... (sometimes shortened to "Reb A") is a steviol glycoside that is 200 times sweeter than sugar. The glycoside contains only glucose (to the exclusion of other commonly found monosaccharides) as its monosaccharide moieties. It contains four glucose molecules in total with the central glucose of the triplet connected to the main steviol structure at its hydroxyl group, and the remaining glucose at its carboxyl group forming an ester bond. Rebiana is the trade name for high-purity rebaudioside A. Rebaudioside A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET November 6, 2006 CSPI wants more tests for rebiana Prakash I, Dubois GE, Clos JF, Wilkens KL, Fosdick LE (July 2008). "Development of rebiana, a natural, non-caloric sweetener". Food Chem. Toxicol. 46 Suppl 7: S75-82. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.004. PMID 18554769 ...
... (stylized as SoBE) is an American brand of teas, fruit-juice blends and enhanced water beverages owned by PepsiCo. The name SoBe is an abbreviation of South Beach, named after the upscale area located in Miami Beach, Florida. In the past, the SoBe name has also been licensed for gum and chocolate products. SoBe switched from glass bottles to plastic bottles for all of its beverages in 2010. SoBe began as the South Beach Beverage Company, a drink manufacturer based in Norwalk, Connecticut from 1996-2001. Their first product was SoBe Black Tea 3G which contained ginseng, guarana, and ginkgo. It proved popular and led to the introduction of other flavors. The company was bought by PepsiCo in October 2000.[not in citation given] It was co-founded by John Bello and Tom Schwalm in 1995. SoBe Lifewater / SoBe Water - A vitamin-infused beverage that competes with Vitamin Water. Most of the flavors are non-caloric and use steviol glycosides for natural sweetening. SoBe Elixirs - A line of fully ...
... (stylized as SoBE) is an American brand of teas, fruit-juice blends and enhanced water beverages owned by PepsiCo. The name SoBe is an abbreviation of South Beach, named after the upscale area located in Miami Beach, Florida. In the past, the SoBe name has also been licensed for gum and chocolate products. SoBe switched from glass bottles to plastic bottles for all of its beverages in 2010. SoBe began as the South Beach Beverage Company, a drink manufacturer based in Norwalk, Connecticut from 1996-2001. Their first product was SoBe Black Tea 3G which contained ginseng, guarana, and ginkgo. It proved popular and led to the introduction of other flavors. The company was bought by PepsiCo in October 2000.[not in citation given] It was co-founded by John Bello and Tom Schwalm in 1995. SoBe Lifewater / SoBe Water - A vitamin-infused beverage that competes with Vitamin Water. Most of the flavors are non-caloric and use steviol glycosides for natural sweetening. SoBe Elixirs - A line of fully ...
In enzymology, an ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, and one product, ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. This enzyme participates in gibberellin biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the family of isomerases, specifically the class of intramolecular lyases. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ent-copalyl-diphosphate lyase (decyclizing). Other names in common use include ent-kaurene synthase A, and ent-kaurene synthetase A. ent-Copalyl diphosphate synthases from fungi and mosses also have a distinct ent-kaurene synthase activity associated with the same protein molecule. The reaction catalyzed by ent-kaurene synthase is the next step in the biosynthetic pathway to gibberellins. The two types of enzymic activity are distinct, and site-directed mutagenesis to suppress the ent-kaurene synthase activity of the protein leads to build up of ent-copalyl pyrophosphate. ...
April 16 Johann Sebastian Bach revives the anonymous St Luke Passion BWV 246 (BC D 6a) with an additional chorale by Bach himself at St. Nicholas Church, Leipzig. Thomas Arne enlarges the orchestra at Vauxhall Gardens, taking on John Hebden as principal cellist and bassoonist. Giovanni Battista Pescetti returns to Venice and becomes Second Organist at St Mark's Basilica. After 1745 Bach performs the Passion cantata pastiche Wer ist der, so von Edom kömmt (BC D 10). George Frideric Handel - Hercules (oratorio) Ferdinando Bertoni - La vedova accorta George Frideric Handel - Comus (based on the masque by John Milton) Jean-Philippe Rameau - Platée Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Les Muses galantes Georg Christoph Wagenseil - Ariodante Louis-Antoine Dornel - Le tour du clavier sur tous les tons February - Johann Peter Salomon, violinist, conductor and composer (died 1815) May 7 - Carl Stamitz, composer (died 1801) August 19 - Johann Ignaz Ludwig Fischer, operatic bass (died 1825) December 9 - Maddalena ...
... s are a class of chemical compounds composed of two terpene units with the molecular formula C20H32; they may also be thought of as consisting of four isoprene units. They are biosynthesized by plants, animals and fungi via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate being a primary intermediate. Diterpenes form the basis for biologically important compounds such as retinol, retinal, and phytol. They are known to be antimicrobial and antiinflammatory. As with most terpenes a huge number of potential structures exists, which may be broadly divided according to the number of rings present. Diterpenes are formally defined as being hydrocarbons and thus contain no heteroatoms. Functionalized structures should instead be called diterpenoids[citation needed], although in scientific literature the two terms are often used interchangeably. Although a wide range of terpene structures exist few of them are biologically significant, by contrast diterpenoids possess a rich ...
Studies done with animals have shown that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain. A sweet taste causes insulin to be produced. This will store some of the sugar in the blood in tissues, including fat. With artificial sweeteners, the amount of sugar in the blood does not increase. This means that there will be too little sugar in the blood. This is known as hypoglycemia. On the next meal, more food will be eaten to get the blood sugar level back to normal values. After a while, rats given sweeteners have steadily increased the amount of calories. This increased body weight, and adiposity (fatness). The natural response to eating sugary foods is to eat less at the next meal and to use some of the extra energy to warm the body after the meal. When using artificial sweeteners, this effect is lost gradually.[2] ...
When some strong acid is added to an equilibrium mixture of the weak acid and its conjugate base, the equilibrium is shifted to the left, in accordance with Le Châtelier's principle. Because of this, the hydrogen ion concentration increases by less than the amount expected for the quantity of strong acid added. Similarly, if strong alkali is added to the mixture the hydrogen ion concentration decreases by less than the amount expected for the quantity of alkali added. The effect is illustrated by the simulated titration of a weak acid with pKa = 4.7. The relative concentration of undissociated acid is shown in blue and of its conjugate base in red. The pH changes relatively slowly in the buffer region, pH = pKa ± 1, centered at pH = 4.7 where [HA] = [A−]. The hydrogen ion concentration decreases by less than the amount expected because most of the added hydroxide ion is consumed in the reaction ...
... is an artificial sweetener about 250 times sweeter than sugar, discovered in 1883 by the Polish chemist Józef (Joseph) Berlinerblau (27 August 1859 - 1935).[1][2][3] It was first mass-produced about seven years later. Although it was discovered only five years after saccharin, it never enjoyed the latter compound's market success. Nevertheless, it was an important sweetener of the early 20th century and had an advantage over saccharin in that it did not possess a bitter aftertaste. It is not known to occur as a natural product. Early medical tests marked the substance as safe for human consumption, and it was considered ideal for diabetics. However, an FDA study in 1951[4] raised many questions about its safety resulting in its removal from the market in 1954 after animal testing revealed unspecified carcinogenic properties.[5] In Japan, poisoning accidents by dulcin occurred frequently, and use of dulcin was forbidden in 1969.[6] Dulcin is also known by the names sucrol and valzin.[7] ...
Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes a reaction converting L-phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is the first and committed step in the phenyl propanoid pathway and is therefore involved in the biosynthesis of the polyphenol compounds such as flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, and lignin in plants. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is found widely in plants, as well as some yeast and fungi, with isoenzymes existing within many different species. It has a molecular mass in the range of 270-330 kDa. The activity of PAL is induced dramatically in response to various stimuli such as tissue wounding, pathogenic attack, light, low temperatures, and hormones. PAL has recently been studied for possible therapeutic benefits in humans afflicted with phenylketonuria. It has also been used in the generation of L-phenylalanine as precursor of the sweetener aspartame. The enzyme is a member of the ammonia lyase family, which cleaves ...
Studies done with animals have shown that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain. A sweet taste causes insulin to be produced. This will store some of the sugar in the blood in tissues, including fat. With artificial sweeteners, the amount of sugar in the blood does not increase. This means that there will be too little sugar in the blood. This is known as hypoglycemia. On the next meal, more food will be eaten to get the blood sugar level back to normal values. After a while, rats given sweeteners have steadily increased the amount of calories. This increased body weight, and adiposity (fatness). The natural response to eating sugary foods is to eat less at the next meal and to use some of the extra energy to warm the body after the meal. When using artificial sweeteners, this effect is lost gradually.[2] ...
... , formerly manufactured by Kraft, is a lightly flavored, non-carbonated water beverage introduced in 1999. Fruit2o was introduced to compete not only with the bottled water market but also with the soft drink market. Sunny Delight Beverages purchased the Veryfine Products line from Kraft in 2007. Fruit2O was originally made by Veryfine Products of Littleton, Massachusetts, which used spring water, citric acid, natural flavors, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate (to preserve freshness) and Splenda (sucralose) as its only sweetener. When Kraft purchased the company, it discontinued making the beverage with spring water, and added the artificial sweetener Ace-K (acesulfame potassium). Recently, Veryfine Products (Late 2008?) was spun off Kraft and Fruit2O returned to only using Sucralose for a sweetener. Acesulfame K is 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), as sweet as aspartame, about half as sweet as saccharin, and one-quarter the sweetness of sucralose. Like saccharin, it ...
... is an organic compound used in the synthesis of fragrances and polymers. Phenylacetaldehyde occurs extensively in nature because it can be biosynthetically derived from the amino acid phenylalanine. Natural sources of the compound include chocolate, buckwheat, flowers, and communication pheromones from various insect orders. It is notable for being a floral attractant for numerous species of Lepidoptera; for example, it is the strongest floral attractor for the cabbage looper moth. The aroma of pure substance can be described as honey-like, sweet, rose, green, grassy and is added to fragrances to impart hyacinth, narcissi, or rose nuances. For similar reasons the compound can sometimes be found in flavored cigarettes and beverages. Historically, before biotechnology approaches were developed, phenylacetaldehyde was also used to produce phenylalanine via the Strecker reaction as a step in the production of aspartame sweetener. Phenylacetaldehyde is used in the synthesis of ...

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