Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.SqualeneVaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Mice, Inbred BALB CPapillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.United StatesInfluenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay: A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.DucksDengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Tetanus ToxoidAntibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Administration, Mucosal: Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.Hemadsorption Inhibition Tests: Serological tests that measure anti-hemadsorption agents such as antiviral ANTIBODIES that block VIRAL HEMAGGLUNININS from adhering to the surface of red blood cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Mice, Inbred C57BLViral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Staphylococcal VaccinesSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.GeorgiaEpitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Jefferson, T; Di Pietrantonj, C; Debalini, MG; Rivetti, A; Demicheli, V (July 2009). "Inactivated influenza vaccines: methods, ... He has said that the studies claiming large reductions in mortality rates as a result of the influenza vaccine are "rubbish", ... He has worked on Cochrane reviews examining the effectiveness of oseltamivir and the influenza vaccine. In 2009 Jefferson was ... His views about the effectiveness of influenza vaccines and his outspokenness about them are also controversial; at a 2007 ...
Collignon P, Doshi P, Del Mar C, Jefferson T (2015). "Safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in children". Clin ... The World Health Organisation Influenza Centre in North Melbourne was attempting to develop a vaccine for swine flu, by growing ... In 2009, H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) was the underlying cause of 77 deaths in Australia. The ABS implemented ... "Health Emergency-H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human Swine Influenza)Outbreaks". Healthemergency.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2 ...
Collignon P, Doshi P, Del Mar C, Jefferson T (2015). "Safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in children". Clin ... and the safety and efficacy of some drugs and vaccines. In June 2010 he was made a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) during ...
Most inactivated vaccines, like influenza, are given by IM injection. Some medications are formulated for IM injection, like ... "Administer the Vaccine(s)". www.cdc.gov. 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2017-11-15. Taylor, C. R., Lillis, C., LeMone, P., Lynn, P. ( ... "Pinkbook , Vaccine Administration , Epidemiology of VPDs , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-10-04. Retrieved 2017-10-30. "What Is a ... Certain vaccines including MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella), Varicella (Chikenpox), Zoster (Shingles) are given subcutaneously. In ...
Inactivated vaccines for influenza are considered safe at any gestational age. On the other hand, live attenuated influenza ... Vaccination with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine is cost saving relative to providing supportive care alone in the ... Skowronski DM, De Serres G (2009). "Is routine influenza immunization warranted in early pregnancy?". Vaccine. 27 (35): 4754-70 ... Preservative-free vaccines are available in case of hypersensitivity to eggs or to vaccine components. Rubella is contagious ...
The inactivated influenza vaccine should be received annually. The pneumococcal vaccine should be administered twice for people ... "Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... "Influenza vaccination coverage among health care personnel - United States, 2013-14 influenza season". MMWR. Morbidity and ... Lastly, the live-attenuated zoster vaccine should be administered once after the age 60, but is not recommended in people on a ...
Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, Jankovics M, Jankovics I (May 2007). "Inactivated whole virus influenza A (H5N1) vaccine". Emerg ... Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, Jankovics M, Jankovics I (May 2007). "Inactivated whole virus influenza A (H5N1) vaccine". Emerg ... developed novel influenza vaccines based on reverse genetics technology, including vaccines against the H5N1 bird flu and the ... of a 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 vaccine when administered alone or simultaneously with the seasonal influenza vaccine for ...
"Recommendations for the production and control of influenza vaccine (inactivated)" (PDF). World Health Organization. Archived ( ... "Recommendations for administering the triple viral vaccine and anti-influenza vaccine in patients with egg allergy". Allergol ... Influenza vaccines are created by injecting a live virus into fertilized chicken eggs. The viruses are harvested, killed and ... The amount of egg protein is lower than in influenza vaccines and the risk of an allergic reaction is much lower. One guideline ...
"Trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine Influvac: 25-Year experience of safety and immunogenicity". Vaccine. Elsevier. ... It contains inactivated purified surface fragments (sub-units) from the three different strains of the influenza virus (A/H1N1 ... 6.2 billion purchase and the sub-unit influenza vaccine - Influvac has been commercially available on the market since the ... Approximately $850 million of sales revenue from vaccines was reported by Solvay Pharmaceuticals in 2009. Giezeman, K.M.; J. ...
... influenza), Panflu (H5N1) and PANFLU.1 (H1N1). Sinovac is currently developing Universal Pandemic Influenza vaccine and ... Its wholly owned subsidiary, Tangshan Yian, is conducting field trials for independently developed inactivated animal rabies ... Sinovac is developing vaccines for enterovirus 71, universal pandemic influenza, Japanese encephalitis, and human rabies. ... Sinovac's commercialized vaccines include Healive (hepatitis A), Bilive (combined hepatitis A and B), Anflu ( ...
... individuals who have HIV should only get vaccinated with the inactivated influenza vaccine. Any HIV patient who has been ... It further recommended that all persons over age 6 months get the vaccine. Influenza Influenza vaccine Bird flu Human flu Swine ... The annually updated trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza ... The flu shot is made up of inactivated (killed) viruses, and the nasal spray vaccines are made up of live viruses. The flu shot ...
... immune response in nursing-home elderly following intranasal or intramuscular immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine ... Haq, Kamran; McElhaney, Janet E. "Immunosenescence: influenza vaccination and the elderly". Current Opinion in Immunology. 29: ... Vaccine. 18 (16): 1717-1720. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00513-7. PMID 10689155. Ito, K; A. Hirao; F. Arai; S. Matsuoka; K. ... ". Vaccine. 21 (11-12): 1180-1186. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00481-4. PMID 12559796. Ginaldi, L.; M.F. Loreto; M.P. Corsi; M. ...
In 1997, nasal-spray vaccine containing inactivated form of influenza virus with nLT (heat-labile enterotoxin) as adjuvants was ... "Phase I Evaluation of Intranasal Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with Nontoxigenic Escherichia coli Enterotoxin and ... after intranasal immunization with inactivated influenza virus type A". Immunology Letters. 134 (1): 26-34. doi:10.1016/j.imlet ... vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and in 2002 also against influenza virus. Murphy, Kenneth; Travers, Paul; Walport ...
Pregnant women with HIV may still receive the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and the tetanus, diphtheria, and ... "Influenza Vaccination of Pregnant Women and Protection of Their Infants". New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (10): 918-931. ...
... and immunogenicity of 2 doses of an IM inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine in healthy children, aged 2 through 9 years. This ... "A universal influenza vaccine could provide protection against all types of influenza and would eliminate the need to develop ... pandemic influenza vaccine Phase I trials meet primary objectives. On April 17, 2007 the US FDA approved "Influenza Virus ... The vaccine does not contain any infectious material from the influenza virus. Unlike conventional flu vaccines, which are ...
Indeed, vaccines, including the influenza vaccine, Tdap, and pneumococcal vaccines, are less effective in adults over the age ... The presence of maternal antibodies in infants limits the efficacy of inactivated, attenuated and subunit vaccines. Maternal ... "Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Flu Vaccine Work? , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-02- ... Vaccines may fail to provide immunity if the vaccine is of poor quality when administered. A vaccine loses potency if it is ...
"Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: Background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". ... The vaccine is usually effective against three or four types of influenza. It is usually well tolerated. A vaccine made for one ... Bouvier NM, Palese P (September 2008). "The biology of influenza viruses". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 4: D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... A fourth family of influenza viruses has been proposed - influenza D. The type species for this family is Bovine Influenza D ...
... only exceptions among vaccines routinely recommended for children are some formulations of the inactivated influenza vaccine ... "Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply for the U.S. 2016-2017 Influenza Season , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. ... Autism cases in vaccine court: Sugarman SD (2007). "Cases in vaccine court-legal battles over vaccines and autism". N Engl J ... other vaccines may contain a trace of thiomersal from steps in manufacture.. The multi-dose versions of the influenza vaccines ...
The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... 1889-90 flu pandemic Spanish flu Influenza vaccines Timeline of influenza List of epidemics - contains within it, influenza ... Pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing process and timeline". www.WHO.int. Retrieved 19 January 2018. "Influenza vaccine ...
Vaccines (ATCvet codes: QI05AA01 (WHO) inactivated, QI05AD02 (WHO) live, plus various combinations) are a major defense against ... Avian influenza Canine influenza Human influenza "Equine Influenza". www.aaep.org. Retrieved 2016-12-04. Paillot, Romain (2014 ... Vaccines. 2 (2): 797-831. "About of Equine influenza , Definition of Equine influenza - Viral Infections Blog Articles". ... Equine influenza is caused by several strains of the influenza A virus endemic to horses. Viruses that cause equine influenza ...
"Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: Background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". ... two also cause influenza in pigs, with influenza A being common in pigs and influenza C being rare. Influenza B has not been ... "FDA Approves Vaccines for 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus". FDA. Retrieved 2009-10-15. "NIH studies on Swine flu vaccine". NIH. ... Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus ...
Gardasil Hepatitis A vaccine Rabies vaccine Influenza vaccines based on inactivated viruses are commonly administered ... Prevention and Control of Influenza, Recommendations of ACIP. ...
"Immunogenicity and safety of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of ... and B influenza viruses collected from February to September 2011". Vaccine. 30 (45): 6461-6471. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07. ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.06.064. PMID 27381642. Yamashita M, Krystal M, Fitch WM, Palese P (1988). "Influenza B virus ... The quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed by the CDC is currently designed to protect against both co-circulating lineages ...
"Vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in zoos using an adjuvanted inactivated H5N2 vaccine". Vaccine ... "Cross-clade immunity in cats vaccinated with a canarypox-vectored avian influenza vaccine". Vaccine. 28 (31): 4970-4976. PMID ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.028. Cardona CJ, Xing Z, Sandrock CE, Davis CE (July 2009). "Avian influenza in birds and mammals ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.01.121. Yee KS, Carpenter TE, Cardona CJ (July 2009). "Epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza". Comp. ...
"Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion) BP - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". Scutti, Susan (September ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2009-2010 influenza season". "Weekly U.S. Influenza ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season". World Health ...
Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. An Ebola vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, was approved in the United States in December 2019. It ... Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... farms with sodium hypochlorite or detergents should be effective in inactivating the Reston ebolavirus. Pigs that have been ... The DRC Ministry of Public Health approved the use of an experimental vaccine. On 13 May 2018, WHO Director- ...
Inactivated or Recombinant: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... after inactivated influenza vaccine (the flu shot).. Young children who get the flu shot along with pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13 ... Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for Disease Control ... Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine:. *Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of influenza ...
Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness. HA - hemagglutinin. IIV - inactivated influenza vaccine. LAIV - live attenuated influenza ... Superior relative efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine compared with inactivated influenza vaccine in young children ... Donahue JG, et al; Marshfield Influenza Study Group. . Effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines varied substantially ... Influenza vaccine effectiveness can vary with changes in vaccine components or circulating influenza viruses and requires ...
Inactivated influenza vaccine [surface antigen]) intended for persons living in Australia. ... Please note that Influvac will only protect you against the three types of influenza virus used to make the vaccine. It will ... Influvac is used to prevent certain types of influenza (commonly called flu). The vaccine works by causing the body to produce ... you have had an allergic reaction or became unwell after any other influenza vaccine (Fluvax or Fluarix or Fluvirin or Vaxigrip ...
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012 Jan;6(1):52-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00268.x. Epub 2011 Jun 13. Meta-Analysis; ... Quantitative review of antibody response to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012 Jan;6 ... Quantitative review of antibody response to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012 Jan;6 ... Quantitative review of antibody response to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines.. Seidman JC1, Richard SA, Viboud C, Miller ...
... influenza virus vaccine, inactivated) used to treat Influenza Prophylaxis. Supplied by GlaxoSmithKline ... Treatment for: Influenza Prophylaxis. Fluarix (influenza virus vaccine, inactivated) is an influenza virus vaccine indicated ... FDA Approves Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Fluarix for Pediatric Use. Aug 31, 2005. Fluarix GlaxoSmithKline - Treatment for ... FDA Approves GlaxoSmithKlines Fluarix Quadrivalent - Four-strain Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for Use in the U.S.. ...
2010 Aug 31;28(38):6393-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.019. Epub 2010 May 20. Review ... Intranasal inactivated influenza vaccines have the advantage over parenteral vaccines in that they are not associated with the ... These studies center on a mouse model of influenza in which mice are immunized intranasally with inactivated vaccines mixed ... This review summarizes the most important observations of our studies on intranasal inactivated influenza vaccines, which have ...
... www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html ... in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine ... Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu. ... after inactivated influenza vaccine (the flu shot). Young children who get the flu shot along with pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13 ... All content below is taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/ ...
... inactivated Intramuscular. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information. ... Detailed drug Information for influenza a virus vaccine, h1n1, ... Influenza virus vaccine, h1n1, inactivated reviews No reviews ... influenza virus vaccine, inactivated, zanamivir, Relenza, influenza virus vaccine, h1n1, inactivated ... Before using influenza a virus vaccine, h1n1, inactivated. In deciding to use a vaccine, the risks of taking the vaccine must ...
Influenza causes significant loss of workdays, human suffering, and m... ... Influenza, one of the most common infectious diseases, is a highly contagious airborne disease that occurs in seasonal ... Vaccines, Inactivated, Viral. Class Summary. Influenza vaccine is administered each year before flu season. Typically, 3 virus ... the FDA approved the first vaccine for H5N1 influenza (ie, avian influenza or bird flu). A second H5N1 influenza vaccine was ...
Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product ... The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split ... Inactivated industry. And thanks to the support and assistance from Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry chain ... And also listed Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated upstream raw materials equipments and down stream clients survey ...
Influenza Biological: Influenza split vaccine of 15 μg HA Biological: Influenza split vaccine Phase 3 ... Biological: Influenza split vaccine of 15 μg HA 558 subjects were assigned to receive influenza split vaccine, 0.5ml, one dose ... Biological: Influenza split vaccine of 15 μg HA 558 subjects were assigned to receive influenza split vaccine, 0.5ml, one dose ... Biological: Influenza split vaccine 280 subjects were assigned to receive influenza split vaccine, 0.5ml, one dose regime ...
J07BB02 - Influenza, inactivated, split virus or surface antigen. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, ... Vaccines, antisera and immunologicals. Indications and usages, anatomical therapeutic chemical and diseases classification ...
Influenza A virus vaccine, h1n1, inactivated (Injection). Introduction. Influenza A Virus Vaccine, H1N1, Inactivated (in-floo- ... This vaccine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires ... Keeps you from getting sick with an influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus ("catching the flu").. ...
... vaccine, facts about inactivated influenza vaccine, when to get vaccinated, who should not get flu vaccine, what influenza is, ... Why seniors should get the Inactivated Influenza (Flu) ... The inactivated influenza vaccine is provided free to seniors. ... The inactivated influenza vaccine is safe. It contains killed influenza viruses that cannot cause influenza. Common reactions ... What should seniors know about the inactivated influenza vaccine? Influenza vaccines are a safe and effective way to help ...
Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine in Renal Transplant Subjects. The safety and scientific ... Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine Administered by the Intradermal Route in Renal Transplant ... To describe the safety of an injection of the investigational inactivated, split-virion influenza vaccine in 18 to 60 years old ... Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Split-Virion Influenza Vaccine in Renal Transplant Subjects. ...
... influenza vaccination has been recommended for all children 6 to 23 months old in the United States. However, its safety in ... Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 6 to 23 months old. ... After chart review, gastritis/duodenitis was not significantly associated with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine ( ... were all children in the Vaccine Safety Datalink cohort 6 to 23 months old who received trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine ...
Home , March 2013 - Volume 121 - Issue 3 , Maternal Safety of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine i... , Image Gallery ... Maternal Safety of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Pregnant Women Obstetrics & Gynecology121(3):519-525, March 2013 ...
Lists recommended recipients of the 2010-2011 vaccine. Discusses immunogenicity and efficacy, dosage and schedule, adverse ... Presents results from the national and international influenza surveillance in the past year. ... Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of 1 versus 2 doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in vaccine-naive 5-8-year-old ... Both seasonal influenza A (H1) viruses were related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2009-2010 influenza vaccine (A/ ...
CSL Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine - Thimerosal-free Biological: CSL Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with ... Biological: CSL Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with Thimerosal CSL influenza vaccine-multiple dose vial presentation ( ... Biological: CSL Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with Thimerosal CSL influenza vaccine-multiple dose vial presentation ( ... Biological: CSL Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine with Thimerosal CSL influenza vaccine-multiple dose vial presentation ( ...
Improved adjuvanting of seasonal influenza vaccines: Preclinical studies of MVA-NP+M1 coadministration with inactivated ... M1 coadministration with inactivated influenza vaccine. Eur. J. Immunol., 43: 1940-1952. doi: 10.1002/eji.201242922 ... Improved adjuvanting of seasonal influenza vaccines: Preclinical studies of MVA-NP+ ...
Positive results in a real-time PCR for type A influenza associated with the use of an inactivated vaccine. Authors. *. I ... Romain Paillot, Charles El-Hage, The Use of a Recombinant Canarypox-Based Equine Influenza Vaccine during the 2007 Australian ... test for the matrix gene of type A influenza viruses was used during the 2007 Australian equine influenza (EI) outbreak in ... Next article in issue: Overview of the industry and social impacts of the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak Next ...
Allantoic split inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Biological: influenza vaccine A allantoic split inactivated seasonal ... Reactogenicity, Safety and Immunogenicity Study of a Allantoic Split Inactivated Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (VSI). The safety ... influenza vaccine has been prepared on eggs and is made from inactivated parts of the following influenza virus strains:. NIBRG ... A Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-controlled Study of Phase I Allantoic Split Inactivated Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Healthy ...
Safety and immungenicity of an inactivated subvirion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1343-51. DOIPubMed ... Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(5):807. doi:10.3201/eid1305.061248.. ... Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, Jankovics M, Jankovics I. Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine. Emerg Infect Dis. ... Vajo, Z., Kosa, L., Visontay, I., Jankovics, M., & Jankovics, I. (2007). Inactivated Whole Virus Influenza A (H5N1) Vaccine. ...
EfficacyImmunizationPandemic influenzaVirionInfectionAbstractImmunologyVirus vaccinesSubunitIntramuscularInhibiting influenza virusPneumococcalComplicationsSeasonal influenza vaccinesTitersResponsesMorbidityLaboratory-confirmed influenzaChildren aged 6 monthsAvianAdverseIntranasalAdjuvantsEffective than inactivated vaccinesHong KongInfantsImmunityIntramuscularlySafety and TolerabilityViral vaccinesTrivalent inactivated vaccine
- 2 - 5 Several studies conducted before the 2009 influenza A/H1N1pdm09 pandemic demonstrated superior efficacy of LAIV over IIV in children aged 6-71 months, leading ACIP in 2014 to recommend preferential use of LAIV, when immediately available, for healthy children aged 2-8 years. (aappublications.org)
- The efficacy of oseltamivir against avian influenza is not well established. (medscape.com)
- Manufacturer(s) have sought approval of the vaccine (s) and provided evidence as to safety and efficacy only when it is used in accordance with the product monographs. (canada.ca)
- However, due to constant changes of the virus surface glycoproteins, the vaccine efficacy can drop substantially in some seasons. (mdpi.com)
- In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and cross-protective efficacy of IN chitosan encapsulated inactivated SwIAV vaccine in pigs. (frontiersin.org)
- To improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers h. (bioportfolio.com)
- In response to the outbreak, he and his colleagues at the USDA ARS South Eastern Poultry Research Lab in Athens, Georgia - with support from SENASICA, Mexico's National Health Service, Food Safety and Food Quality in Cuajimalpa - conducted vaccine efficacy trials to determine if US- and Mexican-origin inactivated H7 vaccine would protect birds from clinical disease and shedding of virus. (thepoultrysite.com)
- We assessed the efficacy of TIV against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B. Methods. (ebscohost.com)
- Vaccine efficacy against influenza A/H1N1pdm09 was 67% for inactivated influenza vaccine (95% CI, 0.62-0.72) and 20% for quadrivalent live attenuated vaccine (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.39). (infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com)
- In the case of influenza, effectiveness is expected to be lower than the efficacy because it is measured using the rates of influenza-like illness, which is not always caused by influenza. (wikipedia.org)
- Influenza vaccines generally show high efficacy, as measured by the antibody production in animal models or vaccinated people. (wikipedia.org)
- The meta-analyses examined the efficacy and effectiveness of inactivated vaccines against seasonal influenza in adults, children, and the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
- We have been evaluating an oral vaccine platform based on recombinant adenoviral vectors for the purpose of creating a prophylactic vaccine to prevent influenza, and have demonstrated vaccine efficacy in animal models and substantial immunogenicity in humans. (springer.com)
- It has been shown that FA extensively modifies vaccine antigens and thus affects immunogenicity profiles, sometimes compromising the protective efficacy of the vaccines or even exacerbating the disease upon infection. (frontiersin.org)
- As the first report of using non-toxic natural compounds for the preparation of inactivated viral vaccines, the present results could be translated into a clinically relevant vaccine platform with improved efficacy, safety, productivity, and public acceptance. (frontiersin.org)
- Advances in reverse genetics or structural vaccinology provide technical platforms for the development of new vaccines with the desired level of efficacy and safety, including virus-like particles (VLPs), vectored vaccines, and live attenuated vaccines ( Sette and Rappuoli, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Many PRRSv vaccine combinations has been evaluated, but only some of them have shown their safety and efficacy, such as the combination of UNISTRAIN® PRRS with PPV and SE vaccine ERYSENG®PARVO . (hipra.com)
- However, efficacy and immunogenicity of these vaccines are known to vary by season and geographic location. (mdpi.com)
- The efficacy of live attenuated, cold-adapted, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine in children. (jamanetwork.com)
- Efficacy of intranasal virosomal influenza vaccine in the prevention of recurrent acute otitis media in children. (jamanetwork.com)
- Background Potent and safe adjuvants are needed to improve the efficacy of parenteral and mucosal vaccines. (vt.edu)
- We have previously evaluated the efficacy of membrane-anchored interleukins (IL) such as IL-2 and IL-4 co-presented as Cytokine-bearing Influenza Vaccines (CYT-IVACs) using a mouse model of influenza challenge. (vt.edu)
- Data on the efficacy of trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in HIV-infected adults, particularly in Africa, are limited. (oup.com)
- The primary study outcome involved vaccine efficacy against influenza confirmed illness. (oup.com)
- Vaccine receipt was confirmed via provider/electronic medical records or immunization registry. (aappublications.org)
- Influenza immunization is encouraged and provided free for family members, caregivers and household contacts of seniors. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- The purpose of this statement is to provide the NACI recommendations for immunization with the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) for the 2010-2011 season, based on evidence available at this time. (canada.ca)
- Immunization programs should focus on those persons at high risk of influenza-related complications, those capable of transmitting influenza to individuals at high risk of complications and those who provide essential community services. (canada.ca)
- National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (U.S.). Influenza Division. (cdc.gov)
- The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has released updated recommendations for the prevention and control of influenza. (aafp.org)
- All health care workers should be vaccinated against influenza annually, and facilities that employ health care workers are strongly encouraged to provide vaccine to workers by using approaches that maximize immunization rates. (aafp.org)
- In 1990, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Immunization Program created the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project to conduct postmarketing evaluations of vaccine safety. (aappublications.org)
- The Immunization Safety Office also includes the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network, and the Brighton Collaboration. (aappublications.org)
- We conducted a cohort study to determine if the prevalence of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) with influenza vaccine among Thai pregnant women was similar to that often cited among healthy adults. (biomedcentral.com)
- Under the Programs drop-down box, select Immunization and Vaccines (Influenza/Flu) , then press the Go button. (cdc.gov)
- These recommendations extensively revise previous influenza vaccine recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) (superseding MMWR 1983;32:333-7) and provide information on the vaccine and antiviral agent available for control of influenza in the 1984-1985 influenza season and on target groups for which special influenza control programs are recommended. (cdc.gov)
- Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) have already been recommended as a new adjuvant for inactivated AIV H9N2 vaccine immunization. (jjmicrobiol.com)
- The AIV loaded into CNP vaccines induce appropriate antibody titers, after a single immunization, while requiring a low dose of antigen. (jjmicrobiol.com)
- This document, the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI): Canadian Immunization Guide Chapter on Influenza and Statement on Seasonal Influenza Vaccine for 2019-2020, updates NACI's recommendations regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines. (canada.ca)
- General immunization practices Section 2: Licensed Vaccines and Vaccines in Development 10. (ebay.co.uk)
- Mucosal immunization using IL-12 and IL-23 bearing whole influenza virus vaccine (WIV) was more effective at eliciting virus-specific nasal IgA and reducing viral lung burden following challenge compared to control WIV vaccinated animals. (vt.edu)
- Conduct epidemiological projects to determine the timing, disease and economic burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. (who.int)
- Aluminum salts have been proposed as possible adjuvants for use in combination with pandemic influenza vaccine antigens to improve immune responses [ 5 - 7 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Specifically, neuraminidase-a glycoprotein located on the surface of the influenza virus-cleaves the attachment between hemagglutinin on the viral surface and the sialic acid receptor on the host cell membrane, thereby facilitating the release of the virion from the cell. (medscape.com)
- Most up-to-date research on "Global and China Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated Industry 2014 Market Research Report" to its huge collection of research reports. (pitchengine.com)
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- The purpose of the clinical trial was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity against Hualan's Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion), Inactivated (0.5ml) administered on age 6 months and old population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Immunogenicity and safety of an intramuscular split-virion quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in individuals aged ≥ 6 months in India. (who.int)
- Influvac may also be prescribed for other persons at risk of influenza infection. (news-medical.net)
- Influenza is a virus infection of the throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs. (drugs.com)
- Each year thousands of people die as a result of an influenza infection. (drugs.com)
- Accordingly, zanamivir is now recommended as the initial choice for antiviral prophylaxis or treatment when influenza A infection or exposure is suspected. (medscape.com)
- These symptoms are less severe and last a shorter time compared to influenza infection. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- For information about pneumococcal infection and the vaccine, see HealthLinkBC File #62b Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine . (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Influenza is an infection of the upper airway caused by the influenza virus. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Thirteen medically attended events were less likely to occur after trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, including acute upper respiratory tract infection, asthma, bronchiolitis, and otitis media. (rti.org)
- Infection with an influenza virus is a major public health threat as it has the ability to spread rapidly and affect large numbers of people. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Infection of vaccinated flocks, serology complications and spreading of virus by vaccine crews, are some of the hypothetical concerns. (thepoultrysite.com)
- That inactivated vaccines have reduced a flock's susceptibility to AI infection, have reduced the quantity of virus shed post challenge, have reduced transmission and have markedly reduced disease losses, are scientific facts. (thepoultrysite.com)
- As the death rate is also high among infants who catch influenza, the household contacts and caregivers of infants should be vaccinated to reduce the risk of passing an influenza infection to the infant. (wikipedia.org)
- However, minor illnesses with or without fever do not contraindicate use of influenza vaccine, particularly in children with mild upper respiratory tract infection or allergic rhinitis. (aafp.org)
- Therefore, pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (use of antiviral medications to prevent influenza infection) may be considered for these patients if they are likely to be exposed to people with influenza. (thebody.com)
- People with HIV/AIDS should be prescribed oral oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir to prevent infection with influenza when they cannot otherwise be protected during times when there is a high risk for exposure to influenza. (thebody.com)
- According to the ACIP, rates of infection are highest among children, but rates of serious illness and death are highest among persons 65 years and older and persons of any age who have medical conditions that place them at increased risk for complications from influenza. (aafp.org)
- Vaccinating their household contacts and out-of-home caregivers might decrease the probability of influenza infection among these children. (aafp.org)
- Persons who have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, including HIV-infected pregnant women, should be vaccinated because influenza can result in serious illness. (aafp.org)
- The primary prevention measure for influenza infection has been the use of influenza vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- Influenza-control options should also be made available to individuals who wish to reduce their chances of acquiring influenza infection or to reduce the severity of disease. (cdc.gov)
- We found that the response of memory, but not naive, CD4 + T cells enhances production of multiple innate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IICs) in the lung and that, during influenza infection, this leads to early control of virus. (nature.com)
- Figure 1: Memory CD4 + T cells induce an acute increase in IICs upon influenza infection. (nature.com)
- Priming with cold-adapted influenza A does not prevent infection but elicits long-lived protection against supralethal challenge with heterosubtypic virus. (nature.com)
- Sustained desensitization to bacterial Toll-like receptor ligands after resolution of respiratory influenza infection. (nature.com)
- abstract = "There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. (elsevier.com)
- Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. (bionity.com)
- Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. (bionity.com)
- Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutics: where do we stand with influenza B virus? (bioportfolio.com)
- Inactivated influenza virus vaccines (IIVs) are recommended for all pregnant women in the United States. (emmes.com)
- Epstein-Barr virus vaccines 23. (ebay.co.uk)
- Herpes simplex virus vaccines 29. (ebay.co.uk)
- Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines 30. (ebay.co.uk)
- Respiratory syncytial virus vaccines 51. (ebay.co.uk)
- Tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccines 59. (ebay.co.uk)
- Annual Study to Investigate Inactivated Subunit Influenza Vaccine for the 2006/2007 Influenza Season in Europe. (bioportfolio.com)
- In the study Influvac will be compared to Agrippal, another subunit influenza vaccine that is already on the market in China. (bioportfolio.com)
- Possible reasons for these findings are discussed in the light of the known low immunogenicity observed for split and subunit influenza virus vaccine preparations in animals and in unprimed human populations. (elsevier.com)
- Unadjuvanted subunit and split virus inactivated influenza vaccines are two commonly used types of seasonal influenza vaccines in Canada. (canada.ca)
- Low-dose intradermal versus intramuscular trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in lung transplant recipients. (cdc.gov)
- Two major types of vaccines are widely used internationally against polio: Orally administered, live attenuated Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV) and intramuscular (or subcutaneous) Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV). (plos.org)
- 139 pregnant women ages 18-39 years and 14-33 weeks' gestation, and 44 non-pregnant women, were randomized 1:1:1 to receive a single intramuscular dose of one of three licensed IIV3s (Agriflu®, Fluzone®, or Fluarix®) prior to the 2010-2011 influenza season. (emmes.com)
- There is a time limit to file a pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13), and/or DTaP claim for compensation. (cdc.gov)
- Young children who get the flu shot along with pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13), and/or DTaP vaccine at the same time might be slightly more likely to have a seizure caused by fever. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition to the influenza vaccine, seniors should be immunized against pneumococcal disease. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- The pneumococcal vaccine protects against infections of the brain, bloodstream, lungs and ear. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- It is safe to get the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines at the same time. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Most people only need 1 dose of pneumococcal vaccine and will not need a booster dose. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal common protein vaccines 46. (ebay.co.uk)
- Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines 47. (ebay.co.uk)
- As people age, they may be at higher risk of complications from influenza. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- This Vaccine Helps to Protect You or Your Child Against Influenza (Flu), Particularly in People Who Run a High Risk of Associated Complications. (heethealthcare.co.in)
- However, persons who have a history of anaphylactic hypersensitivity to vaccine components but who also are at high risk for complications from influenza can benefit from vaccine after appropriate allergy evaluation and desensitization. (aafp.org)
- People with HIV/AIDS are at high risk of serious influenza-related complications . (thebody.com)
- Other studies have indicated that influenza symptoms might be prolonged and the risk of influenza-related complications is higher for certain HIV-infected people. (thebody.com)
- People with HIV/AIDS are at high risk of serious influenza-related complications and should get the inactivated influenza vaccine (the flu shot). (thebody.com)
- It's very important that influenza antiviral drugs be used early to treat flu in people who are very sick with flu (for example people who are in the hospital) and people who are sick with flu and who have a greater chance of getting serious flu complications, such as people with HIV/AIDS. (thebody.com)
- According to the ACIP, women who will be pregnant during the influenza season should be vaccinated because of the increased risk for influenza-related complications. (aafp.org)
- Persons at high risk for complications of influenza who were not vaccinated during the preceding fall or winter should consider receiving influenza vaccine before traveling if they plan to travel to the tropics, travel with an organized tour group at any time of year, or travel to the Southern Hemisphere from April through September. (aafp.org)
- Other populations at high risk for influenza-related complications are also increasing, due, for example, to the success of intensive-care units for neonates, better management of diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, and better survival rates for organ-transplant recipients. (cdc.gov)
- Animals that received the live-attenuated vaccine had low or undetectable titers in the lower respiratory tract. (mdpi.com)
- Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay using chicken red blood cells and the Influenza A/H1N1pdm virus A/California/7/2009 (NIBSC 09/146). (biomedcentral.com)
- The study examined the influence of sex and mouse strain on germinal center (GC) reaction and antibody responses to seasonal split trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). (bioportfolio.com)
- The ability of influenza vaccines to elicit CD4(+) T cells and the relationship between induction of CD4(+) T cells and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody responses has been controversial. (nih.gov)
- Antibody responses to the vaccine were not enhanced by AlOH at any HA dose level. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. (elsevier.com)
- In this system, SV induced markedly lower IgG and IgM antibody responses than WV vaccine, and mixtures of SV with WV reproducibly resulted in lowered antibody responses compared to those elicited by WV alone. (elsevier.com)
- We analyzed the relationship between host gene polymorphisms and responses in recipients of inactivated influenza vaccine, who were classified into poor, normal, or adverse response groups. (cdc.gov)
- These data indicate that host polymorphisms play a role in determining responses to influenza vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- Frequencies of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and inactivated influenza vaccine-induced adverse responses. (cdc.gov)
- The 30 microg vaccine dosage induced similar responses. (emmes.com)
- Pulendran, B. Modulating vaccine responses with dendritic cells and Toll-like receptors. (nature.com)
- An unexpected antibody response to an engineered influenza virus modifies CD8 + T cell responses. (nature.com)
- it stimulates both B and T lymphocyte responses and is much more immunogenic than the polysaccharide vaccine. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Seasonal influenza epidemics are associated with significant morbidity and mortality each year, particularly amongst young children and the elderly. (nih.gov)
- In spite of hypothetical concerns, inactivated AI vaccines have contributed successfully to preventing morbidity, mortality and egg production loss, reducing economic loss and controlling the spread of disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Influenza virus infections are a major cause of acute seasonal respiratory illness, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. (springer.com)
- Vaccines have undoubtedly been a medical milestone, preventing immeasurable morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases worldwide. (medscape.com)
- The development of vaccines against various infectious diseases has ameliorated morbidity and mortality worldwide. (medscape.com)
- Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in primary care in the United Kingdom: 2015/16 mid-season results. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Researchers studied the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections in children aged 9 months to 3 years. (medindia.net)
- In this paper, we generated influenza virus vaccine constructs that express chimeric hemagglutinins consisting of exotic, avian head domains and a consistent stalk domain of a seasonal virus. (mdpi.com)
- Biosecurity is the first line of defence in the prevention and control of mildly pathogenic avian influenza (MPAI). (thepoultrysite.com)
- Its use has been highly successful in keeping avian influenza (AI) out of commercial poultry world-wide. (thepoultrysite.com)
- In the absence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, there is no justification for forbidding the use of inactivated vaccine. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Current international regulations, as interpreted, prevent veterinarians from adequately fighting mildly pathogenic avian influenza. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Current inactivated H7 vaccines were found in USDA ARS studies to be effective against the H7N3 subtype of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus that caused the outbreaks of bird flu in Mexico in 2012 and a similar low-pathogenic virus of the same subtype. (thepoultrysite.com)
- At the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2012 in Atlanta, Dr Darrell Kapczynski reminded the audience about a recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 in Jalisco, Mexico, beginning in June 2012. (thepoultrysite.com)
- In the first set of experiments, four phylogenetically-related US low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates - either H7N2 or H7N3 - were formulated into inactivated emulsion vaccines and injected into seven-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Li-Kim-Moy J , Yin J K , Rashid H , Khandaker G , King C , Wood N , Macartney K K , Jones C , Booy R . Systematic review of fever, febrile convulsions and serious adverse events following administration of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in children. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Unlike the case with most other medical interventions, vaccines are given to healthy people, which is why some people are far less willing to tolerate adverse effects of vaccines than adverse effects of other treatments. (wikipedia.org)
- There is some scientific evidence that immunizations can cause serious adverse effects, such as gelatin measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) causing anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a passive surveillance program administered jointly by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (wikipedia.org)
- VAERS is intended to track adverse events associated with vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
- VAERS collects and analyzes information from reports of adverse events (possible side effects) that occur after the administration of US licensed vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
- 3 , 4 Although vaccine safety is rigorously assessed during prelicensing clinical trials, sample sizes are not adequate to detect rare adverse events, long-term adverse events are not examined, and populations are not heterogenous. (aappublications.org)
- Studies on the usefulness of intranasal inactivated influenza vaccines. (nih.gov)
- Intranasal inactivated influenza vaccines have the advantage over parenteral vaccines in that they are not associated with the pain of an injection. (nih.gov)
- This review summarizes the most important observations of our studies on intranasal inactivated influenza vaccines, which have been ongoing since 1987. (nih.gov)
- The CDC recommend that everyone except infants under the age of six months should receive the seasonal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
- Allegations particularly focus on disorders claimed to be caused by the MMR vaccine and thiomersal, a preservative used in vaccines routinely given to U.S. infants prior to 2001. (wikipedia.org)
- The influenza vaccine does not affect the safety of mothers who are breastfeeding or their infants. (aafp.org)
- Safety and immunogenicity of three seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines among pregnant women and antibody persistence in their infants. (emmes.com)
- Influenza antibody concentrations in infants were 70-40% of the birth titer by 6 weeks of age. (emmes.com)
- Febrile events including convulsions following the administration of four brands of 2010 and 2011 inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children: the importance of routine active safety surveillance. (evesdrift.com)
- To evaluate and compare rates of febrile events, including febrile convulsion, following immunisation with four brands of inactivated 2010 and 2011 influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children. (evesdrift.com)
- This gives your body enough time, about 2 weeks, to build immunity before the influenza season starts. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- This immunity typically lasts through the influenza season which usually ends in April. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Mooring EQ , Bansal S . Increasing herd immunity with influenza revaccination. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Live attenuated vaccines are effective in providing people with lifelong immunity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- CD4 + T-cell memory: generation and multi-faceted roles for CD4 + T cells in protective immunity to influenza. (nature.com)