Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
Keeping food for later consumption.
Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A group of enzymatic disorders affecting the nervous system and to a variable degree the skeletal system, lymphoreticular system, and other organs. The conditions are marked by an abnormal accumulation of catabolic material within lysosomes.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Globulins are a group of simple proteins, found in blood plasma and other bodily fluids, which are insoluble in water but soluble in saline solutions and are involved in various biological functions such as immune response, transport, and enzyme regulation.
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene for acid lipase (STEROL ESTERASE). It is characterized by the accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly CHOLESTEROL ESTERS in leukocytes, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.
A computer disk read by a laser beam, containing data prerecorded by a vendor. The buyer cannot enter or modify data in any way but the advantages lie in the speed of accessibility, relative immunity to damage, and relatively low cost of purchase.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of glycogen branching enzyme 1 (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal GLYCOGEN with long outer branches. Clinical features are MUSCLE HYPOTONIA and CIRRHOSIS. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.
(Note: I believe there might be some confusion with the term 'Punched-Card Systems' as it is not typically used in a medical context, but rather in the field of computing and data processing.)
A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
'Reading' in a medical context often refers to the act or process of a person interpreting and comprehending written or printed symbols, such as letters or words, for the purpose of deriving information or meaning from them.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by lysosomal membrane transport defects that result in accumulation of free sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) within the lysosomes. The two main clinical phenotypes, which are allelic variants of the SLC17A5 gene, are ISSD, a severe infantile form, or Salla disease, a slowly progressive adult form, named for the geographic area in Finland where the kindred first studied resided.

Imagene: an integrated computer environment for sequence annotation and analysis. (1/4985)

MOTIVATION: To be fully and efficiently exploited, data coming from sequencing projects together with specific sequence analysis tools need to be integrated within reliable data management systems. Systems designed to manage genome data and analysis tend to give a greater importance either to the data storage or to the methodological aspect, but lack a complete integration of both components. RESULTS: This paper presents a co-operative computer environment (called Imagenetrade mark) dedicated to genomic sequence analysis and annotation. Imagene has been developed by using an object-based model. Thanks to this representation, the user can directly manipulate familiar data objects through icons or lists. Imagene also incorporates a solving engine in order to manage analysis tasks. A global task is solved by successive divisions into smaller sub-tasks. During program execution, these sub-tasks are graphically displayed to the user and may be further re-started at any point after task completion. In this sense, Imagene is more transparent to the user than a traditional menu-driven package. Imagene also provides a user interface to display, on the same screen, the results produced by several tasks, together with the capability to annotate these results easily. In its current form, Imagene has been designed particularly for use in microbial sequencing projects. AVAILABILITY: Imagene best runs on SGI (Irix 6.3 or higher) workstations. It is distributed free of charge on a CD-ROM, but requires some Ilog licensed software to run. Some modules also require separate license agreements. Please contact the authors for specific academic conditions and other Unix platforms. CONTACT: imagene home page: http://wwwabi.snv.jussieu.fr/imagene  (+info)

A model for enhancing Internet medical document retrieval with "medical core metadata". (2/4985)

OBJECTIVE: Finding documents on the World Wide Web relevant to a specific medical information need can be difficult. The goal of this work is to define a set of document content description tags, or metadata encodings, that can be used to promote disciplined search access to Internet medical documents. DESIGN: The authors based their approach on a proposed metadata standard, the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, which has recently been submitted to the Internet Engineering Task Force. Their model also incorporates the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary and MEDLINE-type content descriptions. RESULTS: The model defines a medical core metadata set that can be used to describe the metadata for a wide variety of Internet documents. CONCLUSIONS: The authors propose that their medical core metadata set be used to assign metadata to medical documents to facilitate document retrieval by Internet search engines.  (+info)

Incompleteness and retrieval of case notes in a case note audit of colorectal cancer. (3/4985)

Hospital case notes are a crucial source of data but are subject to two major biases: incompleteness of data and non-retrieval. To assess these biases in relation to colorectal cancer a study was performed of all cases of colorectal cancer listed in the Thames cancer registry in patients resident in one of four districts in South Thames regions with a diagnosis in 1988. Five medical record sites were involved. Retrieval rate for all case notes for districts combined was 80%. In two districts the rates were too high for further investigation; in the other two respectively patient survival and whether treatment was given were positively associated with retrieval. Among the four districts incompleteness of notes ranged from 38% to 62% for staging, 8% to 40% for treatment, and 70% to 25% for diagnostic tests. Information about treatment was missing in 3% to 20%; survival data were omitted in less than 5%. In all districts completeness of case notes was inadequate and in some non-retrieval compounded the problem. Missing data reduce the quality of cancer registry data and potentially undermine interpretation of epidemiological studies and evaluation of care. Further research is warranted into the standards and resourcing of medical records departments and their effects on retrieval and data quality. Structured proformas could be applied across specialties to identify missing items in case notes, to identify areas where standards are required, or to audit notes where standards have already been agreed. A staging protocol to set standards for colorectal cancer has been adopted in one district, and a prospective audit is being established.  (+info)

Comparative hospital databases: value for management and quality. (4/4985)

OBJECTIVES: To establish an accurate and reliable comparative database of discharge abstracts and to appraise its value for assessments of quality of care. DESIGN: Retrospective review of case notes by trained research abstractors and comparison with matched information as routinely collected by the hospitals' own information systems. SETTING: Three district general hospitals and two major London teaching hospitals. PATIENTS: The database included 3905 medical and surgical cases and 2082 obstetric cases from 1990 and 1991. MAIN MEASURES: Accessibility of case notes; measures of reliability between reviewers and of validity of case note content; application of high level quality indicators. RESULTS: The existing hospital systems extracted insufficient detail from case notes to conduct clinical comparative analyses for medical and surgical cases. The research abstractors at least doubled the diagnostic codes extracted. Interabstractor agreement of about 70% was obtained for primary diagnosis and assignment to diagnosis related group. These data were sufficient to create a comparative database and apply high level quality indicators designed to flag topics for further study. For obstetric-specific indicators the rates were comparable for abstractors and the hospital information systems, which in each case was a departmentally based system (SMMIS) producing more detailed and accessible data. CONCLUSIONS: Current methods of extracting and coding diagnostic and procedural data from case notes in this sample of hospitals is unsatisfactory: notes were difficult to access and recording is unacceptably incomplete. IMPLICATIONS: Improvements as piloted in this project, are readily available should the NHS, hospital managers, and clinicians see the value of these data in their clinical and managerial activities.  (+info)

Conducting a literature review on the effectiveness of health care interventions. (5/4985)

The dramatic increase in the volume of research based information means that effective policy makers must be able to conduct and interpret literature reviews. This article sets out the steps that should be followed in doing so. They are: explicitly defining the question; locating relevant literature; assessing the quality of studies and deciding whether they should be included; synthesizing and re-analyzing the results; and presenting them in a clear and concise manner. The article identifies the leading sources of information, including electronic databases and useful Internet addresses and describes briefly how each stage should be conducted, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches and the ways in which bias may be introduced.  (+info)

Searching for information on outcomes: do you need to be comprehensive? (6/4985)

The concepts of evidence-based practice and clinical effectiveness are reliant on up to date, accurate, high quality, and relevant information. Although this information can be obtained from a range of sources, computerised databases such as MEDLINE offer a fast, effective means of bringing up to date information to clinicians, as well as health service and information professionals. Common problems when searching for information from databases include missing important relevant papers or retrieving too much information. Effective search strategies are therefore necessary to retrieve a manageable amount of relevant information. This paper presents a range of strategies which can be used to locate information on MEDLINE efficiently and effectively.  (+info)

Searching bibliographic databases effectively. (7/4985)

The ability to search bibliographic databases effectively is now an essential skill for anyone undertaking research in health. This article discusses the way in which databases are constructed and some of the important steps in planning and carrying out a search. Consideration is given to some of the advantages and limitations of searching using both thesaurus and natural language (textword) terms. A selected list of databases in health and medicine is included.  (+info)

Tracing the evolution of critical evaluation skills in students' use of the Internet. (8/4985)

This paper documents the evolving uses of the Internet made by public health graduate students and traces the development of their search methods and critical evaluative criteria. Early in the first semester and again six months later, twenty-four graduate students in a problem-based learning curriculum, which emphasizes evidence-based critical thinking skills, were required to describe their most helpful resources and to evaluate these resources critically. The answers were coded for the types of resources the students used, how frequently they were used, and why they were used. Student perception of the usefulness of resources, especially the Internet, and ability to evaluate these resources critically changed greatly. Initially, 96% of the students stated that the Internet was their most helpful resource. Six months later, these students continued to use the Internet; however, it was not their most useful source. At the later point, students had very specific uses for the Internet. Their most frequently used evaluation criterion was the reliability and objectivity of the source of the information. By the end of the first year of study, the majority of the students demonstrated an understanding of the principles of evidence-based practice and applied them to their research and analysis of information resources.  (+info)

Computer storage devices are hardware components or digital media that store, retain, and retrieve digital data or information. These devices can be classified into two main categories: volatile and non-volatile. Volatile storage devices require power to maintain the stored information and lose the data once power is removed, while non-volatile storage devices can retain data even when not powered.

Some common examples of computer storage devices include:

1. Random Access Memory (RAM): A volatile memory type used as a temporary workspace for a computer to process data. It is faster than other storage devices but loses its content when the system power is turned off.
2. Read-Only Memory (ROM): A non-volatile memory type that stores firmware or low-level software, such as BIOS, which is not intended to be modified or written to by users.
3. Hard Disk Drive (HDD): A non-volatile storage device that uses magnetic recording to store and retrieve digital information on one or more rotating platters. HDDs are relatively inexpensive but have moving parts, making them less durable than solid-state drives.
4. Solid-State Drive (SSD): A non-volatile storage device that uses flash memory to store data electronically without any mechanical components. SSDs offer faster access times and higher reliability than HDDs but are more expensive per gigabyte of storage capacity.
5. Optical Disks: These include CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray disks, which use laser technology to read or write data on a reflective surface. They have lower storage capacities compared to other modern storage devices but offer a cost-effective solution for long-term archival purposes.
6. External Storage Devices: These are portable or stationary storage solutions that can be connected to a computer via various interfaces, such as USB, FireWire, or Thunderbolt. Examples include external hard drives, solid-state drives, and flash drives.
7. Cloud Storage: A remote network of servers hosted by a third-party service provider that stores data online, allowing users to access their files from any device with an internet connection. This storage solution offers scalability, redundancy, and offsite backup capabilities.

'Information Storage and Retrieval' in the context of medical informatics refers to the processes and systems used for the recording, storing, organizing, protecting, and retrieving electronic health information (e.g., patient records, clinical data, medical images) for various purposes such as diagnosis, treatment planning, research, and education. This may involve the use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, databases, data warehouses, and other digital technologies that enable healthcare providers to access and share accurate, up-to-date, and relevant information about a patient's health status, medical history, and care plan. The goal is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and coordination of healthcare delivery by providing timely and evidence-based information to support clinical decision-making and patient engagement.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent strengthening of synapses following high-frequency stimulation of their afferents. It is a cellular mechanism for learning and memory, where the efficacy of neurotransmission is increased at synapses in the hippocampus and other regions of the brain. LTP can last from hours to days or even weeks, depending on the type and strength of stimulation. It involves complex biochemical processes, including changes in the number and sensitivity of receptors for neurotransmitters, as well as alterations in the structure and function of synaptic connections between neurons. LTP is widely studied as a model for understanding the molecular basis of learning and memory.

Neuronal plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity or neural plasticity, refers to the ability of the brain and nervous system to change and adapt as a result of experience, learning, injury, or disease. This can involve changes in the structure, organization, and function of neurons (nerve cells) and their connections (synapses) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Neuronal plasticity can take many forms, including:

* Synaptic plasticity: Changes in the strength or efficiency of synaptic connections between neurons. This can involve the formation, elimination, or modification of synapses.
* Neural circuit plasticity: Changes in the organization and connectivity of neural circuits, which are networks of interconnected neurons that process information.
* Structural plasticity: Changes in the physical structure of neurons, such as the growth or retraction of dendrites (branches that receive input from other neurons) or axons (projections that transmit signals to other neurons).
* Functional plasticity: Changes in the physiological properties of neurons, such as their excitability, responsiveness, or sensitivity to stimuli.

Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory, perception, and cognition. It also contributes to the brain's ability to recover from injury or disease, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.

A synapse is a structure in the nervous system that allows for the transmission of signals from one neuron (nerve cell) to another. It is the point where the axon terminal of one neuron meets the dendrite or cell body of another, and it is here that neurotransmitters are released and received. The synapse includes both the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, as well as the cleft between them.

At the presynaptic side, an action potential travels down the axon and triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft through exocytosis. These neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic side, which can either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron. The strength of the signal between two neurons is determined by the number and efficiency of these synapses.

Synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, allowing for the integration and processing of information from various sources. They are also dynamic structures that can undergo changes in response to experience or injury, which has important implications for learning, memory, and recovery from neurological disorders.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) are electrical signals that occur in the dendrites and cell body of a neuron, or nerve cell. They are caused by the activation of excitatory synapses, which are connections between neurons that allow for the transmission of information.

When an action potential, or electrical impulse, reaches the end of an axon, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. The excitatory neurotransmitters then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, causing a local depolarization of the membrane potential. This depolarization is known as an EPSP.

EPSPs are responsible for increasing the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron. When multiple EPSPs occur simultaneously or in close succession, they can summate and cause a large enough depolarization to trigger an action potential. This allows for the transmission of information from one neuron to another.

It's important to note that there are also inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) which decrease the likelihood that an action potential will be generated in the postsynaptic neuron, by causing a local hyperpolarization of the membrane potential.

Neurological models are simplified representations or simulations of various aspects of the nervous system, including its structure, function, and processes. These models can be theoretical, computational, or physical and are used to understand, explain, and predict neurological phenomena. They may focus on specific neurological diseases, disorders, or functions, such as memory, learning, or movement. The goal of these models is to provide insights into the complex workings of the nervous system that cannot be easily observed or understood through direct examination alone.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Synaptic transmission is the process by which a neuron communicates with another cell, such as another neuron or a muscle cell, across a junction called a synapse. It involves the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic terminal of the neuron, which then cross the synaptic cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, leading to changes in the electrical or chemical properties of the target cell. This process is critical for the transmission of signals within the nervous system and for controlling various physiological functions in the body.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

"Mental recall," also known as "memory recall," refers to the ability to retrieve or bring information from your memory storage into your conscious mind, so you can think about, use, or apply it. This process involves accessing and retrieving stored memories in response to certain cues or prompts. It is a fundamental cognitive function that allows individuals to remember and recognize people, places, events, facts, and experiences.

In the context of medical terminology, mental recall may be used to assess an individual's cognitive abilities, particularly in relation to memory function. Impairments in memory recall can be indicative of various neurological or psychological conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or amnesia.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

"Drug storage" refers to the proper handling, maintenance, and preservation of medications in a safe and suitable environment to ensure their effectiveness and safety until they are used. Proper drug storage includes:

1. Protecting drugs from light, heat, and moisture: Exposure to these elements can degrade the quality and potency of medications. Therefore, it is recommended to store most drugs in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight.

2. Keeping drugs out of reach of children and pets: Medications should be stored in a secure location, such as a locked cabinet or medicine chest, to prevent accidental ingestion or harm to young children and animals.

3. Following storage instructions on drug labels and packaging: Some medications require specific storage conditions, such as refrigeration or protection from freezing. Always follow the storage instructions provided by the manufacturer or pharmacist.

4. Regularly inspecting drugs for signs of degradation or expiration: Check medications for changes in color, consistency, or odor, and discard any that have expired or show signs of spoilage.

5. Storing drugs separately from one another: Keep different medications separate to prevent cross-contamination, incorrect dosing, or accidental mixing of incompatible substances.

6. Avoiding storage in areas with high humidity or temperature fluctuations: Bathrooms, kitchens, and garages are generally not ideal for storing medications due to their exposure to moisture, heat, and temperature changes.

Proper drug storage is crucial for maintaining the safety, efficacy, and stability of medications. Improper storage can lead to reduced potency, increased risk of adverse effects, or even life-threatening situations. Always consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for specific storage instructions and recommendations.

Oocyte retrieval is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain mature eggs (oocytes) from the ovaries of a female patient, typically for the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

During the procedure, which is usually done under sedation or anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the vaginal wall and guided into the ovarian follicles using ultrasound imaging. The mature eggs are then gently aspirated from the follicles and collected in a test tube.

Oocyte retrieval is typically performed after several days of hormonal stimulation, which helps to promote the development and maturation of multiple eggs within the ovaries. After the procedure, the eggs are examined for maturity and quality before being fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus or frozen for future use.

It's important to note that oocyte retrieval carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. However, these complications are generally rare and can be minimized with careful monitoring and skilled medical care.

Sperm retrieval is a medical procedure that involves obtaining sperm from a male patient, usually for the purpose of assisted reproduction. This can be indicated in cases where the man has obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia (absence of sperm in the semen), ejaculatory dysfunction, or other conditions that prevent the successful collection of sperm through conventional means, such as masturbation.

There are several methods for sperm retrieval, including:

1. Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): A procedure where a fine needle is inserted into the testicle to aspirate (or draw out) sperm.
2. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA): Similar to TESA, but the needle is inserted into the epididymis, a small structure that stores and transports sperm from the testicle.
3. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA): A more invasive procedure where an incision is made in the scrotum to directly visualize the epididymis with a surgical microscope, allowing for the careful removal of sperm.
4. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): Involves making a small incision in the testicle and removing a piece of tissue containing sperm-producing tubules. The tissue is then processed to extract viable sperm.
5. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE): A refined version of TESE, where a surgical microscope is used to identify and isolate individual seminiferous tubules containing sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

The retrieved sperm can then be used for various assisted reproductive techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Storage" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the practice of storing food supplies, often in large quantities and for extended periods of time. While it may have relevance to nutrition and food safety, it's not a term used within medical terminology. If you have any questions related to nutrition, food safety, or any other medical topic, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders caused by defects in lysosomal function. Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles within cells that contain enzymes responsible for breaking down and recycling various biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In LSDs, the absence or deficiency of specific lysosomal enzymes leads to the accumulation of undigested substrates within the lysosomes, resulting in cellular dysfunction and organ damage.

These disorders can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the brain, nervous system, bones, skin, and visceral organs. Symptoms may include developmental delays, neurological impairment, motor dysfunction, bone abnormalities, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen), and recurrent infections.

Examples of LSDs include Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Niemann-Pick disease, Fabry disease, Pompe disease, and mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS). Treatment options for LSDs may include enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, or bone marrow transplantation. Early diagnosis and intervention can help improve the prognosis and quality of life for affected individuals.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

Episodic memory is a type of declarative (explicit) memory that involves the ability to recall and mentally reexperience specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts. It is the memory for particular events or episodes that are embedded in a personal autobiographical timeline, along with the details of what happened, where it happened, who was involved, and when it happened. Episodic memories are often formed through conscious effort and can be voluntarily retrieved. They are susceptible to interference and decay over time, making them less reliable than other types of memory.

Seed storage proteins are a group of proteins that accumulate in the seeds of plants during their development and serve as a source of nitrogen, sulfur, and energy for the germinating embryo. They are typically rich in certain amino acids, such as proline, glutamine, and arginine, and are classified into several types based on their solubility properties.

The main types of seed storage proteins include:

1. Albumins: These are water-soluble proteins that are present in the embryo of the seed.
2. Globulins: These are salt-soluble proteins that are found in protein bodies within the seed's endosperm. They are further classified into two types, 11S and 7S globulins, based on their sedimentation coefficients.
3. Prolamins: These are alcohol-soluble proteins that are also found in the endosperm of seeds. They are rich in proline and glutamine and are often referred to as "storage proteins" because they constitute a significant portion of the seed's protein content. Examples include zein in corn, gliadin in wheat, and hordein in barley.
4. Glutelins: These are acid- or alkali-soluble proteins that are also found in the endosperm of seeds. They are typically insoluble in water, salt, and alcohol.

Seed storage proteins have important nutritional and agricultural significance. For example, they are a major source of protein for human consumption and animal feed, and their composition can affect the nutritional quality and processing properties of cereal grains and legumes. Additionally, seed storage proteins have been studied as potential allergens and as targets for genetic modification in crop plants to improve their nutritional value and yield.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

Blood preservation refers to the process of keeping blood viable and functional outside of the body for transfusion purposes. This is typically achieved through the addition of various chemical additives, such as anticoagulants and nutrients, to a storage solution in which the blood is contained. The preserved blood is then refrigerated or frozen until it is needed for transfusion.

The goal of blood preservation is to maintain the structural integrity and functional capacity of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets, as well as the coagulation factors, in order to ensure that the transfused blood is safe and effective. Different storage conditions and additives are used for the preservation of different components of blood, depending on their specific requirements.

It's important to note that while blood preservation extends the shelf life of donated blood, it does not last indefinitely. The length of time that blood can be stored depends on several factors, including the type of blood component and the storage conditions. Regular testing is performed to ensure that the preserved blood remains safe and effective for transfusion.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

"Subject Headings" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the field of library science and information management. Subject headings are standardized terms or phrases used to describe the subject or content of a document, such as a book, article, or research paper, in a consistent and controlled way. They help organize and retrieve information by providing a uniform vocabulary for indexing and searching.

In the medical field, subject headings may be used in databases like PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL to categorize and search for medical literature. For example, the National Library of Medicine's MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is a controlled vocabulary used for indexing and searching biomedical literature. It includes headings for various medical concepts, such as diseases, treatments, anatomical structures, and procedures, which can be used to search for relevant articles in PubMed and other databases.

Biological preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or decay of biological materials, such as tissues, cells, organs, or organisms, in order to maintain their structural and functional integrity for further studies, research, education, or conservation purposes. This can be achieved through various methods, including fixation, freezing, drying, or the use of chemical preservatives. The goal is to maintain the samples in a stable state so that they can be examined, analyzed, or used in experiments at a later time.

Medline is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical bibliographic database, which is a component of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM)'s PubMed system. It contains citations and abstracts from scientific literature in the fields of life sciences, biomedicine, and clinical medicine, with a focus on articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Medline covers a wide range of topics, including research articles, reviews, clinical trials, and case reports. The database is updated daily and provides access to over 26 million references from the years 1946 to the present. It's an essential resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and students in the biomedical field.

Association learning, also known as associative learning, is a type of learning in which an individual learns to associate two stimuli or a response with a particular outcome. This can occur through classical conditioning or operant conditioning.

In classical conditioning, first described by Ivan Pavlov, an initially neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly paired with a biologically significant stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus), until the conditioned stimulus elicits a response (the conditioned response) similar to that of the unconditioned stimulus. For example, a dog may learn to salivate at the sound of a bell if the bell is repeatedly rung just before it is fed.

In operant conditioning, described by B.F. Skinner, behavior is modified by its consequences, with desired behaviors being reinforced and undesired behaviors being punished. For example, a child may learn to put their toys away if they are given a reward for doing so.

Association learning is an important mechanism in the acquisition of many types of knowledge and skills, and it plays a key role in the development and modification of behavior.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It is used to index, catalog, and search for biomedical and health-related information and documents, such as journal articles and books. MeSH terms represent a consistent and standardized way to describe and categorize biomedical concepts, allowing for more precise and effective searching and retrieval of relevant information. The MeSH hierarchy includes descriptors for various categories including diseases, chemicals, drugs, anatomical parts, physiological functions, and procedures, among others.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

In the context of healthcare, an Information System (IS) is a set of components that work together to collect, process, store, and distribute health information. This can include hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are used to create, process, and communicate information.

Healthcare IS support various functions within a healthcare organization, such as:

1. Clinical information systems: These systems support clinical workflows and decision-making by providing access to patient records, order entry, results reporting, and medication administration records.
2. Financial information systems: These systems manage financial transactions, including billing, claims processing, and revenue cycle management.
3. Administrative information systems: These systems support administrative functions, such as scheduling appointments, managing patient registration, and tracking patient flow.
4. Public health information systems: These systems collect, analyze, and disseminate public health data to support disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and population health management.

Healthcare IS must comply with various regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which governs the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI). Effective implementation and use of healthcare IS can improve patient care, reduce errors, and increase efficiency within healthcare organizations.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides a structured way to organize, store, retrieve, and manage data in a digital format. The DBMS serves as an interface between the database and the applications or users that access it, allowing for standardized interactions and data access methods. Common functions of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data security, data recovery, and concurrent data access control. Examples of DBMS include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB.

A Radiology Information System (RIS) is a type of healthcare software specifically designed to manage medical imaging data and related patient information. It serves as a centralized database and communication platform for radiology departments, allowing the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of patient records, orders, reports, images, and other relevant documents.

The primary functions of a RIS typically include:

1. Scheduling and tracking: Managing appointments, scheduling resources, and monitoring workflow within the radiology department.
2. Order management: Tracking and processing requests for imaging exams from referring physicians or other healthcare providers.
3. Image tracking: Monitoring the movement of images throughout the entire imaging process, from acquisition to reporting and storage.
4. Report generation: Assisting radiologists in creating structured, standardized reports based on the interpreted imaging studies.
5. Results communication: Sending finalized reports back to the referring physicians or other healthcare providers, often through integration with electronic health records (EHRs) or hospital information systems (HIS).
6. Data analytics: Providing tools for analyzing and reporting departmental performance metrics, such as turnaround times, equipment utilization, and patient satisfaction.
7. Compliance and security: Ensuring adherence to regulatory requirements related to data privacy, protection, and storage, while maintaining secure access controls for authorized users.

By streamlining these processes, a RIS helps improve efficiency, reduce errors, enhance communication, and support better patient care within radiology departments.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

Verbal learning is a type of learning that involves the acquisition, processing, and retrieval of information presented in a verbal or written form. It is often assessed through tasks such as list learning, where an individual is asked to remember a list of words or sentences after a single presentation or multiple repetitions. Verbal learning is an important aspect of cognitive functioning and is commonly evaluated in neuropsychological assessments to help identify any memory or learning impairments.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Long-term memory is the cognitive system that stores information for extended periods of time, ranging from hours to a lifetime. It is responsible for the retention and retrieval of factual knowledge (semantic memory), personal experiences (episodic memory), skills (procedural memory), and other types of information. Long-term memory has a larger capacity compared to short-term or working memory, and its contents are more resistant to interference and forgetting. The formation and consolidation of long-term memories often involve the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures, as well as widespread cortical networks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory, is the system responsible for holding and processing limited amounts of information for brief periods of time, typically on the order of seconds to minutes. It has a capacity of around 7±2 items, as suggested by George Miller's "magic number" theory. Short-term memory allows us to retain and manipulate information temporarily while we are using it, such as remembering a phone number while dialing or following a set of instructions. Information in short-term memory can be maintained through rehearsal, which is the conscious repetition of the information. Over time, if the information is not transferred to long-term memory through consolidation processes, it will be forgotten.

A controlled vocabulary in a medical context refers to a specific set of standardized terms and phrases that are used in clinical documentation and communication. These vocabularies are often created and maintained by professional organizations or governmental bodies to ensure consistency, accuracy, and interoperability in the sharing and retrieval of health information.

Controlled vocabularies can include terminologies such as Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), and RxNorm, among others. By using a controlled vocabulary, healthcare providers can more easily share and analyze health data, support clinical decision-making, and facilitate accurate coding and billing.

Tissue preservation is the process of preventing decomposition or autolysis (self-digestion) of tissues after they have been removed from a living organism. This is typically achieved through the use of fixatives, such as formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, which stabilize proteins and other cellular structures by creating cross-links between them. Other methods of tissue preservation include freezing, dehydration, and embedding in paraffin or plastic resins. Properly preserved tissues can be stored for long periods of time and used for various research and diagnostic purposes, such as histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology studies.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) is a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down and store glycogen, a complex carbohydrate that serves as the primary form of energy storage in the body. These diseases are caused by deficiencies or dysfunction in enzymes involved in the synthesis, degradation, or transport of glycogen within cells.

There are several types of GSDs, each with distinct clinical presentations and affected organs. The most common type is von Gierke disease (GSD I), which primarily affects the liver and kidneys. Other types include Pompe disease (GSD II), McArdle disease (GSD V), Cori disease (GSD III), Andersen disease (GSD IV), and others.

Symptoms of GSDs can vary widely depending on the specific type, but may include:

* Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
* Growth retardation
* Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
* Muscle weakness and cramping
* Cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease)
* Respiratory distress
* Developmental delays

Treatment for GSDs typically involves dietary management, such as frequent feedings or a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy may be used to manage symptoms. The prognosis for individuals with GSDs depends on the specific type and severity of the disorder.

PubMed is not a medical condition or term, but rather a biomedical literature search engine and database maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a division of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It provides access to life sciences literature, including journal articles in medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, and preclinical sciences.

PubMed contains more than 30 million citations and abstracts from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Many of the citations include links to full-text articles on publishers' websites or through NCBI's DocSumo service. Researchers, healthcare professionals, students, and the general public use PubMed to find relevant and reliable information in the biomedical literature for research, education, and patient care purposes.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type I (GSD I) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which is necessary for the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream. This leads to an accumulation of glycogen in the liver and abnormally low levels of glucose in the blood (hypoglycemia).

There are two main subtypes of GSD I: Type Ia and Type Ib. In Type Ia, there is a deficiency of both glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, and intestine, leading to hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Type Ib is characterized by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity only in the neutrophils, leading to recurrent bacterial infections.

GSD I requires lifelong management with frequent feedings, high-carbohydrate diet, and avoidance of fasting to prevent hypoglycemia. In some cases, treatment with continuous cornstarch infusions or liver transplantation may be necessary.

The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is a set of files and software developed by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). It provides a comprehensive source of biomedical and health-related terms aimed at unifying and standardizing the language used in various areas of the medical field, such as clinical care, research, and education.

The UMLS includes many different vocabularies, classifications, and coding systems, including but not limited to:

* Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine--Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT)
* International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
* Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)
* Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC)

By integrating these various terminologies, the UMLS enables more effective searching, information retrieval, and data analysis across different systems and databases. It also supports natural language processing (NLP) applications, such as text mining and clinical decision support systems.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Natural Language Processing" (NLP) is actually a subfield of artificial intelligence that focuses on the interaction between computers and human language. It involves developing algorithms and software to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a valuable way.

In a medical context, NLP can be used to analyze electronic health records, clinical notes, and other forms of medical documentation to extract meaningful information, support clinical decision-making, and improve patient care. For example, NLP can help identify patients at risk for certain conditions, monitor treatment responses, and detect adverse drug events.

However, NLP is not a medical term or concept itself, so it doesn't have a specific medical definition.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) is a computerized system for searching, retrieving, and disseminating biomedical literature. It was developed by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) in the 1960s as a tool to help medical professionals quickly and efficiently search through large volumes of medical literature.

The MEDLARS system includes several databases, including MEDLINE, which contains citations and abstracts from biomedical journals published worldwide. The system uses a controlled vocabulary thesaurus called Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) to help users find relevant articles by searching for specific medical concepts and keywords.

MEDLARS was eventually replaced by the more advanced online database system known as PubMed, which is now widely used by healthcare professionals, researchers, and students to search for biomedical literature. However, the term "MEDLARS" is still sometimes used to refer to the older system or to describe the process of searching medical databases using controlled vocabulary terms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "search engine" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of information technology and refers to a software system or application that searches for items in a database, on the World Wide Web, or within an intranet and returns relevant results based on specific keywords or phrases input by the user. Examples of popular search engines include Google, Bing, and Yahoo.

If you have any medical questions or concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an organism changes its behavior to avoid a negative outcome or situation. This can be seen in both animals and humans, and it is often studied in the field of psychology and neuroscience.

In avoidance learning, the individual learns to associate a particular cue or stimulus with the unpleasant experience. Over time, they learn to perform an action to escape or avoid the cue, thereby preventing the negative outcome from occurring. For example, if a rat receives an electric shock every time it hears a certain tone, it may eventually learn to press a lever to turn off the tone and avoid the shock.

Avoidance learning can be adaptive in some situations, as it allows individuals to avoid dangerous or harmful stimuli. However, it can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety, or if it interferes with an individual's ability to function in daily life. For example, a person who has been attacked may develop a phobia of public places and avoid them altogether, even though this limits their ability to engage in social activities and live a normal life.

In summary, avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It can be adaptive in some situations but can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety or interferes with daily functioning.

"Foreign bodies" refer to any object or substance that is not normally present in a particular location within the body. These can range from relatively harmless items such as splinters or pieces of food in the skin or gastrointestinal tract, to more serious objects like bullets or sharp instruments that can cause significant damage and infection.

Foreign bodies can enter the body through various routes, including ingestion, inhalation, injection, or penetrating trauma. The location of the foreign body will determine the potential for harm and the necessary treatment. Some foreign bodies may pass through the body without causing harm, while others may require medical intervention such as removal or surgical extraction.

It is important to seek medical attention if a foreign body is suspected, as untreated foreign bodies can lead to complications such as infection, inflammation, and tissue damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vocabulary" is a term related to language and communication, rather than medicine or healthcare. It refers to the words and phrases that a person knows and uses in their communication. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Classical conditioning is a type of learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired together, leading to an association between them. This concept was first introduced by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, in his studies on classical conditioning in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In classical conditioning, there are typically two types of stimuli involved: the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the neutral stimulus (NS). The US is a stimulus that naturally triggers a response, known as the unconditioned response (UR), in an organism. For example, food is an US that triggers salivation, which is the UR, in dogs.

The NS, on the other hand, is a stimulus that does not initially trigger any response in the organism. However, when the NS is repeatedly paired with the US, it becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and begins to elicit a conditioned response (CR). The CR is similar to the UR but is triggered by the CS instead of the US.

For example, if Pavlov repeatedly rang a bell (NS) just before presenting food (US) to a dog, the dog would eventually start salivating (CR) in response to the bell (CS) even when food was not presented. This is an example of classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning has been widely studied and is believed to play a role in various physiological processes, such as learning, memory, and emotion regulation. It has also been used in various applications, including behavioral therapy and advertising.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "names" is not a medical term that can be defined in a biological or clinical context. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help! Please provide more information or clarify your question.

Amnesia is a condition characterized by memory loss, which can be temporary or permanent. It may result from brain damage or disease, and it can affect various aspects of memory, such as the ability to recall past events (retrograde amnesia), the ability to form new memories (anterograde amnesia), or both. Amnesia can also affect a person's sense of identity and their ability to learn new skills.

There are several types of amnesia, including:

1. Anterograde amnesia: This type of amnesia affects the ability to form new memories after an injury or trauma. People with anterograde amnesia may have difficulty learning new information and remembering recent events.
2. Retrograde amnesia: Retrograde amnesia affects the ability to recall memories that were formed before an injury or trauma. People with retrograde amnesia may have trouble remembering events, people, or facts from their past.
3. Transient global amnesia: This is a temporary form of amnesia that usually lasts for less than 24 hours. It is often caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, and it can be triggered by emotional stress, physical exertion, or other factors.
4. Korsakoff's syndrome: This is a type of amnesia that is caused by alcohol abuse and malnutrition. It is characterized by severe memory loss, confusion, and disorientation.
5. Dissociative amnesia: This type of amnesia is caused by psychological factors, such as trauma or stress. People with dissociative amnesia may have trouble remembering important personal information or events that are emotionally charged.

The treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, memory may improve over time, while in other cases, it may be permanent. Treatment may involve medication, therapy, or rehabilitation to help people with amnesia cope with their memory loss and develop new skills to compensate for their memory impairments.

In the context of medical definitions, "judgment" generally refers to the ability to make decisions or form opinions regarding a patient's condition or treatment. It involves critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and knowledge of medical principles and practices. In some cases, it may also refer to a medical professional's assessment or evaluation of a patient's health status or response to treatment.

However, it is important to note that "judgment" is not a term with a specific medical definition, and its meaning can vary depending on the context in which it is used. In general, it refers to the ability to make sound decisions based on evidence, experience, and expertise.

Paired-associate learning is a form of implicit or non-declarative memory task that involves learning and remembering the association between two unrelated items, such as a word and an object, or a taste and a sound. In this type of learning, the individual learns to respond appropriately when presented with one member of the pair, due to its association with the other member. This process is often used in various fields including cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and education to study memory, learning, and brain function.

The parahippocampal gyrus is a region within the brain's temporal lobe that plays a significant role in memory encoding and retrieval, as well as in the processing of spatial navigation and visual perception. It is located next to the hippocampus, which is another crucial structure for long-term memory formation. The parahippocampal gyrus contains several subregions, including the entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex, all of which contribute to various aspects of learning and memory. Damage to this area can lead to memory impairments, particularly in the context of recognizing places or objects (source: Nieuwenhuis & De Dreu, 2016).

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

The parietal lobe is a region of the brain that is located in the posterior part of the cerebral cortex, covering the upper and rear portions of the brain. It is involved in processing sensory information from the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain, as well as spatial awareness and perception, visual-spatial cognition, and the integration of different senses.

The parietal lobe can be divided into several functional areas, including the primary somatosensory cortex (which receives tactile information from the body), the secondary somatosensory cortex (which processes more complex tactile information), and the posterior parietal cortex (which is involved in spatial attention, perception, and motor planning).

Damage to the parietal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms, such as neglect of one side of the body, difficulty with spatial orientation, problems with hand-eye coordination, and impaired mathematical and language abilities.

Organ preservation is a medical technique used to maintain the viability and functionality of an organ outside the body for a certain period, typically for transplantation purposes. This process involves cooling the organ to slow down its metabolic activity and prevent tissue damage, while using specialized solutions that help preserve the organ's structure and function. Commonly preserved organs include hearts, livers, kidneys, lungs, and pancreases. The goal of organ preservation is to ensure that the transplanted organ remains in optimal condition until it can be successfully implanted into a recipient.

A database, in the context of medical informatics, is a structured set of data organized in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and analysis. Databases are used extensively in healthcare to store and manage various types of information, including patient records, clinical trials data, research findings, and genetic data.

As a topic, "Databases" in medicine can refer to the design, implementation, management, and use of these databases. It may also encompass issues related to data security, privacy, and interoperability between different healthcare systems and databases. Additionally, it can involve the development and application of database technologies for specific medical purposes, such as clinical decision support, outcomes research, and personalized medicine.

Overall, databases play a critical role in modern healthcare by enabling evidence-based practice, improving patient care, advancing medical research, and informing health policy decisions.

Azoospermia is a medical condition where there is no measurable level of sperm in the semen. This means that during ejaculation, the seminal fluid does not contain any sperm cells. Azoospermia can be caused by various factors including problems with testicular function, obstruction of the genital tract, or hormonal imbalances. It is an important cause of male infertility and may require further medical evaluation and treatment to determine the underlying cause and explore potential options for fertility.

There are two types of azoospermia: obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia. Obstructive azoospermia is caused by blockages or obstructions in the genital tract that prevent sperm from being released into the semen, while non-obstructive azoospermia is due to problems with sperm production in the testicles.

In some cases, men with azoospermia may still be able to father children through assisted reproductive technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg for fertilization. However, this will depend on the underlying cause of the azoospermia and whether or not there are viable sperm available for extraction.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spatial behavior" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is used in various fields, including psychology, neuroscience, and robotics, to refer to the way that organisms or machines navigate and interact with their environment based on spatial relationships and coordinates.

In a broader context, "spatial behavior" can sometimes be used to describe certain aspects of human behavior related to how people move and interact within spaces, such as in architecture, urban planning, or ergonomics. However, it is not a term that is typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

If you have any specific questions about a concept related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Online Systems" is not a medical term. It generally refers to computer systems or networks that are connected to the internet and can be accessed remotely. In a medical context, it could refer to various online tools and platforms used in healthcare, such as electronic health records, telemedicine systems, or medical research databases. However, without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition.

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of rare inherited metabolic disorders caused by defects in lysosomal function. These diseases affect many different organ systems, including the nervous system. Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found inside cells that break down and recycle various types of cellular waste materials through the action of enzymes. In LSDs, a genetic mutation leads to a deficiency or complete lack of a specific lysosomal enzyme, resulting in the accumulation of undigested substrates within the lysosomes. This accumulation can cause progressive damage to cells and tissues throughout the body, including those in the nervous system.

There are more than 50 different types of LSDs, some of which primarily affect the nervous system:

1. Tay-Sachs disease: A severe neurological disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (HEXA). The accumulation of ganglioside GM2 in neurons leads to progressive neurodegeneration, resulting in motor and cognitive decline, blindness, and early death.
2. Sandhoff disease: Similar to Tay-Sachs disease but caused by a deficiency in both HEXA and hexosaminidase B (HEXB) enzymes. This disorder affects multiple organ systems, including the nervous system, with symptoms similar to Tay-Sachs disease but often more severe and rapid progression.
3. GM1 gangliosidosis: A condition caused by a deficiency of the enzyme β-galactosidase (GLB1), leading to the accumulation of GM1 ganglioside in neurons. Symptoms include developmental delay, motor and cognitive decline, seizures, and progressive neurological deterioration.
4. Gaucher disease: A disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA), resulting in the accumulation of glucocerebroside in various tissues, including the nervous system. There are three main types of Gaucher disease, with type 2 and 3 having neurological involvement.
5. Niemann-Pick disease types A and B: These disorders are caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (SMPD1), leading to the accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues, including the nervous system. Type A primarily affects the nervous system, while type B mainly involves visceral organs.
6. Fabry disease: An X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A (GLA), resulting in the accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in various tissues, including the nervous system. Symptoms include pain, gastrointestinal issues, skin lesions, and progressive renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular complications.
7. Metachromatic leukodystrophy: A disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A (ARSA), leading to the accumulation of sulfatides in the white matter of the brain. Symptoms include motor and cognitive decline, seizures, and progressive neurological deterioration.
8. Krabbe disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactocerebrosidase (GALC), resulting in the accumulation of psychosine in the nervous system. Symptoms include motor and cognitive decline, seizures, and progressive neurological deterioration.
9. Mucopolysaccharidoses: A group of disorders caused by deficiencies of various enzymes involved in the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), leading to their accumulation in tissues throughout the body, including the nervous system. Symptoms vary depending on the specific disorder and include skeletal abnormalities, cardiac complications, vision and hearing loss, and progressive neurological decline.
10. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses: A group of neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in various genes involved in lysosomal function, leading to the accumulation of lipopigments in neurons and other cells. Symptoms include seizures, motor and cognitive decline, vision loss, and progressive neurological deterioration.
11. Peroxisomal biogenesis disorders: A group of disorders caused by mutations in genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis, leading to the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids, phytanic acid, and pipecolic acid in tissues throughout the body, including the nervous system. Symptoms vary depending on the specific disorder and include developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, vision loss, hearing impairment, and progressive neurological decline.
12. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: A group of disorders caused by mutations in genes involved in N-glycosylation, leading to abnormal protein folding, trafficking, and function. Symptoms vary depending on the specific disorder and include developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, vision loss, hearing impairment, and progressive neurological decline.
13. Leukodystrophies: A group of disorders characterized by abnormalities in the white matter of the brain due to defects in myelin formation or maintenance. Symptoms vary depending on the specific disorder and include developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, vision loss, hearing impairment, and progressive neurological decline.
14. Mitochondrial disorders: A group of disorders caused by mutations in genes involved in mitochondrial function, leading to energy production deficits and oxidative stress. Symptoms vary depending on the specific disorder and include developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, vision loss, hearing impairment, and progressive neurological decline.
15. Neurodegenerative disorders: A group of disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system, leading to cognitive decline, motor dysfunction, and ultimately death. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
16. Neurodevelopmental disorders: A group of disorders characterized by impairments in cognitive, social, and motor development, including autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability, and specific learning disorders.
17. Epilepsy: A group of disorders characterized by recurrent seizures due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Epilepsy can be caused by various genetic and environmental factors, including structural brain abnormalities, infections, trauma, and metabolic imbalances.
18. Neuroinflammatory disorders: A group of disorders characterized by inflammation of the nervous system, leading to damage and dysfunction. Examples include multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, and autoimmune encephalitis.
19. Infectious diseases of the nervous system: A group of disorders caused by infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites that affect the nervous system. Examples include meningitis, encephalitis, and HIV-associated neurological disorders.
20. Neurotoxic disorders: A group of disorders caused by exposure to neurotoxic substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, solvents, or drugs that damage the nervous system. Examples include lead poisoning, organophosphate poisoning, and methanol toxicity.
21. Neurooncological disorders: A group of disorders characterized by tumors of the nervous system, including primary brain tumors, metastatic brain tumors, and spinal cord tumors.
22. Vascular disorders of the nervous system: A group of disorders caused by disruption of blood flow to the nervous system, leading to ischemia or hemorrhage. Examples include stroke, transient ischemic attack, and subarachnoid hemorrhage.
23. Degenerative disorders of the nervous system: A group of disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells and their supporting structures, leading to functional impairment. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
24. Neurodevelopmental disorders: A group of disorders that affect the development of the nervous system, leading to cognitive, behavioral, or motor impairments. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability.
25. Epilepsy and seizure disorders: A group of disorders characterized by recurrent seizures, which are abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause a variety of symptoms such as convulsions, altered consciousness, or sensory disturbances.
26. Neurogenetic disorders: A group of disorders caused by genetic mutations that affect the structure or function of the nervous system. Examples include fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, and neurofibromatosis type 1.
27. Neuromuscular

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

"Extinction, Psychological" refers to the process by which a conditioned response or behavior becomes weakened and eventually disappears when the behavior is no longer reinforced or rewarded. It is a fundamental concept in learning theory and conditioning.

In classical conditioning, extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus (US), leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response (CR). For example, if a person learns to associate a tone (CS) with a puff of air to the eye (US), causing blinking (CR), but then the tone is presented several times without the puff of air, the blinking response will become weaker and eventually disappear.

In operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a reinforcer is no longer provided following a behavior, leading to the gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of that behavior. For example, if a child receives candy every time they clean their room (reinforcement), but then the candy is withheld, the child may eventually stop cleaning their room (extinction).

It's important to note that extinction can be a slow process and may require multiple trials or repetitions. Additionally, behaviors that have been extinguished can sometimes reappear in certain circumstances, a phenomenon known as spontaneous recovery.

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or simply the Golgi, is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells. It plays a crucial role in the processing, sorting, and packaging of proteins and lipids for transport to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell.

The Golgi apparatus consists of a series of flattened, disc-shaped sacs called cisternae, which are stacked together in a parallel arrangement. These stacks are often interconnected by tubular structures called tubules or vesicles. The Golgi apparatus has two main faces: the cis face, which is closest to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and receives proteins and lipids directly from the ER; and the trans face, which is responsible for sorting and dispatching these molecules to their final destinations.

The Golgi apparatus performs several essential functions in the cell:

1. Protein processing: After proteins are synthesized in the ER, they are transported to the cis face of the Golgi apparatus, where they undergo various post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation (the addition of sugar molecules) and sulfation. These modifications help determine the protein's final structure, function, and targeting.
2. Lipid modification: The Golgi apparatus also modifies lipids by adding or removing different functional groups, which can influence their properties and localization within the cell.
3. Protein sorting and packaging: Once proteins and lipids have been processed, they are sorted and packaged into vesicles at the trans face of the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles then transport their cargo to various destinations, such as lysosomes, plasma membrane, or extracellular space.
4. Intracellular transport: The Golgi apparatus serves as a central hub for intracellular trafficking, coordinating the movement of vesicles and other transport carriers between different organelles and cellular compartments.
5. Cell-cell communication: Some proteins that are processed and packaged in the Golgi apparatus are destined for secretion, playing crucial roles in cell-cell communication and maintaining tissue homeostasis.

In summary, the Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle involved in various cellular processes, including post-translational modification, sorting, packaging, and intracellular transport of proteins and lipids. Its proper functioning is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and overall organismal health.

Repression in psychology is a defense mechanism that involves pushing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or memories into the unconscious mind to avoid conscious awareness of them. This process occurs automatically and unconsciously as a way for individuals to cope with anxiety-provoking or distressing material. Repressed experiences may still influence behavior and emotions but are not directly accessible to consciousness. It's important to note that repression is different from suppression, which is a conscious and intentional effort to push away unwanted thoughts or feelings.

A Word Association Test is not a medical term per se, but it is a psychological and neuropsychological testing procedure. It is used to assess various aspects of cognitive functioning, particularly language, memory, and executive functions. In this test, the examiner provides a word, and the person being tested is asked to quickly respond with the first word that comes to mind. The responses are then analyzed for any patterns or inconsistencies, which can provide insights into the person's cognitive processes and psychological state.

Word Association Tests have been used in various forms and contexts, including clinical evaluations, research settings, and even in some employment screenings. They can help identify language disorders, memory impairments, thought disorders, and other cognitive or emotional disturbances. However, it's important to note that these tests should be administered and interpreted by trained professionals, as they require a solid understanding of the underlying psychological principles and potential confounding factors.

Oligospermia is a medical term used to describe a condition in which the semen contains a lower than normal number of sperm. Generally, a sperm count of less than 15 million sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen is considered to be below the normal range.

Oligospermia can make it more difficult for a couple to conceive naturally and may require medical intervention such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The condition can result from various factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, varicocele, environmental factors, and certain medications.

It's important to note that oligospermia is not the same as azoospermia, which is a condition where there is no sperm present in the semen at all.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of interconnected tubules and sacs that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is a continuous membranous organelle that plays a crucial role in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins and lipids.

The ER has two main types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is covered with ribosomes, which give it a rough appearance, and is responsible for protein synthesis. On the other hand, SER lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, calcium homeostasis, and steroid hormone production.

In summary, the endoplasmic reticulum is a vital organelle that functions in various cellular processes, including protein and lipid metabolism, calcium regulation, and detoxification.

In medical terms, suction refers to the process of creating and maintaining a partial vacuum in order to remove fluids or gases from a body cavity or wound. This is typically accomplished using specialized medical equipment such as a suction machine, which uses a pump to create the vacuum, and a variety of different suction tips or catheters that can be inserted into the area being treated.

Suction is used in a wide range of medical procedures and treatments, including wound care, surgical procedures, respiratory therapy, and diagnostic tests. It can help to remove excess fluids such as blood or pus from a wound, clear secretions from the airways during mechanical ventilation, or provide a means of visualizing internal structures during endoscopic procedures.

It is important to use proper technique when performing suctioning, as excessive or improperly applied suction can cause tissue damage or bleeding. Medical professionals are trained in the safe and effective use of suction equipment and techniques to minimize risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

A bibliographic database is a type of database that contains records of publications, such as books, articles, and conference proceedings. These records typically include bibliographic information, such as the title, author, publication date, and source of the publication. Some bibliographic databases also include abstracts or summaries of the publications, and many provide links to the full text of the publications if they are available online.

Bibliographic databases are used in a variety of fields, including academia, medicine, and industry, to locate relevant publications on a particular topic. They can be searched using keywords, author names, and other criteria. Some bibliographic databases are general, covering a wide range of topics, while others are specialized and focus on a specific subject area.

In the medical field, bibliographic databases such as MEDLINE and PubMed are widely used to search for articles related to biomedical research, clinical practice, and public health. These databases contain records of articles from thousands of biomedical journals and can be searched using keywords, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms, and other criteria.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Retrograde amnesia is a form of memory loss where an individual cannot recall information, events, or facts from their personal past before a specific point in time. This type of amnesia is caused by damage to the brain, often as a result of head injury, stroke, infection, or certain medical conditions. The extent and duration of retrograde amnesia can vary widely, depending on the severity and location of the brain injury. In some cases, memory function may return over time as the brain heals, while in other cases the memory loss may be permanent.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Organ preservation solutions are specialized fluids used to maintain the viability and functionality of organs ex vivo (outside the body) during the process of transplantation. These solutions are designed to provide optimal conditions for the organ by preventing tissue damage, reducing metabolic activity, and minimizing ischemic injuries that may occur during the time between organ removal from the donor and implantation into the recipient.

The composition of organ preservation solutions typically includes various ingredients such as:

1. Cryoprotectants: These help prevent ice crystal formation and damage to cell membranes during freezing and thawing processes, especially for organs like the heart and lungs that require deep hypothermia for preservation.
2. Buffers: They maintain physiological pH levels and counteract acidosis caused by anaerobic metabolism in the absence of oxygen supply.
3. Colloids: These substances, such as hydroxyethyl starch or dextran, help preserve oncotic pressure and prevent cellular edema.
4. Electrolytes: Balanced concentrations of ions like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate are essential for maintaining physiological osmolarity and membrane potentials.
5. Energy substrates: Glucose, lactate, or other energy-rich compounds can serve as fuel sources to support the metabolic needs of the organ during preservation.
6. Antioxidants: These agents protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by ischemia-reperfusion injuries.
7. Anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressants: Some solutions may contain substances that mitigate the inflammatory response and reduce immune activation in the transplanted organ.

Examples of commonly used organ preservation solutions include University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, Custodiol HTK solution, and Euro-Collins solution. The choice of preservation solution depends on the specific organ being transplanted and the duration of preservation required.

Semen preservation is the process of collecting, liquefying, testing, and storing semen samples for future use in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The semen sample is usually collected through masturbation, and then it is mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to prevent damage during the freezing and thawing process. After that, the sample is divided into straws or vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen tanks at temperatures below -196°C. Properly preserved semen can be stored for many years without significant loss of quality or fertility potential. Semen preservation is often recommended for men who are about to undergo medical treatments that may affect their sperm production or fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or for those who wish to postpone fatherhood for personal or medical reasons.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

An autobiography is a type of literature that describes the personal life experiences of an individual, written by that individual. It typically includes details about their upbringing, education, career, relationships, and other significant events in their life. The author may also reflect on their thoughts, feelings, and motivations during these experiences, providing insight into their personality and character.

Autobiographies can serve various purposes, such as sharing one's story with others, leaving a legacy for future generations, or exploring one's personal growth and development. They can be written in different styles, from straightforward and factual to introspective and reflective.

It is important to note that autobiographies are not always entirely accurate, as memory can be selective or distorted. Additionally, some individuals may choose to embellish or exaggerate certain aspects of their lives for dramatic effect or to protect the privacy of others. Nonetheless, autobiographies remain a valuable source of information about an individual's life and experiences.

Maze learning is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is often used in the field of neuroscience and psychology. It refers to the process by which an animal or human learns to navigate through a complex environment, such as a maze, in order to find its way to a goal or target.

Maze learning involves several cognitive processes, including spatial memory, learning, and problem-solving. As animals or humans navigate through the maze, they encode information about the location of the goal and the various landmarks within the environment. This information is then used to form a cognitive map that allows them to navigate more efficiently in subsequent trials.

Maze learning has been widely used as a tool for studying learning and memory processes in both animals and humans. For example, researchers may use maze learning tasks to investigate the effects of brain damage or disease on cognitive function, or to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs or interventions for improving cognitive performance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "minicomputers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "minicomputer" comes from the field of computer engineering and refers to a class of computers that are smaller and less expensive than mainframe computers, but more powerful and capable than microcomputers or personal computers. They were widely used in the 1960s and 1970s in various industries for tasks such as process control, data acquisition, and small-scale scientific calculations.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help!

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb substances from their external environment by engulfing them in membrane-bound structures, resulting in the formation of intracellular vesicles. This mechanism allows cells to take up large molecules, such as proteins and lipids, as well as small particles, like bacteria and viruses. There are two main types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking). Phagocytosis involves the engulfment of solid particles, while pinocytosis deals with the uptake of fluids and dissolved substances. Other specialized forms of endocytosis include receptor-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which allow for the specific internalization of molecules through the interaction with cell surface receptors.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the medical context refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

In healthcare, AI is increasingly being used to analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, make decisions, and perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. This can include tasks such as diagnosing diseases, recommending treatments, personalizing patient care, and improving clinical workflows.

Examples of AI in medicine include machine learning algorithms that analyze medical images to detect signs of disease, natural language processing tools that extract relevant information from electronic health records, and robot-assisted surgery systems that enable more precise and minimally invasive procedures.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II, also known as Pompe Disease, is a genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA). This enzyme is responsible for breaking down glycogen, a complex sugar that serves as energy storage, within lysosomes. When GAA is deficient, glycogen accumulates in various tissues, particularly in muscle cells, leading to their dysfunction and damage.

The severity of Pompe Disease can vary significantly, depending on the amount of functional enzyme activity remaining. The classic infantile-onset form presents within the first few months of life with severe muscle weakness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. This form is often fatal by 1-2 years of age if left untreated.

A later-onset form, which can present in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, has a more variable clinical course. Affected individuals may experience progressive muscle weakness, respiratory insufficiency, and cardiomyopathy, although the severity and rate of progression are generally less pronounced than in the infantile-onset form.

Enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GAA is available for the treatment of Pompe Disease and has been shown to improve survival and motor function in affected individuals.

Automatic Data Processing (ADP) is not a medical term, but a general business term that refers to the use of computers and software to automate and streamline administrative tasks and processes. In a medical context, ADP may be used in healthcare settings to manage electronic health records (EHRs), billing and coding, insurance claims processing, and other data-intensive tasks.

The goal of using ADP in healthcare is to improve efficiency, accuracy, and timeliness of administrative processes, while reducing costs and errors associated with manual data entry and management. By automating these tasks, healthcare providers can focus more on patient care and less on paperwork, ultimately improving the quality of care delivered to patients.

A CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) is not a medical term, but a technology term. It refers to a type of optical storage disc that contains digital information and can be read by a computer's CD-ROM drive. The data on a CD-ROM is permanent and cannot be modified or erased, unlike other types of writable discs such as CD-R or CD-RW.

CD-ROMs were commonly used in the past to distribute software, multimedia presentations, reference materials, and educational content. In medical field, CD-ROMs have been used to distribute large databases of medical information, such as clinical guidelines, drug references, and anatomical atlases. However, with the advent of internet and cloud storage technologies, the use of CD-ROMs has become less common in recent years.

Lysosomes are membrane-bound organelles found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for breaking down and recycling various materials, such as waste products, foreign substances, and damaged cellular components, through a process called autophagy or phagocytosis. Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down biomolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their basic building blocks, which can then be reused by the cell. They play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are often referred to as the "garbage disposal system" of the cell.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

Globulins are a type of protein found in blood plasma, which is the clear, yellowish fluid that circulates throughout the body inside blood vessels. They are one of the three main types of proteins in blood plasma, along with albumin and fibrinogen. Globulins play important roles in the immune system, helping to defend the body against infection and disease.

Globulins can be further divided into several subcategories based on their size, electrical charge, and other properties. Some of the major types of globulins include:

* Alpha-1 globulins
* Alpha-2 globulins
* Beta globulins
* Gamma globulins

Gamma globulins are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, which are proteins produced by the immune system to help fight off infections and diseases. There are five main classes of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class of immunoglobulin has a different function in the body's defense mechanisms.

Abnormal levels of globulins can be indicative of various medical conditions, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or autoimmune disorders. Therefore, measuring the levels of different types of globulins in the blood is often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and monitor these conditions.

Anomia is a language disorder that affects a person's ability to name objects, places, or people. It is often caused by damage to the brain, such as from a stroke, brain injury, or neurological condition. In anomia, a person has difficulty retrieving words from their memory, and may substitute similar-sounding words, describe the object instead of naming it, or be unable to come up with a name at all. Anomia can range from mild to severe and can significantly impact a person's ability to communicate effectively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Systems Integration" is not a medical term per se. It is a term more commonly used in the fields of engineering, computer science, and information technology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Systems Integration refers to the process of combining different sub-systems or components into a single, cohesive system to allow seamless communication and data exchange between them. This integration aims to improve efficiency, performance, and overall functionality by unifying various standalone systems into an interconnected network that behaves as a unified whole.

In the context of healthcare, systems integration can be applied to merge different electronic health record (EHR) systems, medical devices, or other healthcare technologies to create a comprehensive, interoperable healthcare information system. This facilitates better care coordination, data sharing, and decision-making among healthcare providers, ultimately enhancing patient outcomes and satisfaction.

Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in various tissues and organs, particularly in the liver and spleen. It is caused by mutations in the gene responsible for producing lipoprotein lipase (LPL), an enzyme that helps break down fats called triglycerides in the body.

In CESD, the lack of functional LPL leads to an accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the lysosomes of cells, which can cause damage and inflammation in affected organs. Symptoms of CESD can vary widely, but often include enlargement of the liver and spleen, abdominal pain, jaundice, and fatty deposits under the skin (xanthomas).

CESD is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment may involve dietary modifications to reduce the intake of fats, medications to help control lipid levels in the blood, and in some cases, liver transplantation.

"Long-Evans" is a strain of laboratory rats commonly used in scientific research. They are named after their developers, the scientists Long and Evans. This strain is albino, with a brownish-black hood over their eyes and ears, and they have an agouti (salt-and-pepper) color on their backs. They are often used as a model organism due to their size, ease of handling, and genetic similarity to humans. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition related to "Long-Evans rats" as they are not a medical condition or disease.

A Computerized Medical Record System (CMRS) is a digital version of a patient's paper chart. It contains all of the patient's medical history from multiple providers and can be shared securely between healthcare professionals. A CMRS includes a range of data such as demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data, and radiology reports. The system facilitates the storage, retrieval, and exchange of this information in an efficient manner, and can also provide decision support, alerts, reminders, and tools for performing data analysis and creating reports. It is designed to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by providing accurate, up-to-date, and comprehensive information about patients at the point of care.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

Oocyte donation is a medical procedure in which mature oocytes (or immature oocytes that are matured in the lab) are donated by one woman to another woman for the purpose of assisted reproduction. The recipient woman typically receives hormonal treatments to prepare her uterus for embryo implantation. The donated oocytes are then fertilized with sperm from the recipient's partner or a sperm donor in a laboratory, and the resulting embryos are transferred into the recipient's uterus.

Oocyte donation is often recommended for women who have poor ovarian function or who have a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. It is also used in cases where previous attempts at in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the woman's own eggs have been unsuccessful.

The process of oocyte donation involves rigorous screening and evaluation of both the donor and recipient, including medical, psychological, and genetic evaluations, to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The donor's ovaries are stimulated with hormonal medications to produce multiple mature oocytes, which are then retrieved through a minor surgical procedure.

Overall, oocyte donation is a complex and emotionally charged process that requires careful consideration and counseling for both the donor and recipient. It offers hope for many women who would otherwise be unable to conceive a biological child.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Fixatives are substances used in histology and pathology to preserve tissue specimens for microscopic examination. They work by stabilizing the structural components of cells and tissues, preventing decomposition and autolysis. This helps to maintain the original structure and composition of the specimen as closely as possible, allowing for accurate diagnosis and research. Commonly used fixatives include formalin, glutaraldehyde, methanol, and ethanol. The choice of fixative depends on the specific type of tissue being preserved and the intended use of the specimen.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Optical Storage Devices" is not a medical term. It pertains to the field of technology and electronics.

Optical storage devices are types of digital data storage devices that use laser light or electromagnetic waves within or near the visible light spectrum as part of the recording or reading process. Examples include CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs. These are not typically used in a medical context unless discussing medical records storage technology. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Computer communication networks (CCN) refer to the interconnected systems or groups of computers that are able to communicate and share resources and information with each other. These networks may be composed of multiple interconnected devices, including computers, servers, switches, routers, and other hardware components. The connections between these devices can be established through various types of media, such as wired Ethernet cables or wireless Wi-Fi signals.

CCNs enable the sharing of data, applications, and services among users and devices, and they are essential for supporting modern digital communication and collaboration. Some common examples of CCNs include local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and the Internet. These networks can be designed and implemented in various topologies, such as star, ring, bus, mesh, and tree configurations, to meet the specific needs and requirements of different organizations and applications.

Drug stability refers to the ability of a pharmaceutical drug product to maintain its physical, chemical, and biological properties during storage and use, under specified conditions. A stable drug product retains its desired quality, purity, strength, and performance throughout its shelf life. Factors that can affect drug stability include temperature, humidity, light exposure, and container compatibility. Maintaining drug stability is crucial to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications for patients.

I must clarify that there is no specific medical definition for "Software Design." Software design is a term used in the field of software engineering and development, which includes the creation of detailed plans, schemas, and models that describe how a software system or application should be constructed and implemented. This process involves various activities such as defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, data structures, and algorithms required to build the software system.

However, in the context of medical software or healthcare applications, software design would still refer to the planning and structuring of the software system but with a focus on addressing specific needs and challenges within the medical domain. This might include considerations for data privacy and security, regulatory compliance (such as HIPAA or GDPR), integration with existing health IT systems, user experience (UX) design for healthcare professionals and patients, and evidence-based decision support features.

Data mining, in the context of health informatics and medical research, refers to the process of discovering patterns, correlations, and insights within large sets of patient or clinical data. It involves the use of advanced analytical techniques such as machine learning algorithms, statistical models, and artificial intelligence to identify and extract useful information from complex datasets.

The goal of data mining in healthcare is to support evidence-based decision making, improve patient outcomes, and optimize resource utilization. Applications of data mining in healthcare include predicting disease outbreaks, identifying high-risk patients, personalizing treatment plans, improving clinical workflows, and detecting fraud and abuse in healthcare systems.

Data mining can be performed on various types of healthcare data, including electronic health records (EHRs), medical claims databases, genomic data, imaging data, and sensor data from wearable devices. However, it is important to ensure that data mining techniques are used ethically and responsibly, with appropriate safeguards in place to protect patient privacy and confidentiality.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Space perception, in the context of neuroscience and psychology, refers to the ability to perceive and understand the spatial arrangement of objects and their relationship to oneself. It involves integrating various sensory inputs such as visual, auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive information to create a coherent three-dimensional representation of our environment.

This cognitive process enables us to judge distances, sizes, shapes, and movements of objects around us. It also helps us navigate through space, reach for objects, avoid obstacles, and maintain balance. Disorders in space perception can lead to difficulties in performing everyday activities and may be associated with neurological conditions such as stroke, brain injury, or neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Medical illustration is a specialized field of visual art that involves the creation of accurate and detailed images to help communicate medical or scientific information. These illustrations are often used in textbooks, journal articles, educational materials, legal exhibits, and medical marketing materials to clearly and effectively convey complex concepts and procedures related to the human body, health, and disease.

Medical illustrators typically have a strong background in both art and science, with many holding advanced degrees in fields such as biology, anatomy, or medical illustration. They use a variety of traditional and digital media to create their work, including pencils, pens, paint, 3D modeling software, and graphic design tools.

Medical illustrations can depict a wide range of subjects, from the microscopic structure of cells and tissues to the intricate workings of medical devices and procedures. They may also be used to visualize surgical techniques, patient anatomy, or disease processes, making them an essential tool for medical education, research, and communication.

A nucleic acid database is a type of biological database that contains sequence, structure, and functional information about nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. These databases are used in various fields of biology, including genomics, molecular biology, and bioinformatics, to store, search, and analyze nucleic acid data.

Some common types of nucleic acid databases include:

1. Nucleotide sequence databases: These databases contain the primary nucleotide sequences of DNA and RNA molecules from various organisms. Examples include GenBank, EMBL-Bank, and DDBJ.
2. Structure databases: These databases contain three-dimensional structures of nucleic acids determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Examples include the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the Nucleic Acid Database (NDB).
3. Functional databases: These databases contain information about the functions of nucleic acids, such as their roles in gene regulation, transcription, and translation. Examples include the Gene Ontology (GO) database and the RegulonDB.
4. Genome databases: These databases contain genomic data for various organisms, including whole-genome sequences, gene annotations, and genetic variations. Examples include the Human Genome Database (HGD) and the Ensembl Genome Browser.
5. Comparative databases: These databases allow for the comparison of nucleic acid sequences or structures across different species or conditions. Examples include the Comparative RNA Web (CRW) Site and the Sequence Alignment and Modeling (SAM) system.

Nucleic acid databases are essential resources for researchers to study the structure, function, and evolution of nucleic acids, as well as to develop new tools and methods for analyzing and interpreting nucleic acid data.

Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency (PSPD) is a group of bleeding disorders characterized by a decrease in the number or function of secretory granules (storage pools) in platelets, which are small blood cells that play a crucial role in clotting. These granules contain various substances such as ADP (adenosine diphosphate), ATP (adenosine triphosphate), calcium ions, and serotonin, which are released during platelet activation to help promote clot formation.

In PSPD, the quantitative or qualitative deficiency of these granules leads to impaired platelet function and increased bleeding tendency. The condition can be inherited or acquired, and it is often classified based on the type of granule affected: dense granules (delta granules) or alpha granules.

Delta granule deficiency, also known as Dense Granule Deficiency (DGD), results in decreased levels of ADP, ATP, and calcium ions, while alpha granule deficiency leads to reduced levels of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and other clotting factors.

Symptoms of PSPD can vary from mild to severe and may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery, nosebleeds, and gum bleeding. The diagnosis typically involves platelet function tests, electron microscopy, and genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include desmopressin (DDAVP), platelet transfusions, or other medications to manage bleeding symptoms.

Serial learning is a form of learning in which new information or skills are acquired and organized in a sequential manner, with each piece of information building on the previous one. In other words, it involves learning items or concepts one at a time, in a specific order, rather than all at once. This type of learning is often used in situations where the material to be learned has a clear sequence, such as learning the alphabet, numbers, or days of the week.

In a medical context, serial learning may be used to teach complex medical procedures or concepts that have multiple steps or components. For example, a medical student may learn how to perform a physical examination by first learning how to take a patient's vital signs, then moving on to inspecting various parts of the body in a specific order. Through repeated practice and reinforcement, the student gradually builds up a sequence of skills and knowledge that becomes integrated into their long-term memory.

It is worth noting that some individuals may find serial learning more challenging than other forms of learning, particularly if they have difficulty with sequential processing or working memory limitations. Therefore, individualized instruction and accommodations may be necessary to support learners who struggle with serial learning tasks.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type III, also known as Cori or Forbes disease, is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the debranching enzyme amylo-1,6-glucosidase, which is responsible for breaking down glycogen in the liver and muscles. This results in an abnormal accumulation of glycogen in these organs leading to its associated symptoms.

There are two main types: Type IIIa affects both the liver and muscles, while Type IIIb affects only the liver. Symptoms can include hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), hyperlipidemia (high levels of fats in the blood), and growth retardation. In Type IIIa, muscle weakness and cardiac problems may also occur.

The diagnosis is usually made through biochemical tests and genetic analysis. Treatment often involves dietary management with frequent meals to prevent hypoglycemia, and in some cases, enzyme replacement therapy. However, there is no cure for this condition and life expectancy can be reduced depending on the severity of the symptoms.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Electroshock, also known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is a medical procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to treat certain mental health conditions. It is primarily used to treat severe forms of depression that have not responded to other treatments, and it may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

During an ECT procedure, electrodes are placed on the patient's head, and a carefully controlled electric current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The patient is under general anesthesia and given muscle relaxants to prevent physical injury from the seizure.

ECT is typically administered in a series of treatments, usually two or three times a week for several weeks. While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, ECT is thought to affect brain chemistry and help regulate mood and other symptoms. It is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for certain mental health conditions when other treatments have failed. However, it can have side effects, including short-term memory loss and confusion, and it may not be appropriate for everyone.

Automated Pattern Recognition in a medical context refers to the use of computer algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques to identify, classify, and analyze specific patterns or trends in medical data. This can include recognizing visual patterns in medical images, such as X-rays or MRIs, or identifying patterns in large datasets of physiological measurements or electronic health records.

The goal of automated pattern recognition is to assist healthcare professionals in making more accurate diagnoses, monitoring disease progression, and developing personalized treatment plans. By automating the process of pattern recognition, it can help reduce human error, increase efficiency, and improve patient outcomes.

Examples of automated pattern recognition in medicine include using machine learning algorithms to identify early signs of diabetic retinopathy in eye scans or detecting abnormal heart rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs). These techniques can also be used to predict patient risk based on patterns in their medical history, such as identifying patients who are at high risk for readmission to the hospital.

Blood specimen collection is the process of obtaining a sample of blood from a patient for laboratory testing and analysis. This procedure is performed by trained healthcare professionals, such as nurses or phlebotomists, using sterile equipment to minimize the risk of infection and ensure accurate test results. The collected blood sample may be used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, assess overall health and organ function, and check for the presence of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of the specimen are crucial to maintain its integrity and prevent contamination.

A Biological Specimen Bank, also known as a biobank or tissue bank, is a type of medical facility that collects, stores, and distributes biological samples for research purposes. These samples can include tissues, cells, DNA, blood, and other bodily fluids, and are often collected during medical procedures or from donors who have given their informed consent. The samples are then cataloged and stored in specialized conditions to preserve their quality and integrity.

Biobanks play a critical role in advancing medical research by providing researchers with access to large numbers of well-characterized biological samples. This allows them to study the underlying causes of diseases, develop new diagnostic tests and treatments, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other therapies. Biobanks may be established for specific research projects or as part of larger, more comprehensive efforts to build biomedical research infrastructure.

It is important to note that the use of biological specimens in research is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, which are designed to protect the privacy and interests of donors and ensure that the samples are used responsibly and for legitimate scientific purposes.

Anisomycin is an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Streptomyces griseolus. It is a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis and has been found to have antitumor, antiviral, and immunosuppressive properties. In medicine, it has been used experimentally in the treatment of some types of cancer, but its use is limited due to its significant side effects, including neurotoxicity.

In a medical or scientific context, 'anisomycin' refers specifically to this antibiotic compound and not to any general concept related to aniso- (meaning "unequal" or "asymmetrical") or -mycin (suffix indicating a bacterial antibiotic).

Synaptic vesicles are tiny membrane-enclosed sacs within the presynaptic terminal of a neuron, containing neurotransmitters. They play a crucial role in the process of neurotransmission, which is the transmission of signals between nerve cells. When an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal, it triggers the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane, releasing neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters can then bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron and trigger a response. After release, synaptic vesicles are recycled through endocytosis, allowing them to be refilled with neurotransmitters and used again in subsequent rounds of neurotransmission.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

'Task Performance and Analysis' is not a commonly used medical term, but it can be found in the field of rehabilitation medicine and ergonomics. It refers to the process of evaluating and understanding how a specific task is performed, in order to identify any physical or cognitive demands placed on an individual during the performance of that task. This information can then be used to inform the design of interventions, such as workplace modifications or rehabilitation programs, aimed at improving task performance or reducing the risk of injury.

In a medical context, task performance and analysis may be used in the assessment and treatment of individuals with disabilities or injuries, to help them return to work or other activities of daily living. The analysis involves breaking down the task into its component parts, observing and measuring the physical and cognitive demands of each part, and evaluating the individual's ability to perform those demands. Based on this analysis, recommendations may be made for modifications to the task or the environment, training or education, or assistive devices that can help the individual perform the task more safely and efficiently.

Overall, task performance and analysis is a valuable tool in promoting safe and effective task performance, reducing the risk of injury, and improving functional outcomes for individuals with disabilities or injuries.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

Posthumous conception is a medical and reproductive procedure where an individual's sperm or egg, which have been retrieved and stored before their death, are used to create offspring after they have passed away. This may involve in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques and the subsequent transfer of resulting embryos to a surrogate mother for gestation. It is important to note that this procedure raises various ethical, legal, and social issues that require careful consideration and regulation.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "imagnation" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Imagination generally refers to the ability to form mental images or concepts of things that are not present or have never been experienced. It involves the cognitive process of creating new ideas, scenarios, or concepts from existing knowledge and experiences.

However, if you meant to ask for a medical term related to imagination, one possibility could be "**productive thinking**" or **"generative cognitive processes"**. These terms are used in neuropsychology and cognitive science to describe the mental activities involved in creating new ideas, problem-solving, and generating novel responses.

If you had something specific in mind or if there's a different context you'd like me to consider, please provide more information, and I will do my best to help.

Tissue fixation is a process in histology (the study of the microscopic structure of tissues) where fixed tissue samples are prepared for further examination, typically through microscopy. The goal of tissue fixation is to preserve the original three-dimensional structure and biochemical composition of tissues and cells as much as possible, making them stable and suitable for various analyses.

The most common method for tissue fixation involves immersing the sample in a chemical fixative, such as formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde. These fixatives cross-link proteins within the tissue, creating a stable matrix that maintains the original structure and prevents decay. Other methods of tissue fixation may include freezing or embedding samples in various media to preserve their integrity.

Properly fixed tissue samples can be sectioned, stained, and examined under a microscope, allowing pathologists and researchers to study cellular structures, diagnose diseases, and understand biological processes at the molecular level.

Cytoplasmic granules are small, membrane-bound organelles or inclusions found within the cytoplasm of cells. They contain various substances such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and genetic material. Cytoplasmic granules have diverse functions depending on their specific composition and cellular location. Some examples include:

1. Secretory granules: These are found in secretory cells and store hormones, neurotransmitters, or enzymes before they are released by exocytosis.
2. Lysosomes: These are membrane-bound organelles that contain hydrolytic enzymes for intracellular digestion of waste materials, foreign substances, and damaged organelles.
3. Melanosomes: Found in melanocytes, these granules produce and store the pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.
4. Weibel-Palade bodies: These are found in endothelial cells and store von Willebrand factor and P-selectin, which play roles in hemostasis and inflammation.
5. Peroxisomes: These are single-membrane organelles that contain enzymes for various metabolic processes, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids and detoxification of harmful substances.
6. Lipid bodies (also called lipid droplets): These are cytoplasmic granules that store neutral lipids, such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. They play a role in energy metabolism and intracellular signaling.
7. Glycogen granules: These are cytoplasmic inclusions that store glycogen, a polysaccharide used for energy storage in animals.
8. Protein bodies: Found in plants, these granules store excess proteins and help regulate protein homeostasis within the cell.
9. Electron-dense granules: These are found in certain immune cells, such as mast cells and basophils, and release mediators like histamine during an allergic response.
10. Granules of unknown composition or function may also be present in various cell types.

I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding. Programming languages are a field of study in computer science and are not related to medicine. They are used to create computer programs, through the composition of symbols and words. Some popular programming languages include Python, Java, C++, and JavaScript. If you have any questions about programming or computer science, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Computer graphics is the field of study and practice related to creating images and visual content using computer technology. It involves various techniques, algorithms, and tools for generating, manipulating, and rendering digital images and models. These can include 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, visualization, and image processing. Computer graphics is used in a wide range of applications, including video games, movies, scientific simulations, medical imaging, architectural design, and data visualization.

Vesicular transport proteins are specialized proteins that play a crucial role in the intracellular trafficking and transportation of various biomolecules, such as proteins and lipids, within eukaryotic cells. These proteins facilitate the formation, movement, and fusion of membrane-bound vesicles, which are small, spherical structures that carry cargo between different cellular compartments or organelles.

There are several types of vesicular transport proteins involved in this process:

1. Coat Proteins (COPs): These proteins form a coat around the vesicle membrane and help shape it into its spherical form during the budding process. They also participate in selecting and sorting cargo for transportation. Two main types of COPs exist: COPI, which is involved in transport between the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and COPII, which mediates transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus.

2. SNARE Proteins: These proteins are responsible for the specific recognition and docking of vesicles with their target membranes. They form complexes that bring the vesicle and target membranes close together, allowing for fusion and the release of cargo into the target organelle. There are two types of SNARE proteins: v-SNAREs (vesicle SNAREs) and t-SNAREs (target SNAREs), which interact to form a stable complex during membrane fusion.

3. Rab GTPases: These proteins act as molecular switches that regulate the recruitment of coat proteins, motor proteins, and SNAREs during vesicle transport. They cycle between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state, controlling the various stages of vesicular trafficking, such as budding, transport, tethering, and fusion.

4. Tethering Proteins: These proteins help to bridge the gap between vesicles and their target membranes before SNARE-mediated fusion occurs. They play a role in ensuring specificity during vesicle docking and may also contribute to regulating the timing of membrane fusion events.

5. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein Receptors (SNAREs): These proteins are involved in intracellular transport, particularly in the trafficking of vesicles between organelles. They consist of a family of coiled-coil domain-containing proteins that form complexes to mediate membrane fusion events.

Overall, these various classes of proteins work together to ensure the specificity and efficiency of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Dysregulation or mutation of these proteins can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV (GSD IV), also known as Andersen's disease, is a rare inherited metabolic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen, a complex carbohydrate that serves as a source of energy for the body.

In GSD IV, there is a deficiency in the enzyme called glycogen branching enzyme (GBE), which is responsible for adding branches to the glycogen molecule during its synthesis. This results in an abnormal form of glycogen that accumulates in various organs and tissues, particularly in the liver, heart, and muscles.

The accumulation of this abnormal glycogen can lead to progressive damage and failure of these organs, resulting in a variety of symptoms such as muscle weakness, hypotonia, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), cardiomyopathy (heart muscle disease), and developmental delay. The severity of the disease can vary widely, with some individuals experiencing milder symptoms while others may have a more severe and rapidly progressing form of the disorder.

Currently, there is no cure for GSD IV, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and slowing down the progression of the disease. This may include providing nutritional support, addressing specific organ dysfunction, and preventing complications.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

Dyscalculia is a learning disorder characterized by difficulty in understanding and processing numerical or arithmetic concepts. It is a specific math disability that affects a person's ability to learn number-related concepts and perform calculations, even when they have normal intelligence and adequate teaching. People with dyscalculia may struggle with basic mathematical skills such as counting, recognizing numbers, remembering mathematical facts, and understanding mathematical concepts. They may also have difficulty with estimation, time management, and spatial reasoning. The exact causes of dyscalculia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors and differences in brain structure and function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Punched-Card Systems" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a technology-related term that refers to a data processing system that uses punched cards as a means of input and storage. The cards have holes punched in them at specific locations to represent data or instructions, which are then read by a machine. This technology was widely used in the past for data processing tasks such as data collection, tabulation, and early computing applications. It is not directly related to medical terminology or healthcare.

In medical terms, "association" is a relationship between two or more variables, conditions, or factors in which they consistently occur together more often than would be expected by chance. This does not necessarily mean that one causes the other, but simply that they are connected in some way. The association can be positive (meaning that as one variable increases, so does the other) or negative (meaning that as one variable increases, the other decreases).

For example, there is a well-known association between smoking and lung cancer, meaning that people who smoke are more likely to develop lung cancer than those who do not. However, this does not mean that smoking causes lung cancer, only that the two are linked in some way. Further research is needed to establish causality.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

Vena cava filters are medical devices that are implanted into the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood from the lower half of the body to the heart. These filters are designed to trap blood clots that form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT) and prevent them from traveling to the lungs (pulmonary embolism or PE), which can be a life-threatening condition.

The filter is typically implanted using a catheter-based procedure, and it has legs or arms that extend out to trap the blood clots as they flow through the vein. Over time, the trapped clots may dissolve on their own or become organized and incorporated into the wall of the vein.

Vena cava filters are typically used in patients who are at high risk for PE but cannot take anticoagulation medication or have failed anticoagulation therapy. However, there is some controversy surrounding the use of these devices due to concerns about their long-term safety and effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microcomputers" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Microcomputers are small computers with a microprocessor as the central processing unit. They are widely used in various settings, including healthcare, to perform tasks such as data management, analysis, and patient record keeping. However, the term itself does not have a specific medical connotation. If you have any questions related to technology use in healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

Medical Informatics Computing, also known as Healthcare Informatics or Biomedical Informatics, is the application of computer science and information technology to the field of healthcare and medicine. It involves the development and use of various computational methods, systems, and tools for the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval, sharing, analysis, and visualization of biomedical data, knowledge, and intelligence. The primary goal is to support and enhance clinical decision-making, patient care, research, education, and management in healthcare organizations.

Medical Informatics Computing encompasses various disciplines such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, natural language processing, data mining, databases, computer networks, human-computer interaction, and bioinformatics. It deals with the integration of diverse health information systems, including electronic health records (EHRs), clinical decision support systems (CDSSs), telemedicine systems, and genomic databases, to provide comprehensive and personalized healthcare services.

Medical Informatics Computing has significant potential in improving patient outcomes, reducing medical errors, increasing efficiency, and reducing healthcare costs. It also plays a crucial role in advancing medical research by enabling large-scale data analysis, hypothesis testing, and knowledge discovery.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a medical condition characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can occur as a complication of fertility treatments that involve the use of medications to stimulate ovulation.

In OHSS, the ovaries become swollen and may contain multiple follicles (small sacs containing eggs) that have developed in response to the hormonal stimulation. This can lead to the release of large amounts of vasoactive substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can cause increased blood flow to the ovaries and fluid leakage from the blood vessels into the abdominal cavity.

Mild cases of OHSS may cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, and diarrhea. More severe cases can lead to more serious complications, including blood clots, kidney failure, and respiratory distress. In extreme cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the symptoms of OHSS and prevent further complications.

OHSS is typically managed by monitoring the patient's symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management. In severe cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to drain excess fluid from the abdominal cavity. Preventive measures, such as adjusting the dosage of fertility medications or canceling treatment cycles, may also be taken to reduce the risk of OHSS in high-risk patients.

Higher Nervous Activity (HNA) is a term used in neurology and psychology to refer to the complex functions of the nervous system that are associated with higher order cognitive processes, such as thinking, learning, memory, perception, and language. These functions are primarily mediated by the cerebral cortex and other associative areas of the brain, which are involved in integrating sensory information, planning and executing motor responses, and modulating emotional and social behavior.

HNA is often contrasted with lower nervous activity (LNA), which refers to more basic functions of the nervous system, such as reflexes and automatic responses that do not require conscious control or higher-order cognitive processing. HNA is thought to be unique to humans and some other animals, and is believed to have evolved to enable complex behaviors and adaptations to changing environments.

Disorders of HNA can result in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, depending on the specific areas of the brain that are affected. These may include cognitive impairments, memory loss, language disorders, perceptual disturbances, emotional dysregulation, and motor deficits.

A protein database is a type of biological database that contains information about proteins and their structures, functions, sequences, and interactions with other molecules. These databases can include experimentally determined data, such as protein sequences derived from DNA sequencing or mass spectrometry, as well as predicted data based on computational methods.

Some examples of protein databases include:

1. UniProtKB: a comprehensive protein database that provides information about protein sequences, functions, and structures, as well as literature references and links to other resources.
2. PDB (Protein Data Bank): a database of three-dimensional protein structures determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
3. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): a web-based tool that allows users to compare a query protein sequence against a protein database to identify similar sequences and potential functional relationships.
4. InterPro: a database of protein families, domains, and functional sites that provides information about protein function based on sequence analysis and other data.
5. STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins): a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions, including physical and functional associations.

Protein databases are essential tools in proteomics research, enabling researchers to study protein function, evolution, and interaction networks on a large scale.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reading" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Reading is the activity or process of deciphering and understanding written words or text. It is a fundamental skill in language acquisition and communication, and is not typically used in a medical context unless there is a concern related to reading difficulties or disorders, such as dyslexia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Theta rhythm is a type of electrical brain activity that can be detected through an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical impulses generated by the brain's neurons. Theta waves have a frequency range of 4-8 Hz and are typically observed in the EEG readings of children, as well as adults during states of drowsiness, light sleep, or deep meditation.

Theta rhythm is thought to be involved in several cognitive processes, including memory consolidation, spatial navigation, and emotional regulation. It has also been associated with various mental states, such as creativity, intuition, and heightened suggestibility. However, more research is needed to fully understand the functional significance of theta rhythm and its role in brain function.

Exocytosis is the process by which cells release molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, to the extracellular space. This process involves the transport of these molecules inside vesicles (membrane-bound sacs) to the cell membrane, where they fuse and release their contents to the outside of the cell. It is a crucial mechanism for intercellular communication and the regulation of various physiological processes in the body.

Coatomer is a protein complex that plays a role in the formation of transport vesicles within cells. These vesicles are responsible for carrying proteins and other cargo between different cellular compartments. Coatomer gets its name from the coat-like structure it forms on the surface of budding vesicles. It is composed of several individual protein subunits, known as α-COP, β-COP, γ-COP, δ-COP, ε-COP, ζ-COP, and η-COP. These subunits work together to help recognize and bind to specific proteins, curvature the membrane, and ultimately pinch off the vesicle from the donor compartment.

Coatomer protein is primarily involved in transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus, but it also plays a role in other intracellular transport processes. Mutations or dysfunction in coatomer proteins have been linked to various diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Sialic Acid Storage Disease is a rare genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of sialic acids, which are sugars found on the surface of cells. There are two main types: Sialic acid storage disease type I (SASD I), also known as Sialidosis, and Sialic Acid Storage Disease type II (SASD II), also known as galactosialidosis.

In SASD I, there is a deficiency of the enzyme sialidase, which leads to an accumulation of sialic acids in various tissues and organs, including the brain, liver, and eyes. This can result in a range of symptoms, such as coarse facial features, intellectual disability, developmental delay, seizures, cherry-red spots on the retina, and problems with movement and coordination.

In SASD II, there is a deficiency of two enzymes: sialidase and cathepsin A. This results in an accumulation of both sialic acids and glycoproteins in various tissues and organs, leading to symptoms similar to those seen in SASD I, as well as additional features such as hearing loss, heart problems, and weakened bones.

Both forms of Sialic Acid Storage Disease are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the disease. Treatment is generally supportive and may include physical therapy, medications to manage symptoms, and dietary modifications. In some cases, enzyme replacement therapy or bone marrow transplantation may be considered as treatment options.

A Tissue Bank is a specialized facility that collects, stores, and distributes human tissues for medical research, transplantation, or therapeutic purposes. These tissues can include organs, bones, skin, heart valves, tendons, and other bodily tissues that can be used for various medical applications.

Tissue banks follow strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of the tissues they handle. They implement rigorous screening and testing procedures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and maintain the integrity of the tissues. The tissues are stored under specific conditions, such as temperature and humidity, to preserve their function and viability until they are needed for use.

Tissue banks play a critical role in advancing medical research and improving patient outcomes by providing researchers and clinicians with access to high-quality human tissues for study and transplantation.

Repetition priming is a phenomenon in cognitive psychology and neuroscience that refers to the improvement in an individual's ability to recognize or produce a stimulus as a result of having previously encountered it. In other words, repetition priming is the facilitated processing of a stimulus due to its prior presentation.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, repetition priming has been studied as a potential mechanism underlying various cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, perception, and language. For example, in the field of neuropsychology, researchers have used repetition priming paradigms to investigate the nature of implicit memory in patients with amnesia or other forms of memory impairment.

Repetition priming is typically measured using reaction time or accuracy measures in experimental tasks that involve presenting participants with a series of stimuli, some of which are repeated from earlier in the task. The effect of repetition priming is usually observed as a decrease in reaction time or an increase in accuracy for repeated stimuli compared to new stimuli.

Overall, repetition priming is an important concept in cognitive neuroscience and has implications for our understanding of various aspects of human cognition and behavior.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

In the context of medicine, problem-solving refers to the cognitive process by which healthcare professionals identify, analyze, and address clinical issues or challenges in order to provide optimal care for their patients. This may involve gathering relevant information, generating potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility and risks, selecting the most appropriate course of action, and implementing and monitoring the chosen intervention. Effective problem-solving skills are essential for making informed decisions, improving patient outcomes, and reducing medical errors.

Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-mannosidase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down complex sugar molecules called mannose-rich oligosaccharides, which are found on the surface of many different types of cells in the body.

When the alpha-mannosidase enzyme is deficient or not working properly, these sugar molecules accumulate inside the lysosomes (the recycling centers of the cell) and cause damage to various tissues and organs, leading to a range of symptoms.

The severity of the disease can vary widely, depending on the amount of functional alpha-mannosidase enzyme activity present in an individual's cells. Three main types of alpha-mannosidosis have been described: mild, moderate, and severe. The severe form is usually diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and is characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, and recurrent respiratory infections.

The moderate form of the disease may not be diagnosed until later in childhood or even adulthood, and it is generally milder than the severe form. Symptoms can include mild to moderate intellectual disability, skeletal abnormalities, hearing loss, and speech difficulties. The mild form of alpha-mannosidosis may not cause any noticeable symptoms until much later in life, and some individuals with this form of the disease may never experience any significant health problems.

Currently, there is no cure for alpha-mannosidosis, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms of the disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has shown promise in treating some forms of the disorder, but it is not yet widely available. Bone marrow transplantation has also been used to treat alpha-mannosidosis, with varying degrees of success.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

Concept formation in the medical context refers to the cognitive process of forming a concept or mental representation about a specific medical condition, treatment, or phenomenon. This involves identifying and integrating common characteristics, patterns, or features to create a coherent understanding. It's a critical skill for healthcare professionals, as it enables them to make accurate diagnoses, develop effective treatment plans, and conduct research.

In psychology, concept formation is often studied using tasks such as categorization, where participants are asked to sort objects or concepts into different groups based on shared features. This helps researchers understand how people form and use concepts in their thinking and decision-making processes.

Desiccation is a medical term that refers to the process of extreme dryness or the state of being dried up. It is the removal of water or moisture from an object or tissue, which can lead to its dehydration and preservation. In medicine, desiccation may be used as a therapeutic technique for treating certain conditions, such as drying out wet wounds or preventing infection in surgical instruments. However, desiccation can also have harmful effects on living tissues, leading to cell damage or death.

In a broader context, desiccation is also used to describe the process of drying up of an organ, tissue, or body part due to various reasons such as exposure to air, heat, or certain medical conditions that affect moisture regulation in the body. For example, diabetic patients may experience desiccation of their skin due to decreased moisture production and increased evaporation caused by high blood sugar levels. Similarly, people living in dry climates or using central heating systems may experience desiccation of their mucous membranes, leading to dryness of the eyes, nose, and throat.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

Computer-assisted radiographic image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist and enhance the interpretation and analysis of medical images produced by radiography, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. The computer-assisted system can help identify and highlight certain features or anomalies in the image, such as tumors, fractures, or other abnormalities, which may be difficult for the human eye to detect. This technology can improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, and may also reduce the risk of human error. It's important to note that the final interpretation and diagnosis is always made by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a radiologist, who takes into account the computer-assisted analysis in conjunction with their clinical expertise and knowledge.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

Diagnostic imaging is a medical specialty that uses various technologies to produce visual representations of the internal structures and functioning of the body. These images are used to diagnose injury, disease, or other abnormalities and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Common modalities of diagnostic imaging include:

1. Radiography (X-ray): Uses ionizing radiation to produce detailed images of bones, teeth, and some organs.
2. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Combines X-ray technology with computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate detailed images of soft tissues, organs, and bones.
4. Ultrasound: Employs high-frequency sound waves to produce real-time images of internal structures, often used for obstetrics and gynecology.
5. Nuclear Medicine: Involves the administration of radioactive tracers to assess organ function or detect abnormalities within the body.
6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: Uses a small amount of radioactive material to produce detailed images of metabolic activity in the body, often used for cancer detection and monitoring treatment response.
7. Fluoroscopy: Utilizes continuous X-ray imaging to observe moving structures or processes within the body, such as swallowing studies or angiography.

Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in modern medicine, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mathematical Concepts" is not a medical term. Mathematical concepts refer to the building blocks and principles that form the foundation of mathematics as a discipline. These can include ideas such as numbers, operations, functions, geometry, algebra, calculus, and many others.

If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help!

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Clinical medicine is a branch of medical practice that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in patients. It is based on the direct examination and evaluation of patients, including taking medical histories, performing physical examinations, ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, and formulating treatment plans. Clinical medicine encompasses various specialties such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology, among others. The goal of clinical medicine is to provide evidence-based, compassionate care to patients to improve their health outcomes and quality of life.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Hayes published text on information retrieval. Becker, Joseph; Hayes, Robert Mayo. Information storage and retrieval: tools, ... information retrieval Geographic information retrieval Information retrieval for chemical structures Information retrieval in ... "The use of hierarchic clustering in information retrieval". Information Storage and Retrieval. 7 (5): 217-240. doi:10.1016/0020 ... Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation (FIRE) Information Retrieval (online book) by C. J. van Rijsbergen Information ...
Information Storage and Retrieval. 8 (2): 95-98. doi:10.1016/0020-0271(72)90011-3. ISSN 0020-0271. "Jobnet forside". Archived ... organization Library studies Information architecture Information behavior Interactive information retrieval Information ... Information literacy is the ability to "determine the extent of information needed, access the needed information effectively ... as well as the new means for information retrieval called information literacy skills. All catalogs, databases, and a growing ...
"Karen Sparck Jones Publications". Spärck Jones, K. (1973). "Index term weighting". Information Storage and Retrieval. 9 (11): ... Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval. The Kluwer International Series on Information Retrieval. Vol. 16. pp. ... 2005). Charting a New Course: Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval, Essays in Honour of Karen Spärck Jones. ... Spärck Jones' main research interests, since the late 1950s, were natural language processing and information retrieval. In ...
Rhodes, Ida (1963). "Syntactic integration carried out mechanically". Information Storage and Retrieval. 1 (4): 215-219. doi: ...
Information Storage and Retrieval. 1 (1): 13-18. doi:10.1016/0020-0271(63)90004-4. Tomkeieff, S. (1944). "Physico-Chemical ...
He was Deputy Chief of the Technical Information Service. He also presented on the subject of Information Storage and Retrieval ... Information Storage and Retrieval. New York: Columbia University Press, 1958. (Use mdy dates from February 2021, Articles with ... Information Storage and Retrieval: Theory, Systems, and Devices. 1958. First recipient of the Distinguished Contributions to ... Mortimer Taube; Harold Wooster (1958). Information Storage and Retrieval. Columbia University Press. pp. viii. Mortimer Taube, ...
Kovalcik, Justin; Villalobos, Mike (2019). "Automated Storage & Retrieval System". Information Technology and Libraries. 38 (4 ... The Library maintains its own AS/RS (Automated Storage and Retrieval System), built in 1991, with a capacity of 1.7 million ... Chu, Henry (October 25, 1991). "Robotic Library : Information: CSUN students and staff can request selections through computers ...
Records and Information Creation and Use; Record Storage, Retrieval, Conversion, and Facilities; Records Appraisal, Retention, ... The CRA is a three-part examination including sections focused on: Records and Information Creation and Use; Record Storage, ... The ICRM offers a six-part examination including sections focused on: Management Principles and the Records and Information ( ... It is affiliated with ARMA International and the Nuclear Information and Records Management Association (NIRMA). It was ...
A History of Information Storage and Retrieval. McFarland & Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7864-0840-5. Sato, Masayuki. The Confucian ...
Boutcher (2011), p. 214 Boutcher (2011), p. 219 Stockwell, Foster (2001). A history of information storage and retrieval. ... Stockwell, Foster (2000). A History of Information and Storage Retrieval. North Carolina: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0840 ... and a newer library which was an information retrieval system for research and discussion by contemporary scholars. The ducal ... For storage, tablets could be stacked on edge, side by side, the contents described by a title written on the edge that faced ...
ISBN 3-7965-2013-8. Stockwell, Foster (2001). A history of information storage and retrieval. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-0840-5 ... "The Art of History and Eighteenth-Century Information Management: Christian Gottlieb Jöcher and Johann Heinrich Zedler." The ... Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy 83, no. 1 (2013): 26-38. https://doi.org/10.1086/668573. Werner Raupp (2006 ...
A History of Information Storage and Retrieval. p. 116. William Smellie in the Preface to the 1st edition of the Encyclopædia ... Information can be found in the Britannica by following the cross-references in the Micropædia and Macropædia; however, these ... Information in the Micropædia is sometimes inconsistent with the corresponding Macropædia article(s), mainly because of the ... Recent advances in information technology and the rise of electronic encyclopaedias such as Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate ...
Information storage and retrieval through quantum phase, Ahn J., T. Weinacht & P. Bucksbaum, 2000. Science, 287, 463-465. ... Ahn, J.; Weinacht, T. C.; Bucksbaum, P. H. (2000). "Information Storage and Retrieval Through Quantum Phase". Science. 287 ( ... He has subsequently used ultrafast lasers to study problems in quantum sculpting, quantum information, and coherent control of ... "Newsbreak: Light stores and retrieves quantum information". Laser Focus World. March 1, 2000. Retrieved 2013-06-15. Jacoby, ...
Mechanized information storage, retrieval and dissemination. Proceedings of the F.I.D./I.F.I.P. joint conference, Rome, June 14 ... Information and data in systems. With Börje Langefors. New York : Petrocelli/Charter. 1976. Information systems and networks : ... Automated international information networks. Systems design concepts, goal-setting and priorities. FID/TM Panel at the ASIS ... Systems, cybernetics and information networks. by K. Samuelson ... [et al.]. Compiled by FID/TM, Stockholm, Sweden. 1976. ...
Stockwell, Foster (2001). A History of Information Storage and Retrieval. p. 137. "MACWORLD EXPO 2002 Press Announcement". ... For instance, every article for a U.S. state has a box giving information about such things as the official state bird and tree ... The Multimedia Information Finder also features animations, videos, and a graphical timeline. In 1998, World Book launched its ... In 1995, the World Book Multimedia Information Finder CD-ROMs were released, which include more than 150,000 index entries, ...
Stockwell, Foster (2001). A history of information storage and retrieval. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0840-5. OCLC ... The history of electronic information storage dates back to the 18th century, with the invention of punched cards and paper ... In 1969, the invention of laser discs allowed for the storage and playback of high-quality video and audio data, but the format ... Early forms of electronic storage were used to store simple text and numerical data. In the late 19th century, the invention of ...
This presents problems for information storage and retrieval. For example, the University of Chicago's electronic copy of John ... Another code page for Urdu, which is used in India, is Perso-Arabic Script Code for Information Interchange. In Pakistan, the 8 ... "Urdu Language Management". Language Information Services (LIS)-India. Retrieved 23 July 2022. "Proposal of Inclusion of Certain ... see below for further information on diacritic omission in Urdu). Not present in dictionary order because it is not used at the ...
Spiegler I; Maayan R (1985). "Storage and retrieval considerations of binary data bases". Information Processing and Management ... "Storage and Retrieval Considerations of Binary Data Bases", published in 1985. The first commercial database product to ... N. Koudas (2000). "Space efficient bitmap indexing". Proceedings of the ninth international conference on Information and ... of the storage space consumed by WAH bitmaps and offer up to 20% faster performance on logical operations. Similar ...
"Information storage and retrieval using macromolecules as storage media". Optical Society of America Technical Digest Series. ... and this potentially is a major advantage as far as the information density on storage media is considered, which can never be ... and ultra-high density storage media. This selection of codewords (sequences of DNA oligonucleotides) is a major hurdle in ... with an introduction to cryptography and information theory. Chichester: Wiley. doi:10.1002/9781118033265. ISBN 978-0-471-62187 ...
... a generalised information storage and retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area ... "Information Processing Tools". Unesco. Archived from the original on 8 January 2015. "OpenIDAMS". Unesco. Archived from the ... Leach concluded that the record showed Israel bashing, a call for a new world information order, money management, and arms ... "Information for All Programme (IFAP) , United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". unesco.org. Archived ...
"United States Patent 4941125: Information storage and retrieval system". USPTO Patent Full-Text and Image Database. Alexandria ... automated storage and retrieval system He resigned as director of the museum in 1986. In 1998, Boyne co-founded the cable ...
A distributed decentralised information storage and retrieval system Archived 16 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Unpublished ... Freenet: A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. In: ... Ian Clarke's resulting unpublished report "A distributed decentralized information storage and retrieval system" (1999) ... A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System" (2001). According to CiteSeer, it became one of the most ...
Lastly, retrieval is the ability to recall information from the long-term memory storage. Each of these processes can be ... it hinders semantic storage functioning by restricting the consolidation of the information from encoding. Retrieval of ... Miller, M.E.; Adesso, V.J.; Fleming, J.P.; Gino, A.; Lauerman, R. (1978). "Effects of alcohol on the storage and retrieval ... Alcohol was found to impair the storage of novel stimuli but not that of previously learned information. Since alcohol affects ...
Method and apparatus for improved information storage and retrieval system. Enfish, LLC v. Microsoft Corp., 56 F. Supp. 3d 1167 ... The document table might contain information about stored documents, the person table might contain information about authors ... A data storage and retrieval system for a computer memory, comprising: means for configuring said memory according to a logical ... A logical model is a system for a computer database that explains how the various elements of information in the database are ...
Automated storage and retrieval system Information logistics Medina-Mora, R.; Winograd, T.; Flores, R.; Flores, F. The action ... actionable information and information logistics. Actionable information means having the necessary information immediately ... Information Logistics addresses the supply of information to users. Its goal is the efficient delivery of information tailored ... In Actionable Information Logistics the user controls the value-chain of retrieval, composition, transformation and delivery of ...
Murdock, B.B. (1982). "A theory for storage and retrieval of items and associative information". Psychological Review. 89 (6): ... The principle of parallel storage asserts that the encoding and storage of verbatim and gist information operate in parallel ... The retrieval of gist and verbatim traces: Retrieval cues work best with verbatim when the subject experiences different events ... According to FTT, retrieval of verbatim traces (recollective retrieval) is characterized by mental reinstatement of the ...
"Information Storage and Retrieval Systems". Supachai Tangwongsan, "Information Storage and Retrieval Systems", 3rd Edition, ... Information Storage and Retrieval Systems Book: Managing ICT Projects (Articles with short description, Short description is ... His best known work is Buddhist Scripture Information Retrieval (BUDSIR), the first computerized Buddhist Scripture of the ... 1998-2007 - Chief information officer (CIO) of Mahidol University. 1999-2007 - Vice president for academic infrastructures and ...
As a result, storage of information can then be performed within a few seconds. Indeed, one confounding factor in the study of ... Retrieval structures are hierarchically organized and can be thought of as nodes that are activated when information is ... Skilled memory theory involves three steps: meaningful encoding, retrieval structure, and speed-up. In encoding, information is ... Other subjects studied have used previous knowledge such as racing times or historical information to encode new information. ...
During this time, she began research on mechanized information storage and retrieval systems; she was also serving on the board ... Her worked focused on developing and improving mechanized systems of information storage and retrieval and systems for ... Brownson and the Early Years of Information Science Research". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and ... Jayroe, Tina J. (October 2012). "A humble servant: The work of Helen L. Brownson and the early years of information science ...
Private information retrieval techniques can allay the privacy concern with pull-based checks. Rather than clients performing ... the clients need to dedicate no storage to revocation information. Another proposal involved broadcasting revocation ... If revocation information is unavailable (either due to an accident or an attack), clients must decide whether to fail-hard and ... A CRL contains information about all of the certificates revoked by a CA, which means distributors and clients must incur ...
IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine. 5 (3): 202-209. doi:10.1109/4233.945291. PMID 11550842. S2CID ... Graupe, D.; Kordylewski, H. (1998-03-01). "A Large Memory Storage and Retrieval Neural Network for Adaptive Retrieval and ... A large memory storage and retrieval neural network (LAMSTAR) is a fast deep learning neural network of many layers that can ... ISBN 978-981-4522-74-8. A US 5920852 A D. Graupe," Large memory storage and retrieval (LAMSTAR) network, April 1996 Graupe 2013 ...
Averbach, E; Sperling, G (1961). "Short-term storage of information in vision". In C. Cherry (ed.). Information Theory. London ... Without active retrieval, iconic memory averages to disappear within half a second. The theory of gradual decay in visual ... It reduces the active maintenance and storage of sensory information by altering transient neural responses during the initial ... However, information stored in sensory memory is considered to facilitate exponential decay. In 1960, George Sperling became ...
... Turning data ... Alchemy combines document, content and storage management in one archival storage and retrieval software package that now links ... A feature promoted by IMR is low cost for archival storage and retrieval--an average cost of about $100,000 for software, CD ... That piece is strongly focused on archival storage and retrieval and is built around the Alchemy product. ...
Evolution of information storage ? Mon, 2012-09-03 13:43 - tvvaidy Does it make any sense if I were to say that Harry potter is ... information retrieval. *warning: Creating default object from empty value in /courses/i202/public_html/f12/modules/taxonomy/ ... Siri, Google Now as information retrieval systems. Wed, 2012-11-28 08:24 - seema With Google launching a voice search to ... Im led to question the role of such voice based search assistants in the future of information retrieval. ...
Storage and retrieval of group theoretical information Published:. 1 January 1971, Version 1 , DOI: 10.17632/fm4ckxcbz4.1 ...
Information architecture. *Information system. Electronic information storage and retrieval[edit]. *Data storage *Boolean ... Chronology of chemical information science. *Information science pioneers - Biographies of pioneers and famous information ... Library and information science (LIS) is the scientific study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. This ... Nature of library and information science[edit]. Definition[edit]. Library and information science can be described as all of ...
Hayes published text on information retrieval. Becker, Joseph; Hayes, Robert Mayo. Information storage and retrieval: tools, ... information retrieval Geographic information retrieval Information retrieval for chemical structures Information retrieval in ... "The use of hierarchic clustering in information retrieval". Information Storage and Retrieval. 7 (5): 217-240. doi:10.1016/0020 ... Forum for Information Retrieval Evaluation (FIRE) Information Retrieval (online book) by C. J. van Rijsbergen Information ...
... provides an automatic way of managing and distributing data between the different storage layers in order to meet the users ... For more information about independent ASPs, refer to Backup and recovery of auxiliary storage pool devices. For more ... Dynamic Retrieval. Besides having the ability to archive the data off to removable media, it is just as important to recover ... To find out more information about how to setup BRMS for HSM, refer to Hierarchical Storage Management. ...
Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified ...
... medical information storage & retrieval systems (49,409) medical databases (49,030) information storage & retrieval systems ( ... psychology information storage & retrieval systems (17,932) quality assurance (4,721) quality of life (3,730) randomized ... information today inc. (227) international association for development of the information society (iadis) (49) ios press (1,008 ... academic press inc. (42) african online scientific information system pty ltd (84) american medical association (185) american ...
Information Retrieval through the Audio Music Similarity task - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Information Retrieval • Automatic representation, storage and search of unstructured information - Traditionally textual ... Information Retrieval through the Audio Music Similarity task. *1. . Evaluation in (Music) Information Retrieval through the ... Information Retrieval has been used for half a century now as the means to evaluate and compare retrieval techniques and ...
Accessing individual storage nodes in a bi-directional... Static information storage and retrieval - Floating gate - Particular ... Our data reflects the most accurate information available at the time of publication. ...
Results of search for su:{Information storage and retrieval.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... Changing roles of NGOs in the creation, storage, and dissemination of information in developing countries / edited by Steve W ... Preserving digital information / Henry M. Gladney. by Gladney, Henry M.. Material type: Text; Format: print ; Literary form: ... Teaching package on standardisation in information handling. by Unesco.. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication details ...
Ad hoc information retrieval (ad hoc IR) is a challenging task consisting of ranking text documents for bag-of-words (BOW) ... scientific, publication, term, analysis, control, storage, retrieval]. 98. [online, retrieval, system, ... information, provide, reference,. entry, information, provide,. information, organization,. citation, information,. service, ... Information retrieval (IR) studies techniques and methods to retrieve information from unstructured or semi-structured data ...
Recordak Announces the Minicard Electronic-Microfilm Medium for Unit Record Storage and Search and Retrieval ... "electronic-microfilm medium for the unit record storage and single-search retrieval of documentary information." This room- ... "The positive film records are now ready for sorting into the working file, the storage of information used for searching ... System is an electronic-microfilm medium for the unit record storage and single search retrieval of documentary information. ...
Smithsonian Horizons: information storage and retrieval system. *Date: September 1985. *Creator: Adams, Robert McCormick 1926- ... Showing results 1 - 12 of 943 for Information storage and retrieval systems ... Showing results 1 - 12 of 943 for Information storage and retrieval systems ... Secretary Carmichael attends International Conference on Scientific Information. *Date: November 16-21, 1958 ...
Asymmetry Helps: Improved Private Information Retrieval Protocols for Distributed Storage. In IEEE Information Theory Workshop ... In 2016 9th International Symposium on Turbo Codes and Iterative Information Processing (ISTC 2016). IEEE Press, 2016. ... In 2018 IEEE 10th International Symposium on Turbo Codes Iterative Information Processing (ISTC). IEEE, 2018. ... In 2018 IEEE 10th International Symposium on Turbo Codes Iterative Information Processing (ISTC). IEEE, 2018. ...
... storage and retrieval system for ancient document archives * Pasquale Savino ISTI-CNR - Italian Research Council - Information ... storage and retrieval system for ancient document archives. International Journal of Information Science and Technology, [S.l ... International Journal of Information Science and Technology (iJIST) - ISSN: 2550-5114 Long-term archiving is assured by Portico ... paper presents a document management system and a metadata schema that make possible the storage and content-based retrieval of ...
Large-scale multi-modal information indexing: Storage and access to data needs to be defined in a principled way. While large- ... affective information retrieval (recherche dinformation), information visualisation, content-based image and video retrieval ( ... Large-scale multi-modal information retrieval: Building on the above, retrieval strategies must be constructed and adapted so ... There is a growing interest to map established findings in content-based multimedia information retrieval to these large-scale ...
IFT 200: Information Modeling, Storage and Retrieval. View course details IFT 202: Foundations of Information and Computer ... Master of Science in information technology.. What will I learn in an online IT degree program?. In this information technology ... An information technology degree can lead you to lucrative career opportunities in information management functions of IT ... Information technology is a broad field, which is why youll have an opportunity to specialize in your areas of interest. In ...
Static Information Storage and Retrieval 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 ... Electronic Information Products Division - PTMT. P.O Box 1450. Alexandria VA 22313-1450 ...
Information Storage and Retrieval / methods* * Review Literature as Topic * Sensitivity and Specificity ...
Information Storage and Retrieval / methods* * MEDLINE * Peer Review / methods* * Review Literature as Topic* ... 6 Cochrane Information Retrieval Methods Group; Lefebvre Associates Ltd, Manor Farm Cottage, Thrupp, Kidlington, OX5 1JY, UK. ... Keywords: Evidence synthesis; Guideline; Information retrieval; Literature search; Peer review; Systematic review. ... Cochrane Information Retrieval Methods Group. Electronic address: [email protected].. *2 Childrens Hospital of Eastern ...
Databases and Information Retrieval; Data Representation and Simulation; Data Storage Technology; Data Structures and ... Illinois Center for Cryptography and Information Protection. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications. Center for ... Illinois Center for Cryptography and Information Protection - Research. Center for Simulation of Advanced Rockets - Research. ... Computing This category covers research into all aspects of information processing, including computers, software and ...
Memory formation involves registering information, processing and storage, and retrieval.. Emotion affects all the phases of ... 2. Consolidation of a memory: Most of the information we acquire is forgotten and never makes it into long-term memory. When we ... For example, when you remember your summer vacation to Canada, there is just too much information to evaluate whether it was an ... In contrast, under situations of high stimulation, the focus of attention is too narrow, and important information may be lost ...
Describe data collection, storage, and retrieval methods. Explain data integration and interoperability, including data ... Describe data collection, storage, and retrieval methods. Explain data integration and interoperability, including data ... Sort/merge operations; hashing schemes for storage and retrieval. Projects involve data validation; creation and updating of ... Sort/merge operations; hashing schemes for storage and retrieval. Projects involve data validation; creation and updating of ...
Describe data collection, storage, and retrieval methods. Explain data integration and interoperability, including data ... Sort/merge operations; hashing schemes for storage and retrieval. Projects involve data validation; creation and updating of ... CIS 575 - Computer Information Systems Analysis. Design and Integration (3 hours) Computer information systems analysis, design ... CIS 530 - Information Technology Infrastructure (3 hours) Enterprise information technology infrastructure including networking ...
Freenet: A distributed anonymous information storage and retrieval system. In Proc. Int. Work- shop on Design Issues in ... If the lookup succeeds, the name is displayed on the OpenBazaar GUI and the information is relayed; otherwise the information ... When a node broadcasts its information over the OpenBazaar network, they include their user-friendly name if it exists. If a ... In particular, if an attacker is given only global topological information about a web-of-trust as well as some pseudonymous ...
  • Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called information overload. (wikipedia.org)
  • Automated information retrieval systems were introduced in the 1950s: one even featured in the 1957 romantic comedy, Desk Set. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large-scale retrieval systems, such as the Lockheed Dialog system, came into use early in the 1970s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The introduction of web search engines has boosted the need for very large scale retrieval systems even further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval. (sandia.gov)
  • This room-sized system may have been the ultimate development, or near the ultimate development, of the electromechanical analog systems originally invented by Emanuel Goldberg and Vannevar Bush for storing, indexing, and retrieving information on microfilm. (historyofinformation.com)
  • It may have also been the first true commercialization of the ideas of Goldberg and Bush, since it appears that prior to the development of the Recordak Minicard system there may have been no commercially marketed electronically searchable microfilm or microfiche storage and indexing systems. (historyofinformation.com)
  • It was discussed in detail in the Bagg and Stevens report, Information Selection Systems, Retrieving Replica Copies (1961). (historyofinformation.com)
  • That it was publicized in that format suggests that the same people who might have been exploring computers as information systems in the early days of the industry in 1959 probably had to depend upon analog systems for image storage because of technical limitations, issues of reliability, and high cost of computing at the time. (historyofinformation.com)
  • Classical challenges in the design of multimedia information systems are now augmented by the growth of collections in size, complexity and diversity of the data, complexity of the information networks. (unige.ch)
  • Information systems. (asu.edu)
  • You'll graduate from this ABET-accredited program prepared for roles that allow you to innovate how organizations use computer technology to build information systems. (asu.edu)
  • You'll explore topics from information system security to advanced systems configuration. (asu.edu)
  • Builds on previous CS 101, CS 102, and CS 140 courses in programming and focuses on applications of data structures, graphs and trees, algorithms, proof techniques, problem solving strategies, and file structures in programming, software development, and computer information systems. (bradley.edu)
  • Computer information systems integration: architectures, socket programming, Web services, and message and queuing services. (bradley.edu)
  • Citrus County marked Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Day on Wednesday, Nov. 15, by recognizing the innovative applications of GIS technology in data analysis, visualization, and thought leadership in the geospatial field. (wn.com)
  • Automated storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS) include hardware and software for automating the storage function. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Different types of systems are deployed depending on the load or weight of the product, the volume of storage, and the industry vertical. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Automated storage and retrieval systems have certain disadvantages, including vulnerability to power outages, mechanical breakdowns, the need for regular maintenance, and occasional misplacing of items. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The pandemic accelerated the adoption of warehousing automation solutions such as automated storage and retrieval systems. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • These systems provide high storage density and are primarily suitable for small items. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • As a result, the city faced the problem of centralizing account information through the consolidation of these disparate systems. (itworldcanada.com)
  • Geographic information systems are powerful automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. (cdc.gov)
  • BVS Infobutton: VHL information contextualized in electronic health record systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • Health information management has become one of the essential elements of all national health care systems. (who.int)
  • the quality of data and its transformation into information are fundamental to the efficiency and effectiveness of all information systems. (who.int)
  • Health information systems represent a key component of national health systems. (who.int)
  • 3 Regional Committee documents: Resolution AFR/RC54/R3, Priority interventions for strengthening national health information systems. (who.int)
  • The organization of knowledge for efficient retrieval of relevant information is also a major research goal of library science. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are involved in the organization of the ImageCLEF multimedia retrieval track based on the Wikipedia collection comprising few hundred of thousands of images with associated text. (unige.ch)
  • It brings together concepts and methods from disciplines such as library science , computer science and engineering, linguistics , and psychology in order to develop techniques and devices to aid in the handling-that is, in the collection, organization, storage, retrieval, interpretation, and use-of information. (britannica.com)
  • These tools focus on three key issues in forming a collaborative team: helping individuals responsible for forming the team to understand what is available, helping them structure and categorize on the information available to them in a manner specifically suited to the task at hand, and helping them understand the mappings between their organization of the information and those used by others who might participate. (dlib.org)
  • http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/ard/african-health-observatory-a-knowledge-management/aho- publications.html Geneva, World Health Organization 2008. (who.int)
  • All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. (who.int)
  • Turning data into gold is how Information Management Research (IMR, www.imrgold.com) introduces itself on its Web site, and at AIIM the company is announcing a pair of golden knowledge management slippers--agreements with Documentum (www.documentum.com) and PC Docs (www.pcdocs.com)--as well as two shiny new products--Alchemy Web Server and a DVD archival solution co-developed with Pioneer (www.pioneerusa.com). (kmworld.com)
  • Monica Rogati and her husband have created an app called as the Baby I/O. This app can capture information that indicates the baby's activities throughout the day and uses that data to analyze various things. (berkeley.edu)
  • Information retrieval is the science of searching for information in a document, searching for documents themselves, and also searching for the metadata that describes data, and for databases of texts, images or sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hierarchical storage management (HSM) provides an automatic way of managing and distributing data between the different storage layers in order to meet the users' needs for accessing data while minimizing the overall cost. (ibm.com)
  • however, BRMS also provides Dynamic Retrieval of the data. (ibm.com)
  • Our data reflects the most accurate information available at the time of publication. (landoffree.com)
  • International food data bases and information exchange : concepts, principles and designs / volume editors, Artemis P. Simopoulos, Ritva R. Butrum. (who.int)
  • however, anyone interested in the issue at the time would have probably known that microfilm was a more reliable long term method of storage than the new and less-tested reel tape on which data was digitally stored at the time. (historyofinformation.com)
  • The support of these collections over the web associates this multimedia data with textual information (e.g. meta-data, tags, webpages). (unige.ch)
  • In this project, we wish to propose solutions to enable indexing and retrieval of multimedia data for large-scale collections and in a distributed context of processing and data distribution. (unige.ch)
  • Storage and access to data needs to be defined in a principled way. (unige.ch)
  • In this context, retrieval procedures are constrained to be parsimonious in their access to the data. (unige.ch)
  • In your courses, you'll gain applied skills, such as designing and developing viable information technology solutions, managing big data and computer networks and improving the security of technology assets. (asu.edu)
  • Depending on the specialization you choose, your courses will cover timely topics in information technology, such as cloud computing, computer architecture, data management, networking, software development and more. (asu.edu)
  • The system contains such records as physical examinations, questionnaires, results of laboratory tests (physiological measures and performance tests), workplace performances records, occupational histories, medical histories, demographic data, and related medical information. (cdc.gov)
  • To support this very initial phase of team development, the project has developed information analysis tools that help make sense of sets of data sources in an intranet or internet: characterizing them, partitioning them, sorting and filtering them. (dlib.org)
  • In contrast to many other efforts in information search and retrieval, which emphasize retrieval and are focused on finding a specific document, the DASHER Information Space Analysis Tools focus on making sense of sets of data sources: characterizing them, partitioning them, sorting and filtering them. (dlib.org)
  • Integration of genetic and clinical information to improve imputation of data missing from electronic health records. (nih.gov)
  • genetic information to perform EHR data imputation.We used the individual single nucleotide polymorphism's association with phenotype variables in the EHR as input to construct a genetic risk score that quantifies the genetic contribution to the phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, v5.0 allows users to update any data source reported from, so users can drill down from a report and update information. (itworldcanada.com)
  • OLAP allows users to drill down into information contained in a report, slicing and dicing the data to better understand a trend. (itworldcanada.com)
  • WebFOCUS also includes Information Builders' middleware software, iWAY, which is responsible for retrieving data and ferreting it into WebFOCUS. (itworldcanada.com)
  • Amazon S3 is the main data storage solution that we rely on to host and manage over 12 billion photos totaling 10 petabytes of data. (amazon.com)
  • We know that the vast majority of our data will be stored for many years, and so it's increasingly important that we optimally use a range of Amazon S3 storage classes to achieve the lowest cost of storage over the lifetime of our data. (amazon.com)
  • Previously, we would first upload all photos to S3 Standard, a storage class designed for frequently accessed data. (amazon.com)
  • We knew S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval was most likely the perfect fit for our needs as it offers the lowest-cost archive storage with milliseconds retrieval for rarely accessed data. (amazon.com)
  • But we still had to determine the optimal time to start using this storage class, such as after a certain amount of days our data has been retained. (amazon.com)
  • We first considered adding an extra lifecycle from S3 Standard-IA to S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval to only store data older than 90 days. (amazon.com)
  • But here's the funny thing: complicated data storage devices don't necessarily provide the highest level of protection to their owners' information. (datarecovery.net)
  • With this in mind, ACE Data Recovery team, the top of the line provider of A-grade data retrieval throughout the United States, offers professional assistance with hard drives, solid-state drives, RAID/NAS , gadget recovery to all PC and Mac users in Marietta, GA. Whatever happens to a data storage device, dealing with real pros ensures a favorable outcome in most cases of data inaccessibility. (datarecovery.net)
  • For your convenience, ACE Data Recovery has an office in Atlanta, GA . Whenever you're ready to start a free diagnostic evaluation of your media, call us at 1-877-304-7189 , bring your storage device to our Atlanta, GA office, and be sure your data is in professionals hands. (datarecovery.net)
  • Yeah, people in Marietta, GA do rely on ACE Data Recovery when it comes to retrieving intact pieces of sensitive information from faulty or completely dead file storages. (datarecovery.net)
  • When nasty things happen to a data storage device, the result is nearly almost the same - data inaccessibility. (datarecovery.net)
  • In opposite to guys-with-skills in Marietta, certified specialists making the core of ACE Data Recovery, use only reliable data retrieval solutions tested in real practice . (datarecovery.net)
  • Perhaps a major misconception regarding professional data recovery services is that people in and around Marietta, GA often think that A-grade data retrieval remains a luxury for most individual users and small businesses. (datarecovery.net)
  • To minimize expenses and prevent vital information on a dead PC, Apple device or RAID server from further corruption, reasonable people in Marietta use the advantage of ACE Data Recovery services. (datarecovery.net)
  • Call ACE Data Recovery today to know more about the high-class data retrieval in Marietta, GA. (datarecovery.net)
  • AHO is seen as the core of a reinforced regional health information system, interacting with national health observatories in the Member States to contribute to monitoring and evaluation, data collection and analysis at national level. (who.int)
  • quality and timely data and information. (who.int)
  • ICD-9 is designed for the classification of morbidity and mortality information for statistical purposes, and for the indexing of hospital records by disease and operations, for data storage and retrieval. (cdc.gov)
  • The concept of extending the International Classification of Diseases for use in hospital indexing was originally developed in response to a need for a more efficient basis for storage and retrieval of diagnostic data. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, computer and information technology occupations are projected to grow 15% from 2021 to 2031, which is much faster than average for all occupations. (asu.edu)
  • Prior to the launch of S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval at re:Invent 2021, we used the S3 Standard and S3 Standard-Infrequent Access (S3 Standard-IA) storage classes . (amazon.com)
  • Distance between sets as an objective measure of retrieval effectiveness. (uni-trier.de)
  • This program accommodates the automatic storage and retrieval of information about the mineral deposit location, name, ownership, surrounding land and environmental factors, geological makeup, ore tonnage and grade, extraction system, beneficiation system, and transportation system. (cdc.gov)
  • With Google launching a voice search to compete with Siri on the iOS platform, and Apple being set to launch Siri even on the new Mac OS, I'm led to question the role of such voice based search assistants in the future of information retrieval. (berkeley.edu)
  • Queries are formal statements of information needs, for example search strings in web search engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • automatically selects and types out those references which have been coded in any desired way at a rate of 120 words a minute - J. E. Holmstrom, 1948 The idea of using computers to search for relevant pieces of information was popularized in the article As We May Think by Vannevar Bush in 1945. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Information storage and retrieval. (who.int)
  • In 1955 the Recordak microfilm division of Kodak in New York City announced the Minicard System , an "electronic-microfilm medium for the unit record storage and single-search retrieval of documentary information. (historyofinformation.com)
  • The Minicard System is an electronic-microfilm medium for the unit record storage and single search retrieval of documentary information. (historyofinformation.com)
  • The archive will offer the possibility of describing, storing and accessing all the available manuscript versions, document transcriptions and annotations, and to search and retrieve documents based on all this information. (innove.org)
  • This paper looks at information search and retrieval from the perspective of team formation. (dlib.org)
  • In the 1960s, the first large information retrieval research group was formed by Gerard Salton at Cornell. (wikipedia.org)
  • I believe that it is noteworthy that this extremely elaborate microfilm system was developed in parallel with the earliest commercial stored-program computers, and that it co-existed into at least the 1960s, and probably beyond, as a means of storing, indexing and retrieving information. (historyofinformation.com)
  • In its early stages during the 1960s, information science was primarily concerned with applying the then-new computer technology to the processing and managing of documents. (britannica.com)
  • Cochrane Information Retrieval Methods Group. (nih.gov)
  • DASHER's Information Space Analysis Tools are unique in combining multiple methods to assist in this task. (dlib.org)
  • The information analysis tool set being developed is unique in combining multiple methods to assist in understanding, particularly natural-language text extraction techniques and ontology-based categorization. (dlib.org)
  • The aim of this was to look into the information retrieval community by supplying the infrastructure that was needed for evaluation of text retrieval methodologies on a very large text collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Test-collection based evaluation in (Music) Information Retrieval has been used for half a century now as the means to evaluate and compare retrieval techniques and advance the state of the art. (slideshare.net)
  • While the former will be a proper retrieval performance evaluation platform, the latter will be a suitable testbed for scalability of our system and procedures. (unige.ch)
  • Emphasis should therefore be placed on information that has value in decision-making, evaluation, planning and policy development. (who.int)
  • The applied computer technologies-and more recently, the theoretical areas of study-of information science have since permeated many other disciplines and have even been appropriated by new fields, each preferring a more descriptive designation of its subject domain. (britannica.com)
  • Information in this context is to be understood as distinguishable (quantum) states. (orionsarm.com)
  • It presents the BVS Infobutton, a platform available in the Virtual Health Library developed to recovery of technical and scientific information according to the context of Clinical Information System. (bvsalud.org)
  • The global automated storage and retrieval system market size was valued at USD 5.71 billion in 2022 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.8% from 2023 to 2030. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Whereas books required control through cataloging and classification, periodicals required indexes and abstracts that would bring together for the researcher primary information originally published in divergent sources. (britannica.com)
  • However, the capabilities for leveraging information for improved health are limited and unevenly distributed in the African Region. (who.int)
  • Citing the example of a service rep who needs information quickly to respond to an angry customer, Lucarini said, "Our technology gives Documentum and PC Docs users the capability to store millions of records and documents on inexpensive direct access media, and deliver that one customer's folder to the rep within seconds. (kmworld.com)
  • In 1992, the US Department of Defense along with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cosponsored the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) as part of the TIPSTER text program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arizona State University's Bachelor of Science in information technology (IT) may be an ideal fit. (asu.edu)
  • Have questions about the Information Technology (BS) ? (asu.edu)
  • What is an online information technology degree? (asu.edu)
  • Information technology is a broad field, which is why you'll have an opportunity to specialize in your areas of interest. (asu.edu)
  • In this information technology degree, you'll gain the expertise needed for designing, developing, implementing and managing information solutions. (asu.edu)
  • An information technology degree can lead you to lucrative career opportunities in information management functions of IT departments. (asu.edu)
  • In this online IT degree, you'll take a set of information technology-focused STEM and core, general education and focus area courses for a balanced, well-rounded curriculum. (asu.edu)
  • After the Georgia Institute of Technology established the first formal information science program in 1963, the discipline quickly developed at a number of other universities either as an independent field of study or as a specialty within such departments as library science, computer science, or engineering. (britannica.com)
  • The basic assumption in this paper is that information technology has no value unless the information component is the prime target. (who.int)
  • Information technology is a tool to help the management of information. (who.int)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be to discuss the ways in which information and communication technology (ICT) can contribute to the improvement of health care. (who.int)
  • Above all, the African Health Observatory is an information technology platform designed to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration and partnership in accessing and using information for 1 WHO. (who.int)
  • United Nations Information System in Science and Technology. (bvsalud.org)
  • For example, when you remember your summer vacation to Canada, there is just too much information to evaluate whether it was an enjoyable trip. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This is when children really evaluate new information and categorise it for storage. (comprehensivepsychology.com.au)
  • Information retrieval (IR) in computing and information science is the process of obtaining information system resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • In information retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in the collection. (wikipedia.org)
  • An object is an entity that is represented by information in a content collection or database. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1970s several different retrieval techniques had been shown to perform well on small text corpora such as the Cranfield collection (several thousand documents). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have also created contacts with maintainers of the CoPhIR (Content-based Photo Image Retrieval) collection comprising now 106 millions tagged images from Flickr. (unige.ch)
  • A simulation model of an information retrieval system. (uni-trier.de)
  • The unit load cranes are suitable for big/bulky loads and freezer environments, thus finding application in cold storage facilities along with regular warehousing. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • We believed that S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval could be a suitable solution to meet our needs and that implementing it could be relatively simple, since it would only be an additional storage class to configure in our lifecycle. (amazon.com)
  • Natural Language Processing requires the creation of transcriptions of the text contained in the manuscript, as well as encoding of the document structure and creation of user annotations.This paper presents a document management system and a metadata schema that make possible the storage and content-based retrieval of original documents, elaborations performed to improve their readability, textual transcriptions, and linguistic annotations. (innove.org)
  • The purpose of this system is to permit acquisition of information related to certification and performance of personal protective equipment, and safety research studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The focus of DASHER (Defense Acquisition Services for High Performance Electronic Commerce) is the rapid formation and utilization of task-oriented information repositories in order to help organizations with rapid-response mission requirements. (dlib.org)
  • In 2016 9th International Symposium on Turbo Codes and Iterative Information Processing (ISTC 2016) . (simula.no)
  • Presentado en el Taller de la Red REA CVSP-BIREME 2018 como Evento satélite del CRICS10. (bvsalud.org)
  • If the available epidemiological and clinical information are not adequate to permit a best guess for reporting purposes, then report the case as Flavivirus disease, not otherwise specified (Flavivirus NOS) using condition code 50237. (cdc.gov)
  • Optimal trees for a class of information retrieval problems. (uni-trier.de)
  • This opens many new opportunities for the diffusion of these precious cultural assets, since several scholars and researchers, as well as the general public, may access and use them for research purposes, for study, and for general information. (innove.org)
  • 2. Information access. (bvsalud.org)
  • Interface for Access on Health Information. (bvsalud.org)
  • Delivering health care to the population is a complex endeavour that is highly dependent on information about the individual patients, the techniques of care, the care provided, the outcome of the care, as well as the performance of the health care provider. (who.int)
  • To estimate the ratio of photos and what savings to expect, we had to consider a major factor in our S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval implementation. (amazon.com)
  • Alchemy combines document, content and storage management in one archival storage and retrieval software package that now links to the Web. (kmworld.com)
  • KMWorld is the leading publisher, conference organizer, and information provider serving the knowledge management, content management, and document management markets. (kmworld.com)
  • There is a growing interest to map established findings in content-based multimedia information retrieval to these large-scale contexts. (unige.ch)
  • We have a lot of customers who are very interested in publishing information out of their document management system," said Farlin. (kmworld.com)
  • To find out more information about how to setup BRMS for HSM, refer to Hierarchical Storage Management . (ibm.com)
  • Independent ASPs and encryption are not documented in Hierarchical Storage Management . (ibm.com)
  • Used to their optimum level, as tools for analysis and decision making, they are indeed a new information management vehicle with a rich potential for public health and epidemiology. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of information management in health care is to obtain, manage and utilize information to improve the performance of health care and medical services, governance and management and support processes. (who.int)
  • In the first part of the review of The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload , I addressed the direct impact of information overload (it's here ). (thorprojects.com)
  • We're social creatures, and information overload is changing how we relate. (thorprojects.com)
  • Are you interested in designing and implementing computer-based information solutions for today's knowledge-based problems? (asu.edu)
  • Using the latest solutions in the field of sensitive information storage and processing offers enormous potential for both business owners and individual users in Marietta, GA. Lightning-speed SSD units, high-capacity hard disk drives, super reliable RAID/NAS/JBOD platforms and "smart" portable widgets of last generation make lives of modern users easier. (datarecovery.net)
  • For more information, please refer to https://www.mdpi.com/openaccess . (mdpi.com)
  • The AS/RS provides high-density storage and saves about 85% of the space by racking and shelving. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Like all microfilm products, the system was touted for its ability to store paper records in less space, but in this case with the value added of rapidly searching and retrieving information from storage. (historyofinformation.com)
  • For the 77 percent of state cases and 49 percent of NEISS cases that had sufficient information to determine factors contributing to illness or injury, the most common contributing factors included mixing incompatible products, spills and splashes of chemicals, lack of appropriate PPE use, and dust clouds or fumes generated by opening a chemical container. (cdc.gov)
  • Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. (cdc.gov)
  • Storage is vital for products that are slow or medium movers that need to be stored for a longer duration. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • In 2018 IEEE 10th International Symposium on Turbo Codes Iterative Information Processing (ISTC) . (simula.no)
  • This is made possible if the documents, their descriptions, and the result of all processing activities performed on them are acquired at a good quality and can be easily accessed by using simple and powerful retrieval mechanisms.Acquired manuscripts suffer of degradations that may require different types of elaborations on the digital images, to improve their visual quality and legibility, or to discover hidden text that is not visible. (innove.org)
  • Computing This category covers research into all aspects of information processing, including computers, software and communications. (trnmag.com)
  • Memory formation involves registering information, processing and storage, and retrieval. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Computronics technologies are devoted to converting matter into forms capable of processing information - chipsets, vatbrains, computronium, and more. (orionsarm.com)
  • The communication of factual information through various channels. (uni-trier.de)
  • The study of libraries and information both in terms of theory and practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Library and information science ( LIS ) is the scientific study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • information science , discipline that deals with the processes of storing and transferring information. (britannica.com)
  • The roots of the discipline of information science lay in three post-World War II developments: the Shannon-Weaver information theory model, Norbert Wiener's conception of the science of cybernetics , and rapid advances in the design and production of electronic computers . (britannica.com)
  • The institutionalization of information science as a discrete discipline thus has not occurred, and the number of its scientist-practitioners is low. (britannica.com)
  • A feature promoted by IMR is low cost for archival storage and retrieval--an average cost of about $100,000 for software, CD jukeboxes, installation and maintenance. (kmworld.com)
  • In the past, IMR has focused on hardware and then on software, but is now concentrating on archival storage, Zoellick said. (kmworld.com)
  • For more information about encryption, refer to Software encryption using BRMS . (ibm.com)
  • iWAY Software is a separate company owned by Information Builders which sports the same name as its flagship product - iWAY Software. (itworldcanada.com)
  • As a result of clumsy DIY actions, faulty desktop drives, external HDDs, Apple SSD drives, RAID arrays and USB Flash devices often turn into useless pieces of plastic or aluminum stuffed with corrupted information. (datarecovery.net)
  • His research interests are in the general area of coding and information theory with applications to privacy and security, distributed machine learning, edge and cloud computing, and DNA storage. (simula.no)
  • If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or just looking for general information about environmental health research or the institute, this page will help. (nih.gov)
  • The high pick accuracy ensures smooth warehouse operations for any functions, including storage, order picking, and assembly. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. (nih.gov)
  • This ensures that business information is transmitted to all the applications and tools involved in a business process. (itworldcanada.com)
  • Building on the above, retrieval strategies must be constructed and adapted so as to handle multimodality. (unige.ch)
  • The first description of a computer searching for information was described by Holmstrom in 1948, detailing an early mention of the Univac computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • An information retrieval process begins when a user or searcher enters a query into the system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea of a `health observatory', as an online repository of quality and reliable information on human health and institutions of care, has gained growing global popularity since the mid-1970s. (who.int)
  • A well-functioning national health information based decision-making and by the belief that health system (HIS) is a prerequisite for the provision of developments can be planned and monitored with reliable and timely health-related information. (who.int)
  • In International Zurich Seminar on Information and Communication . (simula.no)
  • Ad hoc information retrieval (ad hoc IR) is a challenging task consisting of ranking text documents for bag-of-words (BOW) queries. (mdpi.com)
  • Finally, the tools help users define their own categories, and sort a set of documents according to those categories, by mapping users' structuring of the information onto the explicit and implicit characterizations that have been extracted from the document set. (dlib.org)
  • Other enhancements include streamlined information distribution, enabling the ability to deliver WebFOCUS and third-party reports - such as image files and Microsoft Word documents - to users on a scheduled or alert basis. (itworldcanada.com)
  • This Guide includes criteria for the selection of documents to be included in the LILACS database, one of the Information Sources of the VHL (Virtual Health Library). (bvsalud.org)
  • In IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT) . (simula.no)
  • Evaluating information storage and retrieval system - A decision theory approach. (uni-trier.de)
  • In this blog post, I share our experience using Amazon S3 and S3 Lifecycle policies to optimize our storage costs, while keeping the same level of performance by using Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval . (amazon.com)
  • Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you're on a federal government site. (nih.gov)