Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/3234)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (2/3234)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning. (3/3234)

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model. (4/3234)

IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy. (5/3234)

This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners.  (+info)

Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus hemagglutinin. (6/3234)

The A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted molecule. The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Growth of transformants on methanol-containing medium resulted in the secretion of recombinant non-cleaved soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s). Remarkably, the pH of the induction medium had an important effect on the expression level, the highest level being obtained at pH 8.0. The gel filtration profile and the reactivity against a panel of different HA-conformation specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that HA0s was monomeric. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed a typical P. pastoris type of glycosylation, consisting of glycans with 10-12 glycosyl residues. Mice immunized with purified soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s) showed complete protection against a challenge with 10 LD50 of mouse-adapted homologous virus (X47), whereas all control mice succumbed. Heterologous challenge with X31 virus [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2-subtype)], resulted in significantly higher survival rates in the immunized group compared with the control group. These results, together with the safety, reliability and economic potential of P. pastoris, as well as the flexibility and fast adaptation of the expression system may allow development of an effective recombinant influenza vaccine.  (+info)

Measuring the effects of reminders for outpatient influenza immunizations at the point of clinical opportunity. (7/3234)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of computer-based reminders about influenza vaccination on the behavior of individual clinicians at each clinical opportunity. DESIGN: The authors conducted a prospective study of clinicians' influenza vaccination behavior over four years. Approximately one half of the clinicians in an internal medicine clinic used a computer-based patient record system (CPR users) that generated computer-based reminders. The other clinicians used traditional paper records (PR users). MEASUREMENTS: Each nonacute visit by a patient eligible for an influenza vaccination was considered an opportunity for intervention. Patients who had contraindications for vaccination were excluded. Compliance with the guideline was defined as documentation that a clinician ordered the vaccine, counseled the patient about the vaccine, offered the vaccine to a patient who declined it, or verified that the patient had received the vaccine elsewhere. The authors calculated the proportion of opportunities on which each clinician documented action in the CPR and PR user groups. RESULTS: The CPR and PR user groups had different baseline compliance rates (40.1 and 27.9 per cent, respectively; P<0.05). Both rates remained stable during a two-year baseline period (P = 0.34 and P = 0.47, respectively). The compliance rates in the CPR user group increased 78 per cent from baseline (P<0.001), whereas the rates for the PR user group did not change significantly (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians who used a CPR with reminders had higher rates of documentation of compliance with influenza-vaccination guidelines than did those who used a paper record. Measurements of individual clinician behavior at the point of each clinical opportunity can provide precise evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve compliance with guidelines.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations. (8/3234)

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)

Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza.² Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States: trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).•TIV is injected into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh. It can be used for people 6 months of age or older, including those with chronic medical conditions, pregnant ...
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, seasonal influenza vaccination). Cases were ILI patients with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for influenza. Vaccination was defined as having received one dose ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish one universal immunoassay for universal influenza vaccine(s) because the approaches towards these vaccines ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines is being replaced with cell culture vaccines. Cell culture based production of vaccines is expected to reduce the problems associated with ...
Current influenza vaccines are trivalent or quadrivalent inactivated split or subunit vaccines administered intramuscularly, or live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) adapted to replicate at temperatures below body temperature and administered intranasally. Both vaccines are considered safe and efficient, but due to differences in specific properties may complement each other to ensure reliable vaccine coverage. By now, licensed LAIV are produced in embryonated chicken eggs. In the near future influenza vaccines for human use will also be available from adherent MDCK or Vero cell cultures, but a scalable suspension process may facilitate production and supply with vaccines. We evaluated the production of cold-adapted human influenza virus strains in the duck suspension cell line AGE1.CR.pIX using a chemically-defined medium. One cold-adapted A (H1N1) and one cold-adapted B virus strain was tested, as well as the reference strain A/PR/8/34 (H1N1). It is shown that a medium exchange is not required for
In June 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) expanded its 2004 recommendation for routine influenza vaccination of children aged 6--23 months to include children aged 24--59 months. The 2006 ACIP recommendations also reemphasized that previously unvaccinated children aged ,9 years should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine administered at least 1 month apart to be fully vaccinated (1). In 2007, using data from six immunization information system (IIS)* sentinel sites, CDC conducted the first assessment of influenza vaccination coverage among children aged 6--59 months during the 2006--07 influenza season. The findings demonstrated that, at all six sites, ,30% of children aged 6--23 months and ,20% of children aged 24--59 months were fully vaccinated. Vaccination coverage data from national and state surveys for an influenza season generally are not available until the next influenza season. Rapid assessment of influenza vaccination coverage can help direct activities of ...
Results: The overall sample consisted of 4,011 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate in Germany increased from 22.3% in 2002/2003 to 25.1% in 2003/2004. This increase is not significant. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccinees were: influenza considered to be a serious illness, which people wanted to avoid (90.1%), having received advice from the family doctor or nurse to be vaccinated (71.3%), and not wanting to infect family and friends (70.4%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who have never been vaccinated were: thinking about it, however, not being vaccinated in the end (47.7%), not expecting to catch influenza (43.6%), and not having received a recommendation from the family doctor to be vaccinated (36.6%). Options encouraging influenza vaccination are: recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (66.6%), more available information on the vaccine regarding efficacy and tolerance (54.2%), and more information available about the ...
To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case-control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%-93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 ...
Routine influenza vaccination of health-care personnel (HCP) every influenza season can reduce influenza-related illness and its potentially serious consequences among HCP and their patients (1-5). To protect HCP and their patients, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all HCP be vaccinated against influenza during each influenza season (5). To estimate influenza vaccination coverage among HCP during the 2012-13 season, CDC conducted an opt-in Internet panel survey of 1,944 self-selected HCP during April 1-16, 2013. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which found that, overall, 72.0% of HCP reported having had an influenza vaccination for the 2012-13 season, an increase from 66.9% vaccination coverage during the 2011-12 season (6). By occupation type, coverage was 92.3% among physicians, 89.1% among pharmacists, 88.5% among nurse practitioners/physician assistants, and 84.8% among nurses. By occupational setting, vaccination coverage was highest ...
The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc. then statistics Global and China key manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated capacity production cost price profit production value gross margin etc details information, at the same time, statistics these manufacturers Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated products customers application capacity market position company contact information etc company related information, then collect all these manufacturers data and listed ...
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • Influenza vaccinated market (Children and Adult vaccinated market). • Influenza Vaccine Covered (Vaxigrip/Fluzone, Fluarix/ Flulaval, FluMist/Fluenz, Afluria/Fluvax and Fluvirin/Flucelvax, Anflu). • 23 Countries Covered (Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
The present phase III study aims to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of MF59-adjuvanted subunit seasonal influenza vaccine and to evaluate the consistency in the manufacturing process of three consecutive lots of MF59-adjuvanted subunit seasonal influenza vaccine with respect to immunogenicity in subjects aged 65 years and older. The active comparator non-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine is approved for use in this age group in the United States and will be used to provide a comparative assessment for immunogenicity and safety ...
To determine the effect of HIV-infection, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-TB co-infection on humoral antibody responses, measured by hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HAI), to each of three strains included in the seasonal non-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine In this study we will use the following definitions to assess the humoral immune response to TIV: HAI titers ,1:10 = seronegative; HAI titers ≥1:10 = seropositive; HAI titers ≥1:40 = sero-protective; sero-response rate (primary outcome measure) will be defined as a titer of ≥1:40 in an individual with baseline titers of ,1:10, or ,4-fold increase of HAI titers if baseline titers were ≥1:10. Hemagglutination inhibition assays will be performed on serum as per recommended methods. Sera will be titrated against antigens from the influenza vaccine strains included in the 2013 seasonal TIV ...
Background Influenza vaccines are reviewed each year, and often changed, in an effort to maintain their effectiveness against drifted influenza viruses. There is however no regular review of influenza vaccine effectiveness during, or at the end of, Australian influenza seasons. It is possible to use a case control method to estimate vaccine effectiveness from surveillance data when all patients in a surveillance system are tested for influenza and their vaccination status is known. Methodology/Principal Findings Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is conducted during the influenza season in sentinel general practices scattered throughout Victoria, Australia. Over five seasons 2003-7, data on age, sex and vaccination status were collected and nose and throat swabs were offered to patients presenting within three days of the onset of their symptoms. Swabs were tested using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Those positive for influenza were sent to the World Health
Latest industry research report on Influenza Vaccines Market. Influenza is a type of seasonal or pandemic condition causing fever, coryza, cough, headache, and malaise. The severity of influenza symptoms varies across age groups and type of influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately, 3 to 5 million people are prone to seasonal epidemics, annually.. The growing number of ageing population and an increase in the frequency of seasonal influenza outbreak supplement the demand for influenza vaccines across the healthcare industry. Intellectual property rights are providing security to the patent holders, thereby, increases their market share. However, the upcoming patent expirations for top influenza vaccines and the growing popularity of influenza drugs as over the counter (OTC) products would provide an opportunity for generic manufacturers.. Get Free Sample Report Of Influenza Vaccines Market @ ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire population is immunized at usual vaccination coverage. At higher levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza, the impact of this enhanced risk is less marked, as seasonal vaccine has ...
While influenza vaccines aim to decrease the incidence of severe influenza among high-risk groups, evidence of influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) among the influenza vaccine target population is sparse. We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study to estimate IVE against hospitalis …
Health care providers should not use live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the upcoming 2016-17 season due to poor effectiveness, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) committee said Wednesday.. Academy leaders say they support the interim recommendation by the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).. We agree with ACIPs decision today to recommend health care providers and parents use only the inactivated vaccine for this influenza season, said AAP President Benard Dreyer, M.D., FAAP.. The AAP recommends children ages 6 months and older be immunized against influenza every year. Previously, the CDC and AAP had recommended either form of flu vaccine - the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) that is given by injection and is approved for all patients older than 6 months, or LAIV which is given by intranasal spray and is approved for healthy patients ages 2 through 49 years.. However, new data presented to the ACIP showed that currently only IIV provides ...
Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza outbreaks, and are the consequence of antigenic drift or shift, respectively. For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and
Studies Fail To Demonstrate Safety Or Effectiveness Of Influenza Vaccine In Children And Adults. An independent analysis by the internationally renowned Cochrane Collaboration of worldwide influenza vaccine studies, published in the British Medical Journal on Oct. 28, concluded there is little scientific proof that inactivated influenza vaccine is safe and effective for children and adults. Citing the Cochrane Collaboration finding as well as methodological flaws in a child influenza vaccine study published Oct. 25 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the National Vaccine Information Center is calling on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to stop recommending annual flu shots for all infants and children until methodologically sound studies are conducted.. There is a big gap between policies promoting annual influenza vaccinations for most children and adults and supporting scientific evidence, said epidemiologist Tom Jefferson, Cochrane Vaccines Field, Rome, Italy, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal influenza vaccination rates in the HIV outpatient study-United States, 1999-2013. AU - Durham, Marcus D.. AU - Buchacz, Kate. AU - Armon, Carl. AU - Patel, Pragna. AU - Wood, Kathy. AU - Brooks, John T.. AU - Hays, Harlen. AU - Wood, Kathleen C.. AU - Hankerson, Darlene. AU - Debes, Rachel. AU - Subramanian, Thilakavathy. AU - Dean, Bonnie. AU - Palella, Frank J.. AU - Chmiel, Joan S.. AU - Jahangir, Saira. AU - Flaherty, Conor Daniel. AU - Dixon-Evans, Jerian Denise. AU - Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.. AU - Stewart, Cheryl. AU - Hammer, John. AU - Greenberg, Kenneth S.. AU - Widick, Barbara. AU - Franklin, Rosa. AU - Yangco, Bienvenido G.. AU - Chagaris, Kalliope. AU - Ward, Doug. AU - Thomas, Troy. AU - Avery, Patricia. AU - Fuhrer, Jack. AU - Ording-Bauer, Linda. AU - Kelly, Rita. AU - Esteves, Jane. AU - Tedaldi, Ellen M.. AU - Christian, Ramona A.. AU - Ruley, Faye. AU - Beadle, Dania. AU - Graham, Princess. AU - Novak, Richard M.. AU - Wendrow, Andrea. AU - Smith, ...
Influenza, however, is unique among respiratory viral pathogens in that another effective intervention to prevent transmission exists: vaccination. Annual influenza vaccination has been available in the United States since 1945 and has been recommended for persons at high risk of influenza complications since 1960. Unlike many pathogens, the predominant circulating influenza strains vary from year to year, affecting the intensity and severity of the influenza season as well as vaccine effectiveness. According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of influenza vaccine protection, there was 59% effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine in adults aged 18 to 65 years and a higher effectiveness (83%) of the live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) in children.3Although not at levels of other vaccines, influenza vaccination provides some protection and may prevent complications due to influenza such as pneumonia, hospitalizations, and death. Recent studies in children have demonstrated that the ...
According to recent research published in the Pediatrics journal, patients should not use the nasal spray flu vaccine in 2016. This statement supports previous recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),. These recommendations are based on research which reveals that the nasal spray flu vaccine, also known as the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), offered low protection against certain types of influenza between 2013 and 2016 and does not offer the required efficacy.. The data gathered from the United States Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network showed that LAIV offered only 3% protection against any flu virus during the 2015-2016 flu season in children aged 2 to 17 years. By comparison, the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), the injectable flu vaccine, proved more effective, offering 63 percent protection against any influenza strain.. MedImmunes LAIV, FluMist was also found to offer poor or ...
Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. Two types of MDV lineages have been described, the Ann Arbor lineages and the A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR/60 lineages. Here the safety and immunogenicity of a Madin Darby Canine Kidney - cell culture based, intranasal LAW derived from A/Leningrad/17 and B/USSR, was evaluated in healthy influenza non-naive volunteers 18-50 years of age. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1 x 10(5),1 x 10(6), or 1 x 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. A ...
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the predictive effects of socioeconomic factors to explain influenza vaccination coverage rates in 11 European countries. METHODS: Data from national household surveys collected over up to seven consecutive seasons between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008 were analyzed to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with immunization against influenza. RESULTS: In total, data from 92,101 household contacts representative for the national non-institutionalized population aged above 14 years were analyzed. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in Europe remain suboptimal with little or no progress in the last years. The results of this study indicate that gender, household income, size of household, educational level and population size of living residence may significantly contribute to explain chances of getting immunized against influenza apart from the known risk factors age and chronic illness. The effect of these socioeconomic factors was ...
Observations on Vaccine Production Technologies and Factors Potentially Influencing Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Choices in Developing Countries A discussion paper World Health Organization SoulMiitAtiaR* WestwnhcMc~ � SEA-TRH-006 Distribution: Limited Observations on Vaccine Production Technologies and Factors Potentially Influencing Pandemic Influenza vaccine Choices in Developing Countries A discussion paper World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia �@ World Health Organization 2009 This document is not issued to the general public, and all rights are reserved by the World Health Organization (WHO). The document may not be reviewed, abstracted, quoted, reproduced or translated, in part or in whole, without the prior written permission of WHO. No part of this document may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic, mechanical or other - without the prior written permission of WHO. The views expressed in documents by named ...
Duration of Serum Antibody Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccines: Summary. The level of antibody response made to seasonal influenza vaccines depends on the vaccine preparation, dose, prior antigenic experience, and age or underlying disease conditions of an individual Slideshow 158272 by...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
This approval represents a technological advance in the manufacturing of an influenza vaccine, stated Karen Midthun, director of the FDAs Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. The new technology offers the potential for faster startup of the vaccine manufacturing process in the event of a pandemic, because it is not dependent on an egg supply or on availability of the influenza virus.. Unlike current flu vaccines, Flublok does not use the influenza virus or eggs in its production. Flubloks novel manufacturing technology allows for production of large quantities of the influenza virus protein, hemagglutinin - the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that is essential for entry of the virus into cells in the body. The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA. While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it is used to make vaccines that have been approved by the FDA to prevent other infectious ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of antibody response of turkeys to trivalent avian influenza vaccine by positively charged liposomal avridine adjuvant. AU - Fatunmbi, Olufemi O.. AU - Newman, John A.. AU - Sivanandan, V.. AU - Halvorson, David A. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Trivalent avian influenza (AIV) antigens (H4N8, H5N2 and H7N3), mixed with positively charged, negatively charged and neutral avridine-containing liposomes, and oil-emulsion were subcutaneously administered to 6-week-old turkeys. Charged liposomal avridine adjuvant, either positive or negative, produced a better antibody response than uncharged liposomal avridine or oil-emulsion adjuvants when used in a trivalent avian influenza vaccine. The antibody response to the different antigens was generally greater to the positively charged adjuvanted vaccine compared with the negatively or neutral charged or oil-emulsion adjuvanted vaccines and these differences were significant (p , 0.05) with the three antigens. The results suggest that ...
Posts about Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake in Frontline Healthcare workers HCWs Survey 2013‐2014 written by Dementia and Elderly Care News
Despite the 2009 Council Recommendation that seasonal influenza vaccination rates should be improved for the elderly, at risk groups and health care workers, there remains a concerning sub-optimal level of influenza vaccination coverage across Europe with 15,000-70,000 people dying each year due to influenza. These worrying facts led to the creation of a multi-stakeholder Steering Group on Influenza Vaccination, whose members are committed to raising awareness of influenza-related public health issues and encouraging stronger policy driven actions at European and national level in support of influenza vaccination. One of the Steering Groups tasks is to draft an EU Manifesto on Influenza Vaccination, a tangible means of aligning the community on the shared policy requirements to protect European citizens from influenza. The idea of developing a Manifesto will be presented during this satellite symposium. Participants will be invited to give their input to this initiative either during the ...
The influenza A virus was isolated for the first time in 1931, and the first attempts to develop a vaccine against the virus began soon afterwards. In addition to causing seasonal epidemics, influenza viruses can cause pandemics at random intervals, which are very hard to predict. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing the spread of influenza infection. However, seasonal vaccination is ineffective against pandemic influenza viruses because of antigenic differences, and it takes approximately six months from isolation of a new virus to develop an effective vaccine. One of the possible ways to fight the emergence of pandemics may be by using a new type of vaccine, with a long and broad spectrum of action. The extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus is a conservative region, and an attractive target for a universal influenza vaccine. This review gives a historical overview of the study of M2 protein, and summarizes the latest developments in the preparation of M2e
Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination uptake among these groups is a key strategy to reduce the burden of influenza in the European Region. WHO/Europe is therefore developing a guide, called TIP FLU (Tailoring immunization programmes for influenza), to assist national immunization programmes in designing targeted strategies to increase uptake among specific priority groups. WHO/Europe also monitors seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and policies in the Region, in order to provide technical assistance to Member States that are expanding their seasonal influenza vaccination programmes. ...
Background. A new trivalent inactivated split-virus influenza vaccine (TIV) was recently introduced in the United States. We assessed the efficacy of TIV against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B. Methods. In this double-blind trial conducted from September 2006 to May 2007 in the Czech Republic and Finland, participants aged 18-64 years were randomized to receive 1 dose of TIV (n = 5103) or placebo (n = 2549). Influenza-like illnesses (ILI) (defined as at least 1 systemic symptom [fever {oral temperature, ⩾37.8°C} and/or myalgia] and at least 1 respiratory symptom [cough and/or sore throat]) were identified by both active (biweekly phone contact) and passive surveillance. Nasal and throat swab specimens were collected for viral culture. Results. The attack rate for culture-confirmed ILI was 3.2% in the placebo group, with most strains identified as influenza A (all except 1 were H3N2) matching the vaccine strain. There were 6 cases of influenza B, all of which were of a different ...
Lancet Infectious Diseases Jan 2018 Volume 18 Number 1 p1-122 e1-e32 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza vaccine Anika Singanayagam, Maria Zambon, Ajit Lalvani, Wendy Barclay Summary Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against…
Looking for online definition of influenza vaccine in the Medical Dictionary? influenza vaccine explanation free. What is influenza vaccine? Meaning of influenza vaccine medical term. What does influenza vaccine mean?
This study is designed to note whether a larger safety study using quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) versus quadrivalent inactivated
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine against all-cause acute otitis media in childre were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
No safety signals were observed with the administration of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine, according to a large population study.
Vol 5: Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Enhances Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus in Mice.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Annual recommendations on influenza seasonal vaccination include community pharmacists, who have low vaccination coverage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between influenza vaccination in community pharmacists and their knowledge of and attitudes to vaccination. An online cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Catalonia, Spain, was conducted between September and November 2014. Sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables, the history of influenza vaccination and knowledge of and attitudes to influenza and seasonal influenza vaccination were collected. The survey response rate was 7.33% (506 out of 6906); responses from 463 community pharmacists were included in the final analyses. Analyses were performed using multivariable logistic regression models and stepwise backward selection method for variable selection. The influenza vaccination coverage in season 2013-2014 was 25.1%. There was an association between vaccination and correct knowledge of the virus
[177 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report report by QYResearch Group. The Global Avian Influenza Vaccines Consumption 2016 Market Research Report...
Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza-related hospitalization during a season with mixed outbreaks of four influenza viruses: a test-negative case-control study in adults in Canada Academic Article ...
Two phylogenetic lineages of influenza B virus coexist and circulate in the human population (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) but only one B-strain is included in each seasonal vaccine. Mismatch regularly occurs between the recommended and circulating B-strain. Inclusion of both lineages in vaccines may offer better protection against influenza. This study (NCT00714285) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two candidate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) containing two A- and two B-strains (one from each lineage) in adults (18-60 years). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age to receive either QIV (non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD QIV-AS]) or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV, non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD TIV-AS]), N = 105 in all treatment groups. The study evaluated the statistical non-inferiority of the immunological response elicited by QIV and LD QIV-AS versus TIV and LD TIV-AS and the statistical superiority of the response elicited by the quadrivalent vaccines
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Follow the six-step administration guide for FluMist® Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine Live, Intranasal) nasal spray seasonal flu vaccine.
To the Editor: Adult vaccination rates are low (1), and workplaces are a useful location for increasing vaccination (2). In 2008, only 41% of US workers 50-64 years of age reported vaccination against influenza virus (3). Workplace vaccination is common and increases with employer size (4). Among adults, the workplace is the most common site for influenza vaccination for persons 18-49 years of age and second most common for persons 50-64 years (2). Offering vaccination in the workplace increases vaccination coverage (5).. Consistent with guidelines and economic incentives, employers have focused workplace vaccination on seasonal influenza (4), but the workplace has also been a key site for vaccination against influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and could be a site for other adult vaccinations. The most recent guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommend annual influenza vaccination of all adults (6). In most years, the seasonal influenza vaccine and predominant ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
INTRODUCTION Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with 80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. RESULTS 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks ...
JJ KAPOJOS1, A BRITTON1, T WHITTINGTON1, SP McDONALD1. 1Central Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia Aim: To analyse the effectiveness of an active influenza vaccination policy in hemodialysis (HD) patients in a large metropolitan dialysis service.. Background: In response to a high frequency of hospitalisations, in 2016 a program of actively offering vaccination to satellite HD patients was undertaken. Influenza B increased in 2015; influenza vaccination was changed to quadrivalent in 2016.. Methods: Numbers of patients admitted with a positive influenza nucleic acid testing (NAT) were tabulated from 2012 to 2016. Positive cases in HD patients were further characterised for hospital length of stay, age, gender, race, potential contributors and mortality.. Results: Included were 550 patients managed across 15 units. Vaccination uptake improved from 67.3% in 2015 to 77.8% in 2016. However, the proportion of all hospital ...
Description of Invention:. National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. This novel influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited two types of broadly neutralizing, cross-protective antibodies-one directed to the highly conserved HA stem and a second proximal to the conserved receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral HA-providing a new platform for universal and seasonal influenza. In addition, HA-ferritin nanoparticles can be easily produced from simple expression vectors and without the production of infectious virus in eggs, and will facilitate influenza preparedness in the face of emerging epidemics.. This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a ...
This trial will compare the immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent influenza vaccine, and two trivalent influenza vaccines, in adult and elderly subjects.
United States Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Market Report 2017 is a market research report available at US $3800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Downloadable! We evaluate the results of a field experiment designed to measure the effect of prompts to form implementation intentions on realized behavioral outcomes. The outcome of interest is influenza vaccination receipt at free on-site clinics offered by a large firm to its employees. All employees eligible for study participation received reminder mailings that listed the times and locations of the relevant vaccination clinics. Mailings to employees randomly assigned to the treatment conditions additionally included a prompt to write down either (i) the date the employee planned to be vaccinated or (ii) the date and time the employee planned to be vaccinated. Vaccination rates increased when these implementation intentions prompts were included in the mailing. The vaccination rate among control condition employees was 33.1%. Employees who received the prompt to write down just a date had a vaccination rate 1.5 percentage points higher than the control group, a difference that is not statistically
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. One example of a variant flu virus is H3N2v.. Sometimes, human ...
National Influenza Vaccination Week is December 1-7. Its Not Too Late to Vaccinate!. Richland County, OH - The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established National Influenza Vaccination Week (NIVW) in 2005 to highlight the importance of continuing flu vaccination through the holiday season and beyond. Previous flu vaccination coverage data have shown that few people get vaccinated against influenza after the end of November. The CDC and its partners choose December for NIVW to remind people that even though the holiday season has begun, it is not too late to get a flu vaccine. Heres why:. ...
Demicheli, V., T. Jefferson, L.A. Al-Ansary, E. Ferroni, A. Rivetti, and C. Di Pietrantonj. Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 13.3 March 2014: CD001269. Grohskopf, L.A., L.Z. Sokolow, K.R. Broder, et al. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2018-19 Influenza Season. MMWR 67.3 Aug. 24, 2018: 1-20. Lambert, L., and Fauci, A. Influenza Vaccines for the Future. New Eng. J. Med. 361.21 (2010): 2036-2044. Monto, A.S., Ohmit, S.E., Petrie, J.G., Johnson, E., Truscon, R., Teich, E., Rotthoff, J., Boulton, M., Victor, J.C. Comparative Efficacy of Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines. N Engl J Med 361 Sept. 24, 2009: 1260. Nguyen, H. Influenza. Medscape.com. Aug. 22, 2016. ,http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/219557-overview,. Perez-Padilla, R., de la Rosa-Zamboni, D., Ponce de Leon, S.P., Hernandez, M., Quinones-Falconi, F., ...
Results and conclusion Knowing that the vaccine is effective (mhRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.54), being willing to prevent influenza transmission (mhRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.70), believing that influenza is highly contagious (RR 2.25; 95% CI 1.66 to 3.05), believing that influenza prevention is important (mhRR 3.63; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.59) and having a family that is usually vaccinated (RR 2.32; 95% CI 1.64 to 3.28) were statistically significantly associated with a twofold higher vaccine uptake. We therefore recommend targeting these predictors when developing new influenza vaccination implementation strategies for hospital HCWs. ...
That staff at Waikato Hospital have been bullied into accepting influenza vaccinations, according to the NZ Herald is absolutely unacceptable in a democracy and is an assault on workers human rights.. Katherine Smith, spokeswoman for No Forced Vaccines says that she is appalled to learn that one staff member has been sacked because he or she did not comply with the new hospital policy regarding influenza vaccination. [1]. Influenza vaccination carries serious risks, including the risk of developing Guillain Barre syndrome, a disorder of the nervous system which can involve varying degrees of paralysis and can be fatal in some cases, Mrs Smith continues.. Its not surprising that many health professionals refuse influenza vaccinations, presumably because they do not want to put their health at risk. [2]. She rejects the hospitals claim that unvaccinated staff pose a risk to patients.. People who are not vaccinated do not necessarily contract the flu if they are exposed to it, she ...
Current licensed influenza vaccines induce hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies that do not cross-react with influenza strains that have undergone genetic drift. There is an urgent unmet need for more broadly protective seasonal influenza vaccines with greater breadth, enhanced potency, and durability of HAI responses. It is currently impossible to predict which antigenic variants may evolve, and therefore, novel vaccine candidates are needed that will elicit immunity to potential variants. Recently, we designed a new technology termed COBRA as a universal/more broadly reactive vaccine approach for both emerging/pandemic influenza viruses and currently circulating influenza subtypes. We have published a series of studies demonstrating the effectiveness of the COBRA HA antigens for H5N1 (11-13).. This method was applied to address the diversity within the H1N1 HA and yields a vaccine that elicits increased breadth of antibody response within the H1 influenza subtype. The method uses ...
Summary Parenteral immunization of BALB/c mice at 3 months of age with inactivated influenza virus vaccine elicited a haemagglutinin (HA)-specific serum IgG antibody response. The magnitude of this response declined with advancing age at the time of vaccination. By contrast, HA-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels observed in lung lavage fluids of mice immunized at 1 and 2 years of age were comparable to those of 5 month old mice when inactivated influenza virus vaccine was administered intragastrically. The secretory immune response was not fully developed in the first 3 weeks of life. However, the HA-specific IgA and IgG responses to oral vaccination in sera were reduced in 1 or 2 year old mice when compared to 5 month old mice. These data demonstrated the preservation of the virus-specific secretory IgA response in the pulmonary fluids of aged mice after oral vaccination with inactivated influenza virus vaccine. An age-dependent difference of systemic and mucosal immunity was evident in orally
Influenza immunisation for healthcare workers is encouraged to protect their often vulnerable patients but also due to a perceived higher risk for influenza. We aimed to compare the risk of influenza infection in healthcare workers in acute hospital care with that in non-healthcare workers over the same season. We conducted a prospective, multicentre cohort study during the 2006/07 influenza season in Berlin, Germany. Recruited participants gave serum samples before and after the season, and completed questionnaires to determine their relevant exposures and possible confounding factors. The main outcome measure was serologically confirmed influenza infection (SCII), defined as a fourfold or greater rise in haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres to a circulating strain of influenza (with post-season titre at least 1:40). Weekly mobile phone text messages were used to prompt participants to report respiratory illnesses during the influenza season. A logistic regression model was used to assess the
As indicated in the 2004 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Prevention (APIC) position paper, the importance of improving influenza immunization rates among HCWs is a very necessary component of ensuring patient safety and protection (p. 123). In addition, immunization provides an extra level of personal protection for the HCW. Transmission of the influenza virus can spread rapidly from HCWs to patients and patients to HCWs, creating a vicious cycle. An institutional influenza outbreak can exacerbate staff shortages in clinical areas, not only by creating additional patient risk factors but also by further stressing hospital resources and increasing patient morbidity and mortality.2. One neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) reported an outbreak of influenza among 19 neonates with one outbreak related death that occurred. The source case was suspected to be an employee, although that could not be confirmed. The facility reported a 15 percent influenza immunization compliance ...
The holiday season has already started, and so has flu season. Thats why the CDC has designated the week of December 4 - 10, 2016, as National Influenza Vaccination Week. Once November ends and the holiday season starts, people tend to forget about getting their flu shot. In fact, research from past flu seasons has shown that very few people get a flu shot after the end of November. And not only that, but last flu season, only 40% of those recommended to get a flu shot actually got one by the end of November. This means almost 60% of the U.S. population remained unprotected from the flu after flu season had already started. Even though flu season has begun, its not too late to get your flu shot. So long as the flu virus is still circulating, you can get sick with the flu, which is why it is so important to protect yourself with the flu vaccine. And not only will you be protecting yourself, but those around you as well. Young children, the elderly, pregnant women and people with certain chronic ...
Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination are recommended in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A recent study from Tayside found a reduced risk of all cause mortality with vaccination in COPD patients.. Objectives: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database to test this hypothesis in a different data source.. Methods: We searched the THIN database for patients with COPD. Vaccination status against pneumococcus and their annual influenza vaccination status were determined. Mortality rates were calculated in the periods December-March, April-November. Relative risks for the effect of vaccination on all cause mortality were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex, year and serious co-morbidities.. Results: We found 177,120 patients with COPD, mean age of 65 years, with an average of 6.8 years follow up between 1988 and 2006. Vaccination rates against influenza rose from ,30% prior to 1995 to ,70% in 2005 among patients aged 60 years or ...
The researchers also compared vaccination rates to effectiveness of the shot against the virus during the prior flu season.. Generally, they noted a downward trend in vaccination rates in recent years, and that none of the three variables -- severity of the current influenza season, severity of prior season or vaccine effectiveness -- had a significant effect on these numbers.. For example, the 2010-2011 flu season, which the CDC deemed high severity, vaccination rates for most age groups of children hovered around 60 percent or less, with the exception of infants between 6 and 23 months old.. The CDC considered the flu season immediately prior, 2009-10, to be of moderate severity, and vaccine effectiveness for both the 2009-10 and 2010-2011 seasons was around 60 percent for all pediatric age groups except teens.. Fortunately, in the just released CDC influenza vaccination data, the downward trend in vaccination was reversed this past season, Stockwell said. However, it still remains ...
We found that immunization against influenza during pregnancy had a substantial effect on mean birth weight and the proportion of infants who were small for gestational age but only during the period of increased circulating influenza virus in the community.. Our data suggest that the prevention of infection with seasonal influenza in pregnant women by immunization can influence fetal growth. It has been reported that infection with pandemic influenza virus has substantial adverse effects in pregnant women and fetuses;14-18 however, there are limited similar data from epidemic seasonal influenza illness.3. The chronology of the specific effect of influenza vaccine on mean birth weight that we describe is distinct from the previously described general seasonality of birth weights in Bangladesh. Studies from Bangladesh have shown a seasonal pattern of reduction in the mean birth weights of full-term infants and an increase in the number of preterm infants in the season called monga, September to ...
We studied the influenza vaccination of HCWs and the social network defined by conversations around a vaccination campaign. A major finding is that similarity in vaccination behavior did not play a significant role in the probability of naming another HCW in our hospital. Links were more likely when individuals shared a professional category, sex, age, or department. In addition, some characteristics influenced participants citing more HCWs (being younger, having a position of responsibility, some professional categories) and others which increased the likelihood of being cited as a link (being vaccinated).. The lack of homophily according to vaccination behavior, also described for influenza vaccination in a friendship network of medical students [28], contrasts with other studies of advice networks in parental vaccination decisions [24-26] and in a contact network of influenza vaccination in high school students [27], where homophily by vaccination status was observed. The differences between ...
OFFICE OF THE VICE CHANCELLOR - STUDENT AFFAIRS OFFICE OF STUDENT HEALTH SERVICES October 9, 2020 University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093 ALL STUDENTS AT UC SAN DIEGO Important Information Regarding Flu Vaccination for 2020-21 Academic Year for Students UC San Diego is committed to the health and safety of all. The most important measure to prevent flu infection is an annual flu vaccination and is even more important during a pandemic. Similar to the steps we take to reduce COVID-19 infection such as wearing a face covering, physical distancing, and good hand hygiene, getting an annual flu vaccination helps stop the spread in the community in addition to protecting yourself and your campus community. The University of California has issued a systemwide executive order requiring all members of the UC community to receive an influenza immunization before November 1, 2020 if they plan to be on campus during the flu season, which is anticipated to extend through the
Wood noted that this achievement is particularly impressive given this years periodic shortages of seasonal influenza vaccine and the complex messages for seniors resulting from the introduction of a second influenza vaccine for H1N1. We recognize that this achievement would not have been possible without the combined efforts of all facets of Alaskas health care community, including our public health centers, tribal health corporations, physicians offices and clinics, pharmacies, community health centers and other partnering groups that worked so hard this year to provide influenza vaccine for our seniors ...
Influenza vaccination of elderly individuals is recommended worldwide as people aged 65 and older are at a higher risk of complications, hospitalisations and deaths from influenza. This review looked at evidence from experimental and non-experimental studies carried out over 40 years of influenza vaccination. We included 75 studies. These were grouped first according to study design and then the setting (community or long-term care facilities). The results are mostly based on non-experimental (observational) studies, which are at greater risk of bias, as not many good quality trials were available. Trivalent inactivated vaccines are the most commonly used influenza vaccines. Due to the poor quality of the available evidence, any conclusions regarding the effects of influenza vaccines for people aged 65 years or older cannot be drawn. The public health safety profile of the vaccines appears to be acceptable.. ...
The Washington County Health Department is having its second flu vaccination clinic of the season Oct. 26.With flu vaccinations widely available through local pharmacies, including ones at grocery
NaturalHealth365) Makers of the flu vaccine claim receiving it decreases the risk of getting sick due to the triggering of antibody development in the body. However, a Chinese study reveals quite the opposite.. Researchers in Hong Kong have found that in addition to actually increasing the risk of flu, receiving the flu vaccine also raises the risk of getting a respiratory infection by 5.5 times. The study was published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases.. Stringent double-blind study shows disturbing side effects of flu vaccine. While research on the side effects of the flu vaccine have been lacking in the U.S., Chinese researchers have been more active about looking into the possible side effects of flu shot. This recent study conducted in Hong Kong looked at vaccinated versus unvaccinated subjects and how they fared health-wise.. In the study, the seasonal trivalent flu vaccine was tested for side effects of flu shot. What makes this effort particularly noteworthy is the fact that it ...
08.06.2009. ATLANTA - Get ready to roll up your sleeve three times for flu shots this fall. Thats right, three times. This years flu season is shaping up to be a very different one. Most people will need one shot for the regular seasonal flu and probably two others to protect against the new swine flu.. Experts suggest you get that first shot as early as this month - if you can find it.. Wed like to get to Job 1 and get most of it done, said Dr. William Schaffner, a Vanderbilt University flu expert, referring to seasonal flu vaccinations.. Get it done before we start to tackle Job 2, the more complex task of swine flu vaccinations, he added.. The five vaccine manufacturers that supply the United States are finishing up production of seasonal flu vaccine earlier than usual. Health officials say they expect about half of the more than 120 million doses of seasonal vaccine to be available by the end of this month. Most of the rest are due out by the end of September. Some manufacturers ...
Sputnik. Skolkovo (Russia), Oct 14: Russia is expected to boost its monthly coronavirus vaccine production to 1.5 million doses in December, 3-3.5 million doses in January and up to 15 million doses in the spring, Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov said on Wednesday.. We plan to produce 800,000 doses in November, 1.5 million doses in December, 3-3.5 million doses in January, and then the several-fold growth will follow. We will be capable of producing 15 million doses monthly in the spring of the next year, Manturov said, specifying he was talking about the Sputnik V vaccine.. ...
1906), Influenza vaccine. Instructions to medical officers of health. (1919) Interpreters of Nature. Essays. (1927) Lord ... 1930) Memorandum on prevention of influenza. (1919) On the History of the Decline and Final Extinction of Leprosy as an endemic ...
"Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply for the U.S. 2016-2017 Influenza Season , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. ... Autism cases in vaccine court: Sugarman SD (2007). "Cases in vaccine court-legal battles over vaccines and autism". N Engl J ... other vaccines may contain a trace of thiomersal from steps in manufacture.. The multi-dose versions of the influenza vaccines ... Unlike other vaccine preservatives used at the time, thiomersal does not reduce the potency of the vaccines that it protects. ...
"The virosome concept for influenza vaccines". Vaccine. 23: S26-38. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.04.026. PMID 16026906. http://ec. ... A virosome is a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism consisting of unilamellar phospholipid membrane (either a mono- or bi-layer ... As a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism they are biologically compatible with many host organisms and are also biodegradable. ... The unique properties of virosomes partially relate to the presence of biologically active influenza HA in their membrane. This ...
Influenza (flu) is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this ... Kim, T. H. (2014). "Seasonal influenza and vaccine herd effect". Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 3 (2): 128-32. doi ... Vaccines against STIs that are targeted at one sex result in significant declines in STIs in both sexes if vaccine uptake in ... Vaccines are usually imperfect however, so the effectiveness, E, of a vaccine must be accounted for: V c = 1 − 1 R 0 E . {\ ...
Clar, Christine; Oseni, Zainab; Flowers, Nadine; Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Rees, Karen (2015-05-05). "Influenza vaccines for ... Influenza may make heart attacks and strokes more likely and therefore influenza vaccination may decrease the chance of ...
... adjuvanted influenza vaccine". Vaccine. 21 (9-10): 946-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00545-5. PMID 12547607. Isconova's homepage ... "A single dose of an ISCOM influenza vaccine induces long-lasting protective immunity against homologous challenge infection but ... "Immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant subunit vaccines against phocid herpesvirus type 1". Vaccine. 21 (19-20): 2433-40. ... The complex displays immune stimulating properties and is thus mainly used as a vaccine adjuvant in order to induce a stronger ...
... or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182 . PMID 19230160. Superflu: Antigenic shift in Influenza. ... Bouvier, Nicole M.; Palese, Peter (September 2008). "The biology of influenza viruses". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 4 (Suppl 4): D49-53. ... Treanor, John (2004-01-15). "Influenza vaccine--outmaneuvering antigenic shift and drift". New England Journal of Medicine. 350 ...
He has said that the studies claiming large reductions in mortality rates as a result of the influenza vaccine are "rubbish", ... He has worked on Cochrane reviews examining the effectiveness of oseltamivir and the influenza vaccine. In 2009 Jefferson was ... His views about the effectiveness of influenza vaccines and his outspokenness about them are also controversial; at a 2007 ... Reviews led by Jefferson have concluded that there is insufficient evidence to show that influenza vaccines reduce mortality or ...
World Health Organization (2012). "Vaccines Against Influenza". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 47.. *^ Halbreich U, Karkun S ( ... women should also fulfill any missing vaccinations as soon as possible including the tetanus vaccine and influenza vaccine.[72] ... are less prone to infections such as Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneunoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, ...
Influenza vaccine is recommended annually for all children. PCV does not appear to decrease the risk of otitis media when given ... Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in early infancy, decreases the risk of acute otitis media in healthy infants. PCV is ... A number of measures decrease the risk of otitis media including pneumococcal and influenza vaccination, breastfeeding, and ... Acute otitis media Acute otitis media, myringitis bullosa Myringitis bullosa in influenza Chronic otitis media (otitis media ...
"Safety and immunogenicity of an influenza vaccine A/H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1194/2004) when coadministered with a heat-labile ... "Dose sparing with intradermal injection of influenza vaccine". N Engl J Med. 351 (22): 2295-301. doi:10.1056/nejmoa043540. ... Vaccine. 25 (18): 3684-91. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.01.043. PMID 17313998. Glenn, GM; Villar, CP; Flyer, DC; Bourgeois, AL; ... The company was the first to develop the concept of transcutaneous immunization, delivery of vaccines to the skin using a patch ...
Cates, CJ; Rowe, BH (Feb 28, 2013). "Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma". The Cochrane Database of ... It is not clear if annual influenza vaccinations affects the risk of exacerbations. Immunization; however, is recommended by ... "Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization - report of the extraordinary meeting on the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 ...
The inactivated influenza vaccine should be received annually. The pneumococcal vaccine should be administered twice for people ... "Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... "Influenza vaccination coverage among health care personnel - United States, 2013-14 influenza season". MMWR. Morbidity and ... Lastly, the live-attenuated zoster vaccine should be administered once after the age 60, but is not recommended in people on a ...
Smith JW, Fletcher WB, Peters M, Westwood M, Perkins FJ (1975). "Response to influenza vaccine in adjuvant 65-4". J Hyg (Lond ... Adjuvant 65 was tested in influenza vaccines in the 1970s, but was never released commercially. Adjuvants can enhance the ... Such aluminium salts are common adjuvants in vaccines sold in the United States and have been used in vaccines for more than 70 ... researchers found that the higher incidence correlated with the use of AS03-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Pandemrix). Those ...
1957 - National guidelines for influenza vaccine were developed. 1958 - A CDC team traveled overseas, for the first time, to ... 1963 - CDC tested the newly developed jet injector vaccine for smallpox. 1964 - The first Surgeon General's report linking ...
"Attenuated Influenza Virus Vaccines with Modified NS1 Proteins". Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza. Current Topics in ... His contributions to his field have included the generation and evaluation of influenza virus vectors as potential vaccine ... "Vaccination of Pigs against Swine Influenza Viruses by Using an NS1-Truncated Modified Live-Virus Vaccine". Journal of Virology ... "Hemagglutinin-Pseudotyped Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Influenza Viruses for the Detection of Influenza Virus ...
The World Health Organisation Influenza Centre in North Melbourne was attempting to develop a vaccine for swine flu, by growing ... Collignon P, Doshi P, Del Mar C, Jefferson T (2015). "Safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in children". Clin ... In 2009, H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) was the underlying cause of 77 deaths in Australia. The ABS implemented ... "Health Emergency-H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human Swine Influenza)Outbreaks". Healthemergency.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2 ...
Collignon P, Doshi P, Del Mar C, Jefferson T (2015). "Safety and efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in children". Clin ... and the safety and efficacy of some drugs and vaccines. In June 2010 he was made a Member of the Order of Australia (AM) during ...
5 December - Ness, Lewis, selected for influenza vaccine trials. 10 December - Caithness Education Committee rejects a plan to ...
"FLUAD™ Flu Vaccine With Adjuvant- Seasonal Influenza (Flu) - CDC". cdc.gov. Retrieved 20 March 2017. "MENJUGATE 10 micrograms ... including the first influenza vaccine manufactured using mammalian cell culture rather than the traditional fertilized chicken ... the meningococcal C vaccine used to help curb deadly outbreaks in Canada and the UK, a tetravalent meningococcal vaccine ... and played a central role in the early development of several novel vaccines subsequently approved in the US and/or Europe, ...
Haque A, Hober D, Kasper LH (October 2007). "Confronting Potential Influenza A (H5N1) Pandemic with Better Vaccines". Emerging ... A Critical Role for OX40 in T Cell-mediated Immunopathology during Lung Viral Infection Cytokine Storm and the Influenza ... Aug 2007). "Increased Survival after Gemfibrozil Treatment of Severe Mouse Influenza". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 51 (8): ... avian influenza, smallpox, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Cytokine storm may also be induced by certain ...
"Influenza vaccine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1: CD002733. doi: ... Annual influenza vaccinations in those with COPD reduce exacerbations, hospitalizations and death. Pneumococcal vaccination may ... The non-typable Haemophilus influenzae vaccine (NTHi) when taken by mouth does not appear to reduce exacerbations in people ... Stopping smoking decreases the risk of death by 18%. Other recommendations include influenza vaccination once a year, ...
Most inactivated vaccines, like influenza, are given by IM injection. Some medications are formulated for IM injection, like ... "Administer the Vaccine(s)". www.cdc.gov. 2017-09-01. Retrieved 2017-11-15. Taylor, C. R., Lillis, C., LeMone, P., Lynn, P. ( ... "Pinkbook , Vaccine Administration , Epidemiology of VPDs , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-10-04. Retrieved 2017-10-30. "What Is a ... Certain vaccines including MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella), Varicella (Chikenpox), Zoster (Shingles) are given subcutaneously. In ...
... in the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza). Egg white makes up around two-thirds of a chicken egg by weight. ... "Safe administration of influenza vaccine to patients with egg allergy". The Journal of Pediatrics. 133 (5): 624-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
Due to the H5N1 pandemic threat, research into using cell culture for influenza vaccines is being funded by the United States ... "NIAID Taps Chiron to Develop Vaccine Against H9N2 Avian Influenza". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ( ... The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques ... This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick ...
"Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines by computer-aided rational design". Nat. Biotechnol. 28: 723-727. doi:10.1038/nbt.1636 ... This strategy allows for the generation of new vaccines in a very short time. Recently, Wimmer's lab has elucidated the key ...
It is also used as an excipient in some European and Canadian influenza vaccines. Influenza vaccines contain 25 μg of ... Pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) Influenza Vaccine Quick Reference Guide Winnipeg Regional Health Authority 2009 http://www.accessdata.fda ...
A New Influenza Vaccine-Associated Adverse Event?". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 36 (6): 705-13. doi:10.1086/367667. PMID ... and upper respiratory symptoms following influenza immunization. Symptoms typically appear 2 to 24 hours after vaccination and ...
"Influenza vaccine: the challenge of antigenic drift". Vaccine. 25 (39-40): 6852-62. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.027. PMID ... In influenza viruses[edit]. In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and ... "Vaccine. 26 (Suppl 4): D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182 . PMID 19230160.. ... Gog JR (July 2008). "The impact of evolutionary constraints on influenza dynamics". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 3: C15-24. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Influenza Vaccine Postpartum Questionnaire. Official Title Acceptability and Feasibility of Influenza Vaccine Administration on ... The study will take place over a 2-month period during influenza season, and at the time when the influenza vaccine becomes ... Influenza Vaccine Postpartum Questionnaire. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... trial is to assess the knowledge and attitudes of post-partum women regarding influenza and the use of the influenza vaccine in ...
The loss of Chirons 46 million doses reduced the number of influenza vaccines available in the United States to approximately ... the United States experienced a severe shortage of influenza vaccine when Chiron, a manufacturer that had pledged to provide 46 ... to 48 million doses of the vaccine to the U.S. market, was forced by U.S. and U.K. regulators to suspend production due to ... Section 3 contains a description of the influenza vaccine industry and factors affecting the profitability of vaccine ...
There is however no regular review of influenza vaccine effectiveness during, or at the end of, Australian influenza seasons. ... We used a retrospective case control design in five consecutive influenza seasons, and estimated influenza vaccine ... Conclusions/Significance These estimates support other field studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness, given that theoretical ... Methodology/Principal Findings Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is conducted during the influenza season in sentinel ...
... and received the seasonal influenza vaccine. Here is the proof: As Ive written before, vaccine records provide interesting inf ... influenza vaccine every year. I just went to the lobby of the Milstein Hospital, showed my ID, ... and H3N2 vaccines were also avian. The 1976 swine flu vaccine, and the. 2009 H1N1 vaccine, are the only vaccines to have swine- ... Below Seasonal Influenza Vaccine, which is checked, is H1N1 Vaccine #1 DOSE. They have left open the possibility that more ...
"The vaccine viruses recommended for inclusion in the 2017-2018 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines are the same vaccine ... Most, 89.8%, were associated with influenza A virus, 9.6% with influenza B virus, 0.3% with influenza A virus and influenza B ... For quadrivalent vaccines, which have two influenza B viruses, the makeup should include the viruses in the trivalent vaccines ... So far in the flu season, overall vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A and influenza B virus infection associated ...
They also found live attenuated influenza vaccine, which is not approved for adults who are aged 50 years or older, to be ... They also found no such trials for live attenuated influenza vaccine efficacy in people aged 8 to 59 years. In addition, they ... The authors found that trivalent inactivated vaccine, which is used for 90% of influenza vaccinations in the United States, is ... October 25, 2011 - Critical gaps exist in the evidence for the effectiveness of licensed influenza vaccines in the United ...
The report firstly introduced Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated basic information included Influenza Vaccine (Split ... Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry policy and plan, Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated product ... And also listed Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated upstream raw materials equipments and down stream clients survey ... In a word, it was a depth research report on Global and China Influenza Vaccine (Split Virion),Inactivated industry. And thanks ...
... is committed to ending the threat of influenza through the development of a universal influenza vaccine, because only a longer ... broadly protective vaccine can shield us from the constant threat of influenza.Why NowEach year, seasonal flu costs the United ... is committed to ending the threat of influenza through the development of a universal influenza vaccine, because only a longer ... There is a clear and urgent need for a next-generation influenza vaccine and more innovative approaches are needed to ensure ...
Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine - CDC ... Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine (LAIV)/Nasal Spray Vaccine. * ... CDCs Vaccine Effectiveness Networksplus icon *US Flu VE Network. *Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network ( ... Vaccine Effectiveness Studiesplus icon *2018-2019 Vaccine Effectiveness. *Past Seasons Vaccine Effectivenessplus icon *VE ... Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is Circulating. *Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing ...
CDCs Vaccine Effectiveness Networksplus icon *US Flu VE Network. *Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network ( ... Vaccine Effectiveness Studiesplus icon *2018-2019 Vaccine Effectiveness. *Past Seasons Vaccine Effectivenessplus icon *VE ... Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine. High-dose flu vaccine, brand name Fluzone High-Dose Quadrivalent ... Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is Circulating. *Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing ...
We found that the national health effects were greatly influenced by the timing of vaccine administration and the effectiveness ... These results emphasize the need for relevant surveillance data to facilitate a rapid evaluation of vaccine recommendations and ... By using US surveillance data (April 12, 2009-April 10, 2010) and vaccine coverage estimates (October 3, 2009-April 18, 2010), ... of the vaccine. We estimated that recommendations for priority vaccination of targeted priority groups were not inferior to ...
The economic costs attributable to influenza are estimated to be in the billions of ... Influenza virus infections represent a significant public health problem. In the United States alone, 10,000 to 40,000 excess ... INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINE. A formalin-inactivated whole virus influenza vaccine was first used experimentally during World ... INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINE. A formalin-inactivated whole virus influenza vaccine was first used experimentally during World ...
Description and Ingredients information on this page is excerpted from the package inserts for each of the licensed Influenza A ... Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is a monovalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza virus subtype A vaccine ... INJECTIBLE VACCINES. CSL Limited. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine is formulated to contain 15 mcg HA per 0.5 mL dose ... Package Inserts for Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccines. *. Package Insert - Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent (CSL ...
Department of Agriculture is creating a stockpile of avian influenza vaccines, but an expert suggests careful consideration of ... Avian influenza expert raises concerns as USDA stockpiles vaccines. Published Friday 27 November 2015 Published Fri 27 Nov 2015 ... "Avian influenza expert raises concerns as USDA stockpiles vaccines." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 27 Nov. 2015. Web. ... Mittals avian influenza vaccine work has been described in papers for The Lancet, Journal of Infectious Diseases, Clinical ...
Influenza vaccines. A reappraisal of their use.. Palache AM1.. Author information. 1. Department of Virology, Erasmus ... Yearly updated influenza vaccines are available to combat the disease and its consequences. In many countries, less than half ... Scientific evidence on the safety, tolerance, efficacy and effectiveness of currently existing inactivated influenza vaccines ... match between vaccine and epidemic strains each year and the available scientific data about the inactivated influenza vaccines ...
Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV). June 8-10, 2011 Sao Paulo, Brazil ... Workshop in that it focused on regulatory issues and expanded the scope beyond influenza vaccines. The workshop brought ... WHO and HHS convened the Sustainable Influenza Vaccine Production Capacity Stakeholders Workshop in Washington D.C. in January ... WHO and HHS hosted the Workshop on International Regulatory Capacity Enhancement for Influenza Vaccines (WIRCEIV). ...
The efficacy of the influenza vaccine when given to patients with multiple sclerosis is similar to that in healthy controls, ... The efficacy of the influenza vaccine when given to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is similar to that in healthy ... The impetus for this project was a recognition that the great majority of the research on the impact of influenza vaccine in ... It is therefore recommended that inactivated influenza vaccine be given to patients with MS at least 2 weeks prior to starting ...
Ferguson D, et al. The story continues: narcoplepsy spectrum occurring several years post ASO3- adjuvanted H1N1 vaccination in young Irish siblings. Journal of Sleep Research 27 (Suppl. 1): 177-178 abstr. P193, Sep 2018. Available from: URL: http://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12751 [abstract] - Ireland ...
Moreover, influenza vaccines are not refrigerated between pack ... being combined to make multivalent influenza virus vaccines. ... Antigens from individual influenza virus strains are not refrigerated before ... a mumps vaccine, a rubella vaccine, a MMR vaccine, a varicella vaccine, a MMRV vaccine, a diphtheria vaccine, a tetanus vaccine ... The stored vaccine may be a bulk vaccine (monovalent or multivalent) or a packaged vaccine. Where the vaccine is a bulk vaccine ...
Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... For some patients, a different type of influenza vaccine (inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine) might be more ... Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu).. Flu is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every year, ... Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (called LAIV) is a nasal spray vaccine that may be given to nonpregnant people 2 through 49 ...
... The recommended influenza vaccine composition for New Zealand in 2018 is:. Trivalent vaccines:. ... Vaccine strains that are recommended as suitable are those listed on the World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza vaccine ... the meeting of the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee, with a New Zealand representative, to consult on the influenza ... Confirmation that the product is in full compliance with a relevant Ph Eur monograph for influenza vaccine (specify which ...
... meningococcal vaccines, influenza therapies, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis trivalent vaccines and human respiratory syncytial ... Prepare for a SAGE evidence-based review and updating of WHO recommendations on the use of seasonal influenza vaccine (e.g. ... SAGE Working Group on influenza vaccines and immunization (August 2010 - June 2014). Terms of Reference. Objectives of the ... None of the studies focused on influenza vaccines and immunization which is the subject of the Working Group. These interests ...
... persons 18 through 64 years of age at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine. ... Supporting Documents older than three years - Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1. Related Information. *Influenza Virus Vaccine, ... Package Insert - Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1. Supporting Documents. * ... persons 18 through 64 years of age at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine ...
Thats not to say that were better off putting just three strains of influenza in a vaccine. Five or six might offer better ... On Thursday, the FDA decided to replace all three of the vaccines influenza strains for next winter. Wait, why cant the ... There are thousands of influenza subtypes infecting people around the world, but very few are likely to make someone in the ... In an "Explainer" published last winter, Michelle Tsai explained why they dont cram every strain of influenza into our yearly ...
Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Tell your vaccine provider if the person getting the vaccine:. *Has had an allergic reaction after a previous dose of influenza ... Influenza vaccine can prevent influenza (flu).. Flu is a contagious disease that spreads around the United States every year, ... Influenza vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines. ...
... a vaccine against influenza that typically contains a mixture of strains of influenza virus cultured in chick embryos:. ... Share influenza vaccine. Post the Definition of influenza vaccine to Facebook Share the Definition of influenza vaccine on ... Resources for influenza vaccine. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year influenza vaccine first appeared Time ... Comments on influenza vaccine. What made you want to look up influenza vaccine? Please tell us where you read or heard it ( ...
The FDAs Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee chose the influenza vaccine strains for the 2018-2019 ... season, after disappointing vaccine effectiveness during the 2017-2018 season. ... Overall vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) - the predominant strain of influenza this season - has been 25% as of ... Most of the circulating influenza strains are like those in the 2017-2018 vaccine. The majority of influenza B infections were ...
Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1. First report of complex regional pain syndrome: case report ... Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1. React. Wkly. 1414, 30 (2012). https://doi.org/10.2165/00128415-201214140-00098 ... A case of complex regional pain syndrome after vaccination of influenza A(H1N1). Pediatrics International 54: e4-e6, No. 3, Jun ...
And keep your immunization schedule up-to-date with Walgreens, Healthcare Clinic and the many other CDC-recommended vaccines we ... Vaccine Information Statement: Influenza Vaccine (Live, Intranasal). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 7 ... Vaccine Information Statement: Influenza Vaccine (Inactivated). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). August 7, ... This includes an influenza A (H1N1) virus, an influenza A (H3N2) virus, and an influenza B virus. ...
There are many different kinds of influenza vaccines licensed and available in the U.S. Learn more on NVIC.org ... Influenza is a viral infection that produces fever, chills, sore throat, muscle aches, and cough that lasts a week or more. ... FDA Transcripts - Influenza. *Public Comment by NVIC President Barbara Loe Fisher on use of squalene adjuvants for pandemic flu ... vaccines at July 23, 2009 FDA Vaccine Advisory Committee Meeting. *Public Comment by NVIC President Barbara Loe Fisher on use ...
INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1982-1983. VACCINE USAGE. General Recommendations. Use in Pregnancy. SUPPLEMENTARY MEASURES. SELECTED ... INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1982-1983. The specific antigens and their potency in the vaccine will be the same as in 1981-1982: 15 ... Clinical studies of influenza vaccines--1976. J Infect Dis 1977;136(Suppl):S341-S742.. Kilbourne ED, ed. The influenza viruses ... This revision of the influenza vaccine recommendations updates information on influenza activity in the United States for the ...
INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1983-1984. VACCINE USAGE. General Recommendations. Use in Pregnancy. Side Effects and Adverse Reactions ... INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1983-1984. The specific antigens and their potency in the 1983-1984 vaccine will be: 15 ug each of ... No significant excess risk of GBS was found for recipients of influenza vaccine during the influenza seasons 1978-1979 through ... This revision of the influenza vaccine recommendations updates information on influenza activity in the United States for the ...
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  • A statistically significant geometric mean increase in hemagglutination inhibition titer was reached for influenza strain A/H3N2 after immunization with all doses of LAIV. (uantwerpen.be)
  • The HA and NA of the H2N2 and H3N2 vaccines were also avian. (virology.ws)
  • WHO and FDA have recommended that the 2008-09 trivalent influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere contain A/Brisbane/59/2007-like (H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/2007-like (H3N2), and B/Florida/4/2006-like viruses. (virology.ws)
  • Both agencies recommend that trivalent vaccines next season contain an A/Michigan/45/2015 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus, an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus, and a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like (B/Victoria lineage) virus. (uspharmacist.com)
  • So far in the flu season, overall vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A and influenza B virus infection associated with medically attended ARI was 48%, and most influenza infections were caused by A (H3N2) viruses, the CDC reports. (uspharmacist.com)
  • VE was estimated to be 43% against illness caused by influenza A (H3N2) virus and 73% against influenza B virus. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Among those with influenza A subtype information, 98.0% were A(H3N2) and 2.0% were A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Flublok contains three full-length, recombinant HA proteins to help protect against two influenza virus A strains, H1N1 and H3N2, and one influenza virus B strain. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Under the subtype of influenza A viruses, influenza A (H1N1) and A (H3N2) are presently propagated amongst the human race. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Since I understand this 2009 novel H1N1 is made up of a mix of elements of swine and avian influenza , and not just human influenza parts, I'd like to know, does this fact in itself make the vaccine any riskier than the usual seasonal flu vaccines? (virology.ws)
  • Trivalent avian influenza (AIV) antigens (H4N8, H5N2 and H7N3), mixed with positively charged, negatively charged and neutral avridine-containing liposomes, and oil-emulsion were subcutaneously administered to 6-week-old turkeys. (elsevier.com)
  • Charged liposomal avridine adjuvant, either positive or negative, produced a better antibody response than uncharged liposomal avridine or oil-emulsion adjuvants when used in a trivalent avian influenza vaccine. (elsevier.com)
  • The report uses data from 3,144 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network from November 28, 2016 to February 4, 2017. (uspharmacist.com)
  • In an effectiveness study of about 4,500 people, Flublok was about 44.6% effective versus placebo against all circulating influenza strains, not just the strains that matched the strains included in the vaccine. (drugstorenews.com)
  • We sought to examine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against admission to hospital for acute cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and all-cause death in people with type 2 diabetes. (cmaj.ca)
  • However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ultimately, the upcoming clinical evaluation of these universal vaccine approaches will be fundamental to determine their effectiveness against preventing influenza virus infection and/or reducing transmission and disease severity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are additional aspects that deserve further considerations, such as the role of pre-existing immunity to influenza and how it shapes the response to vaccination, as well as age-related factors, that could influence the prophylactic effectiveness of current and candidate vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended vaccine viruses for next year's flu season, and the FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) has made the vaccine composition recommendation to be used in the U.S., according to the CDC . (uspharmacist.com)
  • For quadrivalent vaccines, which have two influenza B viruses, the makeup should include the viruses in the trivalent vaccines, as well as a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like (B/Yamagata lineage) virus, the recommendation states. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The vaccine viruses recommended for inclusion in the 2017-2018 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines are the same vaccine viruses that were chosen for inclusion in 2017 Southern Hemisphere seasonal flu vaccines. (uspharmacist.com)
  • These vaccine recommendations were based on several factors, including global influenza virologic and epidemiologic surveillance, genetic characterization, antigenic characterization, antiviral resistance, and the candidate vaccine viruses that are available for production. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The high degree of variability amongst influenza viruses is the main characteristic that provides the greatest challenge to development of prophylactic and therapeutic solutions against epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and one of their major characteristic is the rapid rate of viral evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to causing seasonal epidemics, influenza viruses can cause pandemics at random intervals, which are very hard to predict. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, seasonal vaccination is ineffective against pandemic influenza viruses because of antigenic differences, and it takes approximately six months from isolation of a new virus to develop an effective vaccine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these vaccines will not be able to protect against newly emerging pandemic influenza viruses because of significant antigenic differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Potentially pandemic viruses have been identified and many vaccines, based on different approaches and platforms, have been developed against them [ 133 , 134 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There has, therefore, been significant interest in the development of new vaccines that would have a longer and wider spectrum of action [ 9 ], and which would provide long-term protection not only against drifted variants of influenza A viruses of one subtype but also against viruses of other subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One approach to expanding the spectrum of the protective action of influenza vaccines is to enhance the induction of cross-reacting immune response factors that target highly conserved antigens in influenza viruses of various subtypes [ 61 , 62 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Influenza viruses occur in every part of the world. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • On the other hand, the type C influenza virus solemnly occurs as compared to the type A and B. Hence, only type A and type B influenza viruses are in the list of seasonal influenza vaccines. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • LAIVs are based on cold adapted and temperature sensitive phenotypes of master donor viruses (MDVs) containing the surface glycoprotein genes of seasonal influenza strains. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) offers the promise of inducing a variety of immune responses thereby conferring protection to circulating field strains. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Most, 89.8%, were associated with influenza A virus, 9.6% with influenza B virus, 0.3% with influenza A virus and influenza B virus co-infection, and 0.3% with influenza virus for which the type was not determined. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA. (drugstorenews.com)
  • 1 - 3 Influenza infection may accelerate acute thrombotic vascular events, particularly in patients with ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing the spread of influenza infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These features of influenza infection explain why there is interest around the world in developing a universal influenza vaccine, which could induce a cross-reactive immune response to the most conservative parts of the viral proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is an acute viral infection caused by an influenza virus. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Therefore, influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent an influenza infection. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza outbreaks, and are the consequence of antigenic drift or shift, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and circulating influenza isolates, vaccinated people may not be afforded complete protection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extremely high variability in the antigenic properties of influenza virus is related to the structure of its genome that allows reassortment and the structural flexibility of the viral glycoproteins, which tolerate amino acid residue substitutions in the major antigenic sites without loss of function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atlanta- The CDC announced the proposed makeup of the Northern Hemisphere vaccine for the 2017-2018 influenza season. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Initiatives to spur development of a universal influenza vaccine by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Page Family in 2018 indicate a global commitment to ending the threat of influenza. (sabin.org)
  • In October 2018, Sabin launched the Influenzer Initiative , a collective of creative thinkers across diverse industries, including science, engineering and technology, working together to accelerate the development of a universal influenza vaccine. (sabin.org)
  • The Sabin Vaccine Institute (Sabin) is committed to ending the threat of influenza through the development of a universal influenza vaccine , because only a longer lasting, broadly protective vaccine can shield us from the constant threat of influenza. (sabin.org)
  • There is currently an unmet need to develop an effective "broadly-reactive" or "universal" influenza vaccine capable of conferring protection against both seasonal and newly emerging pre-pandemic strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Overall, these novel head- and stem-based approaches are moving closer to a more broadly-reactive or universal influenza vaccine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus is a conservative region, and an attractive target for a universal influenza vaccine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SILVER SPRING, Md. - The Food and Drug Administration on Wednesday approved Protein Sciences' Flublok, the first trivalent influenza vaccine made using an insect virus (baculovirus) expression system and recombinant DNA technology. (drugstorenews.com)
  • In the fall of 2004, the United States experienced a severe shortage of influenza vaccine when Chiron, a manufacturer that had pledged to provide 46 to 48 million doses of the vaccine to the U.S. market, was forced by U.S. and U.K. regulators to suspend production due to possible bacterial contamination in its Liverpool, England, plant. (rti.org)
  • The loss of Chiron's 46 million doses reduced the number of influenza vaccines available in the United States to approximately half the amount anticipated. (rti.org)
  • Sanofi Pasteur had been expected to supply approximately 54 million doses, and MedImmune intended to provide about 1.1 million doses of its FluMist vaccine, which is licensed for use in healthy persons 5 to 49 years of age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2004). (rti.org)
  • Following the announcement of Chiron's lost vaccine production, Sanofi Pasteur and MedImmune increased production, ultimately producing approximately 58 million and 3 million doses, respectively (U.S. Influenza Supply, 2005). (rti.org)
  • In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design, single escalating doses of 1 x 10(5),1 x 10(6), or 1 x 10(7) tissue culture infectious dose 50% (TCID50) of vaccine containing each of the three influenza virus re-assortants recommended by the World Health Organization for the 2008-2009 season were administered intranasally. (uantwerpen.be)
  • The medical center administration has clearly printed many of these slips to accommodate those who will be receiving the pandemic H1N1 vaccine in a few weeks. (virology.ws)
  • There are three types of influenza virus, type A, type B, and type C. Type A influenza virus are further segmented into subtypes depending on the combination on numerous virus surface proteins. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • The seasonal H1N1 vaccine that we have had since 1977 has HA and NA genes that originated in the 1918 pandemic strain which came from birds. (virology.ws)
  • This represents a change in the influenza A (H1N1) component compared with the composition of the 2016-2017 influenza vaccine," the CDC explains. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Classic influenza vaccines commonly induce antibodies to the viral surface antigens, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), mainly to their immunodominant hypervariable regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it is used to make vaccines that have been approved by the FDA to prevent other infectious diseases. (drugstorenews.com)
  • 4 For decades, vaccination has been the principal strategy to control influenza and its severe complications in older adults and patients with chronic illnesses, who account for most influenza-attributable deaths. (cmaj.ca)
  • 1 Current influenza vaccination programs were implemented based on studies that involved healthy adults in the 1960s, which suggested 70%-90% vaccine efficacy. (cmaj.ca)
  • The study will take place over a 2-month period during influenza season, and at the time when the influenza vaccine becomes available. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • According to a post on Protein Sciences' website, Flublok supply is limited for the 2012-2013 influenza season. (drugstorenews.com)
  • The company expects to have full production available during the 2013-2014 influenza season. (drugstorenews.com)
  • We fitted Poisson regression models for influenza and off-season periods to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for cohorts who had and had not received the vaccine. (cmaj.ca)
  • No influenza like symptoms, no nasal congestions, no rhinorrhea, or other influenza related upper respiratory tract symptoms were observed. (uantwerpen.be)
  • Seasonal influenza is a grave public health issue which causes serious illness and death in densely populated regions. (qyresearchgroups.com)
  • Efforts should be focused on improvements in vaccine uptake in this important target group as part of comprehensive secondary prevention. (cmaj.ca)
  • In this review we describe the current standard of care influenza vaccine, as well as those offering promise toward development of a universal influenza vaccination approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The performance of seasonal influenza vaccines can be improved by increasing the speed of vaccine production and using new adjuvants and new vaccination strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
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  • However, these vaccines also have narrow specificity and may not have cross-reactivity, even within a single subtype. (biomedcentral.com)