Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
Serological tests that measure anti-hemadsorption agents such as antiviral ANTIBODIES that block VIRAL HEMAGGLUNININS from adhering to the surface of red blood cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/3234)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (2/3234)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning. (3/3234)

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model. (4/3234)

IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy. (5/3234)

This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners.  (+info)

Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus hemagglutinin. (6/3234)

The A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted molecule. The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Growth of transformants on methanol-containing medium resulted in the secretion of recombinant non-cleaved soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s). Remarkably, the pH of the induction medium had an important effect on the expression level, the highest level being obtained at pH 8.0. The gel filtration profile and the reactivity against a panel of different HA-conformation specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that HA0s was monomeric. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed a typical P. pastoris type of glycosylation, consisting of glycans with 10-12 glycosyl residues. Mice immunized with purified soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s) showed complete protection against a challenge with 10 LD50 of mouse-adapted homologous virus (X47), whereas all control mice succumbed. Heterologous challenge with X31 virus [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2-subtype)], resulted in significantly higher survival rates in the immunized group compared with the control group. These results, together with the safety, reliability and economic potential of P. pastoris, as well as the flexibility and fast adaptation of the expression system may allow development of an effective recombinant influenza vaccine.  (+info)

Measuring the effects of reminders for outpatient influenza immunizations at the point of clinical opportunity. (7/3234)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of computer-based reminders about influenza vaccination on the behavior of individual clinicians at each clinical opportunity. DESIGN: The authors conducted a prospective study of clinicians' influenza vaccination behavior over four years. Approximately one half of the clinicians in an internal medicine clinic used a computer-based patient record system (CPR users) that generated computer-based reminders. The other clinicians used traditional paper records (PR users). MEASUREMENTS: Each nonacute visit by a patient eligible for an influenza vaccination was considered an opportunity for intervention. Patients who had contraindications for vaccination were excluded. Compliance with the guideline was defined as documentation that a clinician ordered the vaccine, counseled the patient about the vaccine, offered the vaccine to a patient who declined it, or verified that the patient had received the vaccine elsewhere. The authors calculated the proportion of opportunities on which each clinician documented action in the CPR and PR user groups. RESULTS: The CPR and PR user groups had different baseline compliance rates (40.1 and 27.9 per cent, respectively; P<0.05). Both rates remained stable during a two-year baseline period (P = 0.34 and P = 0.47, respectively). The compliance rates in the CPR user group increased 78 per cent from baseline (P<0.001), whereas the rates for the PR user group did not change significantly (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians who used a CPR with reminders had higher rates of documentation of compliance with influenza-vaccination guidelines than did those who used a paper record. Measurements of individual clinician behavior at the point of each clinical opportunity can provide precise evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve compliance with guidelines.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations. (8/3234)

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)

Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza.² Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States: trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).•TIV is injected into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh. It can be used for people 6 months of age or older, including those with chronic medical conditions, pregnant ...
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, seasonal influenza vaccination). Cases were ILI patients with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for influenza. Vaccination was defined as having received one dose ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish one universal immunoassay for universal influenza vaccine(s) because the approaches towards these vaccines ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines is being replaced with cell culture vaccines. Cell culture based production of vaccines is expected to reduce the problems associated with ...
Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines. We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an influenza season generally are not available until the next influenza season. Rapid assessment of influenza vaccination coverage can help direct activities of ...
Results: The overall sample consisted of 4,011 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate in Germany increased from 22.3% in 2002/2003 to 25.1% in 2003/2004. This increase is not significant. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccinees were: influenza considered to be a serious illness, which people wanted to avoid (90.1%), having received advice from the family doctor or nurse to be vaccinated (71.3%), and not wanting to infect family and friends (70.4%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who have never been vaccinated were: thinking about it, however, not being vaccinated in the end (47.7%), not expecting to catch influenza (43.6%), and not having received a recommendation from the family doctor to be vaccinated (36.6%). Options encouraging influenza vaccination are: recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (66.6%), more available information on the vaccine regarding efficacy and tolerance (54.2%), and more information available about the ...
Recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination are standard in most developed countries. Many rapidly developing countries have recently begun to adopt recommendations for high-risk target groups, such as the elderly. Population-based surveys to determine use, rather than purchases, of seasonal …
To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case-control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%-93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 ...
Routine influenza vaccination of health-care personnel (HCP) every influenza season can reduce influenza-related illness and its potentially serious consequences among HCP and their patients (1-5). To protect HCP and their patients, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all HCP be vaccinated against influenza during each influenza season (5). To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among HCP during the 2012-13 season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 1,944 self-selected HCP during April 1-16, 2013. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which found that, overall, 72.0% of HCP reported having had an influenza vaccination for the 2012-13 season, an increase from 66.9% vaccination coverage during the 2011-12 season (6). By occupation type, coverage was 92.3% among physicians, 89.1% among pharmacists, 88.5% among nurse practitioners/physician assistants, and 84.8% among nurses. By occupational setting, vaccination coverage was highest ...
The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated products customers application capacity market position company contact information etc company related information, then collect all these manufacturers data and listed ...
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • Influenza vaccinated market (Children and Adult vaccinated market). • Influenza Vaccine Covered (Vaxigrip/Fluzone, Fluarix/ Flulaval, FluMist/Fluenz, Afluria/Fluvax and Fluvirin/Flucelvax, Anflu). • 23 Countries Covered (Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
The present phase III study aims to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of MF59-adjuvanted subunit seasonal influenza vaccine and to evaluate the consistency in the manufacturing process of three consecutive lots of MF59-adjuvanted subunit seasonal influenza vaccine with respect to immunogenicity in subjects aged 65 years and older. The active comparator non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine is approved for use in this age group in the United States and will be used to provide a comparative assessment for immunogenicity and safety ...
To determine the effect of HIV-infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-TB co-infection on humoral antibody responses, measured by hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HAI), to each of three strains included in the seasonal non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine In this study we will use the following definitions to assess the humoral immune response to TIV: HAI titers ,1:10 = seronegative; HAI titers ≥1:10 = seropositive; HAI titers ≥1:40 = sero-protective; sero-response rate (primary outcome measure) will be defined as a titer of ≥1:40 in an individual with baseline titers of ,1:10, or ,4-fold increase of HAI titers if baseline titers were ≥1:10. Hemagglutination inhibition assays will be performed on serum as per recommended methods. Sera will be titrated against antigens from the influenza vaccine strains included in the 2013 seasonal TIV ...
Background Influenza vaccines are reviewed each year, and often changed, in an effort to maintain their effectiveness against drifted influenza viruses. There is however no regular review of influenza vaccine effectiveness during, or at the end of, Australian influenza seasons. It is possible to use a case control method to estimate vaccine effectiveness from surveillance data when all patients in a surveillance system are tested for influenza and their vaccination status is known. Methodology/Principal Findings Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is conducted during the influenza season in sentinel general practices scattered throughout Victoria, Australia. Over five seasons 2003-7, data on age, sex and vaccination status were collected and nose and throat swabs were offered to patients presenting within three days of the onset of their symptoms. Swabs were tested using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Those positive for influenza were sent to the World Health
Latest industry research report on Influenza Vaccines Market. Influenza is a type of seasonal or pandemic condition causing fever, coryza, cough, headache, and malaise. The severity of influenza symptoms varies across age groups and type of influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately, 3 to 5 million people are prone to seasonal epidemics, annually.. The growing number of ageing population and an increase in the frequency of seasonal influenza outbreak supplement the demand for influenza vaccines across the healthcare industry. Intellectual property rights are providing security to the patent holders, thereby, increases their market share. However, the upcoming patent expirations for top influenza vaccines and the growing popularity of influenza drugs as over the counter (OTC) products would provide an opportunity for generic manufacturers.. Get Free Sample Report Of Influenza Vaccines Market @ ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire population is immunized at usual vaccination coverage. At higher levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza, the impact of this enhanced risk is less marked, as seasonal vaccine has ...
While influenza vaccines aim to decrease the incidence of severe influenza among high-risk groups, evidence of influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) among the influenza vaccine target population is sparse. We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study to estimate IVE against hospitalis …
Hannah Blake. pharmaphorum. A new seasonal influenza vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. Developed by Protein Sciences Corp, Flubok is the first trivalent influenza vaccine made using an insect virus (baculovirus) expression system and recombinant DNA technology. Flublok is approved for the prevention of seasonal influenza in people 18 through 49 years of age.. Unlike current flu vaccines, Flublok does not use the influenza virus or eggs in its production. Flubloks novel manufacturing technology allows for production of large quantities of the influenza virus protein, hemagglutinin (HA) - the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that is essential for entry of the virus into cells in the body. The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA.. While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it has already been used to make vaccines to prevent other infectious diseases. These ...
Health care providers should not use live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the upcoming 2016-17 season due to poor effectiveness, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) committee said Wednesday.. Academy leaders say they support the interim recommendation by the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).. We agree with ACIPs decision today to recommend health care providers and parents use only the inactivated vaccine for this influenza season, said AAP President Benard Dreyer, M.D., FAAP.. The AAP recommends children ages 6 months and older be immunized against influenza every year. Previously, the CDC and AAP had recommended either form of flu vaccine - the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) that is given by injection and is approved for all patients older than 6 months, or LAIV which is given by intranasal spray and is approved for healthy patients ages 2 through 49 years.. However, new data presented to the ACIP showed that currently only IIV provides ...
Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza outbreaks, and are the consequence of antigenic drift or shift, respectively. For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and
Studies Fail To Demonstrate Safety Or Effectiveness Of Influenza Vaccine In Children And Adults. An independent analysis by the internationally renowned Cochrane Collaboration of worldwide influenza vaccine studies, published in the British Medical Journal on Oct. 28, concluded there is little scientific proof that inactivated influenza vaccine is safe and effective for children and adults. Citing the Cochrane Collaboration finding as well as methodological flaws in a child influenza vaccine study published Oct. 25 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the National Vaccine Information Center is calling on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to stop recommending annual flu shots for all infants and children until methodologically sound studies are conducted.. There is a big gap between policies promoting annual influenza vaccinations for most children and adults and supporting scientific evidence, said epidemiologist Tom Jefferson, Cochrane Vaccines Field, Rome, Italy, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal influenza vaccination rates in the HIV outpatient study-United States, 1999-2013. AU - Durham, Marcus D.. AU - Buchacz, Kate. AU - Armon, Carl. AU - Patel, Pragna. AU - Wood, Kathy. AU - Brooks, John T.. AU - Hays, Harlen. AU - Wood, Kathleen C.. AU - Hankerson, Darlene. AU - Debes, Rachel. AU - Subramanian, Thilakavathy. AU - Dean, Bonnie. AU - Palella, Frank J.. AU - Chmiel, Joan S.. AU - Jahangir, Saira. AU - Flaherty, Conor Daniel. AU - Dixon-Evans, Jerian Denise. AU - Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.. AU - Stewart, Cheryl. AU - Hammer, John. AU - Greenberg, Kenneth S.. AU - Widick, Barbara. AU - Franklin, Rosa. AU - Yangco, Bienvenido G.. AU - Chagaris, Kalliope. AU - Ward, Doug. AU - Thomas, Troy. AU - Avery, Patricia. AU - Fuhrer, Jack. AU - Ording-Bauer, Linda. AU - Kelly, Rita. AU - Esteves, Jane. AU - Tedaldi, Ellen M.. AU - Christian, Ramona A.. AU - Ruley, Faye. AU - Beadle, Dania. AU - Graham, Princess. AU - Novak, Richard M.. AU - Wendrow, Andrea. AU - Smith, ...
Influenza, however, is unique among respiratory viral pathogens in that another effective intervention to prevent transmission exists: vaccination. Annual influenza vaccination has been available in the United States since 1945 and has been recommended for persons at high risk of influenza complications since 1960. Unlike many pathogens, the predominant circulating influenza strains vary from year to year, affecting the intensity and severity of the influenza season as well as vaccine effectiveness. According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of influenza vaccine protection, there was 59% effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine in adults aged 18 to 65 years and a higher effectiveness (83%) of the live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) in children.3Although not at levels of other vaccines, influenza vaccination provides some protection and may prevent complications due to influenza such as pneumonia, hospitalizations, and death. Recent studies in children have demonstrated that the ...
According to recent research published in the Pediatrics journal, patients should not use the nasal spray flu vaccine in 2016. This statement supports previous recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),. These recommendations are based on research which reveals that the nasal spray flu vaccine, also known as the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), offered low protection against certain types of influenza between 2013 and 2016 and does not offer the required efficacy.. The data gathered from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network showed that LAIV offered only 3% protection against any flu virus during the 2015-2016 flu season in children aged 2 to 17 years. By comparison, the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), the injectable flu vaccine, proved more effective, offering 63 percent protection against any influenza strain.. MedImmunes LAIV, FluMist was also found to offer poor or ...
Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. Two types of MDV lineages have been described, the Ann Arbor lineages and the A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR/60 lineages. Here the safety and immunogenicity of a Madin Darby Canine Kidney - cell culture based, intranasal LAW derived from A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR, was evaluated in healthy influenza non-naive volunteers 18-50 years of age. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1 x 10(5),1 x 10(6), or 1 x 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. A ...
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive effects of socioeconomic factors to explain influenza vaccination coverage rates in 11 European countries. METHODS: Data from national household surveys collected over up to seven consecutive seasons between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008 were analyzed to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with immunization against influenza. RESULTS: In total, data from 92,101 household contacts representative for the national non-institutionalized population aged above 14 years were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe remain suboptimal with little or no progress in the last years. The results of this study indicate that gender, household income, size of household, educational level and population size of living residence may significantly contribute to explain chances of getting immunized against influenza apart from the known risk factors age and chronic illness. The effect of these socioeconomic factors was ...
Observations on Vaccine Production Technologies and Factors Potentially Influencing Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Choices in Developing Countries A discussion paper World Health Organization SoulMiitAtiaR* WestwnhcMc~ � SEA-TRH-006 Distribution: Limited Observations on Vaccine Production Technologies and Factors Potentially Influencing Pandemic Influenza vaccine Choices in Developing Countries A discussion paper World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia �@ World Health Organization 2009 This document is not issued to the general public, and all rights are reserved by the World Health Organization (WHO). The document may not be reviewed, abstracted, quoted, reproduced or translated, in part or in whole, without the prior written permission of WHO. No part of this document may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic, mechanical or other - without the prior written permission of WHO. The views expressed in documents by named ...
Duration of Serum Antibody Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccines: Summary. The level of antibody response made to seasonal influenza vaccines depends on the vaccine preparation, dose, prior antigenic experience, and age or underlying disease conditions of an individual Slideshow 158272 by...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
This approval represents a technological advance in the manufacturing of an influenza vaccine, stated Karen Midthun, director of the FDAs Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. The new technology offers the potential for faster startup of the vaccine manufacturing process in the event of a pandemic, because it is not dependent on an egg supply or on availability of the influenza virus.. Unlike current flu vaccines, Flublok does not use the influenza virus or eggs in its production. Flubloks novel manufacturing technology allows for production of large quantities of the influenza virus protein, hemagglutinin - the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that is essential for entry of the virus into cells in the body. The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA. While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it is used to make vaccines that have been approved by the FDA to prevent other infectious ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of antibody response of turkeys to trivalent avian influenza vaccine by positively charged liposomal avridine adjuvant. AU - Fatunmbi, Olufemi O.. AU - Newman, John A.. AU - Sivanandan, V.. AU - Halvorson, David A. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Trivalent avian influenza (AIV) antigens (H4N8, H5N2 and H7N3), mixed with positively charged, negatively charged and neutral avridine-containing liposomes, and oil-emulsion were subcutaneously administered to 6-week-old turkeys. Charged liposomal avridine adjuvant, either positive or negative, produced a better antibody response than uncharged liposomal avridine or oil-emulsion adjuvants when used in a trivalent avian influenza vaccine. The antibody response to the different antigens was generally greater to the positively charged adjuvanted vaccine compared with the negatively or neutral charged or oil-emulsion adjuvanted vaccines and these differences were significant (p , 0.05) with the three antigens. The results suggest that ...
Posts about Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Frontline Healthcare workers HCWs Survey 2013‐2014 written by Dementia and Elderly Care News
Lancet Infectious Diseases Jan 2018 Volume 18 Number 1 p1-122 e1-e32 Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay Summary Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against…
Looking for online definition of influenza vaccine in the Medical Dictionary? influenza vaccine explanation free. What is influenza vaccine? Meaning of influenza vaccine medical term. What does influenza vaccine mean?
This study is designed to note whether a larger safety study using quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) versus quadrivalent inactivated
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine against all-cause acute otitis media in childre were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
No safety signals were observed with the administration of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine, according to a large population study.
Vol 5: Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background Since 2004, the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean has markedly increased. However, vaccine effectiveness (VE) is not routinely measured in the region. We assessed the feasibility of using routine surveillance data collected by sentinel hospitals to estimate influenza VE during 2012 against laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in Costa-Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama. We explored the completeness of variables needed for VE estimation. Methods We conducted the pilot case-control study at 23 severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) surveillance hospitals. Participant inclusion criteria included children 6 months-11 years and adults ≥60 years targeted for vaccination and hospitalized for SARI during January-December 2012. We abstracted information needed to estimate target group specific VE (i.e., date of illness onset and specimen collection, preexisting medical conditions, 2012 and 2011 vaccination status and date, and ...
Annual recommendations on influenza seasonal vaccination include community pharmacists, who have low vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between influenza vaccination in community pharmacists and their knowledge of and attitudes to vaccination. An online cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Catalonia, Spain, was conducted between September and November 2014. Sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables, the history of influenza vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination were collected. The survey response rate was 7.33% (506 out of 6906); responses from 463 community pharmacists were included in the final analyses. Analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models and stepwise backward selection method for variable selection. The influenza vaccination coverage in season 2013-2014 was 25.1%. There was an association between vaccination and correct knowledge of the virus
[177 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report...
Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza-related hospitalization during a season with mixed outbreaks of four influenza viruses: a test-negative case-control study in adults in Canada Academic Article ...
Two phylogenetic lineages of influenza B virus coexist and circulate in the human population (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) but only one B-strain is included in each seasonal vaccine. Mismatch regularly occurs between the recommended and circulating B-strain. Inclusion of both lineages in vaccines may offer better protection against influenza. This study (NCT00714285) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two candidate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) containing two A- and two B-strains (one from each lineage) in adults (18-60 years). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age to receive either QIV (non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD QIV-AS]) or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV, non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD TIV-AS]), N = 105 in all treatment groups. The study evaluated the statistical non-inferiority of the immunological response elicited by QIV and LD QIV-AS versus TIV and LD TIV-AS and the statistical superiority of the response elicited by the quadrivalent vaccines
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Follow the six-step administration guide for FluMist® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal) nasal spray seasonal flu vaccine.
To the Editor: Adult vaccination rates are low (1), and workplaces are a useful location for increasing vaccination (2). In 2008, only 41% of US workers 50-64 years of age reported vaccination against influenza virus (3). Workplace vaccination is common and increases with employer size (4). Among adults, the workplace is the most common site for influenza vaccination for persons 18-49 years of age and second most common for persons 50-64 years (2). Offering vaccination in the workplace increases vaccination coverage (5).. Consistent with guidelines and economic incentives, employers have focused workplace vaccination on seasonal influenza (4), but the workplace has also been a key site for vaccination against influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and could be a site for other adult vaccinations. The most recent guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend annual influenza vaccination of all adults (6). In most years, the seasonal influenza vaccine and predominant ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
INTRODUCTION Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with 80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. RESULTS 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks ...
JJ KAPOJOS1, A BRITTON1, T WHITTINGTON1, SP McDONALD1. 1Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia Aim: To analyse the effectiveness of an active influenza vaccination policy in hemodialysis (HD) patients in a large metropolitan dialysis service.. Background: In response to a high frequency of hospitalisations, in 2016 a program of actively offering vaccination to satellite HD patients was undertaken. Influenza B increased in 2015; influenza vaccination was changed to quadrivalent in 2016.. Methods: Numbers of patients admitted with a positive influenza nucleic acid testing (NAT) were tabulated from 2012 to 2016. Positive cases in HD patients were further characterised for hospital length of stay, age, gender, race, potential contributors and mortality.. Results: Included were 550 patients managed across 15 units. Vaccination uptake improved from 67.3% in 2015 to 77.8% in 2016. However, the proportion of all hospital ...
Description of Invention:. National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. This novel influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited two types of broadly neutralizing, cross-protective antibodies-one directed to the highly conserved HA stem and a second proximal to the conserved receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral HA-providing a new platform for universal and seasonal influenza. In addition, HA-ferritin nanoparticles can be easily produced from simple expression vectors and without the production of infectious virus in eggs, and will facilitate influenza preparedness in the face of emerging epidemics.. This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a ...
This trial will compare the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine, and two trivalent influenza vaccines, in adult and elderly subjects.
United States Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Market Report 2017 is a market research report available at US $3800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Downloadable! We evaluate the results of a field experiment designed to measure the effect of prompts to form implementation intentions on realized behavioral outcomes. The outcome of interest is influenza vaccination receipt at free on-site clinics offered by a large firm to its employees. All employees eligible for study participation received reminder mailings that listed the times and locations of the relevant vaccination clinics. Mailings to employees randomly assigned to the treatment conditions additionally included a prompt to write down either (i) the date the employee planned to be vaccinated or (ii) the date and time the employee planned to be vaccinated. Vaccination rates increased when these implementation intentions prompts were included in the mailing. The vaccination rate among control condition employees was 33.1%. Employees who received the prompt to write down just a date had a vaccination rate 1.5 percentage points higher than the control group, a difference that is not statistically
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. One example of a variant flu virus is H3N2v.. Sometimes, human ...
National Influenza Vaccination Week is December 1-7. Its Not Too Late to Vaccinate!. Richland County, OH - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW) in 2005 to highlight the importance of continuing flu vaccination through the holiday season and beyond. Previous flu vaccination coverage data have shown that few people get vaccinated against influenza after the end of November. The CDC and its partners choose December for NIVW to remind people that even though the holiday season has begun, it is not too late to get a flu vaccine. Heres why:. ...
Demicheli, V., T. Jefferson, L.A. Al-Ansary, E. Ferroni, A. Rivetti, and C. Di Pietrantonj. Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 13.3 March 2014: CD001269. Grohskopf, L.A., L.Z. Sokolow, K.R. Broder, et al. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2018-19 Influenza Season. MMWR 67.3 Aug. 24, 2018: 1-20. Lambert, L., and Fauci, A. Influenza Vaccines for the Future. New Eng. J. Med. 361.21 (2010): 2036-2044. Monto, A.S., Ohmit, S.E., Petrie, J.G., Johnson, E., Truscon, R., Teich, E., Rotthoff, J., Boulton, M., Victor, J.C. Comparative Efficacy of Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines. N Engl J Med 361 Sept. 24, 2009: 1260. Nguyen, H. Influenza. Aug. 22, 2016. ,,. Perez-Padilla, R., de la Rosa-Zamboni, D., Ponce de Leon, S.P., Hernandez, M., Quinones-Falconi, F., ...
Results and conclusion Knowing that the vaccine is effective (mhRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.54), being willing to prevent influenza transmission (mhRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.70), believing that influenza is highly contagious (RR 2.25; 95% CI 1.66 to 3.05), believing that influenza prevention is important (mhRR 3.63; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.59) and having a family that is usually vaccinated (RR 2.32; 95% CI 1.64 to 3.28) were statistically significantly associated with a twofold higher vaccine uptake. We therefore recommend targeting these predictors when developing new influenza vaccination implementation strategies for hospital HCWs. ...
That staff at Waikato Hospital have been bullied into accepting influenza vaccinations, according to the NZ Herald is absolutely unacceptable in a democracy and is an assault on workers human rights.. Katherine Smith, spokeswoman for No Forced Vaccines says that she is appalled to learn that one staff member has been sacked because he or she did not comply with the new hospital policy regarding influenza vaccination. [1]. Influenza vaccination carries serious risks, including the risk of developing Guillain Barre syndrome, a disorder of the nervous system which can involve varying degrees of paralysis and can be fatal in some cases, Mrs Smith continues.. Its not surprising that many health professionals refuse influenza vaccinations, presumably because they do not want to put their health at risk. [2]. She rejects the hospitals claim that unvaccinated staff pose a risk to patients.. People who are not vaccinated do not necessarily contract the flu if they are exposed to it, she ...
Current licensed influenza vaccines induce hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies that do not cross-react with influenza strains that have undergone genetic drift. There is an urgent unmet need for more broadly protective seasonal influenza vaccines with greater breadth, enhanced potency, and durability of HAI responses. It is currently impossible to predict which antigenic variants may evolve, and therefore, novel vaccine candidates are needed that will elicit immunity to potential variants. Recently, we designed a new technology termed COBRA as a universal/more broadly reactive vaccine approach for both emerging/pandemic influenza viruses and currently circulating influenza subtypes. We have published a series of studies demonstrating the effectiveness of the COBRA HA antigens for H5N1 (11-13).. This method was applied to address the diversity within the H1N1 HA and yields a vaccine that elicits increased breadth of antibody response within the H1 influenza subtype. The method uses ...
Summary Parenteral immunization of BALB/c mice at 3 months of age with inactivated influenza virus vaccine elicited a haemagglutinin (HA)-specific serum IgG antibody response. The magnitude of this response declined with advancing age at the time of vaccination. By contrast, HA-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels observed in lung lavage fluids of mice immunized at 1 and 2 years of age were comparable to those of 5 month old mice when inactivated influenza virus vaccine was administered intragastrically. The secretory immune response was not fully developed in the first 3 weeks of life. However, the HA-specific IgA and IgG responses to oral vaccination in sera were reduced in 1 or 2 year old mice when compared to 5 month old mice. These data demonstrated the preservation of the virus-specific secretory IgA response in the pulmonary fluids of aged mice after oral vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. An age-dependent difference of systemic and mucosal immunity was evident in orally
Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII), defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40). Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the
As indicated in the 2004 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Prevention (APIC) position paper, the importance of improving influenza immunization rates among HCWs is a very necessary component of ensuring patient safety and protection (p. 123). In addition, immunization provides an extra level of personal protection for the HCW. Transmission of the influenza virus can spread rapidly from HCWs to patients and patients to HCWs, creating a vicious cycle. An institutional influenza outbreak can exacerbate staff shortages in clinical areas, not only by creating additional patient risk factors but also by further stressing hospital resources and increasing patient morbidity and mortality.2. One neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) reported an outbreak of influenza among 19 neonates with one outbreak related death that occurred. The source case was suspected to be an employee, although that could not be confirmed. The facility reported a 15 percent influenza immunization compliance ...
The holiday season has already started, and so has flu season. Thats why the CDC has designated the week of December 4 - 10, 2016, as National Influenza Vaccination Week. Once November ends and the holiday season starts, people tend to forget about getting their flu shot. In fact, research from past flu seasons has shown that very few people get a flu shot after the end of November. And not only that, but last flu season, only 40% of those recommended to get a flu shot actually got one by the end of November. This means almost 60% of the U.S. population remained unprotected from the flu after flu season had already started. Even though flu season has begun, its not too late to get your flu shot. So long as the flu virus is still circulating, you can get sick with the flu, which is why it is so important to protect yourself with the flu vaccine. And not only will you be protecting yourself, but those around you as well. Young children, the elderly, pregnant women and people with certain chronic ...
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent study from Tayside found a reduced risk of all cause mortality with vaccination in COPD patients.. Objectives: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database to test this hypothesis in a different data source.. Methods: We searched the THIN database for patients with COPD. Vaccination status against pneumococcus and their annual influenza vaccination status were determined. Mortality rates were calculated in the periods December-March, April-November. Relative risks for the effect of vaccination on all cause mortality were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, year and serious co-morbidities.. Results: We found 177,120 patients with COPD, mean age of 65 years, with an average of 6.8 years follow up between 1988 and 2006. Vaccination rates against influenza rose from ,30% prior to 1995 to ,70% in 2005 among patients aged 60 years or ...
The researchers also compared vaccination rates to effectiveness of the shot against the virus during the prior flu season.. Generally, they noted a downward trend in vaccination rates in recent years, and that none of the three variables -- severity of the current influenza season, severity of prior season or vaccine effectiveness -- had a significant effect on these numbers.. For example, the 2010-2011 flu season, which the CDC deemed high severity, vaccination rates for most age groups of children hovered around 60 percent or less, with the exception of infants between 6 and 23 months old.. The CDC considered the flu season immediately prior, 2009-10, to be of moderate severity, and vaccine effectiveness for both the 2009-10 and 2010-2011 seasons was around 60 percent for all pediatric age groups except teens.. Fortunately, in the just released CDC influenza vaccination data, the downward trend in vaccination was reversed this past season, Stockwell said. However, it still remains ...
We found that immunization against influenza during pregnancy had a substantial effect on mean birth weight and the proportion of infants who were small for gestational age but only during the period of increased circulating influenza virus in the community.. Our data suggest that the prevention of infection with seasonal influenza in pregnant women by immunization can influence fetal growth. It has been reported that infection with pandemic influenza virus has substantial adverse effects in pregnant women and fetuses;14-18 however, there are limited similar data from epidemic seasonal influenza illness.3. The chronology of the specific effect of influenza vaccine on mean birth weight that we describe is distinct from the previously described general seasonality of birth weights in Bangladesh. Studies from Bangladesh have shown a seasonal pattern of reduction in the mean birth weights of full-term infants and an increase in the number of preterm infants in the season called monga, September to ...
Suspension for Intramuscular Injection. …. 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS. 5.1 Guillain-Barré Syndrome. If Guillain-Barré syndrome has occurred within 6 weeks of receipt of prior influenza vaccine, the decision to give Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine should be based on careful consideration of the potential benefits and risks.. 5.2 Altered Immunocompetence. If Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is administered to immunocompromised persons, including individuals receiving immunosuppressive therapy, the expected immune response may not be obtained.. 5.3 Preventing and Managing Allergic Reactions. Prior to administration of any dose of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine, the healthcare provider should review the patients prior immunization history for possible adverse events, to determine the existence of any contraindication to immunization with Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine and to allow an assessment of benefits and risks. Appropriate medical treatment and ...
Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: A Critical Assessment of the Recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Influenza vaccination during all trimesters of pregnancy is now universally recommended in the United States. We critically reviewed the influenza vaccination policy of the CDC.s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP) and the citations that were used to support their recommendations. The ACIP.s citations and the current literature indicate that influenza infection is rarely a threat to a normal pregnancy. There is no convincing evidence of the effectiveness of influenza vaccination during this critical period. No studies have adequately assessed the risk of influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and animal safety testing is lacking. Thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative present in most inactivated formulations of the vaccine, has been implicated in human neurodevelopment disorders, including autism, and a broad range of animal and ...
We studied the influenza vaccination of HCWs and the social network defined by conversations around a vaccination campaign. A major finding is that similarity in vaccination behavior did not play a significant role in the probability of naming another HCW in our hospital. Links were more likely when individuals shared a professional category, sex, age, or department. In addition, some characteristics influenced participants citing more HCWs (being younger, having a position of responsibility, some professional categories) and others which increased the likelihood of being cited as a link (being vaccinated).. The lack of homophily according to vaccination behavior, also described for influenza vaccination in a friendship network of medical students [28], contrasts with other studies of advice networks in parental vaccination decisions [24-26] and in a contact network of influenza vaccination in high school students [27], where homophily by vaccination status was observed. The differences between ...
OFFICE OF THE VICE CHANCELLOR - STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICE OF STUDENT HEALTH SERVICES October 9, 2020 University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093 ALL STUDENTS AT UC SAN DIEGO Important Information Regarding Flu Vaccination for 2020-21 Academic Year for Students UC San Diego is committed to the health and safety of all. The most important measure to prevent flu infection is an annual flu vaccination and is even more important during a pandemic. Similar to the steps we take to reduce COVID-19 infection such as wearing a face covering, physical distancing, and good hand hygiene, getting an annual flu vaccination helps stop the spread in the community in addition to protecting yourself and your campus community. The University of California has issued a systemwide executive order requiring all members of the UC community to receive an influenza immunization before November 1, 2020 if they plan to be on campus during the flu season, which is anticipated to extend through the
Wood noted that this achievement is particularly impressive given this years periodic shortages of seasonal influenza vaccine and the complex messages for seniors resulting from the introduction of a second influenza vaccine for H1N1. We recognize that this achievement would not have been possible without the combined efforts of all facets of Alaskas health care community, including our public health centers, tribal health corporations, physicians offices and clinics, pharmacies, community health centers and other partnering groups that worked so hard this year to provide influenza vaccine for our seniors ...
Influenza vaccination of elderly individuals is recommended worldwide as people aged 65 and older are at a higher risk of complications, hospitalisations and deaths from influenza. This review looked at evidence from experimental and non-experimental studies carried out over 40 years of influenza vaccination. We included 75 studies. These were grouped first according to study design and then the setting (community or long-term care facilities). The results are mostly based on non-experimental (observational) studies, which are at greater risk of bias, as not many good quality trials were available. Trivalent inactivated vaccines are the most commonly used influenza vaccines. Due to the poor quality of the available evidence, any conclusions regarding the effects of influenza vaccines for people aged 65 years or older cannot be drawn. The public health safety profile of the vaccines appears to be acceptable.. ...
The Washington County Health Department is having its second flu vaccination clinic of the season Oct. 26.With flu vaccinations widely available through local pharmacies, including ones at grocery
World Health Organization (2012). "Vaccines Against Influenza". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 47.. *^ Halbreich U, Karkun S ( ... women should also fulfill any missing vaccinations as soon as possible including the tetanus vaccine and influenza vaccine.[72] ... are less prone to infections such as Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneunoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, ...
... or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza ... "Vaccine. 26 Suppl 4 (Suppl 4): D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182. PMID 19230160.. ... Role in transmission of influenza viruses from non-human animals to people[edit]. Influenza A viruses are found in many ... Some strains of avian influenza (from which all other strains of influenza A are believed to stem[2]) can infect pigs or other ...
"Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift". Vaccine. 25 (39-40): 6852-62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.027. PMID ... In influenza viruses[edit]. In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and ... "Vaccine. 26 (Suppl 4): D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182 . PMID 19230160.. ... Gog JR (July 2008). "The impact of evolutionary constraints on influenza dynamics". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 3: C15-24. doi:10.1016/j. ...
"How Influenza (Flu) Vaccines Are Made". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and ... Egg white has many uses in food and many other applications, including the preparation of vaccines, such as those for influenza ...
"The virosome concept for influenza vaccines". Vaccine. 23: S26-38. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.04.026. PMID 16026906. Bomsel M, ... A virosome is a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism consisting of unilamellar phospholipid membrane (either a mono- or bi-layer ... As a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism they are biologically compatible with many host organisms and are also biodegradable. ... The unique properties of virosomes partially relate to the presence of biologically active influenza HA in their membrane. This ...
... respiratory syncytial virus and influenza vaccines. She has worked extensively with American Indian populations and in Africa ... "Malaria Vaccine Pioneer Awarded the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal in Vaccinology". Sabin Vaccine Institute. 6 May 2008. "The ... Vaccine. 35 (46): 6255-6263. doi:10.1016/J.VACCINE.2017.09.048. PMID 28986035. Wikidata () Piralam, Barameht; Prosperi, ... She said the experience was formative, and led her to view vaccines as being a social justice issue. From 1995 to 1997, she ...
Clar C, Oseni Z, Flowers N, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Rees K (May 2015). "Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease". ... Influenza may make heart attacks and strokes more likely and therefore influenza vaccination may decrease the chance of ...
1906), Influenza vaccine. Instructions to medical officers of health. (1919) Interpreters of Nature. Essays. (1927) Lord ... 1930) Memorandum on prevention of influenza. (1919) On the History of the Decline and Final Extinction of Leprosy as an endemic ...
"Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD002733. ... Annual influenza vaccinations in those with COPD reduce exacerbations, hospitalizations and death.[84][85] Pneumococcal ... A review of an oral Haemophilus influenzae vaccine found 1.6 exacerbations per year as opposed to a baseline of 2.1 in those ... Other recommendations include influenza vaccination once a year, pneumococcal vaccination once every five years, and reduction ...
The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe - "an unusually ... Evidence of competitive advantage of pandemic H1N1 influenza versus seasonal influenza". PLoS Currents Influenza. 1: RRN1011. ...
He has said that the studies claiming large reductions in mortality rates as a result of the influenza vaccine are "rubbish", ... "Influenza hits Samoa , NZHistory, New Zealand history online". "Influenza in Samoa - The 1918 influenza ... He has worked on Cochrane reviews examining the effectiveness of the anti-viral oseltamivir and the influenza vaccine. In 2009 ... His views about the effectiveness of influenza vaccines and his outspokenness about them are also controversial; at a 2007 ...
2011). "Lessons from pandemic influenza A(H1N1) The research-based vaccine industry's perspective" (PDF). Vaccine. 29 (6): 1135 ... "Tables on clinical evaluation of influenza vaccines". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 25 November 2017 ... the WHO organized work on pandemic influenza vaccine development through clinical trials in collaboration with many experts and ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.042. PMID 21115061. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2011. "WHO Violence and Injury ...
6 Influenza Vaccine". In Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW (eds.). Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. ... Vaccine. 32 (29): 3623-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559. Lay summary - Koenig K, Tsatsanis KD, ... it concluded that neither the MMR vaccine, which has never contained thimerosal, nor the vaccine components thimerosal or ... Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines, Institute Of M, Stratton K, Ford A, Rusch E, Clayton EW, et al. (Committee to ...
Pandemic influenza preparedness : the critical role of the syringe.. Vaccine. 2006 May 29;24(22):4874-82. Epub 2006 March 20. K ...
Ingredient in influenza vaccine (Fluzone)[7]. *Permeabilizing unfixed (or lightly fixed) eukaryotic cell membranes[6] ...
"Seasonal influenza and vaccine herd effect". Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 3 (2): 128-32. doi:10.7774/cevr.2014.3 ... Influenza (flu) is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this ... Vaccines are usually imperfect however, so the effectiveness, E, of a vaccine must be accounted for: V. c. =. 1. −. 1. R. 0. E ... "Oxford Vaccine Group, University of Oxford. Retrieved 12 December 2017.. *^ a b c d e f Somerville, M.; Kumaran, K.; Anderson, ...
Cates CJ, Rowe BH (February 2013). "Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma". The Cochrane Database of ... It is not clear if annual influenza vaccinations affects the risk of exacerbations. Immunization, however, is recommended by ... "Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization - report of the extraordinary meeting on the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 ...
"Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 14 December 2017. Archived from the ... Chicken eggs are used in the production process of some vaccines. For influenza vaccination there are non-egg alternatives. ... Cow blood is used in vaccine manufacture. Microorganisms for vaccine manufacture are grown under controlled conditions in ... It is used primarily for gel capsules and as stabilizers for vaccines. Non-animal derived alternatives to gelatin include ...
"Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply for the U.S. 2016-2017 Influenza Season , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". Retrieved ... Autism cases in vaccine court: Sugarman, SD (2007). "Cases in vaccine court - legal battles over vaccines and autism". N Engl J ... other vaccines may contain a trace of thiomersal from steps in manufacture. The multi-dose versions of the influenza vaccines ... Unlike other vaccine preservatives used at the time, thiomersal does not reduce the potency of the vaccines that it protects.[ ...
"Vaccine Preparing to Check Influenza". Morning Oregonian. October 23, 1918. "Oregon, U.S., Death Index, 1898-2008 for Harriet ... It wasn't known at the time that the influenza was caused by a virus and Lawrence's serum targeted the secondary bacterial ...
Fluenz/FluMist (Quadrivalent Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine). - Neuroscience *Heminevrin (clomethiazole). *Mysoline ( ... "MedImmune Licenses Inovio Cancer Vaccine for Up to $727.5M - GEN News Highlights - GEN". GEN.. ... 15.2 billion to gain flu vaccines and an anti-viral treatment for infants;[20] AstraZeneca subsequently consolidated all of its ...
The annually updated trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza ... Main article: Influenza vaccine. Flu vaccinations have been used to diminish the effects of the flu season; pneumonia ... "Early Estimates of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, January 2013" (PDF). 11 January 2013. ... Main article: Influenza. Three virus families, Influenzavirus A, B, and C are the main infective agents that cause influenza. ...
Collignon P, Doshi P, Del Mar C, Jefferson T (2015). "Safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in children". Clin ... and the safety and efficacy of some drugs and vaccines. In June 2010, he was made a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) in ...
Dharmaraj P, Smyth RL (March 2014). "Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with cystic fibrosis". The Cochrane Database ... there is no clear evidence from randomized controlled trials that the influenza vaccine is beneficial for people with cystic ... Burgess L, Southern KW (August 2014). Burgess L (ed.). "Pneumococcal vaccines for cystic fibrosis". The Cochrane Database of ...
Haque A, Hober D, Kasper LH (October 2007). "Confronting potential influenza A (H5N1) pandemic with better vaccines". Emerging ... H5N1 influenza, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 agent), Influenza B, Parainfluenza virus. Other causative agents include ... Liu, Qiang; Zhou, Yuan-hong; Yang, Zhan-qiu (January 2016). "The cytokine storm of severe influenza and development of ... especially viral respiratory infections such as H1N1 influenza, ... number of healthy young adult deaths during the 1918 influenza ...
The World Health Organization Influenza Centre in North Melbourne was attempting to develop a vaccine for swine flu by growing ... Collignon P, Doshi P, Del Mar C, Jefferson T (2015). "Safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in children". Clin ... The Australian Government ordered ten million doses of the new vaccine. In Melbourne, seven special clinics for influenza ... In 2009, H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) was the underlying cause of 77 deaths in Australia. The ABS implemented ...
"Vaccine for Hong Kong Influenza Pandemic". History of Vaccines. Retrieved 4 January 2021. Tulchinsky, Theodore H. (2018). " ... Influenza vaccine "Pandemic Influenza Risk Management: WHO Interim Guidance" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2013. p. 19. ... Influenza Research Database - Database of influenza genomic sequences and related information.. ... It is among the deadliest pandemics in history, and was caused by an H3N2 strain of the influenza A virus. The virus was ...
"Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 14 December 2017. Archived from the ... Vegans may avoid certain vaccines, such as the flu vaccine, which is commonly produced in chicken eggs. An effective ... Experimentation with laboratory animals is also used for evaluating the safety of vaccines, food additives, cosmetics, ...
It is also used as an excipient in some European and Canadian influenza vaccines.[7] Influenza vaccines contain 25 μg of ... a b Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) Influenza Vaccine Quick Reference Guide Archived 2010-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. Winnipeg Regional ...
Vaccines. Main article: Ebola vaccine. An Ebola vaccine, rVSV-ZEBOV, was approved in the United States in December 2019.[8] It ... Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... The DRC Ministry of Public Health approved the use of an experimental vaccine.[207][208][209] On 13 May 2018, WHO Director- ... "First FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of Ebola virus disease, marking a critical milestone in public health ...
The recognition of this pathological condition is of ever increasing importance for differential diagnosis with avian influenza ... his chicken with some cold vaccine to come home to find it dead he realise then the potential opportunaty to make a new vaccine ...
Kopsaftis, Z; Wood-Baker, R; Poole, P (26 June 2018). "Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". The ... Vaksin influenza tahunan pada mereka yang mempunyai COPD mengurangkan gangguan, hospitalisasi dan kematian.[17][18] Pemvaksinan ...
"Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD001269. doi:10.1002/ ... "Seasonal Influenza (Flu)". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Nakuha noong 29 June 2011.. ... "Pneumonia Can Be Prevented - Vaccines Can Help". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nakuha noong 22 October 2012.. ... WHO (1999). "Pneumococcal vaccines. WHO position paper". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 74 (23): 177-83. PMID 10437429.. ...
Since this vaccine was associated with a higher incidence of encephalitis, FNV was not recommended after 1961. Vaccine 17D is ... while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza.[64] This phenomenon, in which certain ... Little research has been done to develop new vaccines. Some researchers worry that the 60-year-old technology for vaccine ... Vaccine 2017;35(43):5751-52. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.087 [published Online First: 2017/07/12] ...
WHO position paper: influenza vaccines WHO weekly Epidemiological Record 19 August 2005, vol. 80, 33, pp. 277-288. ... Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses. UMN CIDRAP. ... trivalent influenza vaccine ବା TIV) ପ୍ରସ୍ତୁତ ହୋଇଛି । ଏହି ଟିକା ଅପେକ୍ଷାକୃତ ନିରାପଦ । ଇନ୍‌ଫ୍ଲୁଏଞ୍ଜା ରୋଗର ଗୋଟିଏ ବଡ଼ ବିପଦ ଜନକ କଥା ... Influenza (Seasonal), World Health Organization, April 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2010.. *↑ World Health Organization. World ...
... immune response in nursing-home elderly following intranasal or intramuscular immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine ... Haq, Kamran; McElhaney, Janet E. "Immunosenescence: influenza vaccination and the elderly". Current Opinion in Immunology. 29: ... Vaccine. 18 (16): 1717-1720. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00513-7. PMID 10689155. Ito, K; A. Hirao; F. Arai; S. Matsuoka; K. ... ". Vaccine. 21 (11-12): 1180-1186. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00481-4. PMID 12559796. Ginaldi, L.; M.F. Loreto; M.P. Corsi; M. ...
Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... This risk can be mitigated with vaccination when there is a vaccine available, like with hepatitis B.[20] In epidemic ... A healthcare professional wears an air sampling device to investigate exposure to airborne influenza ...
"Safe administration of influenza vaccine to patients with egg allergy". The Journal of Pediatrics. 133 (5): 624-8. doi:10.1016/ ... in the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza[2]). ...
Known viral causes of atypical pneumonia include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B, parainfluenza, ... as the decrease of occult pneumonia after vaccination of children with a pneumococcal vaccine suggests. Infiltration commonly ...
... over 400,000 doses of vaccine against the Hong Kong influenza. In 1971 Jacques Monod announced a new era of modernization and ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... Chantemesse's typhoid vaccineEdit. During the summer of 1900, the extremely hot weather and scarcity of the water supply in ... Vaccines and Diagnostic ProductsEdit. Production and marketing of diagnostic tests developed in the Institute laboratories are ...
Influenza Influenza A virus horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and ... Use in vaccinesEdit. The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus ... Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus) pigs close ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens[citation needed]. close contact ...
Another pathogen is influenza virus and its hemagglutinin protein, which interacts with CLEC5A. Through this interaction is ... "New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine". Genes and Immunity. 11 (3): 232-8. doi ... In lethal challenges of recombinant H5N1 influenza virus, the CLEC5A deficient mice showed reduced levels of proinflammatory ... "CLEC5A-Mediated Enhancement of the Inflammatory Response in Myeloid Cells Contributes to Influenza Virus Pathogenicity In Vivo ...
All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... The composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2007-2008 Northern Hemisphere influenza season recommended by the ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season". World Health ... Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2007-2008 northern hemisphere influenza season. WHO ...
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.038. பப்மெட் 15705467. *↑ "Oral Polio Vaccine and HIV / AIDS: Questions and Answers". Centers for ... "The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ... 2004). "Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted". Nature 428 (6985): 820. doi:10.1038/428820a. பப்மெட் ... 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque ...
Cates CJ, Rowe, BH (Feb 28, 2013)։ «Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma.»։ The Cochrane Database of ... Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization - report of the extraordinary meeting on the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 ...
The cough caused by a cold is usually mild compared to a cough caused by influenza (the flu).[3] A cough and a fever indicate a ... Developing a broadly effective vaccine is very unlikely.[32] ... "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza" ... "The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 ...
Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also designed vaccines against several diseases such as anthrax, fowl cholera and ... Influenza) or endogenous (from normal flora e.g. candidiasis).[19] ... The same principles are used for developing vaccines today. ... caused a rapid change the development of vaccines, medical ... these include synthetic insulin which was produced in 1979 using recombinant DNA and the first genetically engineered vaccine ...
... background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring". Vaccine. 27 (15): 2114-20. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.125. ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2006-2007 influenza season" (PDF). WHO Report. 14 February ... The first significant step towards preventing influenza was the development in 1944 of a killed-virus vaccine for influenza by ... "Guide for considering influenza testing when influenza viruses are circulating in the community , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , ...
Vaccine[edit]. As of 2017[update], no approved vaccines are available. A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, ... or other infections such as influenza. Chronic recurrent polyarthralgia occurs in at least 20% of chikungunya patients one year ... "Vaccine. 29 (16): 3067-73. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.01.076. PMC 3081687. PMID 21300099.. ... "Expert Review of Vaccines. 11 (9): 1087-101. doi:10.1586/erv.12.84. PMC 3562718. PMID 23151166.. ...
Talk:2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak. *Talk:2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1 outbreak ... Talk:2009 flu pandemic vaccine. *Talk:2009-10 flu pandemic in Norway ...
"Influenza vaccine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD002733. doi: ...
IL-15 was needed for CD4+ T cell heterosubtypic protection while using a multivalent influenza vaccine using vaccinia-based ... "IL-15 adjuvanted multivalent vaccinia-based universal influenza vaccine requires CD4+ T cells for heterosubtypic protection". ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.12.076. PMID 20064480.. *^ Hock K, Laengle J, Kuznetsova I, Egorov A, Hegedus B, Dome B, Wekerle T, ... Vaccines AdjuvantsEdit. Vector-based therapy - Nonlytic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was engineered to express recombinant IL- ...
Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines, because they are made using chicken eggs. Vaccines may also ... There are many different types of vaccines.[2] One common type of vaccine is a "live vaccine." This type of vaccine contains a ... Additional components in vaccines[change , change source]. Vaccines often contain other things besides the active vaccine (the ... Nowadays, vaccines are given to people of all ages.[20][21]. *Combinations of vaccines are becoming more common. Vaccines ...
Anthrax vaccine. Pasteur publicly claimed his success in developing the anthrax vaccine in 1881.[93] However, his admirer- ... After developing the rabies vaccine, Pasteur proposed an institute for the vaccine.[136] In 1887, fundraising for the Pasteur ... The vaccine had been tested in 50 dogs before its first human trial.[89][90] This vaccine was used on 9-year-old Joseph Meister ... used carbolic acid to kill anthrax bacilli and tested the vaccine on sheep. Pasteur thought that this type of killed vaccine ...
Local Government Board (1893). Further report and papers on epidemic influenza, 1889-92: with an introduction by the medical ... Vaccine-linked polio hits Nigeria, BBC News *^ Dengue fever epidemic hits Caribbean, Latin America, Reuters ... Patterson, K. D.; Pyle, G. F. (1991). "The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic". Bulletin of the History of ... Beveridge, W.I.B. Influenza, the Last Great Plague (Heinemann, London, 1977)[page needed] ...
CDCs Vaccine Effectiveness Networksplus icon *US Flu VE Network. *Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network ( ... Vaccine Effectiveness Studiesplus icon *2019-2020 Vaccine Effectiveness. *Past Seasons Vaccine Effectivenessplus icon *VE ... One recombinant influenza vaccine, Flublok Quadrivalent (four ingredient), is available during the 2020-2021 influenza season. ... Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. High-dose flu vaccine, brand name Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent ...
Although influenza vaccines are the best tool for prevention of influenza currently available, more effective vaccines are ... TABLE 2. Number and percentage of persons vaccinated with 2012-13 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine among influenza-positive ... case-patients and influenza-negative controls, and vaccine effectiveness* against all influenza viruses and influenza virus ... Vaccine 2009;27:6546-9. * CDC. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on ...
We found that the national health effects were greatly influenced by the timing of vaccine administration and the effectiveness ... These results emphasize the need for relevant surveillance data to facilitate a rapid evaluation of vaccine recommendations and ... By using US surveillance data (April 12, 2009-April 10, 2010) and vaccine coverage estimates (October 3, 2009-April 18, 2010), ... of the vaccine. We estimated that recommendations for priority vaccination of targeted priority groups were not inferior to ...
As the influenza season begins, there may be a need to administer two or more vaccines at the same clinic visit. Here is what ... Influenza (Seasonal Flu) Vaccines Vaccination is one of our most effective tools for containing the spread and severity of ... Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine booster: Who can get it, who could benefit Physicians, health professionals and others in high-risk ... Amid a potential twindemic, physicians words on influenza immunization carry more weight than usual. This advice will help you ...
The economic costs attributable to influenza are estimated to be in the billions of ... Influenza virus infections represent a significant public health problem. In the United States alone, 10,000 to 40,000 excess ... INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINE. A formalin-inactivated whole virus influenza vaccine was first used experimentally during World ... INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINE. A formalin-inactivated whole virus influenza vaccine was first used experimentally during World ...
Description and Ingredients information on this page is excerpted from the package inserts for each of the licensed Influenza A ... Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is a monovalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza virus subtype A vaccine ... INJECTIBLE VACCINES. CSL Limited. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is formulated to contain 15 mcg HA per 0.5 mL dose ... Package Inserts for Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines. *. Package Insert - Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent (CSL ...
Department of Agriculture is creating a stockpile of avian influenza vaccines, but an expert suggests careful consideration of ... Avian influenza expert raises concerns as USDA stockpiles vaccines. Published Friday 27 November 2015 Published Fri 27 Nov 2015 ... "Avian influenza expert raises concerns as USDA stockpiles vaccines." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 27 Nov. 2015. Web. ... Mittals avian influenza vaccine work has been described in papers for The Lancet, Journal of Infectious Diseases, Clinical ...
Influenza vaccines. A reappraisal of their use.. Palache AM1.. Author information. 1. Department of Virology, Erasmus ... Yearly updated influenza vaccines are available to combat the disease and its consequences. In many countries, less than half ... Scientific evidence on the safety, tolerance, efficacy and effectiveness of currently existing inactivated influenza vaccines ... match between vaccine and epidemic strains each year and the available scientific data about the inactivated influenza vaccines ...
Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV). June 8-10, 2011 Sao Paulo, Brazil ... Workshop in that it focused on regulatory issues and expanded the scope beyond influenza vaccines. The workshop brought ... WHO and HHS convened the Sustainable Influenza Vaccine Production Capacity Stakeholders Workshop in Washington D.C. in January ... WHO and HHS hosted the Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV). ...
The efficacy of the influenza vaccine when given to patients with multiple sclerosis is similar to that in healthy controls, ... The efficacy of the influenza vaccine when given to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is similar to that in healthy ... The impetus for this project was a recognition that the great majority of the research on the impact of influenza vaccine in ... It is therefore recommended that inactivated influenza vaccine be given to patients with MS at least 2 weeks prior to starting ...
Ferguson D, et al. The story continues: narcoplepsy spectrum occurring several years post ASO3- adjuvanted H1N1 vaccination in young Irish siblings. Journal of Sleep Research 27 (Suppl. 1): 177-178 abstr. P193, Sep 2018. Available from: URL: [abstract] - Ireland ...
Moreover, influenza vaccines are not refrigerated between pack ... being combined to make multivalent influenza virus vaccines. ... Antigens from individual influenza virus strains are not refrigerated before ... a mumps vaccine, a rubella vaccine, a MMR vaccine, a varicella vaccine, a MMRV vaccine, a diphtheria vaccine, a tetanus vaccine ... The stored vaccine may be a bulk vaccine (monovalent or multivalent) or a packaged vaccine. Where the vaccine is a bulk vaccine ...
Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... For some patients, a different type of influenza vaccine (inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine) might be more ... Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu).. Flu is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every year, ... Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (called LAIV) is a nasal spray vaccine that may be given to nonpregnant people 2 through 49 ...
... The recommended influenza vaccine composition for New Zealand in 2018 is:. Trivalent vaccines:. ... Vaccine strains that are recommended as suitable are those listed on the World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza vaccine ... the meeting of the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee, with a New Zealand representative, to consult on the influenza ... Confirmation that the product is in full compliance with a relevant Ph Eur monograph for influenza vaccine (specify which ...
... meningococcal vaccines, influenza therapies, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis trivalent vaccines and human respiratory syncytial ... Prepare for a SAGE evidence-based review and updating of WHO recommendations on the use of seasonal influenza vaccine (e.g. ... SAGE Working Group on influenza vaccines and immunization (August 2010 - June 2014). Terms of Reference. Objectives of the ... None of the studies focused on influenza vaccines and immunization which is the subject of the Working Group. These interests ...
... persons 18 through 64 years of age at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine. ... Supporting Documents older than three years - Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1. Related Information. *Influenza Virus Vaccine, ... Package Insert - Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1. Supporting Documents. * ... persons 18 through 64 years of age at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine ...
Vaccination with Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine may not protect all people who receive the vaccine. ... Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent is a vaccine that helps protect people 65 years of age and older against influenza illness (flu ... Generic drug: Influenza Vaccine. Brand name: Fluzone Highdose. What is Fluzone High-Dose (Influenza Vaccine), and how does it ... influenza virus vaccine - intramuscular, Afluria, Fluarix, Flublok, Flu. *influenza vaccine live intranasal; FluMist, FluMist ...
Thats not to say that were better off putting just three strains of influenza in a vaccine. Five or six might offer better ... On Thursday, the FDA decided to replace all three of the vaccines influenza strains for next winter. Wait, why cant the ... There are thousands of influenza subtypes infecting people around the world, but very few are likely to make someone in the ... In an "Explainer" published last winter, Michelle Tsai explained why they dont cram every strain of influenza into our yearly ...
Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine:. *Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of influenza ... Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu).. Flu is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every year, ... Influenza vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines. ...
... a vaccine against influenza that typically contains a mixture of strains of influenza virus cultured in chick embryos:. ... Share influenza vaccine. Post the Definition of influenza vaccine to Facebook Share the Definition of influenza vaccine on ... Resources for influenza vaccine. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year influenza vaccine first appeared Time ... Comments on influenza vaccine. What made you want to look up influenza vaccine? Please tell us where you read or heard it ( ...
The FDAs Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee chose the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 ... season, after disappointing vaccine effectiveness during the 2017-2018 season. ... Overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) - the predominant strain of influenza this season - has been 25% as of ... Most of the circulating influenza strains are like those in the 2017-2018 vaccine. The majority of influenza B infections were ...
Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1. First report of complex regional pain syndrome: case report ... Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1. React. Wkly. 1414, 30 (2012). ... A case of complex regional pain syndrome after vaccination of influenza A(H1N1). Pediatrics International 54: e4-e6, No. 3, Jun ...
And keep your immunization schedule up-to-date with Walgreens, Healthcare Clinic and the many other CDC-recommended vaccines we ... Vaccine Information Statement: Influenza Vaccine (Live, Intranasal). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 7 ... Vaccine Information Statement: Influenza Vaccine (Inactivated). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 7, ... This includes an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and an influenza B virus. ...
PRNewswire/ -- Seqirus, a leading innovator in influenza protection, today announced it will file an Annual Strain Update with ... As one of the largest influenza vaccine providers in the world, Seqirus is a major contributor to the prevention of influenza ... While we continue to manufacture and distribute egg-based vaccines globally, cell-based influenza vaccines represent a ... 2017). Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2017-2018 northern hemisphere influenza season. ...
There are many different kinds of influenza vaccines licensed and available in the U.S. Learn more on ... Influenza is a viral infection that produces fever, chills, sore throat, muscle aches, and cough that lasts a week or more. ... FDA Transcripts - Influenza. *Public Comment by NVIC President Barbara Loe Fisher on use of squalene adjuvants for pandemic flu ... vaccines at July 23, 2009 FDA Vaccine Advisory Committee Meeting. *Public Comment by NVIC President Barbara Loe Fisher on use ...
INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1982-1983. VACCINE USAGE. General Recommendations. Use in Pregnancy. SUPPLEMENTARY MEASURES. SELECTED ... INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1982-1983. The specific antigens and their potency in the vaccine will be the same as in 1981-1982: 15 ... Clinical studies of influenza vaccines--1976. J Infect Dis 1977;136(Suppl):S341-S742.. Kilbourne ED, ed. The influenza viruses ... This revision of the influenza vaccine recommendations updates information on influenza activity in the United States for the ...
INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1983-1984. VACCINE USAGE. General Recommendations. Use in Pregnancy. Side Effects and Adverse Reactions ... INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1983-1984. The specific antigens and their potency in the 1983-1984 vaccine will be: 15 ug each of ... No significant excess risk of GBS was found for recipients of influenza vaccine during the influenza seasons 1978-1979 through ... This revision of the influenza vaccine recommendations updates information on influenza activity in the United States for the ...
... , Trivalent Influenza Vaccine, Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine, Fluzone, Inactivated Influenza Vaccine, TIV ... Influenza Vaccine. search Influenza Vaccine, Trivalent Influenza Vaccine, Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine, Fluzone, Inactivated ... Vaccine Production *Trivalent Vaccine and quadrivalent Vaccine. *Trivalent Vaccines cover 2 Influenza A Viruses (H1N1, H3N2) ... Influenza Vaccine may be given on the same day as others (e.g. Shingles Vaccine, penumococcal Vaccine) ...
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  • In April 2009, the United States began a response to the emergence of a pandemic influenza virus strain: A(H1N1)pdm09. (
  • On April 26, 2009, the United States declared a public health emergency in response to the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus ( 1 ). (
  • The Description and Ingredients information on this page is excerpted from the package inserts for each of the licensed Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines. (
  • Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is formulated to contain 15 mcg HA per 0.5 mL dose of influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like virus. (
  • A single 0.5 mL dose of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine contains sodium chloride (4.1 mg), monobasic sodium phosphate (80 mcg), dibasic sodium phosphate (300 mcg), monobasic potassium phosphate (20 mcg), potassium chloride (20 mcg), and calcium chloride (1.5 mcg). (
  • Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is a monovalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza virus subtype A vaccine prepared from virus propagated in the allantoic cavity of embryonated hens' eggs. (
  • Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine, for intramuscular injection, is a homogenized, sterile, colorless to slightly opalescent suspension in a phosphate-buffered saline solution formulated to contain 15 mcg hemagglutinin per 0.5-mL dose of the influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like virus. (
  • Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is a homogenized, sterile, slightly opalescent suspension in a phosphate buffered saline. (
  • There is no thimerosal used in the manufacturing process of the single-dose presentations of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine. (
  • The multi-dose presentation of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine contains thimerosal, a mercury derivative, added as a preservative. (
  • Antibiotics are not used in the manufacture of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine. (
  • All presentations of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine do not contain latex. (
  • The researchers found that there was no significant difference between patients with MS and healthy controls in the rates of an adequate immune response for influenza H1N1 , H3N2, or influenza B virus. (
  • Vaccine strains that are recommended as suitable are those listed on the World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza vaccine viruses and reagents web pages (see for H1N1, H3N2 and B viruses. (
  • For the trivalent vaccine, the committee voted unanimously (12 yes, 0 no) to include an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus. (
  • The vaccine was 67% effective against A(H1N1)pdm09 and 42% effective against influenza B (mostly B/Yamagata, not in inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent). (
  • Kwun BS, Park JW, Lee HJ, Kim AS, Ryu GH.Complex regional pain syndrome by vaccination: A case of complex regional pain syndrome after vaccination of influenza A(H1N1). (
  • This includes an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and an influenza B virus. (
  • Sporadic illnesses and a few focal outbreaks caused by influenza A(H1N1) viruses also occurred among children and young adults, but these viruses were less prevalent than influenza B. Influenza A(H1N1) isolates were, as in 1980-1981, similar to A/England/333/80, which can be shown by laboratory tests to be slightly different from A/Brazil/11/78, the current vaccine strain. (
  • Measurement of antibody responses of persons receiving vaccines containing A/Brazil/11/78 antigen, however, indicates that these vaccines should protect against A/England/333/80-like H1N1 strains. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1) viruses, isolated in about half the states, were not proven responsible for outbreaks in the aged or infirm but occasionally were isolated from school outbreaks, sometimes concurrently with influenza A(H3N2) strains. (
  • H1N1 is included in Influenza Vaccine as of 2011 in U.S. (
  • however, the previous pandemic flu virus (H1N1) has been available in vaccines and is considered part of the conventional circulating flu viruses. (
  • 2009-10-17T07:34:56-04:00 Andrew Pekosz talked about the safety of the H1N1 influenza vaccine, who should get it, the benefits of the shot versus the nose mist, when the vaccine will become available, the shortfall in manufacturing the vaccine, as well as any side effects of the vaccine. (
  • H1N1 Influenza Vaccine Andrew Pekosz talked about the safety of the H1N1 influenza vaccine, who should get it, the benefits of the shot versus the nose mist, when the vaccine will become available, the shortfall in manufacturing the vaccine, as well as any side effects of the vaccine. (
  • After the initial identification of the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain in Mexico in April 2009 and its subsequent global spread, several monovalent influenza vaccines were developed as part of the pandemic response. (
  • There are four main types of viruses that cause seasonal influenza epidemics, namely the IAV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 and two IVB subtypes. (
  • So far, 5 influenza pandemics have been recorded, which are Spain H1N1 influenza in 1918, Asia H2N2 influenza in 1957, Hong Kong H3N2 influenza in 1968, H1N1 avian influenza in 2005, and H1N1 influenza in 2009. (
  • Before the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, several studies demonstrated superior efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) over inactivated vaccines for prevention of influenza in young children. (
  • These findings are important, the researchers say, to understanding and preventing the recurrence of the H1N1 influenza virus that caused the 1918 pandemic and to protecting against virulent flu strains in the future, including the H5N1 avian flu virus. (
  • What we learn about the H1N1 virus that caused the 1918 pandemic is pertinent to other pandemic viruses and to the development of effective and universal vaccines. (
  • Some influenza A subtypes that you may be familiar with include H1N1 and H3N2. (
  • When broken down by virus, it was 65 percent effective against H1N1, 25 percent effective against H3N2, and 49 percent effective against influenza B. (
  • An H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B strain are included in the trivalent vaccine, while an extra influenza B strain is included in the quadrivalent vaccine. (
  • The flu vaccine tends to offer more protection from flu that's caused by H1N1 viruses and influenza B viruses in comparison to H3N2 viruses. (
  • In 2009, while manufacturers were preparing vaccines against the forecasted strains, an unanticipated H1N1 influenza virus emerged. (
  • Better late than never, a vaccine was eventually produced against the emergent H1N1 , requiring a second flu shot that year. (
  • Pandemic vaccine contains only the virus strain that is responsible of the pandemic (i.e. the type A H1N1 for the 2009 to 2010 pandemic). (
  • Athens, Ga. - Researchers at the University of Georgia and Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi, announced today the development of a vaccine that protects against multiple strains of both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza in mouse models. (
  • What we have developed is a vaccine that protects against multiple different strains of H1N1 virus at once, so we might be able to one day replace the current standard of care with this more broadly cross-protective vaccine. (
  • The H1N1 influenza virus caused a worldwide pandemic in 2009. (
  • The COBRA vaccines were designed to recognize H1N1 viruses isolated within the last 100 years, but many of the experimental vaccines produced immunity against influenza strains not included in the design. (
  • But the COBRA vaccine we've developed for H1N1 virus subtypes is a major step in the right direction. (
  • To test whether greater antibody in females is sufficient for protection against influenza, males and females were immunized with an inactivated H1N1 vaccine that induced predominantly antibody-mediated immunity. (
  • Fluzone High-Dose is standardized according to United States Public Health Service requirements and is formulated to contain HA of each of the following three influenza strains recommended for the 2017- 2018 influenza season: A/Michigan/45/2015 X-275 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 X-263-B(H3N2), and B/Brisbane/60/2008(B Victoria Lineage). (
  • The medical center administration has clearly printed many of these slips to accommodate those who will be receiving the pandemic H1N1 vaccine in a few weeks. (
  • I'll be interested to know the supplier of the pandemic H1N1 vaccine. (
  • Since I understand this 2009 novel H1N1 is made up of a mix of elements of swine and avian influenza , and not just human influenza parts, I'd like to know, does this fact in itself make the vaccine any riskier than the usual seasonal flu vaccines? (
  • The seasonal H1N1 vaccine that we have had since 1977 has HA and NA genes that originated in the 1918 pandemic strain which came from birds. (
  • The 1976 swine flu vaccine, and the 2009 H1N1 vaccine, are the only vaccines to have swine-origin HA and NA genes. (
  • Indeed, the HA genes of the two vaccines are very similar - in fact if you received the 1976 vaccine you likely are protected against 2009 H1N1 influenza. (
  • WHO and FDA have recommended that the 2008-09 trivalent influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere contain A/Brisbane/59/2007-like (H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/2007-like (H3N2), and B/Florida/4/2006-like viruses. (
  • The seasonal influenza vaccine usually consists of three influenza viruses: one type A subtype H1N1 strain, one type A subtype H3N2 strain, and one type B strain. (
  • In other news, the World Health Organization (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR) Emergency Committee and the WHO Director-General, Dr. Margaret Chan, declared, Aug. 10, an end to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. (
  • The U.S. Public Health Emergency determination for 2009 H1N1 Influenza expired June 23. (
  • Current influenza outbreaks, including those primarily caused by the 2009 H1N1 virus, show an intensity similar to that seen during seasonal epidemics, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) said in an Aug. 10 news release. (
  • Although H1N1 and seasonal flu activity is down, the CDC issued Aug. 4 an advisory to health professionals, alerting them to an increase in cases of influenza A(H3N2) virus. (
  • Seasonal influenza vaccines have transitioned recently to quadrivalent formulations containing antigens representing both influenza B lineages (Yamagata and Victoria) as well as the conventional influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. (
  • The flu vaccine being administered during the 2010-2011 flu season provides protection against both the seasonal and H1N1 flu viruses. (
  • The H1N1 vaccine has, in fact, been thoroughly studied in both pregnant and non-pregnant volunteers. (
  • VAMPSS is a North American effort to obtain and evaluate information on developing babies whose mothers receive H1N1 flu vaccines, seasonal flu vaccines, antiviral medications, and/or asthma medications during pregnancy. (
  • Scientists have since been able to classify the virus responsible for the 1918-19 pandemic as an H1N1 influenza. (
  • Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent contains four times the antigen, the part of the vaccine that helps your body build up protection against flu viruses, than Fluzone Quadrivalent and other standard-dose inactivated flu vaccines. (
  • CDC and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices routinely recommend that annual influenza vaccination efforts continue as long as influenza viruses are circulating ( 1 ). (
  • Specimens were tested at U.S. Flu VE Network laboratories using CDC's real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) protocol for detection and identification of influenza viruses using dual-labeled probe chemistry. (
  • among 158 subtyped influenza A viruses, all (100%) were influenza A (H3N2) viruses. (
  • because of the marked and progressive antigenic variation of the influenza viruses, the strains included are regularly changed following various outbreaks of influenza to include most recently isolated epidemic strains of both type A influenza and type B influenza. (
  • Each year a new flu vaccine is made to protect against three or four viruses that are likely to cause disease in the upcoming flu season. (
  • Even when the vaccine doesn't exactly match these viruses, it may still provide some protection. (
  • But the drug companies don't have enough eggs to make vaccines for 20 distinct viruses, let alone thousands. (
  • The majority of influenza B infections were caused by B/Yamagata lineage viruses. (
  • Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. (
  • This season's vaccine protects against the three influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during the season. (
  • Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for only a small proportion of all respiratory disease, but they are unique in their ability to cause periodic widespread outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness among adults and children. (
  • Excess deaths in this period were attributable mainly to influenza A viruses, although influenza B epidemics were occasionally associated with excess deaths, as in 1979-1980. (
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes on the basis of 2 antigens: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Three subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1,H2, H3) and 2 subtypes of neuraminidase (N1, N2) are recognized among influenza A viruses that have caused widespread human disease. (
  • Although influenza B viruses have shown much more antigenic stability than influenza A viruses, antigenic variation does occur. (
  • In many states, influenza B viruses were shown to be the cause of localized outbreaks among school-age children. (
  • Several nursing-home outbreaks, some with associated mortality, were also confirmed to be caused by influenza B viruses. (
  • Most information about strains of influenza A(H3N2) likely to be prevalent in 1982-1983 is derived from reports and analyses of viruses isolated in 1981 in Asia. (
  • The viruses implicated as the major cause of nationwide epidemic activity were influenza A(H3N2) strains, and in particular, these H3N2 viruses were shown to cause nearly all outbreaks in nursing home or hospital settings for which laboratory diagnosis was obtained. (
  • Influenza B viruses were isolated infrequently early in the season, although their prevalence increased toward the end of the season, including outbreaks in several schools and nursing homes in April and May. (
  • Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (
  • Influenza, commonly called 'the flu,' is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract. (
  • Influenza viruses are divided into three types, designated A, B, and C, with influenza A types usually causing the most problems in humans. (
  • It is the opinion of the AVMA that the proposal will likely enhance effective vaccination strategies for currently circulating influenza viruses in swine and horses. (
  • Nonpathogenic replication-defective adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), or matrix 1 (M1) proteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses will be tested for their efficacy related to long-lasting and broad immunity in suitable animal models. (
  • Generation and characterization of adenoviral vectors expressing HA, NP, or M1 proteins of avian influenza viruses. (
  • NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: The recent emergence of avian H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2 influenza viruses in humans has highlighted the ability of at least some avian subtypes to cross the species barrier into humans. (
  • APPROACH: Nonpathogenic replication-defective adenoviral vectors will be used for expressing HA, NP, or M1 proteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. (
  • You can't get the flu from the vaccine because the viruses are dead. (
  • Public policy worldwide recommends the use of inactivated influenza vaccines (vaccines that contain dead viruses) to prevent seasonal outbreaks. (
  • But because influenza viruses mutate (change) and the number doing the rounds varies from year to year, it's difficult for scientists to study the precise effects of vaccines. (
  • Even if you or your kids got the flu vaccine last year, that won't protect you this year, because flu viruses change. (
  • The nasal spray flu vaccine contains weakened live flu viruses. (
  • 23. The method of claim 22, wherein the cold adapted influenza viruses comprise one or more of: an attenuated cold adapted influenza virus, a temperature-sensitive cold adapted influenza virus, or an attenuated cold-adapted temperature-sensitive influenza viruses. (
  • 24. The method of claim 22, wherein the cold adapted influenza viruses comprise a genetic backbone of one or more of the following influenza viruses: A/Ann Arbor/6/60 and B/Ann Arbor/1/66. (
  • The WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System is a network of centers and laboratories around the world that monitor circulating influenza viruses. (
  • Most of the strains of influenza A (H3N2) and B viruses circulating during the winter of 2004-2005 were not the same as the strains in that season's vaccines. (
  • Given that continuing antigenic shift and drift of influenza A viruses result in the escape from previous vaccine-induced immune protection, a universal influenza vaccine has been actively sought. (
  • According to the antigenicity of virus matrix 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP), influenza viruses can be divided into IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV. (
  • Since influenza viruses are prone to mutate during replication, influenza vaccines must be replaced with strains and re-vaccinated every year. (
  • Research 7 published in 2011 also warned the seasonal flu vaccine appears to weaken children's immune systems and increases their chances of getting sick from influenza viruses not included in the vaccine. (
  • Flu vaccines are by their nature a tricky business because influenza viruses are constantly evolving and public health officials have to guess at least six months before the flu season starts which type A and B influenza virus strains might end up being predominant so drug companies can manufacture the vaccines. (
  • When you get a sore throat, runny nose, headache , fatigue, low grade fever, body aches and cough, most of the time it is another type of viral or bacterial respiratory infection unrelated to influenza viruses. (
  • 7 - 12 Increasing vaccination coverage and use of LAIV among children and adolescents have allowed VE estimates for LAIV and IIV individually against circulating influenza viruses in each season since the 2009 influenza pandemic. (
  • By using an existing pandemic flu strain, this research will provide the basis for design of alternative vaccines against influenza viruses with enhanced virulence," says Dr. Tumpey. (
  • Although the researchers are not discounting the potential role T-cells may have in combating flu viruses, they concluded that in this study, the experimental DNA vaccine protected the mice by stimulating antibodies capable of neutralizing the 1918 flu virus. (
  • Influenza A viruses are further divided into different subtypes based on two proteins found on the surface of the virus - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • The combinations of the different subtypes of HA and NA are used to classify influenza A viruses. (
  • Let's take a closer look at H3N2 influenza viruses. (
  • The symptoms of flu caused by H3N2 are similar to other seasonal influenza viruses. (
  • First, while all flu viruses mutate from year to year, H3N2 viruses tend to accrue more changes that are different from the H3N2 component of the flu vaccine. (
  • The nasal spray flu vaccine uses live, weakened flu viruses instead of dead ones. (
  • We focused on the results of studies looking at vaccines based on inactivated influenza viruses, which are developed by killing the influenza virus with a chemical and are given by injection through the skin. (
  • One type (called trivalent) protects against three strains of the flu virus (usually, two types of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). (
  • The nasal spray flu vaccine contains weakened live flu viruses, so it may cause mild flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, headache, vomiting, muscle aches, and fever. (
  • Because this vaccine is generated from the genetic sequences of multiple flu viruses, it may protect against many strains over several years, Ross said. (
  • Fluzone High-Dose (Influenza Vaccine) for intramuscular injection is an inactivated influenza vaccine, prepared from influenza viruses propagated in embryonated chicken eggs. (
  • Fluzone ® High-Dose is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of influenza disease caused by influenza A subtype viruses and type B virus contained in the vaccine. (
  • Influenza virus vaccine, recombinant is used to prevent infection caused by the influenza viruses in adults 18 years of age and older. (
  • It is necessary to receive an influenza vaccine injection each year, since influenza infections are usually caused by different kinds of viruses and the protection gained by the vaccine lasts less than a year. (
  • Nearly 20 percent of the global population is infected by influenza viruses every year, leading to severe illness and hospitalization for millions of individuals. (
  • The main reason to vaccinate pig farmers is to protect pigs against influenza infection, thus preventing the development of new viruses among pig herds. (
  • In seasons with a good match between the viruses in the vaccine and the circulating viruses, the protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza is 50- 80 % among healthy adults aged under 65 years. (
  • Physicians should not use the antivirals amantadine and reimantadine because of high levels of resistance to these drugs among recently circulating influenza viruses, the CDC said. (
  • Influenza is different from most other vaccine-preventable diseases because the viruses are always changing, meaning that immunity acquired one year may not protect against future influenza viruses. (
  • The flu shot contains inactivated influenza viruses that research suggests will cause the most influenza illness for that particular season. (
  • The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is made from weakened influenza viruses. (
  • It protects against viruses that cause influenza, often called the flu. (
  • The vaccine does not protect against other viruses or bacteria that cause colds or stomach flu. (
  • In addition to LAIV, there are several inactivated influenza vaccines available in B.C. The inactivated vaccines are made of killed influenza viruses. (
  • LAIV contains weakened influenza viruses and may cause mild influenza symptoms but these are much milder than those due to influenza infection. (
  • 1 The priority groups identified in the plan reflect the known epidemiology of influenza viruses, morbidity and mortality data, and vaccine efficiency 2 , 3 (see "Priority groups for pandemic influenza vaccine" ). (
  • The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat and sometimes the lungs. (
  • Influenza viruses are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. (
  • Influenza viruses and HIV provide unique examples of these processes. (
  • People's protection from viruses depends on having their having been exposed to the virus before, through infection or from a vaccine for that virus. (
  • But influenza viruses can mutate, or change, rapidly. (
  • Every few years, influenza viruses mutate enough to result in a new strain. (
  • Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. (
  • Murphy's research has focused on vaccine development for various viruses. (
  • During the past two decades, licensed influenza vaccines have contained two influenza A strains (HlNl and H3N2) and one influenza B strain. (
  • Overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) - the predominant strain of influenza this season - has been 25% as of February 15. (
  • FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, said in a February 26 news release that he believes the influenza A(H3N2) virus strain selected for this season's vaccine was appropriate and that experts are working to determine why the vaccine was less effective than expected. (
  • The panel voted unanimously to include an A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016 (H3N2)-like virus, which is a change from the 2017-2018 vaccine. (
  • Vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) was 25% for all ages and 51% for children aged 6 months to 8 years. (
  • There were no statistically significant estimates of vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) for other age groups. (
  • There was little circulation of H3N2 strains in the Americas or Europe during the 1981-1982 influenza season. (
  • In 1981, most influenza A(H3N2) virus isolates from Asia and the Southern Hemisphere were similar to strains circulating previously. (
  • Almost 80% of influenza virus isolates reported in the United States were type A(H3N2) strains, mostly similar to A/Bangkok/79(H3N2), a strain included in the vaccine for the last 3 years. (
  • Participants vaccinated with LAIV or IIV had similar odds of illness associated with influenza A/H3N2 or B. LAIV recipients had greater odds of illness due to influenza A/H1N1pdm09 in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. (
  • We observed lower effectiveness of LAIV compared with IIV against influenza A/H1N1pdm09 but not A(H3N2) or B among children and adolescents, suggesting poor performance related to the LAIV A/H1N1pdm09 viral construct. (
  • No difference was observed in vaccine effectiveness against influenza A/H3N2 or B. (
  • 2017). A structural explanation for the low effectiveness of the seasonal influenza H3N2 vaccine. (
  • While the H3N2 vaccine strain that was recommended for the 2018/19 flu season is different from the previous season's H3N2 strain, it still contains the same egg-adapted mutation. (
  • The HA and NA of the H2N2 and H3N2 vaccines were also avian. (
  • The WIRCEIV informed the review and refinement of the implementation plan of the WHO Global Pandemic Influenza Action Plan to Increase Vaccine Supply (GAP), as part of the formulation of a GAP-2 in 2011. (
  • The proposed research explores the utility of adenoviral vectors for the construction of vaccines that provide protection against pandemic influenza. (
  • We discuss the different vectored vaccines that have been or are currently in clinical trials, with a forward-looking focus on immunogens that may be protective against seasonal and pandemic influenza infection, in the context of viral-vectored vaccines. (
  • Novartis has engaged in discussions with several governments concerning pandemic influenza vaccine supply and has received contracts to provide H5N1 vaccines for stockpiling. (
  • Our learning objective is to understand how vaccines against seasonal and pandemic influenza are formulated. (
  • Adding insult to injury, evidence 5 (which was confirmed three years later 6 ) suggests flu vaccination may double your risk of contracting pandemic influenza or a more serious bout of influenza. (
  • This means that scientists may be able to produce a vaccine that not only protects against recognized seasonal and pandemic influenza strains, but also strains that have yet to be discovered. (
  • The recommendations of the ACIP and NVAC have been included in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Pandemic Influenza Plan, released in November 2005. (
  • A worksheet to ensure you're not forgetting any employees when estimating your clinic's need for pandemic influenza vaccine. (
  • In the ACIP and NVAC's draft recommendations on pandemic influenza vaccine prioritization, health care workers with direct patient contact and those who provide critical support roles are included in the highest tier, Tier 1A. (
  • University of Washington School of Medicine/UW Medicine) Experimental flu shots have now been developed that protect animals from a wide variety of season and pandemic influenza strains. (
  • Data comparing the effectiveness of Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent with standard-dose inactivated quadrivalent vaccines are not yet available. (
  • Each season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent influenza-associated, medically attended acute respiratory infection (ARI). (
  • This season, early data from 1,155 children and adults with ARI enrolled during December 3, 2012-January 2, 2013 were used to estimate the overall effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection associated with medically attended ARI. (
  • We found that the national health effects were greatly influenced by the timing of vaccine administration and the effectiveness of the vaccine. (
  • Scientific evidence on the safety, tolerance, efficacy and effectiveness of currently existing inactivated influenza vaccines unambiguously demonstrates the favourable benefit/risk ratio of influenza immunisations for high risk patients and strongly suggests an economic benefit of influenza immunisation programmes. (
  • The available evidence indicates that some but not all disease-modifying therapies for MS reduce the effectiveness of vaccination against influenza. (
  • This work, which is still underway, will try to better understand why overall effectiveness with both the cell-based and egg-based vaccines was less than optimal. (
  • We're also looking at the difference in effectiveness in people 65 years and older who were vaccinated with high-dose influenza vaccine and adjuvanted influenza vaccine to see if effectiveness was better than in those vaccinated with standard-dose vaccines. (
  • Seasonal influenza vaccines have been available for decades, yet influenza remains a major public health threat in the US, sparking interest in studies evaluating the effectiveness of vaccination. (
  • Effectiveness of the flu vaccine varies year to year because strains causing flu also vary yearly. (
  • Our LAMP-vax platform significantly increases the effectiveness of the immune response to nucleic acid vaccines while simplifying overall vaccine design and delivery, yielding safer, more cost-effective human and animal therapies. (
  • The problem is that the UK has no transparent process for evaluating the effectiveness or cost effectiveness of vaccines," adds BMJ Editor, Fiona Godlee. (
  • To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy adults, including pregnant women. (
  • We included 52 clinical trials of over 80,000 people assessing the safety and effectiveness of influenza vaccines. (
  • Evidence from observational studies showed effectiveness of influenza vaccines against ILI in pregnant women to be 24% (95% CI 11% to 36%, NNV 94), and against influenza in newborns from vaccinated women to be 41% (95% CI 6% to 63%, NNV 27).Live aerosol vaccines have an overall effectiveness corresponding to an NNV of 46. (
  • The overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness against influenza A and B virus infection was just 36 percent. (
  • Few observational studies have evaluated the relative effectiveness of live attenuated (LAIV) and inactivated (IIV) influenza vaccines against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza. (
  • We analyzed US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network data from participants aged 2 to 17 years during 4 seasons (2010-2011 through 2013-2014) to compare relative effectiveness of LAIV and IIV against influenza-associated illness. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has conducted annual studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) through the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (Flu VE) Network since 2004-2005. (
  • Vaccine effectiveness - how well does the flu vaccine work? (
  • These egg-adapted changes can reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine strain. (
  • A study that looked at flu vaccine effectiveness over the course of three flu seasons estimated that flu vaccination lowered the risk of hospitalizations by 61 percent in people 50 years of age and older. (
  • There remains a need for a well-constructed clinical study , that assesses the effectiveness of influenza vaccination on important clinical outcome measures. (
  • To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccination for people with cystic fibrosis. (
  • While their effectiveness varies from year to year, most provide modest to high protection against influenza. (
  • Vaccine effectiveness in those over 65 years old remains uncertain due to a lack of high quality research. (
  • Vaccines against seasonal influenza are widely used, particularly in those aged over 65 years, but vaccine efficacy is variable and far from optimal in older adults.The Jenner Institute, Oxford University has been developing vaccines that they predict will have higher efficacy, and conducting clinical trials of these novel vaccines. (
  • The efficacy of the influenza vaccine when given to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is similar to that in healthy controls, Jackie Nguyen reported at the virtual annual meeting of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC). (
  • In contrast, the nine studies included in the meta-analysis contained data on influenza vaccine efficacy as reflected in the ability to mount an adequate immune response. (
  • Cite this: Influenza Vaccine Efficacy 'Undiminished' in MS - Medscape - Jul 13, 2020. (
  • Evaluation of immune responses to and protection efficacy of adenoviral vector-based vaccines in suitable animal models. (
  • These adenoviral vector-based vaccines will be tested to evaluate their efficacy related to long-lasting and broad immunity in suitable animal models. (
  • The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccination in children and adults with asthma. (
  • Because a pre-pandemic vaccine has to be formulated prior to knowing the actual strain causing the pandemic, its efficacy is likely to be limited. (
  • The efficacy of inactivated vaccine containing pH1N1 against influenza was 50% (95% CI 14% to 71%) in mothers (NNV 55), and 49% (95% CI 12% to 70%) in infants up to 24 weeks (NNV 56). (
  • No data were available on efficacy against seasonal influenza during pregnancy. (
  • This study compared the efficacy of the injectable inactivated (TIV) and the intranasal attenuated (LAIV) influenza vaccines in healthy adults. (
  • The results also suggested that the efficacy of TIV would have been overestimated and the efficacy for LAIV would have been underestimated had the researchers used serum antibody titers alone to detect influenza infections. (
  • Differences in influenza antigen variety in currently available vaccines may affect efficacy, whereas differences in concentrations of nonviral compounds such as ovalbumin and endotoxin may lead to different postvaccination reactogenicity profiles. (
  • Influenza vaccine is the most effective way of prevention, but the protective efficacy of currently marketed vaccines varies from year to year, depending on the antigenic match between circulating virus and vaccine strain. (
  • The efficacy of oseltamivir against avian influenza is not well established. (
  • 2 - 5 Several studies conducted before the 2009 influenza A/H1N1pdm09 pandemic demonstrated superior efficacy of LAIV over IIV in children aged 6-71 months, leading ACIP in 2014 to recommend preferential use of LAIV, when immediately available, for healthy children aged 2-8 years. (
  • Yongping Jiang , Hongbo Zhang , Guojun Wang , Pingjing Zhang , Guobin Tian , Zhigao Bu , and Hualan Chen "Protective Efficacy of H7 Subtype Avian Influenza DNA Vaccine," Avian Diseases Digest 5(s1), (1 March 2010). (
  • The increased expression of Tlr7 in B cells contributes to greater antibody production in females than males, which has a functional advantage for vaccine efficacy. (
  • Biological sex affects adaptive immune responses, which could impact influenza infection and vaccine efficacy. (
  • Taken together, these data illustrate that greater TLR7 activation and antibody production in females improves the efficacy of vaccination against influenza. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md., May 10, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Novavax, Inc. (Nasdaq:NVAX) today announced that it has completed purification of a lot of A/Anhui/1/13 H7N9 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine and initiated animal immunogenicity and efficacy studies, including studies intended to evaluate protection against wild-type viral challenges. (
  • Based on our recent clinical trials with A/H5N1 vaccine that induced 100% seroprotection using low doses of an otherwise poorly immunogenic vaccine, we are optimistic that our A/H7N9 VLP may induce strong immune responses and perform well in animal efficacy testing. (
  • While our recent A/H5N1 clinical results help demonstrate the potential efficacy and immunogenicity of our pandemic VLP vaccines, we always believed the true test of our platform would be its ability to respond rapidly to an emerging pandemic threat," added Stanley C. Erck, President and Chief Executive Officer. (
  • Despite the availability of influenza vaccines, their public health impact is limited due to suboptimal efficacy and challenges with patient compliance. (
  • This approach has demonstrated the capacity to enhance efficacy of commercially available, FDA-approved influenza vaccines, as well as ease distribution and administration to patients. (
  • The MIMIX smart release patch has demonstrated to increase existing flu vaccine efficacy and advancing toward the creation of a universal flu vaccine quickly. (
  • The EIC also selected Osivax for support of up to EUR 15M in equity toward the Company's ongoing Series B fund-raising, intended to finance a large-scale OVX836 Phase 2b proof of efficacy study in 3,500 subjects and support further development of its universal coronavirus vaccine. (
  • Future confirmatory clinical efficacy trials may be used to support the recombinant influenza vaccine as an alternative for the pediatric age group of ≥6 years. (
  • Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and protective efficacy of recombinant hemagglutinin as an alternative to egg-grown inactivated influenza vaccines. (
  • The economic costs attributable to influenza are estimated to be in the billions of dollars annually in the United States.2 Therefore, the development of strategies to prevent influenza infection or illness has been vigorously undertaken during the past six decades. (
  • The guideline , updated for the first time in 17 years, states that all MS patients should be advised to receive influenza vaccine annually: "With known risks of exacerbation and other morbidity with influenza infection and no identified risks of exacerbation with influenza vaccines, benefits of influenza vaccination outweigh the risks in most scenarios. (
  • The vaccine takes effect approximately two weeks after it has been administered as antibodies (substances in the blood that protect against infection) accumulate and provide protection against influenza. (
  • Epidemics of influenza B, and to a lesser extent of influenza A, infection have been associated with an increased incidence of Reye syndrome among children and adolescents in the United States. (
  • Influenza vaccination is recommended for asthmatic patients in many countries as observational studies have shown that influenza infection can be associated with asthma exacerbations. (
  • Two parallel-group trials in adults did not contribute data to these outcomes due to very low levels of confirmed influenza infection. (
  • Uncertainty remains about the degree of protection that vaccination affords against asthma exacerbations that are related to influenza infection. (
  • Influenza (also called the flu) is a viral infection in the nose, throat, and lungs. (
  • Reasons for this are not clear, but may stem from the confusion between influenza and influenza-like illness (the acute respiratory infection which looks like influenza but is not), a lack of accurate and fast surveillance systems, and the fact that vaccines are available. (
  • Vaccination is the primary intervention used to curb influenza virus infection, and the WHO recommends immunization for at-risk individuals to mitigate disease. (
  • Influenza - what most of us call "the flu" - is a contagious viral infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. (
  • The main purpose of seasonal influenza vaccination is to avoid severe disease from infection with the influenza virus. (
  • Viral cultures, molecular sampling (PCR), and serology were compared as measures of determining influenza infection. (
  • Influenza virus vaccine is used to prevent infection caused by influenza virus. (
  • Influenza virus vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body. (
  • If you have a severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, wait until you get better before receiving this vaccine. (
  • Accordingly, zanamivir is now recommended as the initial choice for antiviral prophylaxis or treatment when influenza A infection or exposure is suspected. (
  • The chance of contracting actual type A or B influenza, caused by one of the three or four influenza virus strains included in the vaccine, is much lower compared to getting sick with another type of viral or bacterial infection during the flu season. (
  • Influvac may also be prescribed for other persons at risk of influenza infection. (
  • The next time that hemagglutinin shows up-such as in the form of the virus strains the vaccine mimicked-the body's immune cells recognize them and fight them off, preventing infection. (
  • Right, what can you do about avoiding a full-blown influenza infection this year? (
  • Biological sex is typically not considered in the evaluation of vaccine responses and protection against infection. (
  • We show that female mice mount greater humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to influenza infection and vaccination than males. (
  • Analysis and optimization of the gene sequences for the key viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins, synthesis of the genes, construction of a recombinant baculovirus vector, infection of insect cells, purification of the first batches of VLP vaccine, and administration to animals were all completed in 28 days. (
  • The MIMIX smart release patch enhances responses against both vaccine-included and drifted influenza strains through the use of sustained antigen presentation, more accurately mimicking a natural infection thereby driving stronger, broader, and more durable HAI titers and influenza-specific T-cell responses. (
  • Therefore, there is good reason to use the available vaccine against severe infection with admission to hospital and against death. (
  • The vaccine is the best way to protect against influenza, a serious and sometimes fatal infection. (
  • Because the researchers in the phase 1 study of RIV3 had intentionally enrolled subjects who were naïve to previous influenza vaccination, it was postulated that the purified recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) antigens may be less immunogenic in individuals who were not immunologically primed by vaccination or infection. (
  • However, this response may not result in protection against influenza infection or lung damage. (
  • Antigens from individual influenza virus strains are not refrigerated before being combined to make multivalent influenza virus vaccines. (
  • Twice a year, WHO reviews the surveillance data to recommend the influenza virus strains that should be included in the following season's vaccines. (
  • One of the problems with current influenza vaccines is that we have to make predictions about which virus strains will be most prevalent every year and build our vaccines around those predictions," said Ted Ross, director of UGA's Center for Vaccines and Immunology and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Infectious Diseases in the College of Veterinary Medicine. (
  • Using a technique called Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Antigen, or COBRA, UGA researchers Donald Carter, Christopher Darby and Bradford Lefoley, along with Ross, created nine prototype synthetic compound vaccines constructed using genetic sequences from multiple influenza virus strains. (
  • The optimistic and confident tone of some predictions of viral circulation and of the impact of inactivated vaccines, which are at odds with the evidence, is striking, he says. (
  • Unfortunately, influenza vaccine composition needs to be updated annually due to antigenic shift and drift in the viral immunogen hemagglutinin (HA). (
  • There are a number of alternate vaccination strategies in current development which may circumvent the need for annual re-vaccination, including new platform technologies such as viral-vectored vaccines. (
  • It will also include the proprietary adjuvant MF59, which was developed by Novartis and could extend the vaccine supply by allowing for smaller amounts of viral antigens to be used in each dose compared to vaccines without this additive. (
  • The Novartis proprietary cell culture technology may reduce production time to meet demands of influenza outbreaks and may also help to develop antigens for a wider range of viral strains that are difficult to grow in eggs. (
  • Personally, I don't agree with this, as there are no substantial data that I am aware of that indicate that influenza is either more common or more serious in HIV+s, and vaccination drives up HIV viral load (although most people recover to their pre-vaccine baseline within 1-2 months). (
  • and (c) sterilizing said further clarified viral harvest by sterile filtration, wherein the live cold adapted influenza virus composition exhibits a potency loss of less than 1.0 log over a 12 month period when stored at 4-8° C. (
  • Hence, the vaccines need to be reformulated every year, in order to ensure that they match the viral antigens. (
  • Three split-virion vaccines (Vaxigrip, Begrivac, and Influsplit/Fluarix) and three subunit vaccines containing only viral surface glycoproteins (Influvac, Agrippal, and Fluvirin) available for the 1994-95 season were analysed by biological, molecular, and biochemical methods. (
  • Viral nucleoprotein was detected in all split vaccines but to varying levels according to SDS-PAGE and Western blot analyses. (
  • Influenza virus is mainly composed of three parts, namely core, matrix protein, and viral envelope. (
  • Specifically, neuraminidase-a glycoprotein located on the surface of the influenza virus-cleaves the attachment between hemagglutinin on the viral surface and the sialic acid receptor on the host cell membrane, thereby facilitating the release of the virion from the cell. (
  • Peramivir elicits antiviral activity by inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme that releases viral particles from the plasma membrane of infected cells. (
  • It inhibits cap-dependent endonuclease, an enzyme specific to influenza, resulting in inhibition of viral replication. (
  • Considering the many studies showing flu vaccines offer minimal protection against illness even when well-matched to circulating viral strains, the fact that vaccination continues to be touted as your first line of defense against influenza suggests this annual campaign is more about generating conformity for profit rather than actually improving and protecting public health. (
  • The Company's proprietary oligoDOM ® technology enables the development of vaccines that aim to protect the body from all viral influenza strains. (
  • Vaxart's vaccines are designed to generate broad and durable immune responses that protect against a wide range of infectious diseases and may also be useful for the treatment of chronic viral infections and cancer. (
  • Infections with viral diseases like influenza ("the flu") can worsen lung damage. (
  • The vaccine comes in inactive and weakened viral forms. (
  • The higher dose of antigen in the vaccine is intended to give people 65 years and older a better immune response to vaccination, and therefore, better protection against flu. (
  • The incidence and severity of reactions to parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine are proportional to the dose of antigen used. (
  • However, there was significant heterogeneity between the findings of two trials involving 1104 adults in terms of asthma exacerbations in the first three days after vaccination with split-virus or surface-antigen inactivated vaccines. (
  • An adjuvant is a substance added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the vaccine's active constituent, called the antigen. (
  • Novartis has also developed a new influenza vaccine manufacturing process that utilizes a proprietary cell line, rather than chicken eggs, for antigen production. (
  • You also have the injectable inactivated influenza vaccines, including a high-dose version for seniors over the age of 65, which contains four times the amount of antigen as the regular dose of the standard vaccine. (
  • As of January 11, 2013, 24 states and New York City were reporting high levels of influenza-like illness, 16 states were reporting moderate levels, five states were reporting low levels, and one state was reporting minimal levels ( 3 ). (
  • For the purpose of this study, we considered clinical cases as influenza-like illness in persons who did or did not seek medical care ( 2 ). (
  • In healthy children and adults, the licensed influenza vaccine should reduce the incidence of clinical influenza illness by approximately 60% to 90%.7·8 This estimate assumes that the circulating wild type influenza virus is homologous to one of the vaccine strains. (
  • Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent is a vaccine that helps protect against influenza illness ( flu ). (
  • S]cientists at FDA are collaborating with colleagues at Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to use a large database that includes details of the flu vaccines administered to four million individuals along with whether they were hospitalized for influenza or treated with antiviral medications for influenzalike illness," Gottlieb explained. (
  • Influenza is a common, highly contagious infectious disease that can cause severe illness and life-threatening complications in many people. (
  • Efforts to reduce the impact of influenza in the United States have been aimed at protecting persons at greatest risk of serious illness or death. (
  • Much of the illness and death caused by conventional or seasonal influenza can be prevented by annual influenza vaccination. (
  • For this study at the Naval Health Research Center, the researchers assessed influenza vaccine protection using febrile respiratory illness surveillance, which identified Department of Defense (DoD) non-active duty beneficiaries of all ages who presented with fever, cough or sore throat at three outpatient facilities in San Diego, CA and Great Lakes, Illinois. (
  • We rated certainty of evidence for key outcomes (influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), hospitalisation, and adverse effects) using GRADE. (
  • The participants were then followed for any signs of influenza-like illness. (
  • It is reassuring, but also surprising, that these influenza vaccines were as efficacious as was observed given the differences between the strains causing illness and those in the vaccines. (
  • Conclusions: In addition to preventing influenza in 50% of participants, IIV4 attenuated illness severity and disease burden in children who had a breakthrough influenza episode despite vaccination. (
  • But it's also important to realize that the majority of respiratory influenza-like illness that people experience during any given flu season is not type A or B influenza. (
  • The flu vaccine does not protect against or prevent any of these other types of respiratory infections causing influenza-like-illness (ILI) symptoms. (
  • both have been demonstrated to be effective against influenza illness in children. (
  • Influenza is an infectious illness. (
  • The flu is a respiratory illness that's caused by the influenza virus. (
  • However, only influenza A and B cause the seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur every year. (
  • According to the CDC, the flu vaccine reduces the risk of flu illness in the general population by between 40 and 60 percent during most flu seasons when the vaccine strains are a good match to circulating strains. (
  • We evaluated the effects of vaccines on reducing the number of adults with confirmed influenza and the number of adults who had influenza-like symptoms such as headache, high temperature, cough, and muscle pain (influenza-like illness, or ILI). (
  • Without laboratory tests, doctors cannot distinguish between ILI and influenza because both last for days and rarely cause serious illness or death. (
  • The CDC urges physicians in the report to consider influenza as a possible diagnosis when evaluating patients with acute respiratory illness and to use antivirals oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) to treat the flu virus. (
  • Influenza (aka the flu) is a seasonal illness caused by a virus and is spread through sneezing, coughing and even talking and breathing by people with the flu virus. (
  • In B.C., LAIV is provided free this year to children 2 to 17 years of age who are at risk of serious illness from influenza. (
  • The vaccine is also provided free to children 5 to 17 years of age who are household contacts of those who are at risk of serious illness from influenza. (
  • A list of those at risk of serious influenza illness is provided in HealthLinkBC File #12d Inactivated Influenza (Flu) Vaccine . (
  • Vaccination is associated with reductions in influenza-related respiratory illness and physician visits among all age groups, hospitalization and death among persons at high risk, otitis media among children, and work absenteeism among adults. (
  • Few studies have assessed how quickly protection against influenza declines within a year following vaccination, specifically among US populations," said Dr. Jennifer Radin, at the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, CA. (
  • Vaccination provides the best protection against influenza and is recommended for all persons ≥6 months of age. (
  • This page provides information on the high-dose seasonal flu vaccine, Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent external icon . (
  • What is Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine? (
  • it is manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Inc. Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent is a four-component (quadrivalent) flu vaccine approved for people 65 years and older. (
  • Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent is not recommended for people with a history of severe allergic reaction to the vaccine or to ingredients other than eggs. (
  • Both Fluzone High-Dose and Fluzone Quadrivalent (standard dose) are produced by the same manufacturer and are quadrivalent vaccines. (
  • Are there benefits of Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent compared to standard dose seasonal flu vaccines for adults 65 years and older? (
  • Data from clinical trials comparing Fluzone (a trivalent standard dose vaccine) to Fluzone High-Dose (a previously available trivalent high-dose vaccine) among people 65 years and older indicated that a stronger immune response (i.e., higher antibody levels) occured after vaccination with Fluzone High-Dose. (
  • A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine external icon indicated that the high-dose vaccine was 24% more effective in preventing flu in adults 65 years and older relative to a standard-dose vaccine. (
  • For the 2021-22 season, all Fluzone High-Dose vaccine will be quadrivalent. (
  • Does Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent offer better protection than the adjuvanted flu vaccine? (
  • Some side effects were reported more frequently after vaccination with trivalent Fluzone High-Dose than after standard-dose inactivated flu vaccines. (
  • In a study comparing Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent with trivalent Fluzone High-Dose, some of these side effects were slightly more common with the quadrivalent vaccine, but most were mild and resolved within a few days. (
  • Because date and type of vaccination were not available for this early estimate, participants were considered vaccinated if they reported having received at least 1 dose of any 2012-13 influenza vaccine before enrollment. (
  • It is therefore recommended that inactivated influenza vaccine be given to patients with MS at least 2 weeks prior to starting rituximab or 6 months after the last dose in order to optimize the humoral results. (
  • 3. The process of claim 2, including the further step of extracting a unit dose of vaccine from the bulk and placing the unit dose into a container. (
  • Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of influenza vaccine, or has any severe, life-threatening allergies. (
  • Has had Guillain-Barré Syndrome within 6 weeks after a previous dose of influenza vaccine. (
  • What is Fluzone High-Dose (Influenza Vaccine), and how does it work? (
  • Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine is for people 65 years of age and older. (
  • Vaccination with Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine may not protect all people who receive the vaccine. (
  • These are not all of the possible side effects of Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent vaccine. (
  • Before administering a dose of vaccine, shake the prefilled syringe. (
  • Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent should not be combined through reconstitution or mixed with any other vaccine. (
  • There are limited human data on Fluzone High-Dose and no animal data available on Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent to establish whether there is a vaccine-associated risk with use of Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent in pregnancy . (
  • But there are other reasons not to cram more into the flu shot: For each added strain, you need about 15 micrograms of protein, so a diverse vaccine yields a larger dose. (
  • There are vaccines, Fluzone High-Dose and FLUAD, designed specifically for patients ages 65+ and works by improving the production of antibodies in order to provide a stronger immune response to the flu than traditional vaccines. (
  • Both children and seniors tended to have poorer immune responses compared to adults whereas use of adjuvant and a second vaccine dose tended to improve immune response. (
  • Meta‐analysis plot of seroprotection rates from single dose, commercially licensed, inactivated vaccine studies in adults (18-59 year). (
  • Those younger than 9 who had at least two doses of flu vaccine (in the same or different seasons) will only need one dose. (
  • Kids older than 9 need only one dose of the vaccine. (
  • The performance of one- or two-dose whole-virion 1968 to 1969 pandemic vaccines was higher (NNV 16) against ILI and (NNV 35) against influenza. (
  • Although all vaccines are required by health authorities to contain 15 micrograms haemagglutinin per dose of each virus strain, there were significant differences in haemagglutination titres among the examined vaccines of both types. (
  • Influenza virus vaccine works by exposing you to a small dose of the virus, which helps your body to develop immunity to the disease. (
  • It is indicated as a single, oral, weight-based dose for treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in adults and adolescents aged 12 years or older who have been symptomatic for less than 48 hours. (
  • The vaccine is packaged in a multi-dose vial with thimerosal, a mercury derivative, as a preservative. (
  • At this time it is not known if the higher dose vaccine is better than the regular vaccine at protecting from the flu. (
  • The amounts of HA and other ingredients per dose of vaccine are listed in Table 2. (
  • A 0.25 mL dose contains 7.5 mcg HA of each of the same three influenza strains. (
  • These trials showed that the VLP avian influenza vaccine was immunogenic at conventional doses without adjuvant and induced strong immunogenicity in all its adjuvanted dose groups including the lowest dose of 3.75µg. (
  • They have left open the possibility that more than one dose will be required, despite a published study - using CSL vaccine - that one dose induces protective immunity. (
  • Children 6 months through 8 years of age receiving the vaccine for the first time should get a second dose at least four weeks after the first one. (
  • Children who only get one dose but need two doses can have reduced or no protection from a single dose of flu vaccine. (
  • Children 9 years of age and older need 1 dose of vaccine. (
  • The second dose of vaccine is important to raise their level of protection and should be given 4 weeks after the first dose. (
  • a One dose or 2 doses (0.5‑mL each) depending on vaccination history as per the annual Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation on prevention and control of influenza with vaccines. (
  • The study will assess the safety and immunogenicity of single-dose and multi-dose formulations of influenza vaccine and has been designed to meet FDA requirements. (
  • Her department received funding from MedImmune, Novartis, Adamas, ADMA Bio, BioCRYST and Sanofi Pasteur for conducting research in respiratory virology, meningococcal vaccines, influenza therapies, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis trivalent vaccines and human respiratory syncytial virus immunotherapy. (
  • An upper respiratory swab was taken from a sample of these individuals and then was tested in the laboratory for influenza. (
  • Influenza is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the influenza virus. (
  • The annual seasonal influenza epidemics cause 3 million to 5 million severe cases and 290,000 to 650,000 respiratory disease related deaths worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health security. (
  • Influenza, a contagious respiratory disease, is commonly called the flu. (
  • VLPs contain three of the major structural virus proteins that are important for fighting influenza: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, both of which stimulate the body to produce antibodies that neutralize the influenza virus and prevent its spread through the cells in the respiratory tract, and matrix 1, which stimulates cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill cells that may already be infected. (
  • As reported previously, Vaxart's oral H1 seasonal influenza vaccine appears to protect primarily through mucosal immunity, the first line of defense against respiratory infections like flu and a potential key feature of a universal flu vaccine. (
  • Vaxart's development programs include oral tablet vaccines that are designed to protect against norovirus, seasonal influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), as well as a therapeutic vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV). (
  • It is generally caused by one of two types of influenza virus: influenza A or influenza B. (Influenza C causes upper respiratory tract infections in young people but is not as common as the other two types. (
  • In particular, his group is known for working on developing vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus. (
  • Evaluation of a live, cold-passaged, temperature-sensitive, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate in infancy. (
  • Production of infectious human respiratory syncytial virus from cloned cDNA confirms an essential role for the transcription elongation factor from the 5' proximal open reading frame of the M2 mRNA in gene expression and provides a capability for vaccine development. (
  • How efficacious are the injectable trivalent inactivated (TIV) and the intranasal attenuated (LAIV) influenza vaccines in healthy adults? (
  • The injectable influenza virus vaccine (flu shot) is a "killed virus" vaccine. (
  • This medication guide addresses only the injectable form of this vaccine. (
  • What are the possible side effects of influenza virus injectable vaccine? (
  • Influenza virus injectable (killed virus) vaccine will not cause you to become ill with the flu virus that it contains. (
  • Vaxart believes that tablet vaccines are easier to distribute and administer than injectable vaccines and have the potential to significantly increase vaccination rates. (
  • and Vaxart's expectations with respect to the important advantages it believes its oral vaccine platform can offer over injectable alternatives, particularly for mucosal pathogens such as norovirus, flu and RSV. (
  • Syncope (fainting) can occur in association with administration of injectable vaccines, including FLULAVAL QUADRIVALENT. (
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture is creating a stockpile of avian influenza vaccines, but an expert suggests careful consideration of the strategy and cautions that the strain of the next outbreak is unknown. (
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture issued a second request on Nov. 20 for proposals from manufacturers as it works to create an emergency stockpile of avian influenza vaccines. (
  • While his research focuses on the creation of a vaccine that offers broad protection against multiple strains and mutations of the avian influenza virus, he is not working with a manufacturer or in a position to submit a proposal for the stockpile. (
  • Protecting poultry from avian influenza is complicated and there is much to consider as the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service makes its decision about vaccine use," Mittal said. (
  • Mittal and postdoctoral student Omar Amen performed a study of a 2010 avian influenza outbreak in vaccinated chickens at a large poultry farm in Egypt, where avian influenza is endemic and a vaccination policy is in place. (
  • Such events can cause pandemic outbreaks of influenza by the emergence of an avian-human reassortant virus with the ability to spread rapidly in a nave human and animal populations. (
  • The challenges of vaccine supply in past flu seasons, the broadening CDC recommendations for annual vaccination, and the threat of a future avian influenza pandemic, all emphasize the value of adding more manufacturers and production capacity. (
  • Have there been any influenza vaccines in any year since they've been given, other than the 1976 swine flu vaccine of course, that contained any swine or avian flu parts? (
  • If the emerging avian influenza or another new virus creates a pandemic, severely limited supplies of vaccines and antiviral medications are likely. (
  • The CDC and its Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have not expressed a preference for any flu vaccine indicated for people 65 years and older. (
  • In July 2009, estimating that initial vaccine supplies could be insufficient to meet demand, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended priority groups for the vaccination program. (
  • However none of the studies focused on influenza vaccines and immunization which was the subject of the meeting. (
  • None of the studies focused on influenza vaccines and immunization which is the subject of the Working Group. (
  • In February 2020, the FDA approved Seqirus's Audenz for active immunization of people 6 months and older, which is the first adjuvant, cell-based vaccine ( ) (monovalent) designed to prevent H5N1 influenza during a pandemic. (
  • This year, the live attenuated nasal spray vaccine (FluMist), which the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices did not recommend during the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 seasons due to its extreme ineffectiveness, is back and once again being recommended by the CDC. (
  • Vaccine receipt was confirmed via provider/electronic medical records or immunization registry. (
  • The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children aged 6 months and older since 2008. (
  • In some quarters there is still resistance to influenza immunization as well as the childhood vaccinations, but to be honest, I cannot understand why. (
  • AFLURIA® (Influenza Vaccine) is an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B present in the vaccine. (
  • a 1 or 2 doses depends on vaccination history as per Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices annual recommendations on prevention and control of influenza with vaccines. (
  • On July 19, 2005, the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) unanimously approved a prioritization plan for this eventuality. (
  • Here's a tier-by-tier breakdown of the vaccine prioritization plan approved in July 2005 by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (
  • Rates of immunization against infectious diseases in children and adults are improving, but under-vaccination remains a problem that results in vaccine-preventable deaths and illnesses. (
  • The vast population base together with significantly low vaccination coverage in emerging markets, rising government support for immunization and growing awareness of the value of influenza vaccine in preventing disease are the prominent factors that will fuel the growth of the influenza vaccines market. (
  • The main goal of this research is to develop effective influenza virus A vaccines which induce long-lasting and broad immunity against multiple strains of influenza. (
  • Evaluation of the duration and breadth of influenza-specific immunity in experimental animals. (
  • Even then, it's still important to get the yearly flu vaccine because the body's immunity against the influenza virus declines over time. (
  • However, there were very few vaccines capable of eliciting cross-group ant-influenza immunity. (
  • It can only be used as an emergent treatment for people at high risk of severe influenza who have not been vaccinated or have not gained immunity after vaccination. (
  • So if one inoculation of cowpox or one exposure to (and survival of) smallpox confers a decade's worth or even lifelong immunity, why are individuals encouraged to receive the flu vaccine every year? (
  • It's best to get a flu vaccine as early in the season as possible, as it gives the body a chance to build up immunity to (protection from) the flu. (
  • In this case, it's still important to get a seasonal flu shot because the body's immunity against the influenza virus declines over time. (
  • In addition to vaccine homologous antibody responses, cross clade immunity was also demonstrated. (
  • Such immunity could be important if a pandemic virus undergoes antigenic drift during a vaccine campaign. (
  • 19 years of age who were receiving long-term aspirin therapy, and persons 25-64 years of age who had health conditions associated with a higher risk for medical complications from influenza. (
  • Evidence from systematic reviews in this field shows that inactivated influenza vaccines have little or no effect on many influenza campaign objectives, such as hospital stay, time off work, or death from influenza and its complications. (
  • Annual influenza vaccination is the most important way to prevent influenza and its complications. (
  • Annual vaccination is recommended for anyone aged 6 months and over who wishes to reduce the risk of influenza and its complications. (
  • We are uncertain about the effects of inactivated vaccines on working days lost or serious complications of influenza during influenza season. (
  • Most pregnant women who get influenza recover without complications and without damage to the foetus. (
  • Pregnant women have a slightly increased risk for influenza complications such as pneumonia, compared to other healthy. (
  • Almost 1 million people in Norway belong to groups at increased risk for complications of influenza. (
  • With severe complications from influenza, hospitalisation is often needed. (
  • During the influenza season, the risk of complications, hospitalisation and death due to influenza are higher among the elderly and people with certain other diseases. (
  • If no other age-appropriate, licensed seasonal influenza vaccine is available for a child aged 5 years through 8 years old who has a medical condition that increases their risk for influenza complications, Afluria may be given, and providers should discuss the benefits and risks of influenza vaccination with the parents or caregivers before administering Afluria. (
  • 1 , 2 Because children are especially susceptible to complications of influenza B, 2 we therefore initiated the development of the quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) in children aged 6 to 17 years. (
  • In some instances, though influenza can lead to pneumonia, other complications, and even death. (
  • According to the CDC: "Influenza vaccination is the primary method for preventing influenza and its severe complications. (
  • October 5, 2006 - The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved FluLaval, an influenza vaccine to immunize people 18 years of age and older against the disease caused by strains of influenza virus judged likely to cause seasonal flu in the Northern Hemisphere in 2006-2007. (
  • However, you may have flu-like symptoms at any time during flu season that may be caused by other strains of influenza virus. (
  • When a vaccine against the pandemic strain was released for initial use, the supply was only 25%-50% of the amount that had been projected because vaccine production yields were lower than expected ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Strain recommendations are made by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in consultation with scientists at the Food and Drug Administration and National Institutes of Health, and are based on worldwide influenza surveillance information provided to the World Health Organization. (
  • Strain selection is generally completed by March and vaccine is usually available by September or October. (
  • The virus present at the farm we studied had mutated from the strain on which the vaccines were experimentally tested, greatly limiting the ability of the vaccine to protect the birds," Amen said. (
  • In an "Explainer" published last winter, Michelle Tsai explained why they don't cram every strain of influenza into our yearly flu shots. (
  • Wait, why can't the scientists put every strain there is into the vaccine? (
  • The committee also voted unanimously to include a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage) as the second influenza B strain in the quadrivalent vaccine. (
  • As a consequence, the characteristics of antigenic properties of current strains provide the basis for selecting virus strain(s) to be included in the vaccine. (
  • Focetria will be manufactured to contain the influenza strain declared at the time of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • WHO recommends four influenza strains to be included in each season's vaccines: one strain from each of two influenza A sub-types, and one strain from each of two influenza B lineages. (
  • Understanding why this influenza virus was so deadly is an extremely important question," says NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "By building upon earlier research where scientists successfully reconstructed the 1918 pandemic flu strain, Dr. Nabel and his colleagues have demonstrated that this virus is vulnerable to intervention. (
  • This can lead to a poor match between the strain included in the vaccine and the strains that circulate during flu season. (
  • So it's possible that you got sick with another circulating strain that wasn't covered by the vaccine. (
  • A strain of the virus is included in this season's flu vaccine. (
  • The second influenza B lineage has been added to address the high frequency of circulation of both B lineages in a single season, and the common circulation of influenza B lineage mismatched with the vaccine strain. (
  • An influenza pandemic occurs when a new subtype or strain of influenza virus develops from antigenic shift and spreads globally. (
  • The mortality rate was highest among adults under age 50, who were, for unknown reasons, particularly vulnerable to serious disease resulting from this strain of influenza. (
  • Observations during influenza epidemics indicate that most influenza-related deaths occurred among chronically ill children and adults and older persons, especially those 65 years old. (
  • We included randomised trials of influenza vaccination in children (over two years of age) and adults with asthma. (
  • ADVERSE EFFECTS OF INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINE IN THE FIRST TWO WEEKS FOLLOWING VACCINATION: Two cross-over trials involving 1526 adults and 712 children (over three years old) with asthma compared inactivated trivalent split-virus influenza vaccine with a placebo injection. (
  • There was no significant difference in measures of healthcare utilisation, days off school/symptom-free days, mean lung function or medication usage.EFFECTS OF LIVE ATTENUATED (INTRANASAL) INFLUENZA VACCINATION: There were no significant differences found in exacerbations or measures of lung function following live attenuated cold recombinant vaccine versus placebo in two small studies on 17 adults and 48 children. (
  • Evidence from more recently published randomised trials of inactivated split-virus influenza vaccination indicates that there is no significant increase in asthma exacerbations immediately after vaccination in adults or children over three years of age. (
  • Influenza-virus-mediated disease can be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, particularly in younger children and older adults. (
  • Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults. (
  • The consequences of influenza in adults are mainly time off work. (
  • 71 healthy adults need to be vaccinated to prevent one of them experiencing influenza, and 29 healthy adults need to be vaccinated to prevent one of them experiencing an ILI). (
  • Healthy adults who receive inactivated parenteral influenza vaccine rather than no vaccine probably experience less influenza, from just over 2% to just under 1% (moderate-certainty evidence). (
  • Both TIV and LAIV influenza vaccines were efficacious at preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in healthy adults, although LAIV was less so. (
  • Influenza virus vaccine is for use in adults and children who are at least 6 months old. (
  • Both are adjuvant seasonal influenza vaccines for adults 65 years and older. (
  • It is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in adults who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. (
  • The aim of this Cochrane Review, first published in 1999, was to summarise research that looks at the effects of immunising healthy adults with influenza vaccines during influenza seasons. (
  • Inactivated vaccines can reduce the proportion of healthy adults (including pregnant women) who have influenza and ILI, but their impact is modest. (
  • Some vaccines are approved only for adults at this time, such as egg-free vaccines and intradermal shots, which are injected into the skin (instead of muscle) with a smaller needle. (
  • The recombinant influenza vaccine is well established in adults ≥18 years of age for preventing seasonal influenza disease. (
  • Recombinant influenza vaccine has provided better protection in older adults. (
  • Approval for the vaccine, which contains a weakened form of the live virus and is sprayed in the nose, was previously limited to healthy children 5 years of age and older and to adults up to age 49. (
  • The live, weakened vaccine is generally not recommended in pregnant women, children less than two years old, adults older than 50, or people with a weakened immune system. (
  • The exception involves the relatively few MS patients having a specific contraindication to the influenza vaccine, such as a previous severe reaction, noted Dr. Buhse, who wasn't involved in developing the evidence-based guidelines. (
  • As with any medicine, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing a severe allergic reaction, other serious injury, or death. (
  • Very rarely, the flu vaccine can cause a severe allergic reaction. (
  • Influenza vaccination remains the best available measure to reduce the burden of severe influenza. (
  • In the fall of 2004, the United States experienced a severe shortage of influenza vaccine when Chiron, a manufacturer that had pledged to provide 46 to 48 million doses of the vaccine to the U.S. market, was forced by U.S. and U.K. regulators to suspend production due to possible bacterial contamination in its Liverpool, England, plant. (
  • Early application of anti-influenza virus drugs, especially within 48 hours of onset, can significantly reduce the incidence of severe symptoms and death . (
  • Some people have permanently impaired health after severe influenza. (
  • It's important to tell your child's doctor about any severe allergies your little one may have, as most, but not all, types of flu vaccine contain a small amount of egg. (
  • Influenza is a highly communicable disease and typically has the most severe impact on children and the elderly. (
  • Although most influenza vaccines are produced using egg proteins, they are still recommended as safe for people who have severe egg allergies, as no increased risk of allergic reaction to the egg-based vaccines has been shown for people with egg allergies. (
  • Influenza vaccines are not recommended in those who have had a severe allergy to previous versions of the vaccine itself. (
  • Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu). (
  • The best way to help prevent influenza infections is to get an influenza vaccination each year, usually in early November. (
  • Because of both the successful world-wide efforts of the WHO to optimise the chance of an adequate antigenic match between vaccine and epidemic strains each year and the available scientific data about the inactivated influenza vaccines, influenza immunisations should be offered annually to high risk patients. (
  • Influenza A undergoes frequent antigenic changes that require new vaccines to be developed and people to obtain a new vaccination every year. (
  • Three pandemics occurred in the 20th century, all of them caused by antigenic shift in influenza A strains. (
  • Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (called LAIV) is a nasal spray vaccine that may be given to nonpregnant people 2 through 49 years of age. (
  • In the past, the nasal spray vaccine wasn't recommended for kids because it didn't seem to work well enough. (
  • People with weak immune systems or some health conditions (such as asthma) and pregnant women should not get the nasal spray vaccine. (
  • So experts recommend that healthy kids 2 to 8 years old get the nasal spray vaccine when available. (
  • However, unlike the flu shot, the nasal-spray vaccine contains a live, but weakened virus, so is not recommended during pregnancy. (
  • We sought to identify determinants of serological responses to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines including number of doses, adjuvant, and subject characteristics. (
  • Kids younger than 9 years old will get two doses of flu vaccine, spaced at least 1 month apart, if they've had fewer than two doses before July 2019. (
  • The loss of Chiron's 46 million doses reduced the number of influenza vaccines available in the United States to approximately half the amount anticipated. (
  • Sanofi Pasteur had been expected to supply approximately 54 million doses, and MedImmune intended to provide about 1.1 million doses of its FluMist vaccine, which is licensed for use in healthy persons 5 to 49 years of age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2004). (
  • Following the announcement of Chiron's lost vaccine production, Sanofi Pasteur and MedImmune increased production, ultimately producing approximately 58 million and 3 million doses, respectively (U.S. Influenza Supply, 2005). (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the manufacturers have projected making a total of about 115 million doses of influenza vaccine for the 2006 2007 season, but these projections could change as manufacturing continues. (
  • Kids younger than 9 years old who are getting the flu vaccine for the first time will receive two separate doses at least a month apart. (
  • Those under 9 who have received the flu vaccine before still might need two doses if they did not receive at least two vaccines since July 2010, or if the number of vaccines they've received since then is unknown. (
  • There are special vaccination instructions for children aged 6 months through to eight years of age as some children require two doses of influenza vaccine. (
  • Children 2 to 8 years of age who have never received a seasonal influenza vaccine need 2 doses. (
  • In certain years, the vaccine was linked to an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome among older people at a rate of about one case per million doses. (
  • For some patients, a different type of influenza vaccine (inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine) might be more appropriate than live, attenuated influenza vaccine. (
  • What is inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine? (
  • What are the risks from inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine? (
  • In this randomized controlled trial, we compared the safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) versus the inactivated influenza vaccine in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years of age. (
  • Recombinant influenza vaccine, well tolerated in subjects aged 6 to 17 years, provides comparable immunogenicity to inactivated vaccine. (
  • An earlier phase 1 clinical trial of trivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV3) in a healthy pediatric population aged 6 to 59 months revealed that RIV3 was safe and well tolerated but yielded inferior levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers compared with those induced by the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). (
  • Vaccines against seasonal influenza are different from many other vaccines, because the antigens on the influenza virus are constantly changing. (
  • A pre-pandemic vaccine could be deployed, based on formulations containing antigens thought most likely to cause a pandemic, such as H5N1. (
  • Here, we designed two novel composite immunogens containing highly conserved T-cell epitopes of six influenza A virus internal antigens, and expressed them in DNA, recombinant adenovirus-based (AdC68) and recombinant vaccinia vectors, respectively, to formulate three vaccine forms. (
  • Overall, immunogenicity (geometric mean titers and seroconversion rate differences) provided comparable antibody responses to most antigens in both vaccines in the older subjects. (
  • Under the agreement Vaxart will produce an oral vaccine containing certain proprietary antigens from Janssen, and test the product in a pre-clinical challenge model. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee has chosen the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 season in the Northern Hemisphere, which begins in the fall of 2018. (
  • Cite this: FDA Committee Recommends 2018-2019 Influenza Vaccine Strains - Medscape - Mar 01, 2018. (
  • Weekly U.S. influenza surveillance report: 2018-2019 season week 52 ending December 29, 2018. (
  • The intradermal vaccine was not available during the 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 influenza seasons. (
  • In general, both IAV and IBV can cause influenza, and IAV is a more critical factor leading to seasonal and epidemic outbreaks. (
  • Similar to influenza, which leads to regular global outbreaks, COVID-19 has the potential to mutate. (
  • Quantitative review of antibody response to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines. (
  • Previous studies have found that protection from contracting influenza declines over time following influenza vaccination due to decreasing antibody levels," said Radin, "However, we found during this study that those who received the vaccine had moderate, sustained protection up to 6 months post-vaccination, the duration of most influenza seasons. (
  • Deletion of Tlr7 reduces sex differences in vaccine-induced antibody responses and protection. (
  • Deletion of Tlr7 reduced sex differences in vaccine-induced antibody responses and protection following challenge and had a greater impact on responses in females than males. (
  • All study influenza vaccinations generated a satisfactory serological antibody response. (
  • They soon determined that most people lacked antibody protection from the new influenza virus, which was an H2N2 type. (
  • Only certain older people who had survived an influenza pandemic of 1889-1890 showed antibody response to the new virus. (
  • Annual influenza vaccination is therefore commonly recommended for people with cystic fibrosis. (
  • Stratified analyses were performed by influenza virus type. (
  • At the time of the study a H5N1 virus was responsible for most infections in the country, and the majority of farms used an available vaccine for H5N2 that had experimentally been shown to provide protection against the identified H5N1 virus, Amen said. (
  • The Focetria mock-up file submitted for EU approval in early 2006 was based on clinical studies involving the MF59 adjuvant and different influenza strains with pandemic potential, including H5N1 and H9N2. (
  • Separately, Novartis has submitted for European Union approval a pre-pandemic H5N1 influenza vaccine incorporating the MF59 adjuvant and based on the same technology as Focetria. (
  • This vaccine is intended for use prior to the declaration of a pandemic to help bolster the immune system of those receiving it to better defend against infections from a H5N1 virus. (
  • In October 2012, the company reported top-line data from its two Phase I clinical trials of A/H5N1 vaccine conducted under the company's $179 million contract with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). (
  • The research team originally intended to monitor the immunizations and measure the resulting increase in antibodies in the chickens' immune systems, an indicator of how well a vaccine works. (
  • Subjects will receive 2 vaccinations with the Biojector® 2000, and will be followed for 6 months to evaluate the safety of and the immune system's response to the vaccine. (
  • Mice were then injected with a DNA vaccine containing both types of plasmids to determine whether they would generate immune responses to the 1918 virus. (
  • Once a doctor injects a vaccine , an individual's immune system gets to work by making antibodies that recognize, for example, the hemagglutinin it contains. (
  • So, after making sure that this person didn't have an adverse reaction like an allergic response or some other kind of complication, I would say, 'Well, imagine if a completely inactivated, or weakened virus in the influenza vaccine was enough to get your immune system to put up a fight and make you feel sick, imagine what a live strong virus could do to you. (
  • Professor Odile Launay from the Cochin Vaccine Evaluation Center at the Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) will conduct the Phase 1 and Phase 2a trials, and Professor Behazine Combadière from Inserm will run immune analyses on human samples. (
  • Osivax is focused on providing proof-of-concept in influenza and coronavirus, and to applying its oligoDOM® platform broadly in other infectious and immune system-associated diseases. (
  • Vaccination does result in an immune system response to the types of influenza used in the vaccine. (
  • The group voted by a large margin (11 yes, 1 abstain) to include a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage), which is a change from this season's vaccine. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has established a network of national influenza centres that monitor influenza activity and recommend the composition of each season's vaccine. (
  • Almost all people who receive influenza vaccine have no serious problems from it. (
  • This research is part of a broader effort to create a universal influenza vaccine, which would protect against all strains of the virus. (
  • Vaxart, Inc., (Vaxart), a clinical stage biotechnology company developing oral recombinant vaccines that are administered by tablet rather than by injection, today announced that it has entered into a research collaboration agreement with Janssen Vaccines & Prevention B.V. (Janssen) to evaluate Vaxart's proprietary oral vaccine platform for the Janssen universal influenza vaccine program. (
  • and 3) had not been treated with influenza antiviral medication (e.g., oseltamivir). (
  • Has taken influenza antiviral medication in the last 3 weeks. (
  • However, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers antiviral drugs an important adjunct to the flu vaccine in the control of the disease process. (
  • Agents include vaccines and antiviral drugs. (
  • The antiviral drugs indicated for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza are the neuraminidase inhibitors (ie, oseltamivir and zanamivir) and the cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor, baloxavir marboxil (treatment only). (
  • Local influenza surveillance data and laboratory testing can assist the physician regarding antiviral agent choice. (
  • While the prioritization guidelines are useful for planning purposes, keep in mind that, should a pandemic occur, they will likely require modification based on the actual epidemiology of the pandemic and on vaccine and antiviral medication supplies. (
  • However, rituximab profoundly decreases the immunogenicity of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in rheumatoid arthritis patients. (
  • Beran J, Prymula R, Chlíbek R, Rychlý R, Splino M, Douda P, Gál P. Evaluation of reactogenicity and immunogenicity of two influenza vaccines (vaxigrip and fluarix) in the season 1996-1997. (
  • Specifically, Osivax was selected for a EUR 2.5M accelerator grant from the EIC, which will support the completion of the Company's Phase 2a immunogenicity clinical trial for OVX836, its lead universal flu vaccine candidate and the early discovery phase for its universal coronavirus vaccine program. (
  • Despite low responses to influenza B lineages in both vaccines, the RIV4 provided safety and immunogenicity that were comparable to those of the licensed inactivated vaccine in pediatric subjects, which was most convincing in those aged 9 to 17 years. (
  • There are thousands of influenza subtypes infecting people around the world, but very few are likely to make someone in the United States sick. (
  • Live, attenuated influenza vaccine is not recommended for pregnant people. (
  • Talk to your doctor if you are pregnant and want to get the flu vaccine. (
  • Inactivated vaccines cause an increase in fever from 1.5% to 2.3%.We identified one RCT and one controlled clinical trial assessing the effects of vaccination in pregnant women. (
  • The nasal spray form of influenza vaccine is not recommended for use in pregnant women. (
  • We were uncertain of the protection provided to pregnant women against ILI and influenza by the inactivated influenza vaccine, or this was at least very limited. (
  • One study showed that giving flu vaccine to pregnant women was 92 percent effective in preventing hospitalization of infants for flu. (
  • The Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS), a non-profit organization based at the University of California, San Diego with affiliates across North America, urges pregnant women to receive the influenza vaccine as soon as possible. (
  • The organization is looking for the help of pregnant women to collect information on exposures such as the flu vaccine in pregnancy, with a goal to enroll 1100 pregnant women across the U.S. in the study by March 2011. (
  • The newest opinion from experts is that pregnant women at any gestational age during the flu season should receive the influenza vaccine," Christina Chambers, PhD, MPH, UCSD professor of pediatrics and an epidemiologist with a special focus in the area of birth defects prevention. (
  • Since research has shown how important it is for pregnant women to receive the flu shot, it's important that pregnant women feel reassured that the vaccine itself is safe to use in pregnancy ," said Diana Johnson, MS, study manager for OTIS Studies. (
  • As new medications and vaccines become available, an established system for identifying the safety or risks of exposures that occur during pregnancy in a timely and comprehensive manner is critical in helping pregnant women and their health providers make informed decisions about treatment options," she said. (
  • In 2019, four age-specific quadrivalent influenza vaccines will be available for people aged under 65 years. (
  • TUESDAY, July 16, 2019 -- Providing an educational handout about influenza disease in the waiting room before a pediatric provider visit may increase receipt of child influenza vaccine, according to a study published online July 8 in. (
  • Each year, billions of dollars are used in prevention and treatment of diseases in the United States, among them: influenza (Center for Disease Control & Prevention). (
  • Atlanta, GA - August 24, 2015 - Individuals who received the flu vaccine were protected for up to 6 months post-vaccination, the duration of most flu seasons, according to a study presented at the 2015 International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases. (
  • consequently, this agent is not recommended for treatment or prophylaxis of influenza in individuals with underlying airway diseases (eg, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). (
  • Gary J. Nabel, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) , part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), led the research team in developing the experimental vaccines and conducting the immunological studies in mice. (
  • Novavax, Inc. (Nasdaq:NVAX) is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company creating vaccines to address a broad range of infectious diseases worldwide. (
  • Using innovative recombinant nanoparticle technology, as well as new and efficient manufacturing approaches, the company produces vaccine candidates to combat diseases, with the goal of allowing countries to better prepare for and more effectively respond to rapidly spreading infections. (
  • Influenza can cause pneumonia and worsening of chronic underlying diseases. (
  • And though vaccines existed for several other diseases, and a few useless and possibly harmful anti-flu vaccines were concocted , an effective influenza vaccine was decades away. (
  • There were no significant differences in asthma exacerbations found for the comparison live attenuated vaccine (intranasal) versus trivalent inactivated vaccine (intramuscular) in one study on 2229 children (over six years of age). (
  • AFLURIA, Influenza Vaccine for intramuscular injection, is a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly opalescent suspension with some sediment that resuspends upon shaking to form a homogeneous suspension. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in the United States during April 12, 2009-April 10, 2010, there were 61 million clinical cases of influenza and that 274,000 persons were hospitalized and 12,500 died ( 2 ). (
  • The first cases of influenza appeared in Kansas in early spring 1918. (
  • Household contacts of immunosuppressed patients should consider vaccination against influenza to protect the patient. (
  • The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that vaccination against influenza reduces sickness, medical visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. (
  • Vaccination against influenza began in the 1930s, with large-scale availability in the United States beginning in 1945. (
  • Seasonal influenza epidemics are associated with significant morbidity and mortality each year, particularly amongst young children and the elderly. (
  • Vaccination is the primary prevention strategy to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with influenza. (
  • Influenza virus infections represent a significant public health problem. (
  • Her university receives funding from Sanofi Pasteur, NasVax Ltd and DBV Technologies for conducting research in vaccine adjuvants and seroepidemiology of pneumococcal infections. (
  • Influenza virus infections occur every year in the United States but vary greatly in incidence and geographic distribution. (
  • The results showed that administering influenza vaccines early in the fall, before influenza begins circulating, may still prevent the greatest number of infections. (
  • It will not protect you from influenza caused by other types of influenza virus or from infections with other agents causing flu-like symptoms (such as the common cold). (
  • People at risk of more serious flu infections should always get a flu vaccine every year. (
  • Leveraging its unique oligoDOM® technology platform, Osivax is developing a universal vaccine for both current and future influenza infections. (
  • Osivax is leveraging the same platform technology for the development of a universal vaccine against all existing and emerging coronavirus infections. (
  • Tier 1B, the highest tier of patients, includes people 65 years and older with at least one underlying high-risk health condition, those 6 months to 64 years of age with two or more underlying high-risk conditions, or those hospitalized in the past 12 months with pneumonia, influenza or another high-risk condition. (
  • Most of the circulating influenza strains are like those in the 2017-2018 vaccine. (
  • The 2017/2018 flu vaccine was a perfect example of this trend. (
  • Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (
  • Each spring, decisions are made as to which strains to include in the vaccine for the upcoming influenza season. (
  • With the addition of FluLaval, there are now five FDA-licensed vaccines for the United States for the upcoming influenza season. (
  • The vaccine works by causing the body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against three different types of influenza virus. (
  • Each year new types of influenza virus can appear, so every year Influvac is changed to contain fragments of the new types of virus. (
  • Please note that Influvac will only protect you against the three types of influenza virus used to make the vaccine. (
  • There is no evidence that the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine can cause serious medical problems. (
  • you have had an allergic reaction to Influvac, or any ingredient contained in this vaccine. (
  • As is the case with any drug or vaccine, there is a rare possibility of allergic reaction. (
  • You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot. (
  • This vaccine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. (
  • It is important to stay in the clinic for 15 minutes after getting any vaccine because there is an extremely rare possibility, less than 1 in a million, of a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. (
  • There are two types of seasonal influenza vaccines for children: TIV (the flu shot) and the live attenuated vaccine (nasal spray). (
  • 5,6 In 2016, the WHO began to recommend cell-based CVVs and the FDA issued an approval for Seqirus to use them in the production of cell-based influenza vaccines. (
  • Researchers from UGA and Sanofi Pasteur, which has a research and development collaboration agreement with UGA, will present their data tomorrow, March 30, at the World Vaccine Congress US 2016 in Washington, D.C. (
  • All randomised and quasi-randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing any influenza vaccine with a placebo or with another type of influenza vaccine. (
  • The incidence of all reported adverse events was high depending on the type of influenza vaccine. (
  • The number of cases led him to think that a new type of influenza was emerging and that a pandemic threatened. (
  • FluMist/Fluenz and Afluria/Fluvax stands at the fourth and fifth position in the influenza vaccines market, while Flublok has captured least share of the influenza vaccines market. (
  • FDA approved expanding the population for use of the nasal influenza vaccine FluMist to include children between the ages of 2 and 5. (
  • Voiceover: Despite the fact that a highly effective influenza vaccine is available every year, some people choose not to get vaccinated and as a result they're not protected against the circulating influenza strains. (