) and a marker of proliferation (Ki67). Positive staining was assessed within the epithelium using computerized image analysis.. Results: No evidence of epithelial apoptosis or proliferation was observed in healthy, allergic or ...
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) announced the release of 17 new, updated, corrected or deleted Test Guidelines. The Test Guidelines include three that are specifically developed for nanomaterials.. A full list of publications in the Series on the Safety of Manufactured Nanomaterials is available on the OECD WPMN website via http://www.oecd.org/env/ehs/nanosafety/publications-series-safety-manufactured-nanomaterials.htm. (1) Test No. 318: Dispersion Stability of Nanomaterials in Simulated Environmental Media (PDF, 1.5 MB). This document offers guidelines on a test procedure to gain information on dispersion stability of manufactured nanomaterials in simulated environmental media. It allows the users to understand the nanomaterials fate in natural waters and their potential behaviour in test media.. (2) Test No. 412: 28 days (Subacute) Inhalation Toxicity Study (PDF, 354 KB). (3) Test No. 413: Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90-day Study (PDF, 354 KB). Both ...
Video articles in JoVE about inhalation exposure include Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures, Dry Powder and Nebulized Aerosol Inhalation of Pharmaceuticals Delivered to Mice Using a Nose-only Exposure System, A Robust Pneumonia Model in Immunocompetent Rodents to Evaluate Antibacterial Efficacy against S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa or A. baumannii, Identification of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Histological Samples by Enhanced Darkfield Microscopy and Hyperspectral Mapping, The Lambda Select cII Mutation Detection System, An Experimental Model to Study Tuberculosis-Malaria Coinfection upon Natural Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium berghei, Non-surgical Intratracheal Instillation of Mice with Analysis of Lungs and Lung Draining Lymph Nodes by Flow Cytometry, Direct Tracheal Instillation of Solutes into Mouse Lung, Capsular Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Latex Agglutination.
A colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. Fumes strongly in moist air. Nonflammable. Corrosive to metals and tissues and irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Heavier than air. Long-term inhalation of low concentrations or short-term inhalation of high concentrations has adverse health effects. Prolonged exposure to fire or intense heat may result in the violent rupture and rocketing of the container. Used in the manufacture of rubber, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and in gasoline refining and metals processing.. Rate of onset: Immediate. Persistence: Minutes to hours. Odor threshold: 0.77 ppm. Source/use/other hazard: Ore, other metal refining/cleaning; food/pickling; petroleum; corrosive liq.. ...
The information was provided to the workers from the year of introduction of diesel equipment at each facility , a surrogate for diesel exhaust exposure, from a variety of sources, including a 1998-2001 survey of diesel exhaust exposure at each facility, data from the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration Mine Information data Analysis system compliance database, data on diesel equipment usage over time and historical data at each facility mine ventilation... Its really no secret to deal with the sleep deprivation with a new baby with a new baby after Reynolds practicing Nurture try a healthy diet, and not on any additional take on tasks outside the home - you won t have time for them and nap when stay stay. Calm with a dramatic change in the life and routine, it can be difficult to stay cool and collected, but thats the key your baby your baby on an even keel. Even if something is wrong, reflects your mood and response to[ their] disposition. Are are freaking out, they do not ...
Background: Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially in individuals with cardiovascular disease including hypertension. PM inhalation causes several adv ...
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10-deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines ...
Manganese (Mn), an essential metal and nutrient, is toxic in excess. Toxicity classically results from inhalational exposures in individuals who work in industrial settings. The first known disease of inherited Mn excess, identified in 2012, is caused by mutations in the metal exporter SLC30A10 and is characterized by Mn excess, dystonia, cirrhosis, and polycythemia. To investigate the role of SLC30A10 in Mn homeostasis, we first generated whole-body Slc30a10-deficient mice, which developed severe Mn excess and impaired systemic and biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 localized to canalicular membranes of hepatocytes, but mice with liver Slc30a10 deficiency developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired biliary Mn excretion. Slc30a10 also localized to the apical membrane of enterocytes, but mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in small intestines developed minimal Mn excess despite impaired Mn export into the lumen of the small intestines. Finally, mice with Slc30a10 deficiency in liver and small intestines ...
Disclaimer: These masks should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat source or flammable gas. Wear Boise LLC makes no warranties, either express or implied, that the face cover prevents infection or the transmission of viruses or diseases ...
(Non Medical) Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat sour
(Non Medical) Disclaimer: The mask should not be used (1) in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily or other hazardous fluids, may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk level through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high intensity heat sour
Buy Novidat Online! Novidat is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. Novidat oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure.
Buy Ciproxina Online! Ciproxina is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It is not effective against syphilis infections. Ciproxina oral liquid and tablets are also used to treat anthrax infection after inhalational exposure.
Cloth face coverings are not intended for use in the diagnosis of a disease or other conditions or in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease or for any other medical purposes. Avoid using these cloth face coverings (1) in any surgical or medical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids may be expected; (2) in a clinical setting where the infection risk levels through inhalation exposure is high; or (3) in the presence of a high-intensity heat source or flammable gas ...
The breathing system comprises a canister carrying layered filtering material, including activated carbon granules, a dessicant, a catalyst for the catalyzation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, optionally lithium peroxide, for conversion of CO2 to O2, and electrostatically charged filters between the layers of filtering material. A mouthpiece carrying a noseclip, and inhalation and exhalation check valves and a whistle is disposed within a flexible, substantially completely transparent hear-through hood, both the mouthpiece and hood being disposed in the canister between the filtering material and a cover for the canister. In use, the cover is removed, air inlet apertures are uncovered, and the hood is drawn about an individuals head and substantially sealed about the neck. With the mouthpiece in the individuals mouth, and noseclip closing off the users nose, inhalation causes air to flow through the filtering material and the inhalation check valve and past the exhalation check valves. When
A rodent model for microplastic ingestion inducing a gut response and modification similar to that of type II diabetes. Exposure to non-biodegradable pollutants such as BPA can have many adverse health effects on humans, including diabetes and insulin resistance. However, there is less research on the human health effects of microplastic exposure. Microplastics are a unique contaminant suite that humans are exposed to on a regular basis through inhalation or ingestion exposure pathways. For instance, microplastic exposure can arise from the consumption of seafood, as microplastics bio-accumulate in marine organisms such as fish or bivalves. Research conducted in complementary fields have illustrated the potential for microplastics to impact intestinal permeability and microbiome composition. Additionally, research in type 2diabetes and metabolic diseases have reported a reduced permeability of the intestinal tract. We plan to use a lab-controlled study of mice to study a diabetic-induced control ...
1. Locate a current SDS for one of the fixatives described in todays lab. Identify the properties and hazards associated with that chemical. Methanol that is used in Precipitation fixation Dangerous Good Class: 3 (Flammable liquid) Subsidiary Risk(s): 6.1 (Toxic) Risk: - Highly flammable. - Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. - Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. Safety Phrases: - Keep container tightly closed. - Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking. - Avoid contact with skin. - Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves. - In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). ...
1. The activities or operations where the workers are exposed to the chemical agents shall be considered unhealthy when the tolerance limits in Table 1 of this Annex are exceeded.. 2. All values given in Table 1 (Table of Tolerance Limits) are only for the absorption through inhalation.. 3. All values given in Table 1 as simple asphyxiant determine that, in the presence of these substances in the work environment, the minimum concentration of oxygen must be 18% by volume. The activities and operations in which the oxygen concentration is below, this value shall be considered as an imminent and serious risk.. 4. The chemical agents whose tolerance limits cannot be exceeded at any time during the working day are marked in the Ceiling Limit column.. 5. The chemical agents that can be absorbed through the skin and therefore requiring the use of gloves while handling, in addition to necessary PPE for protection of other body parts, are shown in the Absorption through skin column.. 6. The ...
Darkened lips can result from months and years of smoking. Nicotine and tar transfer to the lips through inhalation of the cigarette smoke, causing...
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سلامت کار ایران Iran Occupational Health (IOH) seeks to publish Original Research Papers and Case Reports, Review Articles and Technical Reports related to the fields of Public Health and Occupational Health particularly. IOH is an official publication of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Public Health and is published quarterly. The following guidelines refer to the Journal requirements for receiving your manuscripts for possible publication. Complying with guidelines will expedite the process of evaluation and publication of the submitted manuscripts. IOH regrets to reject those contributions that deviate from the Journal style.
Acutely toxic chemicals may cause harm if it enters the body. They may enter the body in different ways: the most common is through inhalation (breathing it into the lungs) or through skin contact or ingestion.
Inuit throat-singing is done in the following way: two women face each other; they may be standing or crouching down; one is leading, while the other responds; the leader produces a short rhythmic motif that she repeats with a short silent gap in-between, while the other is rhythmically filling in the gaps. The game is such that both singers try to show their vocal abilities in competition, by exchanging these vocal motives. The first to run out of breath or be unable to maintain the pace of the other singer will start to laugh or simply stop and will thus lose the game. It generally lasts between one and three minutes. The winner is the singer who beats the largest number of people.. Originally, the lips of the two women were almost touching, each one using the others mouth cavity as a resonator. Today, most singers stand straight, facing one another and holding each others arms. The sounds used include voiced sounds as well as unvoiced ones, both through inhalation or exhalation. Because of ...
Viral fever is a condition where viral infections are associated with the elevations of body temperature. These viruses enter the body through inhalation, direct contact, vectors, and contaminated water and food. These viral infections are easily contracted in person with low immune status. It affects all age groups but infants and old age people are more vulnerable.. ...
Question by Amit Varma. In the book The World of _____ by Bennett Alan Weinberg and Bonnie K Bealer, there is a photograph of a label from a jar of pharmaceutical-grade crystals. It reads:. WARNING: MAY BE HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED. HAS CAUSED MUTAGENIC AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS IN LABORATORY ANIMALS. INHALATION CAUSES RAPID HEART RATE, EXCITEMENT, DIZZINESS, PAIN, COLLAPSE, HYPOTENSION, FEVER, SHORTNESS OF BREATH. MAY CAUSE HEADACHE, INSOMNIA, VOMITING, STOMACH PAIN, COLLAPSE AND CONVULSIONS.. Fill in the blank.. ...
A new long-term study by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health found that miners exposed to diesel engine exhaust are three times more likely to contract fatal lung cancer, and that commuters on busy highways in smoggy, urban areas might face a similar risk ...
Brands: STELLAR Telemetry sets new standards in wireless animal physiology monitoring where the animal can move anytime, anywhere and still record your data gap-free and loss-less using the latest technology. TSE DACO is a comprehensive software solution for inhalation exposure studies. The Daco software package allows unparalleled flexibility in experimental design and data recording. The flexibility is reflected in the control of the experimental setup, allowing a mix of different exposure systems, all the way through the analysis parameters and even offers an advanced software version with implementation of specific GLP checkpoints and audit trails termed Daco-GLP.. ...
Researchers are now adding additional data to the obesity puzzle, citing that diesel exhaust exposure while in utero could also be to blame for the rise in
The 3M™ Inhalation Valve 6893/07144 (AAD), Respiratory Protection Replacement Part works with the 3M™ Full and Half Facepiece Respirators 6000 Series (sold separately). Using this replacement part can extend the service life of respiratory protection equiment.
HSE has highlighted the importance of managing health risks effectively after a Gateshead company admitted exposing its workers to hazardous soldering fumes. View press release
In the aftermath of the large spill of crude 4-methylcyclohexylmethanol (MCHM) into the Elk River in 2014, there were reports of a strong licorice-smelling odor and reports of respiratory illness/cough suggestive of chemical-induced adverse airway effects. Levels of MCHM in the air were predicted to be as high as 0.39 ppm after 10 minutes of showering, suggesting that inhalation of MCHM vapors was a potential route of chemical exposure. NTP conducted prenatal developmental toxicity and 5-day toxicogenomic oral gavage studies that showed minimal MCHM-induced adverse effects; however, no in vivo inhalation studies for MCHM have been performed to date. In this study, we utilized an organotypic human air-liquid interface (ALI) culture model (EpiAirwayTM) derived from a single donor to determine if there was any potential for MCHM-induced airway toxicity in vitro following acute exposure to MCHM vapors for 6 hours, which might warrant future inhalation toxicity testing in vivo. ALI tissues were ...
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This presentation will address some of the obstacles with studies in juvenile animals related to specialty endpoints or routes of delivery as well as approaches to overcome them. Discussion topics include cardiovascular assessment, immunophenotyping, and T-cell dependent antibody response (TDAR) evaluation in juvenile dogs, and approaches to inhalation exposure of neonatal/juvenile rodents, and dogs.. ...
Find patient medical information for Asmanex Twisthaler Inhalation on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
Cultivating a generation of future-proof leaders.. This generation understands the impact of storytelling. They are aware of the emotional connection and content structure that drives meaning, impact and action into everything that they do. Stories and laughter are fundamental to gaining higher social power, but how can you apply this philosophy in everyday business? These are the key insights you will learn in our new book, Learn, Laugh, Lead: How to Avoid a Huge Leadersh*t.. Whether youre on the Board of Executives or working your way up the chain of command, people have influenced you along the way. It is true that we initially learn to lead by example. We observe the behaviors of those who influence us and make judgments on whether or not the behaviors they exhibit are good or bad, or have a place in our own leadership toolbelt. But what separates the good from the bad or the good from the great?. As Jeff DeFranco, College President in Lake Tahoe, recalls on his years of leadership, he ...
... by the US EPA Inhalation disorders Institution of Occupational Safety and Health Toolkit Trends in inhalation exposure: mid ... Inhalation is a major route of exposure that occurs when an individual breathes in polluted air which enters the respiratory ... Exposure to carbon monoxide is dangerous because of its toxic, odorless nature. Since the gas takes time to build up in the ... Exposure is commonly understood to be the concentration of the airborne pollutant in the air at the mouth and nose boundary. ...
Because chlorine is a gas at room temperature, most exposure occurs via inhalation. Exposure may also occur through skin or eye ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Secondary effects of sulfur mustard exposure lead to chronic lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis. A common exposure ... The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. Irritant ...
Ingestion or inhalation may be fatal. Effects of exposure may be delayed. There have been several accidents involving uranium ... Presence of this aerosol elevates the risk of potentially chemotoxic or radiotoxic exposure via inhalation or ingestion". ... The U.S. Department of Defense claims that no human cancer of any type has been seen as a result of exposure to either natural ... Specific exposures during deployment have not resulted in a subsequent increased risk of cancer. The long latent period for ...
Toxicity following inhalation was not identified. Symptoms following acute exposure include cyanosis (blue or purple coloration ... Only oral short-term exposure in rats was researched of o-toluidine. Dermal exposure affected the ovarian cycle, ovary ... Inhalation exposure was not identified. Rats were administered with the compound with a dose of 1125 mg/kg bodyweight over five ... o-Toluidine exposure has been researched in a number of different degrees in animals. o-Toluidine was found to be harmful to ...
Most thorium exposure occurs through dust inhalation; some thorium comes with food and water, but because of its low solubility ... this exposure is negligible. Exposure is raised for people who live near thorium deposits or radioactive waste disposal sites, ... Exposure to an aerosol of thorium, such as contaminated dust, can lead to increased risk of cancers of the lung, pancreas, and ... Internal exposure to thorium leads to increased risk of liver diseases. The decay products of 232Th include more dangerous ...
Routes of exposure include contact and inhalation. The EPA obtained hundreds of air samples during the spill and a review ... "The Exposure App". The Exposure App. Retrieved 8 November 2016. "NOAA researchers release study on emissions from BP/Deepwater ... Sampling for chemicals, particulates, and noise exposures were found to be below occupational exposure limits for ... Exposure occurs through skin contact, inhalation of contaminated air or soil/sand, and ingestion of contaminated water or food ...
Nanomaterials in dry powder form tend to pose the greatest risk for inhalation exposure, while nanomaterials suspended in a ... Dustiness increases the risk of inhalation exposure. Dusty materials tend to generate aerosols with high particle ... The full life cycle of a nanomaterial should be considered when planning to control for dust exposure. Nanomaterial synthesis ... This standard is especially related to human exposure in workplace (EN 15051). It describes two methods: the rotating drum ...
This can be calculated as an inhalation exposure. This would account for daily exposure in various settings (e.g. different ... For some pollutants such as black carbon, traffic related exposures may dominate total exposure despite short exposure times ... More long-term exposure to PAHs can result in DNA damage and reduced repair. Exposure to BaP has been reported to reduce sperm ... "Aerosol physicochemical determinants of carbon black and ozone inhalation co-exposure induced pulmonary toxicity". ...
Inhalation and skin exposure should be strictly avoided. As many dioxirane oxidations depend subtly on reaction conditions, ...
Hine, C.H.; Lyons, J.; Eisenlord, G.H.; Wright, J.A.; Long, J.E. (1979). "Three-month inhalation exposure study with methane ... during one hour of exposure or between 1 and 1.2 ppm during 7 hours of exposure. MSF produced no subtle biological effects from ... Repeated exposures to 1/10 of the LCt50 did not produce overt systemic toxicity or significant pathology. MSF can also cause ...
Prolonged exposure may result in skin burns and ulcerations. Over-exposure by inhalation may cause respiratory irritation. Skin ... Repeated or prolonged exposure can produce organ damage. Repeated or prolonged inhalation of vapors may lead to chronic ... Zinc peroxide is very hazardous in case of skin contact, of eye contact, or inhalation. Harmful if ingested in large quantities ...
The main exposure to UFPs is through inhalation. Owing to their size, UFPs are considered to be respirable particles. Contrary ... Exposure to UFPs, even if components are not very toxic, may cause oxidative stress, inflammatory mediator release, and could ... In order to quantify exposure and risk, both in vivo and in vitro studies of various UFP species are currently being done using ... 2010). "Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers". Atmospheric Environment. 44 ( ...
Calls to US poison control centers related to e-cigarette exposures involved inhalations, eye exposures, skin exposures, and ... inhalation/nasal exposure resulted in nausea, vomiting, dizziness, agitated, or headache; ocular exposure resulted in eye ... Although it has become a popular replacement for diacetyl, acute inhalation exposure to 2, 3-pentanedione has been shown to ... If exposure of aerosols to propylene glycol and glycerin rises to levels that one would consider the exposure in association ...
A 1980 study on inhalation exposure of cadmium workers identified a single worker who always used his respirator correctly. The ... Que Hee, Shane; Lawrence, Philip (1983). "Inhalation Exposure of Lead in Brass Foundry Workers: The Evaluation of the ... Smith, Thomas; Ferrel, Willard; Varner, Michael; Putnam, Robert (1980). "Inhalation exposure of cadmium workers: effects of ... The permissible exposure limit [PEL] for several types of respirators was reduced. For example, for negative pressure air- ...
Exposure occurs through inhalation, ingestion or occasionally skin contact. Lead may be taken in through direct contact with ... Cumulative exposure over a prolonged period may have a more important effect on some aspects of health than recent exposure. ... Beyond exposure from gasoline, the frequent use of pesticides in developing countries adds a risk of lead exposure and ... Concerns for low levels of exposure began in the 1970s with there being no safe threshold for lead exposure. Classically, "lead ...
... medical geology studies exposure to or deficiency of trace elements and minerals; inhalation of ambient and anthropogenic ... Lead and other heavy metal exposure resulting from dust and other particulates Asbestos exposure such as amphibole asbestos ... Rocks are also one of the leading sources in exposure to these elements. "They are essentially the source of all the naturally ... mineral dusts and volcanic emissions; transportation, modification and concentration of organic compounds; and exposure to ...
Transmission by ingestion or inhalation of coughed on fomites is a second, less likely route of infection. The genome of ... Other transmission routes include exposure to laboratory specimens. 1987 Carroll County Cryptosporidiosis outbreak 1993 ... resulting in cyst stages that are excreted in feces or through inhalation of coughed on fomites and are capable of transmission ... which may have been acquired by inhalation of expectorated droplets or by contact with fomites. ... This finding suggests that ...
... the 8 hour average respiratory exposure should not exceed 0.3 ppm. NIOSH recommends that the short term respiratory exposure to ... It can be absorbed either by inhalation or transdermally. As a respiratory poison, it affects the transport of oxygen or ... Exposure results in pulmonary edema (the lungs fill with fluid). Phosphine gas is heavier than air so it stays near the floor. ... Exposure to higher concentrations may cause olfactory fatigue. Phosphine gas is denser than air and hence may collect in low- ...
Inhalation exposure is the most common route of exposure to airborne particles in the workplace. The deposition of ... Of the possible hazards, inhalation exposure appears to present the most concern, with animal studies showing pulmonary effects ... Ingestion may also accompany inhalation exposure because particles that are cleared from the respiratory tract via the ... October 2013). "Carbon nanotube dosimetry: from workplace exposure assessment to inhalation toxicology". Particle and Fibre ...
The risk estimates are limited to consideration of inhalation exposure. People receive substantial additional exposures to air ... Studies have shown that many people receive substantial additional inhalation exposure to common indoor air pollutants such as ... The study evaluated the exposure-response relation and assessed differences in risk by community characteristics of poverty, ... Bus depots, sanitation centers, and shipping facilities also account for the higher rates of emission exposure. Health ...
"Nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure from inhalation of cigarillo smoke". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 139 (Pt A): ... The depth of inhalation of cigar smoke into the lungs appears to be an important determinant of lung cancer risk: When cigar ... When 5 or more cigars are smoked per day and there is moderate inhalation, the lung cancer risks of cigar smoking approximate ... tobacco smoke exposure of the lung in cigar smokers increases to approximate the frequency of smoking and depth of inhalation ...
Systemic and respiratory tract (RT) toxicity was analyzed for 28 days in a nose specific inhalation 2008 study in Wistar rats; ... TEOA seems to be less potent in regard to systemic toxicity and RT irritancy than diethanolamine (DEA). Exposure to TEOA ... Gamer, A. O.; Rossbacher, R.; Kaufmann, W.; van Ravenzwaay, B. (2008). "The inhalation toxicity of di- and triethanolamine upon ... repeated exposure". Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 (6): 2173-2183. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.020. PMID 18420328. Lessmann, H.; Uter, W ...
Exposure can occur via ingestion, inhalation, or contact with skin. Some pesticides can remain in the environment for prolonged ... Toxicity of pesticides depend on the type of chemical, route of exposure, dosage, and timing of exposure. According to The ... Studies suggest an association between carbamate exposure and glioma and meningioma, glyphosate exposure and diffuse large B- ... There is accumulating evidence of neurological effects secondary to pesticide exposure. Acute exposure to high levels of ...
Both inhalation and dermal routes of exposure are considered hazardous. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic ... Long-term skin exposure to these compounds can produce "tar warts", which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Coal tar was ... Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles can occur in the workplace by breathing, skin contact, or eye contact. The Occupational ... Long-term, consistent exposure to coal tar likely increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers. Evidence is inconclusive ...
Human exposure to chromium is ingestion, skin contact, and inhalation. Chromium-III and VI will accumulate in the tissues of ... This introduces health risks such as inhalation potential and leaching of toxins into the environment. ...
Chronic inhalation exposure in humans results in reversible respiratory toxicity. A study conducted between 1954 and 1972 of ... People that live near an area that has high toxaphene contamination are at high risk to toxaphene exposure through inhalation ... The three main paths of exposure to toxaphene are ingestion, inhalation, and absorption. For humans, the main source of ... Eating large quantities of fish on a daily basis also increases susceptibility to toxaphene exposure. Finally, exposure is rare ...
Gamer AO, Rossbacher R, Kaufmann W, van Ravenzwaay B (2008). "The inhalation toxicity of di- and triethanolamine upon repeated ... In a mouse study of chronic exposure to inhaled DEA at high concentrations (above 150 mg/m3), DEA was found to induce body and ... "Dose response effects of dermally applied diethanolamine on neurogenesis in fetal mouse hippocampus and potential exposure of ... exposure". Food Chem Toxicol. 46 (6): 2173-83. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.02.020. PMID 18420328. Libralato G, Volpi Ghirardini A, ...
Exposure may be by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or direct contact. In type I hypersensitivity, B cells are stimulated (by ... Within minutes of exposure to an antigen, the immediate hypersensitivity occurs, releasing histamines and lipid mediators which ... Mast cells and basophils coated by IgE antibodies are "sensitized". Later exposure to the same allergen cross-links the bound ... However, about 4-12 hours after antigen exposure, a cough and wheezing may persist in the patient, along with swelling and ...
Exposure to lead occurs through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Lead enters the bloodstream through exposure and ... A major source of exposure to lead comes from inhalation. Factories and industries, vehicle exhaust (especially from vehicles ... Environmental exposure to lead is not the only source of lead-related health effects. Many industrial workers in the United ... Effects of lead exposure cannot be corrected". "The absence of an identified BLL without deleterious effects, combined with the ...
Therefore, toxic exposure may occur by inhalation, physical contact, or ingestion. It is acutely toxic, causing a variety of ... Exposure to even small amounts may cause convulsions or death. LD50 orally in rats is reported as 25-50 mg/kg. The recommended ...
Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of continuous exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) on hepatic morphology ... The Biological Effect of Continuous Inhalation Exposure of 1,1,1- Trichloroethane (Methyl Chloroform) on Animals.. ... Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of continuous exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) on hepatic morphology ...
... systems have been widely used in recent years to investigate the inhalation toxicity of many gaseous compounds, chemicals, and ... more closely resembles a subacute in vivo inhalation exposure scenario compared to ubmerged culture exposure. However, the ... Parametric optimization of an air-liquid interface system for flow through inhalation exposure to nanoparticles: assessing ... Parametric optimization of an air-liquid interface system for flow through inhalation exposure to nanoparticles: assessing ...
Characterization of nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity testing-ISO 10808:2010 specifies ... Nanotechnologies - Characterization of nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for inhalation toxicity testing. ISO 10808 ... the characterization of airborne nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for the purpose of inhalation toxicity studies ... Nanotechnologies - Overview of available frameworks for the development of occupational exposure limits and bands ... ...
... in rats following short-term inhalation exposure for five consecutive days. Here transcriptomics approaches were applied using ... In conclusion, we have found that inhalation of CuO NPs in rats causes upregulation of the oncoprotein ECT2 and the chemokine ... and other proinflammatory markers as well as proliferation in bronchoalveolar epithelium after a short-term inhalation exposure ... Pathway analysis indicated cell proliferation/survival and inflammation as the main processes triggered by exposure to CuO NPs ...
... S. Jordt (Durham, NC, United States of America), C. Albert ( ... Comparison of inhalation and oral exposure to the glyphosate herbicide: effects on respiratory system in rats. Source: Virtual ... Acute lung injury caused by toxic gas inhalation: a work injury case. Source: Annual Congress 2009 - Occupational exposures and ... Exposure biomarkers in a pig model of chlorine inhalation injury. 1308 You must login to share this Presentation/Article on ...
This report investigates the occupational exposure to emissions from hot Heavy Fuel Oil during inland barge loading. ... investigating the occupational exposure to emissions from hot Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) (inhalation exposure to aerosols and vapours ... Additional worker inhalation exposure measurements of heavy fuel oil emissions during barge/truck loading. 25 May 2021 ... This issue was identified following a comparison of measured exposure data and modelled estimates, as documented in Concawe rpt ...
Additive manufacturing, Inhalation exposure, Occupational safety, Powder-bed process, 3D printers, Construction industry, ... Walter, J.; Baumgärtel, A.; Hustedt, M.; Hebisch, R.; Kaierle, S.: Inhalation exposure to hazardous substances during powder- ... This work resumes first results concerning the identification of workers inhalation exposure by means of workplace ... Inhalation exposure, Occupational safety, Polymer powders, Powder bed, Volatile compounds, Working practices, Powder metals ...
... for inhalation exposure to naphthalene has not been derived (U.S. EPA, 1991, 1992). Inhalation: On inhalation naphthalene cases ... CAREX defines exposure to naphthalene as inhalation exposure at work at levels exceeding those encountered in non-occupational ... concentration exceeds the inhalation exposure pathway residential direct contact criterion of 6 mg/kg. Ingestion or inhalation ... Exposure to naphthalene can cause more serious effects, including hemolytic anemia. Chronic inhalation exposure resulted in ...
Teague Enterprises provides information, methods and products for inhalation exposure and aerosol technology.. Teague ... turn-key systems for research in cigarette smoke exposures using whole body exposure chambers. ...
For Inhalation After yelling for help, leave the laboratory and get someone to accompany you to fresh air while you wait for ... Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure. Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure. Hydrofluoric acid burns may not be immediately painful or visible; ... For Skin Exposure *After yelling for help, immediately begin washing contaminated area, being careful not to spread exposure to ... For Eye Exposure *After yelling for help, hold eyes open and rinse in eyewash until emergency responders arrive, but for at ...
INHALATION EXPOSURE: *Expect eye and upper respiratory tract irritation.. *Delayed onset of accumulation of fluid in the lungs ... Chronic industrial inhalation exposure to white phosphorus fumes has resulted in various symptoms. Examples include general ... Consultation with an ophthalmologist is required for eye exposure.. *DELAYED EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE: *Stage 2: If the patient/ ... EYE EXPOSURE: *White phosphorus fumes cause severe irritation and the sensation of a foreign body in the eye. This leads to ...
Inhalation. One of the routes of exposure to the substance, emitted from the product to the air, is inhalation. The total air ... Dermal exposure from air. A second route of exposure to the substance from air is the dermal exposure from the air. Weschler ... where Qinh is the inhalation rate (per hour) of the exposed person, fabs,inhal is the fraction of the inhaled amount which is ... Exposure to substances contained in house dust is assumed to arise from the ingestion of dust. The daily intake of a substance ...
Five different exposure pathways exceeded the NSRL under realistic scenarios, including inhalation, dust ingestion, direct ... Thirdhand Exposures to Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines through Inhalation, Dust Ingestion, Dermal Uptake, and Epidermal Chemistry ... Here, we present additional evidence of genotoxicity of NNA, an assessment of TSNA dermal uptake, and predicted exposure risks ...
Poisoning can result from mercury vapor inhalation, mercury ingestion, mercury injection, and absorption of mercury through the ... Inhalation exposure. Acute exposure caused by inhaled elemental mercury can lead to pulmonary symptoms. Initial signs and ... Most organic mercury exposures leave a neurologic sequela. Minimal dermal exposure to dimethylmercury has resulted in ... Outcome in mercury toxicity depends on the form of the mercury compound and the severity of exposure. Mild exposure to ...
However, the data from inhalation exposure to propylene glycol are limited. In some individuals, exposure to propylene glycol ... Relevance of Occupational Exposures and Clinical Case Reports of Pharmaceutical Exposures of PG to Exposures from E-Cigarettes ... dermal exposure to PG and glycerol is more common than exposure via inhalation, as most consumer products containing PG and ... Inhalation Exposure Levels of PG from E-Cigarette Use. Of importance to the question of the potential health effects of PG in ...
RT @UNEP: The consequences of childrens exposure to air pollution - through inhalation, ingestion or in utero - can lead to ... RT @UNEP: The consequences of childrens exposure to air pollution - through inhalation, ingestion or in utero - can lead. ... RT @UNEP: The consequences of childrens exposure to air pollution - through inhalation, ingestion or in utero - can lead ...
Workers - Hazard via inhalation route. Systemic effects. Long term exposure. Hazard assessment conclusion:. DNEL (Derived No ... Long term exposure. Hazard assessment conclusion:. no hazard identified. Acute/short term exposure. Hazard assessment ... Long term exposure. Hazard assessment conclusion:. no hazard identified. Acute/short term exposure. Hazard assessment ... Long term exposure. Hazard assessment conclusion:. no hazard identified. Acute/short term exposure. Hazard assessment ...
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed ... Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed ... Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin ... Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin ...
Formaldehyde poisoning 101: ingestion, exposure, inhalation and hypercapnia. No wonder cancer, autism, and dementia are now ...
Irritant Gas Inhalation Injury - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - ... Acute Exposure Acute exposure to high concentrations of toxic gas over a short time is characteristic of industrial accidents ... Chronic Exposure Low-level continuous or intermittent exposure to irritant gases or chemical vapors may lead to chronic ... Treatment of Acute Exposure to Irritant Gas *. Removal from exposure and 24-hour observation ...
Inhalation Exposure. Administer supplemental oxygen by mask to patients who have respiratory complaints. For serious exposure, ... Routes of Exposure. Inhalation. Arsenic trioxide dust is readily absorbed from the lungs, but inhaled quantities are usually ... Inhalation may present a relevant exposure hazard for other arsenic compounds such as lead arsenate and arsenic sulfide (ATSDR ... Acute Exposure. The toxic effects caused by acute exposure to arsenic are due in large part to its inhibition of pyruvate and ...
EXPOSURE & HEALTH EFFECTS. Routes of exposure The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and ... Effects of short-term exposure The substance is irritating to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Inhalation risk A harmful ... Inhalation. Cough. Nausea. Vomiting. Avoid inhalation of dust and mist. Use local exhaust or breathing protection. Fresh air, ... Effects of long-term or repeated exposure The substance may have effects on the liver and nervous system. This may result in ...
Worker - long-term systemic inhalation DN(M)EL The association between 1,3-butadiene exposure and leukemia has been extensively ... Workers - Hazard via inhalation route. Systemic effects. Long term exposure. Hazard assessment conclusion:. DMEL (Derived ... Assessment factors: As the inhalation DMEL is based on general population life-time exposure no assessment factor is needed. ... Long term exposure. Hazard assessment conclusion:. high hazard (no threshold derived). Acute/short term exposure. Hazard ...
Routes of Exposure. Hazardous materials may enter the body through four different routes of exposure:. *Inhalation ... Chemical Exposure: Exposure. In an emergency, call the Campus Police at x9911 from a building phone, (414) 229-9911 from your ... If exposure occurs, the procedures that should be followed depend on toxicity of the material, dose, and route of exposure. ... Chemical Exposure: Health Effects. When exposed to hazardous material, there may be two kinds of health effects to the body, ...
However, spatial and inter-day variations of commuter exposure concentrations are rarely assessed in India. This study ... Commuting adds a significant proportion to the total PM2.5 and PM1 exposure concentration, especially in urban areas. ... investigates the personal exposure concentration of PM2.5 and P ... Commuter exposure concentrations and inhalation doses in ... Median PM2.5 and PM1 exposure concentration of motorized commuters across all routes and trips ranged from 54 to 202 and 21-153 ...
Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects* * Lung Diseases / blood * Lung Diseases / chemically induced* * Lung Diseases / ... pathways include transient declines in blood oxygenation and/or changes in cardiac rhythm following particulate exposure. In ...
Risk quotients (exposure divided by toxic threshold) at the 50th and 90th percentiles for non-cancer risks were , 1.0 for ... We estimated exposures to LLINs using 17 age groups to incorporate different body weights and sleeping behaviors. ... and oral exposures to the newer LLINs with permethrin, α-cypermethrin, or deltamethrin as the insecticide active ingredient. ... Here, we use a probabilistic risk assessment approach to estimate the risks to Africans from inhalation, dermal, ...
Repeated exposure to toxic vapors, allergenic substances. *Chronic inhalation of irritants (tobacco, dust, asbestos, glass wool ... Chronic laryngitis is usually caused by prolonged exposure to irritating factors. Transformations of the larynx are sometimes ...
Controlled Human Inhalation-Exposure Studies at EPA (2017) Consensus Study Report National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, ... Committee on Assessing Toxicologic Risks to Human Subjects Used in Controlled Exposure Studies of Environmental Pollutants ...
  • Exposing lung epithelia cells to a CeO2 nanoparticle-containing aerosol using this method, intracellular CeO2 concentrations were similar to those found in a recent subacute inhalation study in rats. (nist.gov)
  • Our recent studies revealed a dose-dependent proinflammatory response to copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in rats following short-term inhalation exposure for five consecutive days. (openrepository.com)
  • Here transcriptomics approaches were applied using the same model to assess global gene expression in lung tissues obtained 1 day post-exposure and after a recovery period of 22 days from rats exposed to clean air or 6 hour equivalent doses of 3.3 mg m-3(low dose) and 13.2 mg m-3(high dose). (openrepository.com)
  • In conclusion, we have found that inhalation of CuO NPs in rats causes upregulation of the oncoprotein ECT2 and the chemokine CCL2 and other proinflammatory markers as well as proliferation in bronchoalveolar epithelium after a short-term inhalation exposure. (openrepository.com)
  • The objective of our pilot study was to determine whether ultrafine elemental carbon particles translocate to the liver and other extrapulmonary organs following inhalation as singlet particles by rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion Subchronic inhalation exposure to dichlorvos based organophosphorus insecticide induced ototoxicity in the cochlear function of rats without relevant systemic toxicity . (bvsalud.org)
  • Following a single 1 hr exposure, rats were either anesthetized and intratracheally instilled with Staphylococcus aureus to assess effects on pulmonary clearance, or sacrificed and their lungs lavaged to provide pulmonary macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, there is a 5 -day inhalation preliminary toxicity study with tin monoxide available, which was designed to assess the systemic toxic potential of tin monoxide in a 1 week (6 hours per day, 5 days a week) inhalation study in RccHan™;WIST rats. (europa.eu)
  • To lessen human exposure to fleas, kill fleas first, then rats. (haz-map.com)
  • Following long-term ethanol exposure, rats showed blunted task-related recruitment of vmPFC glycine and serine release, and the loss of an inverse relationship between levels of these neurotransmitters and premature responding normally evident in alcohol-naive subjects. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that increased motor impulsivity is associated with reduced recruitment of glycine and serine neurotransmitters in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) cortex in rats following long-term alcohol exposure. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of traffic-related particulate matter: 4-week exposure of rats to roadside and diesel engine exhaust particles. (openrepository.com)
  • Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay. (openrepository.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of inhalation of insecticide spray on learning and memory in rats. (who.int)
  • Mathew R, Verghese J, Venkataraman BV, Joseph T. Effect of inhalation of insecticide spray on learning and memory in rats. (who.int)
  • 5 ml/animal/5 min) inhalation in rats did not affect the learning process but produced a significant loss of memory (P less than 0.01 less than 0.001) whereas chronic exposure (one exposure per day for three weeks) produced a significant delay in learning (P less than 0.05) and memory (P less than 0.01). (who.int)
  • Morphologic Alteration Of The Olfactory Bulb After Acute Ozone Exposure In Rats', Neuroscience Letters , Vol 274 (1999), p1-4. (harvoa.org)
  • One inhalation study similar to OECD 403 shows DCD to be practical nontoxic in rats when applied at the highest achievable concentration of 259 mg/m3 for 4h. (europa.eu)
  • Air-liquid interface (ALI) systems have been widely used in recent years to investigate the inhalation toxicity of many gaseous compounds, chemicals, and nanomaterials and represent an emerging and promising in vitro method to supplement or ultimately replace in vivo studies. (nist.gov)
  • ISO 10808:2010 specifies requirements for, and gives guidance on, the characterization of airborne nanoparticles in inhalation exposure chambers for the purpose of inhalation toxicity studies in terms of particle mass, size distribution, number concentration and composition. (ansi.org)
  • External gaseous exchange then takes place, using the principle of diffusion: NIH Publication No. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. (actionmortgage.com)
  • Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal Introduction. (actionmortgage.com)
  • The amplitude of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the frequencies of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 kHz was evaluated before and after exposure, as well as systemic toxicity signs, body mass gain and plasma cholinesterase . (bvsalud.org)
  • Inhalation studies assessing the systemic toxicity of zinc bis(2-ethylhexanoate) are not available. (europa.eu)
  • Contaminated soil may also be a source of significant arsenic exposure in children, although it is not likely that children would ingest sufficient arsenic-contaminated soil to cause significant acute toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The long-term DNEL is derived from the repeated oral and repeated inhalation toxicity study. (europa.eu)
  • Acute Tox 4 (H332) based on an inhalation acute toxicity study on stannous oxalate (inhalative LC0 = 0.5 mg/L = 500 mg/m³), OECD TG 436, Dreher 2012). (europa.eu)
  • In the following the repeated dose toxicity study via inhalation according to OECD 412 had been conducted. (europa.eu)
  • The presentation also recommends possible methods for reduction of formalin exposure so that the medical students can enter the dissection hall without any mental tension of toxicity of formalin vapours. (ijmhr.org)
  • sodium sulfate/?magnesium sulfate/potassium chloride increases toxicity of amikacin liposome inhalation by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • The document also provides useful information on appropriate characterization of CNT and CNF, which is required to evaluate and understand the inhalation toxicity of CNT and CNF aerosols. (iso.org)
  • Anthracene is listed as a High Production Volume chemical with a world production of about 20 000 tonnes per year, and it is one of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as priority pollutants on the basis of toxicity and exposure. (who.int)
  • Hazards of Crude Oil Components All of these components are inhalation hazards Some also pose a dermal exposure hazard Exposures may result in either acute or chronic effects Remember the Routes of Entry Inhalation Absorption Ingestion Injection. (actionmortgage.com)
  • One of the routes of exposure to the substance, emitted from the product to the air, is inhalation. (rivm.nl)
  • Benzene causes adverse effects on the haematopoietic system of animals and in humans after repeated dose exposure via oral or inhalation routes. (europa.eu)
  • Because it is a gas the most likely routes of exposure are inhalation and eye exposure. (who.int)
  • 2) What is the intensity, duration, frequency, and timing of exposures from different routes? (epa.gov)
  • 3) What are the most critical media, routes, pathways, and factors contributing to exposures? (epa.gov)
  • Knowledge gaps exist in key areas that are essential for predicting health risks such as routes of exposure, the way nanomaterials are taken up into the body, how nanomaterials are transported once inside the body and the ways in which nanomaterials interact with the body's biological systems. (edu.au)
  • Routes of exposure include ingestion, inhalation, and transdermal absorption. (thefamilythathealstogether.com)
  • can cause toxic effects by all routes of exposure including inhalation, ingestion, and dermal application. (15mlliving.com)
  • Exposure of the general population occurs via multiple routes, for example, cigarette smoke, ingestion of contaminated food and beverages or water, inhalation of polluted air (e.g. by indoor and outdoor biomass burning and industry and traffic emissions), and contact with contaminated soils or consumer products. (who.int)
  • Occupational exposure occurs via the respiratory and dermal routes during its production and use as a (dry) cleaning agent (solvent) and in adhesive production and application, and because it is an impurity of 1-bromopropane, which has been used since the 1990s as a substitute for ozone-depleting and other solvents. (who.int)
  • Transcriptional profiling reveals gene expression changes associated with inflammation and cell proliferation following short-term inhalation exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles. (openrepository.com)
  • Inflammatory response of mice following inhalation exposure to iron and copper nanoparticles. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined pulmonary inflammatory responses of mice following whole-body inhalation exposure to copper and iron nanoparticles in acute and sub-acute studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in consumer products increases the probability of exposure to humans and the environment. (researchgate.net)
  • Evaluation of neurological effects of cerium dioxide nanoparticles doped with different amounts of zirconium following inhalation exposure in mouse models of Alzheimer's and vascular disease. (openrepository.com)
  • Use site-specific data if available, or the default activity pattern data from the EPA's EFH Chapter 16 to help make appropriate determinations on indoor and outdoor activities where exposures could occur and the time spent at different places during the day (e.g., home, work, school). (cdc.gov)
  • Saliva from these animals can be contaminated so heavily with pathogens that a bite might not be required to cause human infection, and exposures can occur through cuts, scratches, or mucous membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • It is unknown whether systemic exposure can occur from eye contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation exposure can occur in many kinds of work, including tunneling, quarrying, mining, construction, roadway repair and demolition, sandblasting or any type of work that breaks up quartz-containing rock. (cdc.gov)
  • Cristobalite exposure can occur in foundry work as a result of heating amorphous silica. (cdc.gov)
  • Injury to the skin may occur following exposure to concentrated gas or from being close to a release of pressurized liquid. (who.int)
  • Most formaldehyde exposures occur by inhalation or by skin or eye contact. (vice.com)
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12512160?tool=bestpractice.com These exposures occur most commonly in the setting of occupational chemical accidents and residential fires. (bmj.com)
  • Sensitivity to light is a reaction from exposure to creosote also chemical burns can occur. (chimney--cleaning.com)
  • Various occupational exposures occur mainly by inhalation and dermal contact during the manufacture of carbon black, creosote or creosote-containing products, carbon anodes for aluminium electrolysis, fire-proof material, coking, tear-off of old coal-tar roofs, asphalt paving, and firefighting. (who.int)
  • In humans, exposure to B. anthracis may occur through skin contact, inhalation of spores or eating contaminated meat. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • In this equation the concentrations C air and C air,p are assumed to be essentially constant over the day of exposure, which is reasonable for SVOCs. (rivm.nl)
  • Acute exposure to high concentrations of toxic gas over a short time is characteristic of industrial accidents resulting from a faulty valve or pump in a gas tank or occurring during gas transport. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Concentrations for sub-acute copper and iron exposures were 3.6 mg m-3. (cdc.gov)
  • Using probabilistic methods, the distributions of benzene concentrations were then combined with distributions of other exposure parameters to estimate eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure concentration distributions and corresponding daily respiratory dose distributions for workers using these solvents in parts washers. (toxstrategies.com)
  • To do this, it combines information on pesticide usage, human activity data (from time/activity diary surveys and videography studies), environmental residues and concentrations, exposure and dose factors using 1-stage or 2-stage Monte Carlo probabilistic sampling methods. (epa.gov)
  • Under the new 2017 standard, ANSI recommends certification-level training for all individuals who have potential for exposure to H2S concentrations above the occupational exposure limit. (ndsafetypro.com)
  • However, after continuous low-level exposure, or with higher concentrations, a person loses his/her ability to smell the gas which means you can NOT rely on your sense of smell to indicate the presence of hydrogen sulfide. (ndsafetypro.com)
  • ATSDR's standard approach for evaluating inhalation exposures is to adjust the air concentration (EPC) by an appropriate EF (rather than calculate an exposure dose) depending on chronic, intermediate, or acute exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The same is true for intermediate and chronic exposure for chloroform and formaldehyde, which have MRLs based on the unadjusted study concentration, so the non-cancer EF should be 1. (cdc.gov)
  • It was during the 1800s that the phrase "mad as a hatter" was coined, owing to the effects of chronic mercury exposure in the hat-making industry, where the metal was used in the manufacturing process. (medscape.com)
  • Perhaps the most significant toxic effect of chronic exposure to inhalants is widespread and long-lasting damage to the brain and other parts of the nervous system. (actionmortgage.com)
  • Symptoms of severe poisoning are vomiting, then coma, and hematuria (Ref. Chronic (long-term) exposure of workers and rodents to naphthalene has been reported to cause cataracts and damage to the retina. (actionmortgage.com)
  • Chronic laryngitis is usually caused by prolonged exposure to irritating factors. (massify.com)
  • Chronic consequences of inhalation injury are common. (bmj.com)
  • Perforomist (formoterol fumarate) Inhalation Solution is a prescription medicine used to treat the symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD ). (rxlist.com)
  • PERFOROMIST (formoterol fumarate) Inhalation Solution is indicated for the long-term, twice daily (morning and evening) administration in the maintenance treatment of bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (rxlist.com)
  • Acetylcholinesterase activity in brain after acute and chronic exposure declined significantly (P less than 0.01) during the learning process but returned to normal after 24 hr. (who.int)
  • It has been postulated that chronic airway symptoms result from persistent late-phase inflammatory responses in situations of perennial allergen exposure. (jci.org)
  • Inhalation is an important pathway for human exposure to contaminants that exist as atmospheric gases or are adsorbed to airborne particles or fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • In particular for powder-bed processes, risks caused by mixed exposures due to released particles and relevant chemical constituents or possible volatile compounds have to be evaluated. (uni-hannover.de)
  • If you must go outside when wildfire smoke is nearby, wearing an N95 respirator (such as 3M's 8110S , 8210, 8210Plus or 8511 respirators), which can help reduce your inhalation of airborne particles. (3m.com)
  • Inhalation of dirt particles from the chimney may cause illnesses such as COPD disease. (chimney--cleaning.com)
  • NTP: Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of naphthalene in B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies). (actionmortgage.com)
  • Dr. Yi is a staff fellow and senior inhalation toxicologist in the Center for Tobacco Products (CTP)/National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) Inhalation Toxicology Core Facility, Division of Biochemical Toxicology. (fda.gov)
  • Dr. Yi's research interests include 1) inhalation toxicology, 2) aerosol generation and characterization, and 3) design, fabrication, setup, validation, and operation of whole-body and nose-only inhalation exposure systems. (fda.gov)
  • Inhalation Toxicology. (fda.gov)
  • Inhalation injury is a spectrum of clinical disease that occurs when the respiratory system is exposed to extreme heat or toxic substances. (bmj.com)
  • In the workup of inhalation injuries caused by toxic smoke, the primary investigation focuses on the pulmonary system. (medscape.com)
  • Teague Enterprises provides information, methods and products for inhalation exposure and aerosol technology. (teague-ent.com)
  • In aerosol exposure, the presentation is that of a rapidly progressive acute lung injury. (medscape.com)
  • Statistical analysis of microbial genomic data within epidemiological cohort studies holds the promise to assess the influence of environmental exposures on both the host and the host-associated microbiome. (biorxiv.org)
  • Respiratory absorption is influenced by the contaminant concentration in the air, breathing rate, and duration of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Dermal exposure to some air contaminants could result in absorption through the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Poisoning can result from mercury vapor inhalation, mercury ingestion, mercury injection, and absorption of mercury through the skin. (medscape.com)
  • in accordance with ECHA Guidance R.8 the absorption rate of the starting route is half that of the end route), the standard respiratory volume in humans/ worker respiratory volume (6.7 m³ (8 h) / 10 m³ (8 h)) and the correction factor between human and experimental exposure conditions of workers (5 working days vs. 7 days continuous exposure) of 1.4. (europa.eu)
  • Systemic poisoning is the result of inhalation of fumes from molten sub-stances containing chlorinated naph-thalenes rather than from contact with cold solids. (actionmortgage.com)
  • Following 3 and 13 weeks exposures to diluted DEE (0.95 mg/m3, 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or clean air (controls) behaviour tests were performed and amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque formation, pulmonary histopathology and systemic inflammation were evaluated. (openrepository.com)
  • To aid research in filling these gaps, an automated system that could carefully deliver and control the COV concentration within an animal inhalation exposure chamber was needed. (cdc.gov)
  • The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) gas concentration was measured inside the exposure chamber with continuous samples by a flame ionizing detector. (cdc.gov)
  • The custom software automatically controlled TVOC gas concentration, chamber pressure, relative humidity and exposure duration during exposure runs. (cdc.gov)
  • Animal exposures lasting 1 day or 16 days were conducted at a target TVOC gas concentration of 300 PPM, with daily exposure runs lasting 6 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this calculation is to adjust the air concentration to account for the duration, frequency, and time of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • If the target population has acute inhalation exposure to ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, chloroform, sulfur dioxide, or formaldehyde, do not adjust the EPC to a continuous 24-hr concentration because the acute inhalation Minimal Risk Level (MRL) for non-cancer effects was derived using the unadjusted study concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • We investigated the influence of five different instrumental and physiological parameters affecting cell viability and exposure parameters of a human lung cell line: exposure duration, relative humidity, temperature, CO2 concentration, and flow rate. (nist.gov)
  • A reference concentration (RfC) for inhalation exposure to naphthalene has not been derived (U.S. EPA, 1991, 1992). (actionmortgage.com)
  • Normalized to exposure concentration, the added 13C per gram of lung on average in the postexposure period was ~9 ng/ g organ/ µg/ m3. (cdc.gov)
  • The estimated LCt50 (the product of concentration 50 times time that is lethal to 50% of the exposed population by inhalation) ranges from 10 mg-min/m 3 for VX to 400 mg-min/m 3 for GA. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory damage is related to the concentration and water solubility of the gas and the duration of exposure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • OSHA PEL (permissible exposure limit) = 10 µg/m 3 as an 8-hour TWA concentration (as As) for inorganic arsenic (OSHA 2006). (cdc.gov)
  • To better assess benzene exposure among these workers, air-to-solvent concentration ratios measured for toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (TEX) were used to predict those for benzene based on a statistical model, conditional on physical-chemical theory supported by new thermodynamic calculations of TEX and benzene activity coefficients in a modeled MSS-type solvent. (toxstrategies.com)
  • The severity of effects depends on the concentration and on the duration of exposure. (who.int)
  • While SHEDS-Pesticides has been coded as a source-to-dose model, the concentration-to-exposure module has been the primary focus of development, and relatively simple modules are currently incorporated for source-to-concentration and exposure-to-dose estimation. (epa.gov)
  • Under this and other tasks, the SHEDS concentration-to-exposure module will be interfaced with more sophisticated source-to-concentration (i.e., fate and transport) models and exposure-to-dose models (e.g. (epa.gov)
  • The consequences of exposure to ozone depend on its concentration and are influenced by genetic and host factors. (harvoa.org)
  • Acute silicosis develops within five years of occupational exposure to high concentration of respirable crystalline silica dust. (unitedmedicationshop.com)
  • This form of silicosis develops after long (usually more than 10 years) occupational exposure to low concentration of crystalline silica dust. (unitedmedicationshop.com)
  • This type of silicosis develops 5-10 years after occupational exposure of high concentration of silica dust. (unitedmedicationshop.com)
  • Although the toolâ s intended use is for large-scale chemical incidents, it may be used for other chemical exposure scenarios (e.g. industrial accidents or smaller scale hazardous materials releases) and even single patient chemical exposures, but the results should be interpreted with caution. (nih.gov)
  • Not recommended for use in any surgical setting or where significant exposure to liquid, bodily, or other hazardous fluids may be expected. (iskovital.com)
  • this product has a low vapor pressure and is not expected to present an inhalation hazard at ambient conditions. (humimic.com)
  • Exposure to substances contained in house dust is assumed to arise from the ingestion of dust. (rivm.nl)
  • In the DustEx model dermal exposure to house dust is assumed to be negligible. (rivm.nl)
  • Five different exposure pathways exceeded the NSRL under realistic scenarios, including inhalation, dust ingestion, direct dermal contact, gas-to-skin deposition, and epidermal nitrosation of nicotine. (lbl.gov)
  • Avoid inhalation of dust and mist. (ilo.org)
  • As already noted, coal mine dust exposure can cause COPD. (cdc.gov)
  • It is caused by inhalation of dust of crystalline silica due to occupational exposure. (unitedmedicationshop.com)
  • The symptoms usually appear decades (20 to 30 years) of first exposure to silica dust. (unitedmedicationshop.com)
  • A second route of exposure to the substance from air is the dermal exposure from the air. (rivm.nl)
  • Outside of usage in e-cigarette liquids, dermal exposure to PG and glycerol is more common than exposure via inhalation, as most consumer products containing PG and glycerol are liquids or creams. (nih.gov)
  • If remediation is not complete, then go to Step 4.B. Acute exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with haemolytic anaemia, liver damage, neurological damage in infants, and death. (actionmortgage.com)
  • It is difficult to assess mice, which cannot repair certain In rodents, multiple studies showed the relevance to humans of rodent types of oxidative DNA damage, but that in utero exposure to arsenic via studies that use multiple agents, one not in Ogg+/+ mic e (IARC, 2012 ). (who.int)
  • Inhalation of ricin typically leads to cough and respiratory distress followed by pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and multi-system organ dysfunction. (cdc.gov)
  • Overview of Environmental Pulmonary Disease Environmental pulmonary diseases result from inhalation of dusts, allergens, chemicals, gases, or environmental pollutants. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The hypothesis of this toxicological study is that woodsmoke exposure compromises pulmonary host resistance to infectious bacteria by altering immune defense mechanisms, particularly at the level of the macrophage. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to causing silicosis, crystalline silica exposure has been associated with pulmonary function impairment and COPD. (cdc.gov)
  • The ALI exposure setup, mirroring the physiological conditions of the deep lung (i.e., alveoli tissue), more closely resembles a subacute in vivo inhalation exposure scenario compared to ubmerged culture exposure. (nist.gov)
  • Results demonstrate that acute inhalation of woodsmoke generated from a model system that produces emissions comparable to those produced in homes using woodburning devices, compromises important immune defense mechanisms of the lung. (cdc.gov)
  • The typical cooking fire produces about 400 cigarettes' worth of smoke an hour, and prolonged exposure is associated with respiratory infections, eye damage, heart and lung disease, and lung cancer. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Two hours after exposure, brain, lung, and diaphragm tissue samples were frozen for assay of cholinesterase activity. (harvoa.org)
  • Expose to a single large dose or repeated small doses of mineral oil by inhalations, aspiration, or ingestion leading to aspiration can lead to lipid pneumonia or lipid granuloma of the lung. (humimic.com)
  • The report details the outcome of a follow-up project of a study initiated by Concawe in 2013, investigating the occupational exposure to emissions from hot Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) (inhalation exposure to aerosols and vapours) during inland barge loading (Concawe rpt. (concawe.eu)
  • This document reviews characterization of CNT and CNF aerosols for inhalation exposure studies. (iso.org)
  • A NOAEL of 9.19 µg/L (9.19 mg/m³) was determined in a repeated dose inhalation study on tin monoxide (OECD 412, GLP). (europa.eu)
  • The primary objective of this research is to produce a documented version of the aggregate SHEDS-Pesticides model for conducting reliable probabilistic population assessments of human exposure and dose to environmental pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for pesticides (SHEDS-Pesticides) supports the efforts of EPA to better understand human exposures and doses to multimedia, multipathway pollutants. (epa.gov)
  • The next generation is intended to characterize aggregate human exposure and dose to a variety of environmental pollutants, including various pesticides, metals, and Persistent Bioaccumulant Toxins (PBTs). (epa.gov)
  • CTEPP, Jacksonville, CHAMACOS) and also against estimates from other aggregate exposure and dose models. (epa.gov)
  • The collection of measurements and model refinement and evaluation will be carried out in an iterative manner: each iteration of SHEDS will use the best available data to identify critical pathways of human exposure and dose and the major uncertainties in those pathways, and the model results will be used to guide future measurement studies. (epa.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic parameters will be derived from calculated actual inhaled dose (dose minus remainder in inhaler after inhalation) and in blood samples drawn pre-dose, at 0.5 and 2 and 3.5 hrs after inhalation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • More water-soluble gases (eg, chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride) dissolve in the upper airway and immediately cause mucous membrane irritation, which may alert people to the need to escape the exposure. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Management of airway burns and inhalation injury. (bmj.com)
  • The effect of inhaling irritant gases depends on the extent and duration of exposure and on the specific agent. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The NOAEL was converted into inhalatory NOAEC for duration of exposure (6h exposure in animal study versus 8h exposure for workers) and for increased respiratory volumes during light activity (6.7 m³ standard respiratory volume for a worker in 8 hours at rest versus 8 m³ standard respiratory volume for a worker at light activity). (europa.eu)
  • To date, CIPP air monitoring studies have been unable to comprehensively characterize occupational exposures because of a narrow focus on VOC vapors and the use of nonspecific detectors. (cdc.gov)
  • He conducts inhalation studies in collaboration with CTP to characterize and quantify the health risk associated with selected chemicals found in tobacco products. (fda.gov)
  • Material inhaled by other passengers was used to quantify passenger exposure-or, viewed alternately, to characterize the efficiency of the aircraft system at protecting passengers from exposure to infectious material. (nature.com)
  • The highest exposure was 0.3% of the nonvolatile mass expelled by the cough, and the median exposure for seats within 3 feet of the cough discharge was 0.1%, which was in line with recent experimental testing. (nature.com)
  • Number of patients that report cough, or any other adverse event after inhalation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Occupational exposure as a painter was considered by previous Working Groups in 1988 and 2007 (IARC, 1989, 2010a). (actionmortgage.com)
  • Benzene inhalation of parts washers: New estimates based on measures of occupational exposure to solvent coaromatics. (toxstrategies.com)
  • Does not contain substances with occupational exposure limits. (chemicalbook.com)
  • levels above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg m-3. (cdc.gov)
  • Use equipment for eye protection tested and approved under appropriate government standards such as NIOSH (US) or EN 166(EU). (chemicalbook.com)
  • There are many current knowledge gaps regarding the health effects from inhalation of complex mixtures found in crude oil vapors. (cdc.gov)
  • 6) What additional human exposure measurements are needed to reduce uncertainty in population estimates? (epa.gov)
  • The outcome of this research will be a modeling tool for assisting risk assessors and risk managers in regulatory decision-making when human exposure estimates are required beyond the screening level. (epa.gov)
  • The most prevalent (two studies) and CD1 mice (IARC, cifically including beryllium and source of human exposure to ar- 2012 ). (who.int)
  • Both 95th percentile eight-hour TWA respiratory exposure estimates for solvent formulations are less than 10% of the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit of 1.0 ppm for benzene. (toxstrategies.com)
  • The permissible exposure limit (PEL) and threshold limit value (TLV) for this product as oil mist is 5 MG/M3. (humimic.com)
  • What inhalation scenarios should I run in PHAST's Exposure Calculator? (cdc.gov)
  • Default assumptions for various inhalation exposure scenarios are included in ATSDR's Inhalation EDG . (cdc.gov)
  • 1) What is the population distribution of exposure for a given cohort for existing scenarios or for proposed exposure reduction scenarios? (epa.gov)
  • The third case study will focus on children's aggregate exposures to pyrethroid pesticides from indoor crack and crevice, lawn, garden, broadcast, fogger, and pet treatments, and will include algorithms for co-occurrence of a single pesticide and multiple application scenarios in space and time. (epa.gov)
  • 1%). Anthrax caused by inhalation is usually fatal, and symptoms usually begin days after exposure. (medscape.com)
  • inhalation of pine sol can cause respiratory symptoms such as irritation of the mucus membranes and aspiration pneumonia. (15mlliving.com)
  • If a number of patients are affected simultaneously, by either ingestion or inhalation, the subsequent cluster of patients presenting with similar symptoms over a brief time may alert an astute clinician to the possibility of an intentional act. (medscape.com)
  • According to current scientific knowledge, a risk of cancer cannot be ruled out in the event of inhalation of these fibrous dusts. (industrialheating.com)
  • Human epidemiological studiesprovide clear and consistent evidence of a causal association between benzene exposure and acute myelogenous (non-lymphocytic) leukemia (or ANLL). (europa.eu)
  • It is a physically-based, probabilistic computer model that predicts, for user-specified cohorts, exposures and doses incurred via eating contaminated foods or drinking water, inhaling contaminated air, touching contaminated surface residues, and ingesting residues from hand- or object-to-mouth activities. (epa.gov)
  • This is the maximum protection for workers in danger of exposure to unknown chemical hazards or levels above the IDLH or greater than the AEGL-2. (cdc.gov)
  • While it is unlikely that data will be available to quantitatively estimate exposures from this pathway, acknowledge this potential exposure pathway for air contaminants that can be readily absorbed through the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • These data, in combination with time-activity profiles of residents, can be used to estimate indoor air exposures to vapor-forming contaminants (discussed below). (cdc.gov)
  • This updated version provides analysis of exposure factors data using the age groups for children recommended in the EPA document entitled, "Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants" (EPA/630/P-03/003F) (Available on line at http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=146583). (ilpi.com)
  • Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation or other engineering controls to keep worker exposure to airborne contaminants below any recommended or statutory limits. (europa.eu)
  • Depending on the route of exposure to B anthracis spores, patients may present with cutaneous, respiratory, or GI complaints. (medscape.com)
  • Ingestion is the main route of exposure to other arsenites and arsenates for the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • Immediately following sub-acute exposure, both iron-and copper-exposed mice showed increased inflammation compared to sentinels. (cdc.gov)
  • Three weeks post-exposure, all inflammatory markers decreased for iron nanoparticle-exposed mice, however, some remained elevated for copper-exposed mice. (cdc.gov)
  • We have investigated whether long-term inhalation exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE), a dominant contributor to particulate air pollution in urban environments, can aggravate Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-like effects in female 5X Familial AD (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type female littermates. (openrepository.com)
  • Selective memory and behavioral alterations after ambient ultrafine particulate matter exposure in aged 3xTgAD Alzheimer's disease mice. (openrepository.com)
  • In addition, in a study of CD1 beryllium compounds, cadmium senic is now drinking-water, where mice with "whole-life" exposure to and cadmium compounds, chromi- it is found primarily as the inorgan- multiple levels of sodium arsenite in um(VI) compounds, and nickel and ic forms of arsenite and arsenate. (who.int)
  • In CD1 mice, in 49 ( IARC, 1990) for chromium and and the methylated arsenic species utero exposure via maternal con- nickel. (who.int)
  • Teague Enterprises designs and manufactures complete, calibrated, turn-key systems for research in cigarette smoke exposures using whole body exposure chambers. (teague-ent.com)
  • Nerve agents are readily absorbed by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. (cdc.gov)
  • This Handbook serves as a resource for exposure assessors for calculating children's exposures. (ilpi.com)
  • The first focused on children's aggregate exposures to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos via indoor crack and crevice, lawn, and garden treatments. (epa.gov)
  • The second focused on children's aggregate exposures to arsenic and chromium from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated playsets and decks, using a scenario-specific version of SHEDS-Pesticides called SHEDS-Wood. (epa.gov)
  • The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. (ilo.org)
  • It now includes over 900 chemicals and also pertains to (but is not limited to) exposure through touch, inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. (jksmfg.com)
  • Reduce smoke inhalation during natural disasters with the help from these tips for indoor and outdoor wildfire smoke safety. (3m.com)
  • Some simple steps can help minimize exposure to smoke for you and your loved ones. (3m.com)
  • If you remain in the area, this is the most important thing you can do to limit yourself and your family from smoke exposure during a wildfire. (3m.com)
  • Avoid activities that will increase smoke inhalation, such as exercising or mowing the lawn. (3m.com)
  • The recent report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the respiratory health effects of passive smoking (1) and the known adverse effects of active smoking emphasize the need to quantify the exposure of the U.S. population to tobacco smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • Measurements of cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) in serum, urine, and saliva have been used effectively to quantify exposure to tobacco smoke (2-10). (cdc.gov)
  • As part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), CDC's National Center for Environmental Health and National Center for Health Statistics is measuring serum levels of cotinine to assess exposure to tobacco smoke by persons in the United States aged greater than or equal to 4 years. (cdc.gov)
  • This report presents preliminary findings on the first 800 persons in this survey of tobacco-smoke exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES III also includes questionnaire data on individual smoking and smokeless tobacco habits, smoking habits of persons in the household, and exposure to tobacco smoke at work. (cdc.gov)
  • This analytic method allows quantitative measurement of both low levels of tobacco-smoke exposure from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and higher levels of exposure from active smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • The new analytic method for measuring serum cotinine and its application in NHANES III affords a rare opportunity to obtain objective estimates of exposure to tobacco smoke in a representative sample of the U.S. population aged greater than or equal to 4 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Comparison of serum cotinine results of the first national sample in NHANES III with the second national sample in NHANES III and subsequent NHANES surveys will help in assessing the effectiveness of public health efforts to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In the developing world, health problems from smoke inhalation are a significant cause of death in both children under five and women. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Smoke inhalation during a fire also can cause carbon monoxide poisoning. (ivaluehealth.net)
  • Aerosolized spores from contaminated hides or wool can cause inhalation anthrax. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we present additional evidence of genotoxicity of NNA, an assessment of TSNA dermal uptake, and predicted exposure risks through different pathways. (lbl.gov)
  • Unexplored pathophysiological pathways include transient declines in blood oxygenation and/or changes in cardiac rhythm following particulate exposure. (nih.gov)
  • After yelling for help, immediately begin washing contaminated area, being careful not to spread exposure to other body parts. (uidaho.edu)
  • The adjustment enables comparisons to duration-related inhalation non-cancer health guidelines and inhalation cancer risks . (cdc.gov)
  • Little is known about CIPP worker exposures and health risks. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of continuous exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (71556) on hepatic morphology and function of various animals species, and to compare these effects with those produced by methylene-chloride (75092). (cdc.gov)
  • The scientific community still does not have a good understanding of all the health effects likely to arise from exposure to different types of engineered nanomaterials. (edu.au)
  • Keeping track of the unconsciously caused complaints, we made a sincere attempt to chalk out the effects of formaldehyde fumes on 100 first MBBS students of Medical College, Raigarh (C.G) as they are virgin in terms of formalin exposure. (ijmhr.org)
  • Cardio-respiratory effects of acute exposure to formaldehyde in gross anatomy laboratory in medical students - A comparative study. (ijmhr.org)
  • amikacin liposome inhalation increases effects of abobotulinumtoxinA by pharmacodynamic synergism. (medscape.com)
  • The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the current follow-up project, the objective was to increase the number of measurements for a better representativeness of the exposure assessment used in the Chemical Safety Assessment in the HFO REACH registration dossier. (concawe.eu)
  • Questions persist regarding assessment of workers' exposures to products containing low levels of benzene, such as mineral spirit solvent (MSS). (toxstrategies.com)
  • Inhalation injury occurs when noxious stimuli such as heat, gases, or particulate matter come into contact with the respiratory system. (bmj.com)
  • Residential fires and workplace accidents are common events that lead to inhalation injury. (bmj.com)
  • Guideline for inhalation injury in burns patients. (bmj.com)
  • Many workers in the upstream oil extraction industry have potential risk of crude oil vapor (COV) inhalation. (cdc.gov)
  • Health assessors can use PHAST (see PHAST text box below) to help evaluate inhalation exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective To evaluate if the exposure to a dichlorvos based organophosphorus insecticide may induce ototoxicity . (bvsalud.org)
  • This work resumes first results concerning the identification of workers' inhalation exposure by means of workplace measurements in the field of additive manufacturing. (uni-hannover.de)
  • or irritant-induced asthma caused by irritant exposures in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Work-exacerbated asthma refers to exacerbation of pre-existing asthma by workplace exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of workplace gas inhalation deaths in the United States. (ndsafetypro.com)
  • Inhalation of RO emissions reduced bacterial killing in vivo and diminished in vitro phagocytosis by macrophages recovered 1 and 2 h post-exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • May cause damage to organs (lungs) through prolonged or repeated exposure (inhalation). (supervalu.ie)
  • The primary method of H2S exposure is through inhalation, where the gas is rapidly absorbed by the lungs. (ndsafetypro.com)
  • the guidelines for decontamination and medical treatment are applicable for exposure to arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds, including arsenic trioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion is the most important route of acute exposure of arsenic trioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Arsenic and arsenic of exposure to arsenic. (who.int)