The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 10 and neuraminidase 7. It has been isolated from a variety of wild and domestic animals including ducks, emu, and mink. It was found for the first time in humans in 2004.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Pages in category "Films about viral outbreaks". The following 133 pages are in this category, out of 133 total. This list may ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Films_about_viral_outbreaks&oldid=983796058" ...
Mice infected with influenza and exposed to DEP had higher viral titres and neutrophilia compared with infected mice, yet they ... Mice infected with influenza and exposed to DEP had higher viral titres and neutrophilia compared with infected mice, yet they ... Mice infected with influenza and exposed to DEP had higher viral titres and neutrophilia compared with infected mice, yet they ... Mice infected with influenza and exposed to DEP had higher viral titres and neutrophilia compared with infected mice, yet they ...
Scientists are hoping to ease conjunctivitis, of the same family of influenza, through a trial of a world-first treatment for ... through a trial of a world-first treatment for viral conjunctivitis. The highly contagious disease can last up to three weeks, ... Scientists are hoping to ease conjunctivitis, of the same family of influenza, ...
AL) Mycoplasma felis and Equine influenza were detected from a nasal swab in a three year old QH mare submitted for testing ... Mycoplasma felis has been associated with respiratory disease, typically concurrent with a viral etiology. There have been ... AL) Mycoplasma felis and Equine influenza were detected from a nasal swab in a three year old QH mare submitted for testing ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Viral hepatitis * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza ... 27 May 2017 and includes updates on influenza, hepatitis A, cholera, Ebola virus disease and Legionnaires disease. ... influenza, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus, Hepatits A and yellow fever. ... influenza, MDR TB, measles, yellow fever, Zika, dengue and Chikungunya. ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Viral hepatitis * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza ... Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza in humans, seasonal * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Seasonal ... influenza, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus, Hepatits A and yellow fever. ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Zoonotic influenza * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Viral haemorrhagic fever ... Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza A(H5N6) * ... Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza * Remove this ... influenza A(H5N6), listeriosis, West Nile virus, Ebola virus disease and cholera.. ...
Numbers in the fall climb because of influenza and endemic viral pneumonias. Our staffing and bed utilization is prepared for ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Viral hepatitis * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza in humans, seasonal ... influenza, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus, Hepatits A and yellow fever. ...
Swab and Viral Transport Medium Market Report also covers top key players, porters five forces analysis and market segmentation ... This report examines the global Swab and Viral Transport Medium market and provides information regarding the revenue for the ... Global Swab and Viral Transport Medium Market Report added at Market Study Report LLC offers industry size, share, growth, ... Swab and Viral Transport Medium is a collection and transport system used for long-term freezing, transport, collection of ...
Buy Kleenex Anti-Viral 3-Ply Facial Tissue - Cube boxes (60 tissues, 12 pk.) : Facial Tissue at SamsClub.com ... Influenza A and Influenza B (causes of the flu); Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV - the leading cause of lower respiratory ... Kleenex® Anti-Viral™ Tissues are the only tissue that can kill 99.9% of cold and flu viruses†, helping you to take care of you ... Anti-Viral Tissues are made with three soft plies, including a moisture-activated middle layer that kills 99.9% of cold and flu ...
... inhibiting several strains of influenza, hepatitis B and C and other viruses. ... Quercetin Lowers Your Risk for Viral Illnesses. Analysis by Dr. Joseph Mercola Fact Checked ... Quercetin packs a powerful antiviral punch, inhibiting several strains of influenza, hepatitis B and C and other viruses ...
In The Viral Storm, award-winning biologist Nathan Wolfe tells the story of how viruses and human beings have evolved side by ... In the winter of 1918, at the height of World War I, historys most lethal influenza virus erupted in an army camp in Kansas, ... Viruses, Plagues, and History paints a sweeping portrait of humanitys long-standing conflict with our unseen viral enemies. ... Viruses, Plagues, and History paints a sweeping portrait of humanitys long-standing conflict with our unseen viral enemies. ...
FREE Report: The Five Best Anti-Viral Products to Beat Influenza, Swine Flu, Bird Flu and SARS. • Top anti-viral remedies. • ...
"That tells me they had a viral infection from flu, their body did a decent job of trying to get rid of the virus, but in that ... A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report. www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/usmap.htm. Existing drugs, including Tamiflu, work to block ... The amount of influenza ravaging the U.S. this year rivals levels normally seen when an altogether new virus emerges, ... "Over the next few weeks, we do expect and it would make sense to see more pneumonia and influenza-related deaths. The people ...
PRRS - a viral disease affecting the U.S. pork industry - already costs upwards of $664 million annually. ... The 2015 outbreak of avian influenza cost the United States $3.3 billion. And a recent Iowa State University study estimates ... Scientists have also developed a chicken that is resistant to contracting and transmitting avian influenza. And researchers are ...
Relenza (zanamivir) is an anti-viral drug, for persons aged 7 years and older for the treatment of uncomplicated influenza ... Renewed interest in studying influenza A viruses The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently devastating ... For preventive use to reduce the risk of getting influenza, Relenza is inhaled once daily for 10 to 28 days as prescribed by a ... U.S. buys more Relenza and Tamiflu for future influenza pandemics The United States Department of Health and Human Services has ...
If influenza vaccines increase the overall risk of viral ARIs, as they do in the studies discussed above, would they also ... Tamiflu & influenza vaccines: more harm than good?. TAMIFLU & INFLUENZA VACCINES: MORE HARM THAN GOOD?. Owen Dyer reminds us ... How can influenza vaccines increase the risk of other infections? There are at least two possible mechanisms: first, influenza ... Individuals who recover from influenza can have broad and long-lasting protection against an array of influenza viruses. First ...
14 of them contracted Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 while 4 of them suffered from Influenza A virus subtype H3N2. The ... 10 out of a total of 23 adults who suffered from severe influenza passed away in the past week. ... As at 12th January, the first case of viral influenza involving a patient below 18 years old was recorded.. https://www. ... 14 of them contracted Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 while 4 of them suffered from Influenza A virus subtype H3N2. The ...
Yes, I agree, influenza is not exactly the same as COVID19. But it is pretty much the same size of virus, and it is thought to ... The use of masks to prevent viral spread is something I actually researched in depth before COVID19 arrived (for various ... They looked at non-pharmaceutical interventions for prevention of influenza, and produced a hefty report, which covered the use ... and there was no evidence that facemasks are effective in reducing transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza. https:// ...
As in the case of other viral illness, the unfortunate victims are mostly elderly people with existing illnesses. Does that ... pattern suggest the coronavirus may be more like annual influenza outbreaks - deadly to thousands but hardly the stuff to shut ...
Equine Influenza: A viral respiratory disease which causes flu-like symptoms in horses - Daffynitions joe-ks.com. We have to ... Viral Air Pollution. Virus Greeting. Virus Origin. When I Feel Like It. Working From Home. Yesterday. Your Fly Is Down ...
"Its still not too late to get vaccinated, as were starting to see some increase in Influenza A H1N1 and Influenza B activity ... At week 52 of this flu season, which was the last week of 2017, however, "we did over 5,000 respiratory viral tests," he said ... That year the H3N2 subtype of the influenza A virus was the dominant strain making people sick, which appears to be the same ... Influenza activity continues to be widespread in all states except Hawaii, according to the weekly flu report released Friday ...
Influenza Influenza or flu is a viral respiratory illness, mainly spread by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze ... Influenza can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection are hospitalization or death. Florida is ... currently experiencing a moderately severe influenza season. The best way to protect yourself from flu is to get vaccinated, ...
Influenza Influenza or flu is a viral respiratory illness, mainly spread by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze ... Influenza can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection are hospitalization or death. Florida is ... currently experiencing a moderately severe influenza season. The best way to protect yourself from flu is to get vaccinated, ...
Influenza Influenza or flu is a viral respiratory illness, mainly spread by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze ... Influenza can cause mild to severe illness. Serious outcomes of flu infection are hospitalization or death. Florida is ... currently experiencing a moderately severe influenza season. The best way to protect yourself from flu is to get vaccinated, ...
If you are feeling ill and want to know the difference between bacterial and viral infection symptoms, FastMed can help. ... Influenza - viral. *Stomach flu - viral. *Strep throat - bacterial. *Bronchitis - often viral; could be bacterial ... Bacterial and viral infection symptoms are often similar, but can vary depending on the type of bacterium or virus causing the ... Learn About Some of the Illnesses Caused by Bacterial and Viral Infections at FastMed. Here are a few of the common bacterial ...
  • Background Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is thought to exacerbate many pre-existing respiratory diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, however, there is a paucity of data on whether DEP exacerbates illness due to respiratory viral infection. (edu.au)
  • Methods We exposed adult female BALB/c mice to 100 μg DEP (or control) 3·75 days after infection with 104·5 plaque forming units of influenza A/Mem71 (or control). (edu.au)
  • Results Influenza infection resulted in significantly increased inflammation, cytokine influx and impairment to lung function. (edu.au)
  • Conclusions A single dose of DEP is not sufficient to physiologically exacerbate pre-existing respiratory disease caused by influenza infection in mice. (edu.au)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken for analyses of cellular inflammation and cytokines, and whole lungs were taken for measurement of viral titre.Results Influenza infection resulted in significantly increased inflammation, cytokine influx and impairment to lung function. (edu.au)
  • Mice infected with influenza and exposed to DEP had higher viral titres and neutrophilia compared with infected mice, yet they did not have more impaired lung mechanics than mice infected with influenza alone.Conclusions A single dose of DEP is not sufficient to physiologically exacerbate pre-existing respiratory disease caused by influenza infection in mice. (edu.au)
  • If you're feeling ill, it can be hard to tell if your symptoms are caused by a bacterial infection or a viral infection. (fastmed.com)
  • Bacterial and viral infection symptoms are often similar, but can vary depending on the type of bacterium or virus causing the illness. (fastmed.com)
  • If you are feeling ill and want to know the difference between bacterial and viral infection symptoms, FastMed can help. (fastmed.com)
  • Treatment for your bacterial or viral infection symptoms also varies. (fastmed.com)
  • Epistaxis in fever: Influenza, typhoid, viral infection of upper respiratory tract. (tandurust.com)
  • A viral infection is caused by a virus and is often the cause of minor illness, such as a cold or the stomach flu. (lancastergeneralhealth.org)
  • A viral infection usually causes many different symptoms that often come on quickly (over hours to a day or two) without prior illness. (lancastergeneralhealth.org)
  • Spurred by the success of the influenza vaccine, Salk began working in 1947 to produce a vaccine for polio, a viral infection capable of killing or severely crippling its victims, especially young children. (si.edu)
  • Both influenza and SARS-CoV-2, the viral agent of COVID-19, are respiratory viruses, and the immune response to the infection is similar for both viruses. (nutritionsociety.org)
  • Hepatitis A is the second most common vaccine preventable infection in travellers, influenza being most common, 1 and the most common form of viral hepatitis. (racgp.org.au)
  • However it is known that T cell responses to conserved influenza antigens acquired by infection with influenza virus offer protection against symptomatic disease upon re-infection. (ukri.org)
  • The primary outcome was reverse transcriptase (RT)‐PCR-confirmed influenza infection, and the coprimary outcome was multiplex PCR-confirmed non‐influenza respiratory viruses. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • RT‐PCR-confirmed non‐influenza respiratory virus infection occurred in 146 (22.5%) in the vitamin D group and in 185 (28.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61‐0.94). (vitamindwiki.com)
  • When considering all respiratory viruses, including influenza, the effect of vitamin D in reducing infection was significant, HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66‐0.99. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation did not reduce the incidence of influenza but moderately reduced non‐influenza respiratory viral infection. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • More specifically, the new compartmentalization adds to the basic structure of the influenza dynamics a set of compartments and transitions taking into account the possible evolution of the complications associated to an influenza infection, including viral and bacterial pneumonia, and different speed of progression and stages of severity of the disease. (gleamviz.org)
  • Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • In two further studies, papers III and IV, we investigated T-cell responses during a viral infection, ASF, for which pigs are the only natural hosts. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Interweaving history, original reportage, and personal narrative, Pandemic explores the origin of epidemics, drawing parallels between the story of cholera - one of history's most disruptive and deadly pathogens - and the new pathogens that stalk humankind today, from Ebola and avian influenza to drug-resistant superbugs. (audible.com)
  • Scientists have also developed a chicken that is resistant to contracting and transmitting avian influenza. (agri-pulse.com)
  • The 2015 outbreak of avian influenza cost the United States $3.3 billion. (agri-pulse.com)
  • The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently devastating chicken flocks in many countries and threatening to unleash a worldwide epidemic among humans has triggered a renewed interest among scientists in studying influenza A viruses, according to investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. (news-medical.net)
  • GlaxoSmithKline has announced the start of an international clinical trial program to test two pandemic vaccines against the H5N1 strain of the avian influenza virus in humans. (news-medical.net)
  • These internal structures are found in all strains of influenza virus - thus, a vaccine that targets such peptides may provide immunity against all strains of influenza, including seasonal (yearly), avian (bird), and swine flu, for many years. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • We now know that the Spanish Flu was a novel strain of H1N1 influenza believed to have originated in China as an avian variant. (epmonthly.com)
  • One point missing in the debate however, is the fact that other emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) - such as avian influenza (H5N1), Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and West Nile viral encephalitis - emerge not only as the result of changes in host dynamics or in the pathogen. (resalliance.org)
  • Durell Kapan and colleagues article on the social-ecological dimensions of avian influenza is a nice synthesis of how land-use change contributes to increases in H5N1. (resalliance.org)
  • In addition, she carries out investigation and surveillance of animal disease, as well as, viral genetic characterization (Avian Influenza, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, African Swine Fever Virus). (internationalbiosafety.org)
  • 14 of them contracted Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 while 4 of them suffered from Influenza A virus subtype H3N2. (flutrackers.com)
  • It's still not too late to get vaccinated, as we're starting to see some increase in Influenza A H1N1 and Influenza B activity," she said, adding that if you think you have flu or if you are at a high risk for complications from flu, it is important to seek care early. (abcactionnews.com)
  • About 90 percent of the seasonal influenza A viral specimens were subtyped, with about 58 percent of these identified as influenza A (H1N1) and about 42 percent as influenza A (H3N2). (aafp.org)
  • Working in unison with the World Health Organization, the CDC reported that Southern Hemisphere influenza activity during the 2018 season (which can be predictive for subsequent Northern Hemisphere activity) has been relatively low and fairly mild, with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominating in most regions. (aafp.org)
  • We recently published a knol in PLoS Currents Influenza about the estimate of the demand for critical care and antibiotic usage due to the Fall 2009 wave of pandemic Influenza H1N1. (gleamviz.org)
  • SAN FRANCISCO, CA - JANUARY 22: Vials of the Fluvirin influenza vaccine are displayed at a Walgreens phramacy on January 22, 2018 in San Francisco, California. (abcactionnews.com)
  • People are being encouraged to get flu shots even through the vaccine has been only 30% effective in combating the influenza. (abcactionnews.com)
  • In the early 1940s, Salk and esteemed fellow scientist Thomas Francis Jr. revolutionized immunology with their killed-virus vaccine for influenza, which produced protective antibodies without exposing recipients to the live virus itself. (si.edu)
  • According to the CDC, as of Jan. 18, 133.5 million doses of the influenza vaccine had been distributed. (tcnjsignal.net)
  • Influenza vaccination prevents millions of medical visits, tens of thousands of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year, even with vaccine effectiveness estimates around 40 percent to 60 percent, the CDC said. (aafp.org)
  • S hare the reasons why the influenza vaccine is right for the patient. (aafp.org)
  • A study which has found a way to develop a universal vaccine for influenza, one that gives people immunity against all strains of the disease, has been recognised by the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and gained its lead researcher a prestigious award. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the RNA replicon vaccine platform addresses the three key challenges for a pandemic viral vaccine: rapid development, activation of a protective anti-viral immune response, and facile, scalable production," he wrote. (newstimes.com)
  • Bucala said after the viral strain was discovered, it took about 58 months to make the vaccine, and it was not available until after the second pandemic wave had peaked. (newstimes.com)
  • The vaccine has to be stored at minus 70 degrees Celsius to prevent the decomposition of the viral genetic material it contains. (yaledailynews.com)
  • This five-day course provides those attending with a broad understanding of viral vaccine production. (ncsu.edu)
  • At the end of the course, attendees will have a thorough understanding of the "how and why" behind vaccine manufacture and consequently be better equipped to manufacture viral vaccines and troubleshoot vaccine processes. (ncsu.edu)
  • Seasonal influenza vaccines are widely used, requiring annual revaccination, but vaccine effectiveness has been low in recent years, especially in older adults who are more likely to experience severe or fatal disease. (ukri.org)
  • In the event of an influenza pandemic, a new vaccine will be required, but will not become available in significant quantities until several months after the pandemic starts. (ukri.org)
  • The first version of the vaccine includes only internal antigens of the influenza virus and boosts T cell responses to them. (ukri.org)
  • Currently licensed influenza vaccines offer very low levels of protection despite annual review and updating of the vaccine composition. (ukri.org)
  • The vaccines need frequent changes in composition to keep up with genetic drift in seasonal influenza strains, but despite that, approximately one year in 20 the vaccine does not match the circulating virus and vaccine efficacy is low. (ukri.org)
  • The flu vaccine reduces the risk of influenza-related illness, hospitalization and death," the agency states. (captivasanibel.com)
  • The last thing anyone needs to add to the viral mix is a potentially serious bout of the flu, especially when a vaccine is readily available. (captivasanibel.com)
  • Children between the ages of 6 months and 9 years will need two doses of this year's influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart if they have never received a flu shot before, if they have only received one dose of vaccine before, or if it isn't known whether they received flu vaccine previously. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses , 7 (5), 1-9. (edu.au)
  • Swab and Viral Transport Medium is a collection and transport system used for long-term freezing, transport, collection of clinical specimens containing viruses such as mycoplasma, Covid-19, chlamydia and urea plasma organisms. (phanaticmag.com)
  • Kleenex® Anti-Viral™ Tissues are the only tissue that can kill 99.9% of cold and flu viruses†, helping you to take care of you and your family during cold and flu season. (samsclub.com)
  • Anti-Viral Tissues are made with three soft plies, including a moisture-activated middle layer that kills 99.9% of cold and flu viruses in the tissue†, making them perfect for your home, office or school. (samsclub.com)
  • Viruses, Plagues, and History paints a sweeping portrait of humanity's long-standing conflict with our unseen viral enemies. (audible.com)
  • Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. (abcactionnews.com)
  • Although scientists don't know for sure how the genetic variations changed the behavior of the virus, "it's predicted that these changes helped the virus to evade one of the mechanisms that [human] cells use to shut down influenza viruses ," he said. (livescience.com)
  • November 07, 2018, 03:19 pm News Staff - From May 20 to Oct. 13, 1.4 percent of the 197,295 respiratory specimens tested for influenza at U.S. clinical laboratories were positive -- about 65 percent of them positive for influenza A viruses and 35 percent for influenza B viruses. (aafp.org)
  • The CDC said surveillance showed there hasn't been significant evidence of antigenic drift among circulating influenza A (H3N2) viruses since the selection of viruses for the 2018-19 Northern Hemisphere vaccines was made in February. (aafp.org)
  • While influenza A (H3N2) viruses predominated through February during the previous flu season, and were predominant overall for the season, influenza B viruses were more commonly reported starting in March 2018. (aafp.org)
  • Notably, the T-cells responded to peptides associated with the internal structures of the influenza viruses. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • At the Jenner Institute at Oxford University we have been working on the development of novel influenza vaccines that will be effective against both seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses, including in older adults, and one of the vaccines is now in a phase II clinical trial. (ukri.org)
  • Men may not be exaggerating symptoms but have weaker immune responses to viral respiratory viruses, leading to greater morbidity and mortality than seen in women,' Dr. Sue said. (bustle.com)
  • Know the Difference Influenza, also known as the flu, is a contagious respiratory disease caused by different strains of viruses. (smssi.com)
  • Ever since the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic, scientists have dreamed of preventing catastrophic outbreaks of infectious disease. (audible.com)
  • Does that pattern suggest the coronavirus may be more like annual influenza outbreaks - deadly to thousands but hardly the stuff to shut down a global economy? (torontosun.com)
  • The Center for Disease Control has advice for those companies looking to deal with a swine flu problem or other viral outbreaks. (eweek.com)
  • The RKI provides expert teams to help in investigations of regional epidemic outbreaks and collaborates with other authorities and experts to draw up epidemic emergency plans for extraordinary scenarios such as a worldwide influenza pandemic. (rki.de)
  • Viral infections are a little different. (fastmed.com)
  • Viral infections that cause minor illnesses are usually not serious. (lancastergeneralhealth.org)
  • Those [viral infections] in the second wave look like they were better adapted to humans," said study lead author Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, an evolutionary biologist at the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, Germany's federal disease control and prevention agency. (livescience.com)
  • Individuals with obesity are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality from both influenza virus infections and COVID-19. (nutritionsociety.org)
  • Objective: To determine whether vitamin D supplementation reduces influenza and other upper viral respiratory tract infections. (vitamindwiki.com)
  • The Vivalytic VRI test (Viral Respiratory Tract Infections) checks the patient's sample for the SARS CoV-2 virus, which can lead to COVID-19, as well as nine other possible viral respiratory diseases. (newswire.ca)
  • With the Vivalytic VRI test, physicians can quickly and efficiently distinguish between different infections with very similar symptoms, like influenza, and immediately begin the appropriate treatment. (newswire.ca)
  • Wash and sanitize your hands regularly now for flu as well as for any other viral infections you see in winter. (ualrpublicradio.org)
  • A matched case control study was used on a sub-sample of 100,000 influenza cases to calculate complication rates for ear infections/acute otitis media (AOM) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as well as resource use and costs for seven age groups. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • In this thesis, pigs were investigated as a potential biomedical model species for viral respiratory infections in humans and as a natural host for viral infections. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • This is true especially for respiratory infections, such as seasonal IAV infections, for which pigs are natural hosts and contribute to viral spread and emergence as "mixing vessels", which can result in pandemic strains like H1N1pdm09. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • Objectives To assess the physiological consequences of an acute DEP exposure during the peak of influenza-induced illness. (edu.au)
  • Relenza (zanamivir) is an anti-viral drug, for persons aged 7 years and older for the treatment of uncomplicated influenza illness. (news-medical.net)
  • Relenza is approved for preventive use, to decrease the risk of developing influenza illness, for persons aged 5 and older. (news-medical.net)
  • As in the case of other viral illness, the unfortunate victims are mostly elderly people with existing illnesses. (torontosun.com)
  • If you are sick and unsure if your illness is viral or bacterial, an online symptom checker might help. (fastmed.com)
  • Influenza or 'flu' is a viral respiratory illness, mainly spread by droplets made when people with flu cough, sneeze or talk. (floridahealth.gov)
  • Influenza can cause mild to severe illness. (floridahealth.gov)
  • Antibiotics are not used to treat a viral illness and will not help cure a viral illness. (lancastergeneralhealth.org)
  • The CDC noted the season was highly severe with unusually high levels of outpatient influenza-like illness, hospitalizations rates and proportions of pneumonia and influenza-associated deaths. (aafp.org)
  • As with the current pandemic, reports of illness and mortality due to influenza were censored or minimized in many countries. (epmonthly.com)
  • Please note: a signed note from a health care provider documenting unconfirmed acute illnesses, such as viral upper respiratory illness (URI) or viral gastroenteritis, will not suffice. (pelhamschools.org)
  • Like COVID-19, the flu is a viral illness that, for many, is relatively mild. (captivasanibel.com)
  • Multiple studies have demonstrated protection against both seasonal and pandemic influenza in people who have high T cell responses to these antigens, and we have demonstrated that we can boost responses, including in older adults, by vaccination. (ukri.org)
  • The updated 2010 Healthcare Workers Handbook provides detailed guidelines on the diagnosis and management of both seasonal and pandemic influenza. (ianphi.org)
  • To reduce the incidence of influenza in the College's community, SHS, along with Sodexo dining services, the School of Nursing and Residential Education and Housing, collaborated in making the campus more clean and students less susceptible to contracting the flu, according to Vermeychuk. (tcnjsignal.net)
  • A strong strain of H3N2 influenza has claimed the lives of 74 Californians under the age of 65 since the flu season began in October of last year. (abcactionnews.com)
  • He hosts the podcast series, 'Going Viral: The Mother of all Pandemics', marking the centenary of the 1918 influenza pandemic. (penguin.com.au)
  • During the 1918 influenza pandemic, warehouses were converted to keep infected people quarantined. (livescience.com)
  • The virus responsible for the 1918 influenza pandemic still circulates today. (livescience.com)
  • A class of drugs commonly used to treat typical influenza symptoms such as fever, headache and cough do not prevent people from becoming infected with the flu virus. (news-medical.net)
  • 'Deeming male viral respiratory symptoms as 'exaggerated' without rigorous scientific evidence, could have important implications for men, including insufficient provision of care,' he wrote in the British Medical Journal . (bustle.com)
  • The most common symptoms of influenza are generally mild for the majority of people infected. (gleamviz.org)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 21 May - 27 May 2017 and includes updates on influenza, hepatitis A, cholera, Ebola virus disease and Legionnaires' disease. (europa.eu)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 2-8 September 2018 and includes updates on poliomyelitis, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), influenza A(H5N6), listeriosis, West Nile virus, Ebola virus disease and cholera. (europa.eu)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 9-15 April 2017 and includes updates on hepatitis A, influenza, MDR TB, measles, yellow fever, Zika, dengue and Chikungunya. (europa.eu)
  • Over the next few weeks, we do expect and it would make sense to see more pneumonia and influenza-related deaths. (investmentwatchblog.com)
  • The current viral interstitial pneumonia has resulted in severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, overcrowded ICUs [intensive care units], equipment and personnel shortages, and significant mortality. (hsdl.org)
  • Collections: World War 1, 1914-1918 and Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 / Languages: English / Subjects: Influenza, Human -- prevention & control and Vaccination / Genre: Lectures / Titles: Studies in influenza and pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • Remove constraint Titles: Studies in influenza and pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • In the knol, we introduce a model that considers the development of influenza-associated complications and incorporate it into a GLEaM to assess the expected surge in critical care demands due to viral and bacterial pneumonia. (gleamviz.org)
  • Influenza hospitalizations are associated with a broad spectrum of complications including pneumonia, respiratory failure, sepsis, ARF and seizures. (confex.com)
  • AL) Mycoplasma felis and Equine influenza were detected from a nasal swab in a three year old QH mare submitted for testing using the AHDC Equine Respiratory PCR Panel (ERPLN). (cornell.edu)
  • The August 2007 equine influenza response management framework. (qld.gov.au)
  • Unlike the external structures of influenza virus, that mutates very rapidly and creates a new strain of virus most years, the internal structures change very slowly over a long period of time. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In recent days, the Congress has enacted and the President has signed into law various pieces of legislation to provide economic relief to individuals and businesses as a result of the economic devastation as a result of government's reaction to a novel viral strain of influenza originating in China that spread to the United States. (typepad.com)
  • Ten RCTs were included in the meta-analysis, and there was no evidence that facemasks are effective in reducing transmission of laboratory-confirmed influenza. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • According to Vermeychuk, as of Monday morning, Student Health Services (SHS) had one laboratory-confirmed case of influenza in just the first week of the spring semester. (tcnjsignal.net)
  • laboratory-confirmed influenza, strep throat, etc. (pelhamschools.org)
  • We included children (0-17 years) and adults (≥ 18 years), who resided within a FluSurv-NET catchment area and were hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during 2016-17. (confex.com)
  • Meanwhile, Dr. Kyle Sue, a clinical assistant professor at Canada's Memorial University of Newfoundland, performed a survey of existing studies to determine whether men could suffer more from viral respiratory illnesses. (bustle.com)
  • The CDC estimates that influenza has resulted in "between 9 million - 45 million illnesses, between 140,000 - 810,000 hospitalizations and between 12,000 - 61,000 deaths annually since 2010. (captivasanibel.com)
  • The antiviral drug amantadine can prevent some cases of influenza in children, and the related medication rimantadine can reduce fever in youngsters who have the flu, according to a new review of evidence. (news-medical.net)
  • The influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic mutated into variants, much like the novel coronavirus has done in the current pandemic, century-old virus samples reveal. (livescience.com)
  • In striking similarity to the current Coronavirus pandemic, the Spanish Influenza of 1918 was devastating, reaching all corners of the world and killing an estimated 20 million to 50 million people. (epmonthly.com)
  • Aging predisposes to increased morbidity and lethality to infectious diseases, which becomes apparent with the high mortality rates suffered by older people when infected with influenza virus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (jefferson.edu)
  • According to Professor Magnús Gottfreðsson, infectious disease specialist at Landspítali, the drug has an effect on the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, by inhibiting the replication of the viral genome. (mbl.is)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 18-24 February 2018 and includes updates on cholera, influenza, dengue, chikungunya, Zika virus, Hepatits A and yellow fever. (europa.eu)
  • The amount of influenza ravaging the U.S. this year rivals levels normally seen when an altogether new virus emerges, decimating a vulnerable population that hasn't had a chance to develop any defenses. (investmentwatchblog.com)
  • The researchers determined that three of those lungs - two from young soldiers who had died in Berlin, and one from a young woman who had died in Munich - contained the 1918 influenza virus. (livescience.com)
  • The researchers extracted viral RNA from those samples to reconstruct about 60% and 90%, respectively, of the genomes of the flu virus that killed the soldiers. (livescience.com)
  • The virus has been mutating throughout this time, though at a slower pace when compared to the influenza virus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (news-medical.net)
  • Influenza is a virus that we know has a global impact, and the threat of further pandemics is a real one. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Most influenza vaccines only protect us against known influenza strains by creating antibodies in the blood, but the influenza virus has the ability to rapidly change itself and new strains can emerge, which rapidly spread across the globe by escaping this immunity. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This page lists the EVAg products having been related to the "Influenza A virus" taxonomic term. (european-virus-archive.com)
  • Attention then shifts to those steps necessary to produce, recover and purify virus, using influenza A as a model for viral vaccines. (ncsu.edu)
  • We will now include a further antigen into the vaccines, to induce antibodies against neuraminidase, which is a protein found on the surface of the influenza virus and is less variable that haemagglutinin which is the major antigen in licensed vaccines. (ukri.org)
  • The new vaccines will be tested in pigs which have already been exposed to influenza virus, to mimic the effect of vaccinating humans. (ukri.org)
  • Natural exposure to influenza virus results in tissue resident memory T cells in the lung, and whereas intramuscular immunisation of humans has been shown to boost these responses in the blood, the effect on memory responses in the lungs is not known, and cannot be studied directly in humans. (ukri.org)
  • We will pre-expose pigs to influenza virus in the respiratory tract, and then study the effect of different vaccination routes on humoral and cellular immunity to influenza virus, and on protective efficacy of vaccination. (ukri.org)
  • Seasonal influenza refers to many different strains of an influenza virus. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • Kleenex Anti-Viral 3-Ply Facial Tissue - Cube boxes (60 tissues, 12 pk. (samsclub.com)
  • Stock up and save and keep Anti-Viral tissues on hand to care for you, your family and your guests. (samsclub.com)
  • Dysregulated anti-viral innate immune cascade during aging. (jefferson.edu)
  • Stotesbury, Colby and Sigal, Luis J., "Dysregulated anti-viral innate immune cascade during aging. (jefferson.edu)
  • HHS Secretary Mike Leavitt announced that the Department has awarded a $102.6 million, four-year contract to BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. for advanced development of their influenza antiviral drug, peramivir. (news-medical.net)
  • The United States Department of Health and Human Services has announced additional purchases of antiviral drugs that could be used in the event of a potential influenza pandemic. (news-medical.net)
  • Influenza antiviral treatment is recommended as early as possible for people at high risk, which includes children younger than age 5 but especially less than age 2, adults age 65 and over, pregnant women, and people with underlying medical conditions such as lung disease, heart disease and diabetes -- in children, a big category includes those with neurologic or developmental disorders," she said. (abcactionnews.com)
  • In addition, research institutes and labs have intensified their production for covid-19 vaccines, also key market players in the market have increased their production capacities in order to develop useful for viral collection. (phanaticmag.com)
  • Vaccines can and should continue to be given as requested throughout the influenza season, the CDC said. (aafp.org)
  • Licensed influenza vaccines are given to adults by intramuscular injection, and are known to increase antibodies to influenza haemagglutinin in the blood. (ukri.org)
  • Viral vectored influenza vaccines expressing internal antigens have been tested in humans and shown to be safe, and to significantly boost T cell responses. (ukri.org)
  • Influenza vaccines have changed little for many decades, and while there have been substantial benefits to public health from using the vaccines, there are some aspects that could be significantly improved. (ukri.org)
  • National reference centres and consultant laboratories for various bacterial and viral diseases are also located at the RKI. (rki.de)
  • Aurora Health Centre GP Jill McIlraith said, anecdotall-y, her practice, as well as seeing hardly any genuine influenza patients, had also experience-d a dropoff in other viral diseases such as chicken pox. (pressreader.com)
  • After graduating she commenced her work as a virologist, diagnosing viral animal diseases. (internationalbiosafety.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza contributes substantially to the burden of communicable diseases in Europe, especially among paediatric populations and the elderly. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Viral diseases are a threat to bacteria and enormous animals alike. (uni-greifswald.de)
  • The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence of seasonal influenza in Germany, the probabilities of related complications and the economic burden of influenza per case and on a population level for different age groups. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • RESULTS: Incidence of seasonal influenza varies between the years and is highest among infants and children 2 to 5 years of age. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Using both pre-clinical animal models and clinical research studies with influenza vaccination, we have found significant influenza-specific immune dysfunction with obesity. (nutritionsociety.org)
  • However, in a small portion of clinical cases infected with influenza, the disease can lead to complications of increasing severity requiring medical attention, antibiotics, and, in more serious situations, hospitalization and intensive care. (gleamviz.org)
  • The research, which involved researchers from University of Southampton, University of Oxford and Retroscreeen Virology Ltd, used a method called "Human Viral Challenge Studies" and discovered that the immune systems produced various types of T-cells (part of the immune system that kills both viral particles, and cells infected with viral particles). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • This immune impairment results in adults with obesity being 2X more likely to develop influenza, despite vaccination. (nutritionsociety.org)
  • We have demonstrated that these immune responses can be boosted by intramuscular vaccination by viral vectors expressing influenza nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1) in humans, and that the responses are protective against influenza challenge in small animals. (ukri.org)
  • The use of masks to prevent viral spread is something I actually researched in depth before COVID19 arrived (for various reasons), as did the WHO. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • They looked at non-pharmaceutical interventions for prevention of influenza, and produced a hefty report, which covered the use of masks. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Influenza activity continues to be widespread in all states except Hawaii, according to the weekly flu report released Friday by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (abcactionnews.com)
  • 13th January 2020 - (Hong Kong) 10 out of a total of 23 adults who suffered from severe influenza passed away in the past week. (flutrackers.com)
  • A timely and critically acclaimed 100-year history of pandemics, by medical historian and viral TED talk presenter - with a new chapter on COVID-19. (penguin.com.au)
  • Given its potentially important role in reducing the epidemic impact, school closure has more often been investigated in the realm of pandemics compared to seasonal influenza [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Join Dr. Worobey as he discusses how evolutionary trees help elucidate the emergence and spread of viral pandemics. (duq.edu)
  • Recent research has underlined the role of anti-NA antibodies in protection against influenza disease in humans. (ukri.org)
  • however, non-respiratory complications occur frequently among patients hospitalized with influenza. (confex.com)
  • We used data from the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) to describe complications recorded on discharge summaries of patients hospitalized with influenza. (confex.com)
  • Complications of viral influenza. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • During the influenza season, astute clinicians should keep influenza in the differential diagnosis for patients with a wide range of presentations. (confex.com)
  • Florida is currently experiencing a moderately severe influenza season. (floridahealth.gov)
  • This report examines the global Swab and Viral Transport Medium market and provides information regarding the revenue for the period 2020 to 2027. (phanaticmag.com)
  • This product is approved to treat type A and B influenza, the two types most responsible for flu epidemics. (news-medical.net)
  • School closure is often considered as an option to mitigate influenza epidemics because of its potential to reduce transmission in children and then in the community. (biomedcentral.com)
  • College students use many objects in a day that can be crawling with millions of bacterium, and chances are, at least one of the germs is a carrier of influenza. (tcnjsignal.net)
  • Two German spies, posing as doctors, were caught giving these influenza germs to the soldiers and they were shot last Saturday morning at sunrise. (epmonthly.com)
  • Scholz S, Damm O, Schneider U, Ultsch B, Wichmann O, Greiner W. Epidemiology and cost of seasonal influenza in Germany - a claims data analysis. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • With cold season here and the rapidly spreading nature of influenza, it's a wonder that more companies aren't equipped with remote access to help keep threats to productivity in check. (eweek.com)
  • One bad viral season can push projects and deadlines off schedule and over budget. (eweek.com)
  • Another recent CDC report looked back on the 2017-18 influenza season and found that during that time, the flu caused 79,400 deaths and 959,000 hospitalizations. (aafp.org)
  • The model is applied to Belgium, parameterized with country-specific data on social mixing and travel, and calibrated to the 2008/2009 influenza season. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The final ESR influenza surveillan-ce report for the year showed cases of the disease barely made it to 50 per 100,000 patients, a rate far below the low flu season level of 80 cases. (pressreader.com)
  • This influenza season, which began in early December and ends in late March, intensified over the holiday season and is shaping up to be a bad one, Haselow says. (ualrpublicradio.org)
  • Global Swab and Viral Transport Medium Market Report added at Market Study Report LLC offers industry size, share, growth, trends and forecast analysis up to 2027. (phanaticmag.com)
  • Swab and Viral Transport Medium Market Report also covers top key players, porters five forces analysis and market segmentation in detail. (phanaticmag.com)
  • Also, the swab and viral transport is an implement lightly rubbed against the vesicles or skin to collect sample and these sample is later sent to laboratories in transport medium. (phanaticmag.com)
  • Further, the growth of the swab viral transport medium market is attributed owing to the rising prevalence of covid-19, high investment in diagnostics kits and accessories along with the rise in use of viral transport medium in microbiology and diagnostic laboratories. (phanaticmag.com)
  • As a result, the demand and adoption of swab viral transport medium owing to the increased demand for diagnostics testing services would increase thereby, aiding the growth of the market. (phanaticmag.com)
  • The regional analysis of global Swab and Viral Transport Medium market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. (phanaticmag.com)
  • The Arkansas Department of Health is warning residents about a significant influenza outbreak and how best to prepare. (ualrpublicradio.org)
  • As the spread of influenza worsened, large makeshift hospitals were created in fields and in convention centers. (epmonthly.com)
  • Measures brought in to curb the spread of Covid19 - particular-ly the closure of New Zealand's borders - had the collateral effect of slashing the annual number of influenza cases. (pressreader.com)

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