Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
'Squalene' is a biologically occurring triterpene compound, naturally produced in humans, animals, and plants, that forms an essential part of the lipid-rich membranes in various tissues, including the skin surface and the liver, and has been studied for its potential benefits in skincare, dietary supplements, and vaccine adjuvant systems.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A method of detection of the number of cells in a sample secreting a specific molecule. With this method, a population of cells are plated over top of the immunosorbent substrate that captures the secreted molecules.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
"Ducks" is not a recognized medical term or condition in human health; it may refer to various anatomical structures in animals, such as the ducks of the heart valves, but it does not have a standalone medical definition.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
Serological tests that measure anti-hemadsorption agents such as antiviral ANTIBODIES that block VIRAL HEMAGGLUNININS from adhering to the surface of red blood cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Staphylococcal vaccines are prophylactic agents developed to prevent infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogenic bacterium that frequently colonizes human skin and mucous membranes, often targeting surface proteins or toxins for immune response induction.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term to my knowledge. It is a place name that can refer to a state in the United States or a country in Europe. If you have a different context or meaning in mind, I would be happy to help further if I can.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/3234)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (2/3234)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning. (3/3234)

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model. (4/3234)

IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy. (5/3234)

This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners.  (+info)

Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus hemagglutinin. (6/3234)

The A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted molecule. The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Growth of transformants on methanol-containing medium resulted in the secretion of recombinant non-cleaved soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s). Remarkably, the pH of the induction medium had an important effect on the expression level, the highest level being obtained at pH 8.0. The gel filtration profile and the reactivity against a panel of different HA-conformation specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that HA0s was monomeric. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed a typical P. pastoris type of glycosylation, consisting of glycans with 10-12 glycosyl residues. Mice immunized with purified soluble hemagglutinin (HA0s) showed complete protection against a challenge with 10 LD50 of mouse-adapted homologous virus (X47), whereas all control mice succumbed. Heterologous challenge with X31 virus [A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2-subtype)], resulted in significantly higher survival rates in the immunized group compared with the control group. These results, together with the safety, reliability and economic potential of P. pastoris, as well as the flexibility and fast adaptation of the expression system may allow development of an effective recombinant influenza vaccine.  (+info)

Measuring the effects of reminders for outpatient influenza immunizations at the point of clinical opportunity. (7/3234)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of computer-based reminders about influenza vaccination on the behavior of individual clinicians at each clinical opportunity. DESIGN: The authors conducted a prospective study of clinicians' influenza vaccination behavior over four years. Approximately one half of the clinicians in an internal medicine clinic used a computer-based patient record system (CPR users) that generated computer-based reminders. The other clinicians used traditional paper records (PR users). MEASUREMENTS: Each nonacute visit by a patient eligible for an influenza vaccination was considered an opportunity for intervention. Patients who had contraindications for vaccination were excluded. Compliance with the guideline was defined as documentation that a clinician ordered the vaccine, counseled the patient about the vaccine, offered the vaccine to a patient who declined it, or verified that the patient had received the vaccine elsewhere. The authors calculated the proportion of opportunities on which each clinician documented action in the CPR and PR user groups. RESULTS: The CPR and PR user groups had different baseline compliance rates (40.1 and 27.9 per cent, respectively; P<0.05). Both rates remained stable during a two-year baseline period (P = 0.34 and P = 0.47, respectively). The compliance rates in the CPR user group increased 78 per cent from baseline (P<0.001), whereas the rates for the PR user group did not change significantly (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians who used a CPR with reminders had higher rates of documentation of compliance with influenza-vaccination guidelines than did those who used a paper record. Measurements of individual clinician behavior at the point of each clinical opportunity can provide precise evaluation of interventions that are designed to improve compliance with guidelines.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations. (8/3234)

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)

Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots, are vaccines that protect against the influenza virus. Influenza is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can cause severe symptoms and complications, particularly in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying health conditions.

Influenza vaccines contain inactivated or weakened viruses or pieces of the virus, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the virus. The vaccine is typically given as an injection into the muscle, usually in the upper arm.

There are several different types of influenza vaccines available, including:

* Trivalent vaccines, which protect against three strains of the virus (two A strains and one B strain)
* Quadrivalent vaccines, which protect against four strains of the virus (two A strains and two B strains)
* High-dose vaccines, which contain a higher amount of antigen and are recommended for people aged 65 and older
* Adjuvanted vaccines, which contain an additional ingredient to boost the immune response and are also recommended for people aged 65 and older
* Cell-based vaccines, which are produced using cultured cells rather than eggs and may be recommended for people with egg allergies

It's important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, so the vaccine is updated each year to match the circulating strains. It's recommended that most people get vaccinated against influenza every year to stay protected.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

Influenza A virus is defined as a negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. It is responsible for causing epidemic and pandemic influenza in humans and is also known to infect various animal species, such as birds, pigs, horses, and seals. The viral surface proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are the primary targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 known NA subtypes, which contribute to the diversity and antigenic drift of Influenza A viruses. The zoonotic nature of this virus allows for genetic reassortment between human and animal strains, leading to the emergence of novel variants with pandemic potential.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

Inactivated vaccines, also known as killed or non-live vaccines, are created by using a version of the virus or bacteria that has been grown in a laboratory and then killed or inactivated with chemicals, heat, or radiation. This process renders the organism unable to cause disease, but still capable of stimulating an immune response when introduced into the body.

Inactivated vaccines are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines since they cannot revert back to a virulent form and cause illness. However, they may require multiple doses or booster shots to maintain immunity because the immune response generated by inactivated vaccines is not as robust as that produced by live vaccines. Examples of inactivated vaccines include those for hepatitis A, rabies, and influenza (inactivated flu vaccine).

Influenza B virus is one of the primary types of influenza viruses that cause seasonal flu in humans. It's an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae.

Influenza B viruses are typically found only in humans and circulate widely during the annual flu season. They mutate at a slower rate than Influenza A viruses, which means that immunity developed against one strain tends to provide protection against similar strains in subsequent seasons. However, they can still cause significant illness, especially among young children, older adults, and people with certain chronic medical conditions.

Influenza B viruses are divided into two lineages: Victoria and Yamagata. Vaccines are developed each year to target the most likely strains of Influenza A and B viruses that will circulate in the upcoming flu season.

"Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes respiratory illness and is known to circulate in humans and animals, including birds and pigs. The "H3N2" refers to the two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H protein is of the H3 variety and the N protein is of the N2 variety. This subtype has been responsible for several influenza epidemics and pandemics in humans, including the 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic. It is one of the influenza viruses that are monitored closely by public health authorities due to its potential to cause significant illness and death, particularly in high-risk populations such as older adults, young children, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

'Avian influenza' refers to the infection caused by avian (bird) influenza A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian influenza viruses do not normally infect humans, but rare cases of human infection have occurred mainly after close contact with infected birds or heavily contaminated environments.

There are many different subtypes of avian influenza viruses based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes, creating a vast number of possible combinations. Some of these combinations cause severe disease and death in birds (e.g., H5N1, H7N9), while others only cause mild illness (e.g., H9N2).

Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans. However, some forms are zoonotic, meaning they can infect animals and humans. The risk to human health is generally low. When human infections with avian influenza viruses have occurred, most have resulted from direct contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated by their feces.

Avian influenza viruses have caused several pandemics in the past, including the 1918 Spanish flu (H1N1), which was an H1N1 virus containing genes of avian origin. The concern is that a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus could mutate to become easily transmissible from human to human, leading to another pandemic. This is one of the reasons why avian influenza viruses are closely monitored by public health authorities worldwide.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans. Orthomyxoviridae infections are typically characterized by symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue.

Influenza A and B viruses can cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur mainly during the winter months in temperate climates. Influenza A viruses can also cause pandemics, which are global outbreaks of disease that occur when a new strain of the virus emerges to which there is little or no immunity in the human population.

Influenza C viruses are less common and typically cause milder illness than influenza A and B viruses. They do not cause epidemics and are not usually included in seasonal flu vaccines.

Orthomyxoviridae infections can be prevented through vaccination, good respiratory hygiene (such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing), hand washing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat influenza A and B infections, particularly for people at high risk of complications, such as older adults, young children, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that includes influenza A, B, and C viruses, which are the causative agents of flu in humans and animals. These viruses are enveloped, meaning they have a lipid membrane derived from the host cell, and have a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. The genome is segmented, meaning it consists of several separate pieces of RNA, which allows for genetic reassortment or "shuffling" when two different strains infect the same cell, leading to the emergence of new strains.

The viral envelope contains two major glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The HA protein is responsible for binding to host cells and facilitating entry into the cell, while NA helps release newly formed virus particles from infected cells by cleaving sialic acid residues on the host cell surface.

Orthomyxoviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, with influenza A viruses being the most virulent and capable of causing pandemics. Influenza B viruses typically cause less severe illness and are primarily found in humans, while influenza C viruses generally cause mild upper respiratory symptoms and are also mainly restricted to humans.

A pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease that spreads easily from person to person across a large region, such as multiple continents or worldwide. It is declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) when the spread of a disease poses a significant threat to the global population due to its severity and transmissibility.

Pandemics typically occur when a new strain of virus emerges that has not been previously seen in humans, for which there is little or no pre-existing immunity. This makes it difficult to control the spread of the disease, as people do not have natural protection against it. Examples of pandemics include the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and the more recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

During a pandemic, healthcare systems can become overwhelmed, and there may be significant social and economic disruption as governments take measures to slow the spread of the disease, such as travel restrictions, quarantines, and lockdowns. Effective vaccines and treatments are critical in controlling the spread of pandemics and reducing their impact on public health.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Polysorbates are a type of nonionic surfactant (a compound that lowers the surface tension between two substances, such as oil and water) commonly used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics. They are derived from sorbitol and reacted with ethylene oxide to create a polyoxyethylene structure. The most common types of polysorbates used in medicine are polysorbate 20, polysorbate 40, and polysorbate 60, which differ in the number of oxyethylene groups in their molecular structure.

Polysorbates are often added to pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, solubilizers, or stabilizers. They help to improve the solubility and stability of drugs that are otherwise insoluble in water, allowing for better absorption and bioavailability. Polysorbates can also prevent the aggregation and precipitation of proteins in injectable formulations.

In addition to their use in pharmaceuticals, polysorbates are also used as emulsifiers in food products such as ice cream, salad dressings, and baked goods. They help to mix oil and water-based ingredients together and prevent them from separating. In cosmetics, polysorbates are used as surfactants, solubilizers, and stabilizers in a variety of personal care products.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to polysorbates, particularly those with sensitivities to sorbitol or other ingredients used in their production. Therefore, it is essential to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using products containing polysorbates in individuals who may be at risk for adverse reactions.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

A subunit vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains a specific piece or component of the microorganism (such as a protein, sugar, or part of the bacterial outer membrane), instead of containing the entire organism. This piece of the microorganism is known as an antigen, and it stimulates an immune response in the body, allowing the development of immunity against the targeted infection without introducing the risk of disease associated with live vaccines.

Subunit vaccines offer several advantages over other types of vaccines. They are generally safer because they do not contain live or weakened microorganisms, making them suitable for individuals with weakened immune systems or specific medical conditions that prevent them from receiving live vaccines. Additionally, subunit vaccines can be designed to focus on the most immunogenic components of a pathogen, potentially leading to stronger and more targeted immune responses.

Examples of subunit vaccines include the Hepatitis B vaccine, which contains a viral protein, and the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which uses pieces of the bacterial polysaccharide capsule. These vaccines have been crucial in preventing serious infectious diseases and reducing associated complications worldwide.

Squalene is a organic compound that is a polyunsaturated triterpene. It is a natural component of human skin surface lipids and sebum, where it plays a role in maintaining the integrity and permeability barrier of the stratum corneum. Squalene is also found in various plant and animal tissues, including olive oil, wheat germ oil, and shark liver oil.

In the body, squalene is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and other sterols. It is produced in the liver and transported to other tissues via low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). Squalene has been studied for its potential health benefits due to its antioxidant properties, as well as its ability to modulate immune function and reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Vaccines, DNA." However, I can provide you with some information about DNA vaccines.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses genetically engineered DNA to stimulate an immune response in the body. They work by introducing a small piece of DNA into the body that contains the genetic code for a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The cells of the body then use this DNA to produce the antigen, which prompts the immune system to recognize and attack it.

DNA vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. They are relatively easy to produce, can be stored at room temperature, and can be designed to protect against a wide range of diseases. Additionally, because they use DNA to stimulate an immune response, DNA vaccines do not require the growth and culture of viruses or bacteria, which can make them safer than traditional vaccines.

DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stages, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, they have shown promise in animal studies and are being investigated as a potential tool for preventing a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and cancer.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Cross-protection is a term used in immunology and vaccinology that refers to the ability of a vaccine or natural infection with one strain of a microorganism (such as a virus or bacteria) to provide protection against other, related strains. This occurs because the immune response elicited by the initial exposure also recognizes and targets certain common features present in the related strains.

In the context of vaccines, cross-protection can be an important factor in designing broadly protective vaccines that can cover multiple strains or serotypes of a pathogen, thus reducing the need for individual vaccines against each strain. However, the degree of cross-protection can vary depending on the specific microorganisms and antigens involved.

It's important to note that cross-protection is not always complete or long-lasting, and additional research may be needed to fully understand its mechanisms and limitations.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

'Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in birds and occasionally in humans. It has been found to infect various animal species, including pigs, dogs, and horses. The H9N2 subtype has eight negative-sense RNA segments, encoding several proteins, such as hemagglutinin (H), neuraminidase (N), matrix protein (M), nucleoprotein (NP), nonstructural protein (NS), and three polymerase proteins (PA, PB1, and PB2).

The H9 hemagglutinin and N2 neuraminidase surface glycoproteins define the subtype of this influenza virus. The H9N2 viruses are known to have low pathogenicity in birds but can cause mild to moderate respiratory symptoms in humans, particularly those with occupational exposure to poultry or live bird markets.

H9N2 viruses have sporadically infected humans since their first identification in the 1960s and pose a pandemic threat due to their ability to reassort genetic material with other influenza A viruses, potentially creating new strains with increased transmissibility and pathogenicity for humans.

'Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It has the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 (H) and neuraminidase 2 (N). This subtype was responsible for the Asian Flu pandemic in 1957-1958, which is estimated to have caused 1 to 4 million deaths worldwide. Since then, this specific H2N2 subtype has not circulated widely among humans. However, it still exists in animals such as birds and pigs, and there is a risk that it could evolve and infect humans again, which is why it is closely monitored by public health authorities.

'Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in animals, particularly horses and dogs. It is one of the many subtypes of Influenza A viruses, which are classified based on two proteins found on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The H3N8 subtype has hemagglutinin protein type 3 and neuraminidase protein type 8.

While H3N8 is not typically known to cause illness in humans, it can occasionally infect people who have close contact with infected animals. However, human-to-human transmission of this subtype is rare. It's important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing and evolving, so the potential for new strains to emerge and pose a threat to human health cannot be ruled out.

Regular surveillance and monitoring of animal populations for influenza viruses, as well as ongoing research into their transmission dynamics and genetic changes, are crucial for early detection and response to potential pandemic threats.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

Virosomes are artificially constructed spherical vesicles composed of lipids and viral envelope proteins. They are used as a delivery system for vaccines and other therapeutic agents. In the context of vaccines, virosomes can be used to present viral antigens to the immune system in a way that mimics a natural infection, thereby inducing a strong immune response.

Virosome-based vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines. For example, they are non-infectious, meaning they do not contain live or attenuated viruses, which makes them safer for certain populations such as immunocompromised individuals. Additionally, virosomes can be engineered to target specific cells in the body, leading to more efficient uptake and presentation of antigens to the immune system.

Virosome-based vaccines have been developed for a variety of diseases, including influenza, hepatitis A, and HIV. While they are not yet widely used, they show promise as a safe and effective alternative to traditional vaccine approaches.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Neuraminidase is an enzyme that occurs on the surface of influenza viruses. It plays a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus by helping it to infect host cells and to spread from cell to cell within the body. Neuraminidase works by cleaving sialic acid residues from glycoproteins, allowing the virus to detach from infected cells and to move through mucus and other bodily fluids. This enzyme is a major target of antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Inhibiting the activity of neuraminidase can help to prevent the spread of the virus within the body and reduce the severity of symptoms.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

Reassortant viruses are formed when two or more different strains of a virus infect the same cell and exchange genetic material, creating a new strain. This phenomenon is most commonly observed in segmented RNA viruses, such as influenza A and B viruses, where each strain may have a different combination of gene segments. When these reassortant viruses emerge, they can sometimes have altered properties, such as increased transmissibility or virulence, which can pose significant public health concerns. For example, pandemic influenza viruses often arise through the process of reassortment between human and animal strains.

Technology transfer, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the process of sharing knowledge, skills, and technologies among different organizations, institutions, or individuals to enhance the development, dissemination, and adoption of innovative medical technologies, treatments, or interventions. This process often involves the exchange of intellectual property rights, such as patents, licenses, and know-how, between research institutions, universities, private companies, and healthcare providers.

The primary goal of technology transfer in medicine is to facilitate the translation of basic scientific discoveries into clinical applications that can improve patient care, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. This may include the development of new medical devices, drugs, diagnostics, vaccines, or digital health technologies. The process typically involves several stages, such as:

1. Identification of promising medical technologies or innovations with potential for commercialization or widespread adoption.
2. Protection of intellectual property rights through patents, copyrights, or trademarks.
3. Negotiation and execution of licensing agreements between the technology owner (usually a research institution) and a third-party organization (such as a private company) to further develop, manufacture, and distribute the technology.
4. Collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and industry partners to adapt and optimize the technology for clinical use.
5. Clinical trials and regulatory approval processes to ensure safety, efficacy, and quality standards are met before the technology can be marketed and adopted in healthcare settings.
6. Knowledge transfer and education to raise awareness and promote the adoption of the new technology among healthcare professionals, patients, and other stakeholders.

Effective technology transfer in medicine requires a strong partnership between research institutions, industry partners, regulatory agencies, and healthcare providers to ensure that innovative medical technologies are developed and implemented in a way that benefits patients and improves the overall quality of healthcare.

Neutralizing antibodies are a type of antibody that defends against pathogens such as viruses or bacteria by neutralizing their ability to infect cells. They do this by binding to specific regions on the surface proteins of the pathogen, preventing it from attaching to and entering host cells. This renders the pathogen ineffective and helps to prevent or reduce the severity of infection. Neutralizing antibodies can be produced naturally in response to an infection or vaccination, or they can be generated artificially for therapeutic purposes.

Malaria vaccines are biological preparations that induce immunity against malaria parasites, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of malaria disease. They typically contain antigens (proteins or other molecules derived from the parasite) that stimulate an immune response in the recipient, enabling their body to recognize and neutralize the pathogen upon exposure.

The most advanced malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S/AS01 (Mosquirix), which targets the Plasmodium falciparum parasite's circumsporozoite protein (CSP). This vaccine has shown partial protection in clinical trials, reducing the risk of severe malaria and hospitalization in young children by about 30% over four years. However, it does not provide complete immunity, and additional research is ongoing to develop more effective vaccines against malaria.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Medical technology, also known as health technology, refers to the use of medical devices, medicines, vaccines, procedures, and systems for the purpose of preventing, diagnosing, or treating disease and disability. This can include a wide range of products and services, from simple devices like tongue depressors and bandages, to complex technologies like MRI machines and artificial organs.

Pharmaceutical technology, on the other hand, specifically refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, production, and control of pharmaceutical drugs and medical devices. This can include the design and construction of manufacturing facilities, the development of new drug delivery systems, and the implementation of quality control measures to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Both medical technology and pharmaceutical technology play crucial roles in modern healthcare, helping to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals around the world.

Mass vaccination is a coordinated effort to administer vaccine doses to a large portion of a population in a short amount of time. This strategy is often used during outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as influenza or measles, to quickly build up community immunity (herd immunity) and reduce the spread of the disease. Mass vaccination campaigns can also be implemented as part of public health initiatives to control or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases in a population. These campaigns typically involve mobilizing healthcare workers, volunteers, and resources to reach and vaccinate as many people as possible, often through mobile clinics, community centers, and other accessible locations.

Humoral immunity is a type of immune response in which the body produces proteins called antibodies that circulate in bodily fluids such as blood and help to protect against infection. This form of immunity involves the interaction between antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and soluble factors, including antibodies, complement proteins, and cytokines.

When a pathogen enters the body, it is recognized as foreign by the immune system, which triggers the production of specific antibodies to bind to and neutralize or destroy the pathogen. These antibodies are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell that is part of the adaptive immune system.

Humoral immunity provides protection against extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, that exist outside of host cells. It is an important component of the body's defense mechanisms and plays a critical role in preventing and fighting off infections.

'Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype' is a specific subtype of Influenza A virus that is known to primarily infect birds, but has also caused sporadic human infections in China since 2013. The 'H' and 'N' in the name refer to the proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), respectively, on the surface of the virus. In this subtype, the H7 and N9 proteins are found.

The H7N9 virus has caused serious illness in humans, with high fever, cough, and severe pneumonia being common symptoms. Some cases have resulted in death, particularly among those with underlying health conditions or weakened immune systems. The virus is not currently known to transmit efficiently from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and acquire the ability to spread more easily between humans, which could potentially lead to a pandemic.

It's important to note that seasonal flu vaccines do not provide protection against H7N9 virus, as it is antigenically distinct from seasonal influenza viruses. However, research and development efforts are ongoing to create a vaccine specifically for this subtype.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that have been developed to prevent infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that is capable of infecting the skin and mucous membranes. Certain types of HPV are known to cause cervical cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts.

There are currently two papillomavirus vaccines that have been approved for use in the United States: Gardasil and Cervarix. Both vaccines protect against the two most common cancer-causing types of HPV (types 16 and 18), which together cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two most common types of HPV that cause genital warts (types 6 and 11).

Papillomavirus vaccines are given as a series of three shots over a period of six months. They are most effective when given to people before they become sexually active, as this reduces the risk of exposure to HPV. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all boys and girls get vaccinated against HPV at age 11 or 12, but the vaccine can be given to people as young as age 9 and as old as age 26.

It is important to note that papillomavirus vaccines do not protect against all types of HPV, and they do not treat existing HPV infections or cervical cancer. They are intended to prevent new HPV infections and the cancers and other diseases that can be caused by HPV.

Sentinel surveillance is a type of public health surveillance that is used to monitor the occurrence and spread of specific diseases or health events in a defined population. It is called "sentinel" because it relies on a network of carefully selected healthcare providers, hospitals, or laboratories to report cases of the disease or event of interest.

The main goal of sentinel surveillance is to provide timely and accurate information about the incidence and trends of a particular health problem in order to inform public health action. This type of surveillance is often used when it is not feasible or practical to monitor an entire population, such as in the case of rare diseases or emerging infectious diseases.

Sentinel surveillance systems typically require well-defined criteria for case identification and reporting, as well as standardized data collection and analysis methods. They may also involve active monitoring and follow-up of cases to better understand the epidemiology of the disease or event. Overall, sentinel surveillance is an important tool for detecting and responding to public health threats in a timely and effective manner.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Oseltamivir is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and B infections. It works by inhibiting the neuraminidase enzyme, which plays a crucial role in the replication of the influenza virus. By blocking this enzyme, oseltamivir prevents the virus from spreading within the body, thereby reducing the severity and duration of flu symptoms.

Oseltamivir is available as a phosphate salt, known as oseltamivir phosphate, which is converted into its active form, oseltamivir carboxylate, after oral administration. It is typically administered orally in the form of capsules or a powder for suspension.

It's important to note that oseltamivir is most effective when started within 48 hours of symptom onset. While it can reduce the duration of flu symptoms by about one to two days, it does not cure the infection and may not prevent serious complications in high-risk individuals, such as those with underlying medical conditions or weakened immune systems.

Common side effects of oseltamivir include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, skin rashes, and neuropsychiatric events like confusion, hallucinations, and abnormal behavior. Consult a healthcare professional for more detailed information about oseltamivir and its potential uses, benefits, and risks.

A ferret is a domesticated mammal that belongs to the weasel family, Mustelidae. The scientific name for the common ferret is Mustela putorius furo. Ferrets are native to Europe and have been kept as pets for thousands of years due to their playful and curious nature. They are small animals, typically measuring between 13-20 inches in length, including their tail, and weighing between 1.5-4 pounds.

Ferrets have a slender body with short legs, a long neck, and a pointed snout. They have a thick coat of fur that can vary in color from white to black, with many different patterns in between. Ferrets are known for their high level of activity and intelligence, and they require regular exercise and mental stimulation to stay healthy and happy.

Ferrets are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that is high in protein and low in carbohydrates. They have a unique digestive system that allows them to absorb nutrients efficiently from their food, but it also means that they are prone to certain health problems if they do not receive proper nutrition.

Ferrets are social animals and typically live in groups. They communicate with each other using a variety of vocalizations, including barks, chirps, and purrs. Ferrets can be trained to use a litter box and can learn to perform simple tricks. With proper care and attention, ferrets can make loving and entertaining pets.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

"Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype" is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in humans and animals. The "H" and "N" in the name refer to two proteins on the surface of the virus, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), respectively. In this subtype, the H7 protein is combined with the N7 protein.

H7N7 viruses are primarily avian influenza viruses, meaning they naturally infect birds. However, they can occasionally infect other animals, including humans, and have caused sporadic human infections and outbreaks, mainly in people who have close contact with infected birds or their droppings.

H7N7 infections in humans can range from mild to severe respiratory illness, and some cases have resulted in death. However, human-to-human transmission of H7N7 viruses is rare. Public health authorities closely monitor H7N7 and other avian influenza viruses due to their potential to cause a pandemic if they acquire the ability to transmit efficiently between humans.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Hemagglutinins are proteins found on the surface of some viruses, including influenza viruses. They have the ability to bind to specific receptors on the surface of red blood cells, causing them to clump together (a process known as hemagglutination). This property is what allows certain viruses to infect host cells and cause disease. Hemagglutinins play a crucial role in the infection process of influenza viruses, as they facilitate the virus's entry into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) found in various influenza A viruses, and they are a major target of the immune response to influenza infection. Vaccines against influenza contain hemagglutinins from the specific strains of virus that are predicted to be most prevalent in a given season, and induce immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies that can neutralize the virus.

Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are a type of cell line that is derived from the kidney of a normal, healthy female cocker spaniel. They were first established in 1958 by researchers Madin and Darby. These cells are epithelial in origin and have the ability to form tight junctions, which makes them a popular choice for studying the transport of molecules across biological barriers.

MDCK cells are widely used in scientific research, particularly in the fields of cell biology, virology, and toxicology. They can be used to study various aspects of cell behavior, including cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and polarization. Additionally, MDCK cells are susceptible to a variety of viruses, making them useful for studying viral replication and host-virus interactions.

In recent years, MDCK cells have also become an important tool in the development and production of vaccines. They can be used to produce large quantities of virus particles that can then be purified and used as vaccine antigens. Overall, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells are a valuable resource for researchers studying a wide range of biological phenomena.

Influenza Virus B is one of the two primary types of influenza viruses that cause seasonal flu in humans, with Influenza A being the other.

Influenza Virus B primarily infects humans and is generally associated with less severe illness compared to Influenza A. However, it can still cause significant respiratory disease, hospitalizations, and deaths, particularly among high-risk populations such as young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with certain underlying medical conditions.

Influenza Virus B has only one known host - humans, while Influenza A can infect a variety of animals, including birds, pigs, and horses, making it more prone to mutations and the emergence of new strains.

Like Influenza A, Influenza Virus B also undergoes genetic changes over time, leading to the need for regular updates to the seasonal flu vaccine to ensure that it provides protection against the circulating strains.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

'Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that primarily infects birds, but has caused sporadic infections in humans who have had close contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments. The 'H5N2' refers to the specific subtype of the hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) proteins found on the surface of the virus.

The H5N2 subtype has caused significant outbreaks in poultry populations, leading to substantial economic losses for the farming industry. While human infections with this subtype are rare, they can cause severe respiratory illness and have the potential to cause a pandemic if the virus were to acquire the ability to transmit efficiently from person to person.

It is important to note that seasonal influenza vaccines do not provide protection against H5N2 or other non-seasonal influenza viruses, highlighting the need for ongoing surveillance and research into new vaccine candidates.

"Hepatitis B vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. They work by introducing a small and harmless piece of the virus to your body, which triggers your immune system to produce antibodies to fight off the infection. These antibodies remain in your body and provide protection if you are exposed to the real hepatitis B virus in the future.

The hepatitis B vaccine is typically given as a series of three shots over a six-month period. It is recommended for all infants, children and adolescents who have not previously been vaccinated, as well as for adults who are at increased risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, people who inject drugs, and those with certain medical conditions.

It's important to note that hepatitis B vaccine does not provide protection against other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis A or C."

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic viruses but lack the genetic material required for replication. VLPs can be produced from one or more viral proteins, which can be derived from various expression systems including bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells.

VLP-based vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses these virus-like particles to induce an immune response in the body. These vaccines can be designed to target specific viruses or other pathogens and have been shown to be safe and effective in inducing both humoral and cellular immunity.

VLPs resemble authentic viruses in their structure, size, and antigenic properties, making them highly immunogenic. They can be designed to present specific epitopes or antigens from a pathogen, which can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate T-cells that recognize and attack the pathogen.

VLP vaccines have been developed for several viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, such as a strong immune response, safety, and stability.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine is a type of immunization used primarily to prevent tuberculosis (TB). It contains a live but weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is related to the bacterium that causes TB in humans (Mycobacterium tuberculosis).

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, enabling it to better resist infection with TB bacteria if exposed in the future. It is often given to infants and children in countries where TB is common, and its use varies depending on the national immunization policies. The protection offered by the BCG vaccine is moderate and may not last for a very long time.

In addition to its use against TB, the BCG vaccine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic role in treating bladder cancer and some other types of cancer. The mechanism of action in these cases is thought to be related to the vaccine's ability to stimulate an immune response against abnormal cells.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions refer to any unintended or harmful outcome that occurs during the use of a medication. These reactions can be mild or severe and may include predictable, known responses (side effects) as well as unexpected, idiosyncratic reactions (adverse effects). Side effects are typically related to the pharmacologic properties of the drug and occur at therapeutic doses, while adverse reactions may result from allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, overdoses, or interactions with other medications or substances.

Side effects are often dose-dependent and can be managed by adjusting the dose, frequency, or route of administration. Adverse reactions, on the other hand, may require discontinuation of the medication or treatment with antidotes or supportive care. It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for any signs of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions and to take appropriate action when necessary.

Rabies vaccines are medical products that contain antigens of the rabies virus, which stimulate an immune response in individuals who receive them. The purpose of rabies vaccines is to prevent the development of rabies, a viral disease that is almost always fatal once symptoms appear.

There are two primary types of rabies vaccines available:

1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) vaccines: These vaccines are given to individuals who are at high risk of coming into contact with the rabies virus, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, and travelers visiting areas where rabies is common. The vaccine series typically consists of three doses given over a period of 28 days.
2. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccines: These vaccines are administered to individuals who have already been exposed to the rabies virus, usually through a bite or scratch from an infected animal. The vaccine series typically consists of four doses given over a period of 14 days, along with a dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG) to provide immediate protection while the immune system responds to the vaccine.

Both types of rabies vaccines are highly effective at preventing the disease, but it is essential to receive them as soon as possible after exposure or before potential exposure, as the virus can be fatal if left untreated.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Influenza A Virus: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Influenza A virus is an orthomyxovirus that causes respiratory illness in humans and many other animal species. It can be found in birds, pigs, horses, and humans. The viral genome consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments enclosed within a lipid membrane derived from the host cell. Two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), are used to classify Influenza A virus into subtypes based on antigenic properties. There are 18 different HA subtypes and 11 NA subtypes, but only H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 have caused widespread human disease since the 1900s.

Influenza A viruses can be further divided into strains based on differences in their internal proteins. The most common cause of seasonal flu epidemics in humans is Influenza A (H3N2) and Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, the latter of which caused the 2009 pandemic. Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A viruses, and they are also responsible for the emergence of new subtypes.

These viruses can occasionally cause outbreaks in domestic poultry and, more rarely, in humans. Avian influenza A (H5N1), avian influenza A (H7N9), and avian influenza A (H1N1) are some examples of zoonotic influenza viruses that have caused severe disease and death in humans. However, sustained human-to-human transmission has not been observed with these subtypes, except for the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain, which was a reassortant virus containing genes from both avian and swine influenza A viruses.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Vaccine potency is a measure of the ability of a vaccine to induce an immune response in the recipient, typically measured by its ability to stimulate the production of antibodies or activate immune cells. It is usually expressed as the amount of antigen contained in the vaccine or the dose required to produce a specific level of immunity in a certain percentage of vaccinated individuals.

Potency testing is an important part of vaccine manufacturing and quality control, as it helps ensure that each batch of vaccine contains sufficient levels of active ingredients to provide protection against the targeted disease. Vaccine potency may be affected by various factors, including the age and health status of the recipient, the route of administration, and the storage and handling conditions of the vaccine.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nervous system, leading to muscle weakness, tingling sensations, and sometimes paralysis. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that control our movements and transmit signals from our skin, muscles, and joints to our brain.

The onset of GBS usually occurs after a viral or bacterial infection, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections, or following surgery, vaccinations, or other immune system triggers. The exact cause of the immune response that leads to GBS is not fully understood.

GBS typically progresses rapidly over days or weeks, with symptoms reaching their peak within 2-4 weeks after onset. Most people with GBS experience muscle weakness that starts in the lower limbs and spreads upward to the upper body, arms, and face. In severe cases, the diaphragm and chest muscles may become weakened, leading to difficulty breathing and requiring mechanical ventilation.

The diagnosis of GBS is based on clinical symptoms, nerve conduction studies, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and respiratory support if necessary. In addition, plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used to reduce the severity of symptoms and speed up recovery.

While most people with GBS recover completely or with minimal residual symptoms, some may experience long-term disability or require ongoing medical care. The prognosis for GBS varies depending on the severity of the illness and the individual's age and overall health.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

Product surveillance, postmarketing refers to the ongoing monitoring and evaluation of a pharmaceutical or medical device product after it has been approved and released on the market. This process is used to detect any safety issues, adverse effects, or product performance concerns that may not have been identified during clinical trials. The data collected from postmarketing surveillance helps regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to make informed decisions about the continued use, modification, or withdrawal of a product from the market. Postmarketing surveillance is an essential component of post-market risk management and helps ensure the safety and efficacy of medical products throughout their lifecycle.

The Smallpox vaccine is not a live virus vaccine but is instead made from a vaccinia virus, which is a virus related to the variola virus (the virus that causes smallpox). The vaccinia virus used in the vaccine does not cause smallpox, but it does cause a milder illness with symptoms such as a fever and a rash of pustules or blisters at the site of inoculation.

The smallpox vaccine was first developed by Edward Jenner in 1796 and is one of the oldest vaccines still in use today. It has been highly effective in preventing smallpox, which was once a major cause of death and disability worldwide. In fact, smallpox was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980, thanks in large part to the widespread use of the smallpox vaccine.

Despite the eradication of smallpox, the smallpox vaccine is still used today in certain circumstances. For example, it may be given to laboratory workers who handle the virus or to military personnel who may be at risk of exposure to the virus. The vaccine may also be used as an emergency measure in the event of a bioterrorism attack involving smallpox.

It is important to note that the smallpox vaccine is not without risks and can cause serious side effects, including a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). As a result, it is only given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the virus and who have been determined to be good candidates for vaccination by a healthcare professional.

Alum compounds are a type of double sulfate salt, typically consisting of aluminum sulfate and another metal sulfate. The most common variety is potassium alum, or potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum compounds have a wide range of uses, including water purification, tanning leather, dyeing and printing textiles, and as a food additive for baking powder and pickling. They are also used in medicine as astringents to reduce bleeding and swelling, and to soothe skin irritations. Alum compounds have the ability to make proteins in living cells become more stable, which can be useful in medical treatments.

A tuberculosis vaccine, also known as the BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, is a type of immunization used to prevent tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The BCG vaccine contains a weakened strain of the bacteria that causes TB in cattle.

The BCG vaccine works by stimulating an immune response in the body, which helps to protect against severe forms of TB, such as TB meningitis and TB in children. However, it is not very effective at preventing pulmonary TB (TB that affects the lungs) in adults.

The BCG vaccine is not routinely recommended for use in the United States due to the low risk of TB infection in the general population. However, it may be given to people who are at high risk of exposure to TB, such as healthcare workers, laboratory personnel, and people traveling to countries with high rates of TB.

It is important to note that the BCG vaccine does not provide complete protection against TB and that other measures, such as testing and treatment for latent TB infection, are also important for controlling the spread of this disease.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in humans and animals. The 'H' and 'N' in the name refer to two proteins on the surface of the virus, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), respectively. In this subtype, the specific forms are H1 and N2.

Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on these surface proteins, and H1N2 is one of several subtypes that can infect humans. The H1N2 virus is known to have circulated in human populations since at least 2001, and it is thought to arise through the reassortment of genes from other influenza A viruses.

Like other influenza viruses, H1N2 can cause a range of symptoms including fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, and fatigue. In some cases, it can lead to more severe illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchitis, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, chronic medical conditions, or the elderly.

It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new subtypes and strains can emerge over time. This is why annual flu vaccinations are recommended to help protect against the most common circulating strains of the virus.

The chickenpox vaccine, also known as varicella vaccine, is a preventive measure against the highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of the virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease itself.

The chickenpox vaccine is typically given in two doses, with the first dose administered between 12 and 15 months of age and the second dose between 4 and 6 years of age. In some cases, the vaccine may be given to older children, adolescents, or adults who have not previously been vaccinated or who have never had chickenpox.

The chickenpox vaccine is highly effective at preventing severe cases of the disease and reducing the risk of complications such as bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis. It is also effective at preventing transmission of the virus to others.

Like any vaccine, the chickenpox vaccine can cause mild side effects such as soreness at the injection site, fever, or a mild rash. However, these side effects are generally mild and short-lived. Serious side effects are rare but may include allergic reactions or severe immune responses.

Overall, the chickenpox vaccine is a safe and effective way to prevent this common childhood disease and its potential complications.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Viral pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by viral infection. It primarily affects the upper and lower respiratory tract, leading to inflammation of the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. This results in symptoms such as cough, difficulty breathing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Common viruses that can cause pneumonia include influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus. Viral pneumonia is often milder than bacterial pneumonia but can still be serious, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction, while the body fights off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

The Mumps Vaccine is a biological preparation intended to induce immunity against mumps, a contagious viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands. The vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) mumps virus, which stimulates the immune system to develop a protective response without causing the disease.

There are two types of mumps vaccines available:

1. The Jeryl Lynn strain is used in the United States and is part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine and the Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) vaccine. This strain is derived from a clinical isolate obtained from the throat washings of a child with mumps in 1963.
2. The Urabe AM9 strain was used in some countries but has been discontinued in many places due to an increased risk of meningitis as a rare complication.

The MMR vaccine is typically given to children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age, providing long-lasting immunity against mumps in most individuals. The vaccine has significantly reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications worldwide.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Hepatitis A vaccines are inactivated or live attenuated viral vaccines that are administered to prevent infection and illness caused by the hepatitis A virus. The vaccine contains antigens that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that protect against future infection with the virus.

The inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is made from viruses that have been chemically treated to destroy their ability to cause disease while preserving their ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is typically given in two doses, six months apart, and provides long-term protection against the virus.

The live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine contains a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause illness but can still stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine is given as a single dose and provides protection against the virus for at least 20 years.

Hepatitis A vaccines are recommended for people who are at increased risk of infection, including travelers to areas where hepatitis A is common, men who have sex with men, people who use injection drugs, and people with chronic liver disease or clotting factor disorders. The vaccine is also recommended for children in certain states and communities where hepatitis A is endemic.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay (ELISPOT) is a sensitive and specific assay used to detect and quantify the number of cells secreting a particular cytokine in response to an antigenic stimulus. It combines the principles of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunospot assays.

In this assay, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or other cell populations are isolated from a sample and added to a culture plate that has been precoated with an antibody specific to the cytokine of interest. The cells are then stimulated with an antigen, mitogen, or other activating agents. If any of the cells secrete the cytokine of interest, it will bind to the capture antibody on the plate. After a washing step, a detection antibody specific to the same cytokine is added and allowed to bind to the captured cytokine. This antibody is conjugated with an enzyme that catalyzes a colorimetric reaction when a substrate is added. The resulting spots can be visualized under a microscope, counted, and correlated with the number of cells secreting the cytokine in the original sample.

ELISPOT assays are widely used to study various aspects of cell-mediated immunity, such as T-cell responses against viral infections or cancer cells, vaccine efficacy, and autoimmune diseases. They offer several advantages over other methods for cytokine detection, including high sensitivity, the ability to detect individual cytokine-secreting cells, and the capacity to analyze multiple cytokines simultaneously. However, they also have some limitations, such as the requirement for specialized equipment and reagents, potential variability in spot size and morphology, and the possibility of false positives due to non-specific binding or contamination.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three infectious diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. It contains live attenuated viruses of each disease, which stimulate an immune response in the body similar to that produced by natural infection but do not cause the diseases themselves.

The MMR vaccine is typically given in two doses, the first at 12-15 months of age and the second at 4-6 years of age. It is highly effective in preventing these diseases, with over 90% effectiveness reported after a single dose and near 100% effectiveness after the second dose.

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that can cause fever, rash, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. It can also lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and even death.

Mumps is a viral infection that primarily affects the salivary glands, causing swelling and tenderness in the cheeks and jaw. It can also cause fever, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. Mumps can lead to serious complications such as deafness, meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and inflammation of the testicles or ovaries.

Rubella, also known as German measles, is a viral infection that typically causes a mild fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes. However, if a pregnant woman becomes infected with rubella, it can cause serious birth defects such as hearing impairment, heart defects, and developmental delays in the fetus.

The MMR vaccine is an important tool in preventing these diseases and protecting public health.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Amantadine is an antiviral medication that is primarily used to prevent and treat certain types of influenza (flu). It works by stopping the virus from multiplying in your body. In addition to its antiviral properties, amantadine also has central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and dopaminergic effects, which make it useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and various movement disorders.

The medical definition of Amantadine is:

A synthetic symmetrical tricyclic amine used as an antiviral agent to treat and prevent influenza A infection and as an anti-parkinsonian drug to control extrapyramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptic agents. The antiviral effect may be due to interference with viral uncoating or replication. The anti-parkinsonian effect may be due to a combination of dopamine agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist properties. (Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 28th edition)

Please note that the use of Amantadine for various medical conditions should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as they will consider potential benefits and risks and provide appropriate guidance.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

Zanamivir is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and B infections. It works by blocking the action of influenza viral neuraminidase, which helps the virus to spread and infect other cells. By inhibiting this enzyme, zanamivir prevents the virus from replicating and thus reduces the severity and duration of flu symptoms.

Zanamivir is available as an inhalation powder and is usually administered using a device called a diskhaler. It is important to note that zanamivir is not effective against other viral or bacterial infections, and it should be used as soon as possible after the onset of flu symptoms for the best results.

As with any medication, zanamivir can have side effects, including respiratory problems such as bronchospasm, cough, and shortness of breath. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, and headaches. People with a history of respiratory disorders, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), should use zanamivir with caution, as it may exacerbate these conditions.

Zanamivir is not recommended for people with severe allergies to any ingredient in the medication, and it should be used with caution in pregnant or breastfeeding women, children under seven years of age, and people with kidney or liver disease. It is important to consult a healthcare provider before taking zanamivir or any other medication.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

"Ducks" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a group of birds that belong to the family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese. Some ducks are hunted for their meat, feathers, or down, but they do not have any specific medical relevance. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information!

Dengue vaccines are designed to protect against dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that can cause severe flu-like symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications. Dengue is caused by four distinct serotypes of the virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4), and infection with one serotype does not provide immunity against the others.

The first licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV), is a chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is approved for use in several countries and has demonstrated efficacy against dengue fever caused by all four serotypes in clinical trials. However, the vaccine has raised concerns about the risk of severe disease in individuals who have not been previously exposed to dengue. As a result, it is recommended primarily for people with a documented past dengue infection or living in areas with high dengue prevalence and where the benefits outweigh the risks.

Another dengue vaccine candidate, Takeda's TAK-003 (also known as TDV), is a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine that has shown efficacy against all four serotypes in clinical trials. It was granted approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and several other countries for use in individuals aged 4-16 years old, living in endemic areas.

Research and development of additional dengue vaccine candidates are ongoing to address concerns about safety, efficacy, and accessibility, particularly for at-risk populations in low- and middle-income countries where dengue is most prevalent.

Aluminum hydroxide is a medication that contains the active ingredient aluminum hydroxide, which is an inorganic compound. It is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. Aluminum hydroxide works by reacting with the acid in the stomach to form a physical barrier that prevents the acid from backing up into the esophagus.

In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used as a phosphate binder in patients with kidney disease. It works by binding to phosphate in the gut and preventing it from being absorbed into the bloodstream, which can help to control high phosphate levels in the body.

Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter and by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid suspensions. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and to talk to a healthcare provider if symptoms persist or worsen.

Virus cultivation, also known as virus isolation or viral culture, is a laboratory method used to propagate and detect viruses by introducing them to host cells and allowing them to replicate. This process helps in identifying the specific virus causing an infection and studying its characteristics, such as morphology, growth pattern, and sensitivity to antiviral agents.

The steps involved in virus cultivation typically include:

1. Collection of a clinical sample (e.g., throat swab, blood, sputum) from the patient.
2. Preparation of the sample by centrifugation or filtration to remove cellular debris and other contaminants.
3. Inoculation of the prepared sample into susceptible host cells, which can be primary cell cultures, continuous cell lines, or embryonated eggs, depending on the type of virus.
4. Incubation of the inoculated cells under appropriate conditions to allow viral replication.
5. Observation for cytopathic effects (CPE), which are changes in the host cells caused by viral replication, such as cell rounding, shrinkage, or lysis.
6. Confirmation of viral presence through additional tests, like immunofluorescence assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or electron microscopy.

Virus cultivation is a valuable tool in diagnostic virology, vaccine development, and research on viral pathogenesis and host-virus interactions. However, it requires specialized equipment, trained personnel, and biosafety measures due to the potential infectivity of the viruses being cultured.

Reverse genetics is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of creating or modifying an organism's genetic material (DNA or RNA) to produce specific phenotypic traits or characteristics. In contrast to traditional forward genetics, where researchers start with an organism and identify the gene responsible for a particular trait, reverse genetics begins with a known gene or DNA sequence and creates an organism that expresses that gene.

In virology, reverse genetics is often used to study viruses by creating infectious clones of their genomes. This allows researchers to manipulate the virus's genetic material and study the effects of specific mutations on viral replication, pathogenesis, and host immune response. By using reverse genetics, scientists can gain insights into the function of individual genes and how they contribute to viral infection and disease.

Overall, reverse genetics is a powerful tool for understanding gene function and developing new strategies for treating genetic diseases or preventing viral infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

A dose-response relationship in immunology refers to the quantitative relationship between the dose or amount of an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) and the magnitude or strength of the resulting immune response. Generally, as the dose of an antigen increases, the intensity and/or duration of the immune response also increase, up to a certain point. This relationship helps in determining the optimal dosage for vaccines and immunotherapies, ensuring sufficient immune activation while minimizing potential adverse effects.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

Mucosal immunity refers to the immune system's defense mechanisms that are specifically adapted to protect the mucous membranes, which line various body openings such as the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. These membranes are constantly exposed to foreign substances, including potential pathogens, and therefore require a specialized immune response to maintain homeostasis and prevent infection.

Mucosal immunity is primarily mediated by secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, which are produced by B cells in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). These antibodies can neutralize pathogens and prevent them from adhering to and invading the epithelial cells that line the mucous membranes.

In addition to SIgA, other components of the mucosal immune system include innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, which can recognize and respond to pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). T cells also play a role in mucosal immunity, particularly in the induction of cell-mediated immunity against viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

Overall, mucosal immunity is an essential component of the body's defense system, providing protection against a wide range of potential pathogens while maintaining tolerance to harmless antigens present in the environment.

A placebo is a substance or treatment that has no inherent therapeutic effect. It is often used in clinical trials as a control against which the effects of a new drug or therapy can be compared. Placebos are typically made to resemble the active treatment, such as a sugar pill for a medication trial, so that participants cannot tell the difference between what they are receiving and the actual treatment.

The placebo effect refers to the phenomenon where patients experience real improvements in their symptoms or conditions even when given a placebo. This may be due to psychological factors such as belief in the effectiveness of the treatment, suggestion, or conditioning. The placebo effect is often used as a comparison group in clinical trials to help determine if the active treatment has a greater effect than no treatment at all.

Viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that prevent infection caused by various hepatitis viruses, including hepatitis A and B. These vaccines contain antigens that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against infection with the corresponding virus. The vaccines are typically administered through injection and may require multiple doses for full protection.

The hepatitis A vaccine is made from inactivated hepatitis A virus, while the hepatitis B vaccine is made from recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Both vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing infection and reducing the risk of complications associated with viral hepatitis, such as liver disease and liver cancer.

It's important to note that there are no vaccines available for other types of viral hepatitis, such as hepatitis C, D, or E. Prevention strategies for these types of viral hepatitis typically involve measures to reduce exposure to the virus, such as safe injection practices and avoiding high-risk behaviors like sharing needles or having unprotected sex with infected individuals.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Immunity, in medical terms, refers to the body's ability to resist or fight against harmful foreign substances or organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. This resistance is achieved through various mechanisms, including the production of antibodies, the activation of immune cells like T-cells and B-cells, and the release of cytokines and other chemical messengers that help coordinate the immune response.

There are two main types of immunity: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body's first line of defense against infection and involves nonspecific mechanisms such as physical barriers (e.g., skin and mucous membranes), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid and enzymes), and inflammatory responses. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is specific to particular pathogens and involves the activation of T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and remember specific antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). This allows the body to mount a more rapid and effective response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen.

Immunity can be acquired through natural means, such as when a person recovers from an infection and develops immunity to that particular pathogen, or artificially, through vaccination. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of a pathogen or its components, which stimulate the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease. This response provides protection against future infections with that same pathogen.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

In the context of medicine, "needles" are thin, sharp, and typically hollow instruments used in various medical procedures to introduce or remove fluids from the body, administer medications, or perform diagnostic tests. They consist of a small-gauge metal tube with a sharp point on one end and a hub on the other, where a syringe is attached.

There are different types of needles, including:

1. Hypodermic needles: These are used for injections, such as intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or intravenous (IV) injections, to deliver medications directly into the body. They come in various sizes and lengths depending on the type of injection and the patient's age and weight.
2. Blood collection needles: These are used for drawing blood samples for diagnostic tests. They have a special vacuum-assisted design that allows them to easily penetrate veins and collect the required amount of blood.
3. Surgical needles: These are used in surgeries for suturing (stitching) wounds or tissues together. They are typically curved and made from stainless steel, with a triangular or reverse cutting point to facilitate easy penetration through tissues.
4. Acupuncture needles: These are thin, solid needles used in traditional Chinese medicine for acupuncture therapy. They are inserted into specific points on the body to stimulate energy flow and promote healing.

It is essential to follow proper infection control procedures when handling and disposing of needles to prevent the spread of bloodborne pathogens and infectious diseases.

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral (OPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). It contains live attenuated (weakened) polioviruses, which stimulate an immune response in the body and provide protection against all three types of wild, infectious polioviruses. OPV is given by mouth, usually in drops, and it replicates in the gastrointestinal tract, where it induces a strong immune response. This response not only protects the individual who receives the vaccine but also helps to stop the spread of poliovirus in the community, providing indirect protection (herd immunity) to those who are not vaccinated. OPV is safe, effective, and easy to administer, making it an important tool for global polio eradication efforts. However, due to the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended for routine immunization in some countries.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Nucleoproteins are complexes formed by the association of proteins with nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). These complexes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as packaging and protecting genetic material, regulating gene expression, and replication and repair of DNA. In these complexes, proteins interact with nucleic acids through electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and other non-covalent interactions, leading to the formation of stable structures that help maintain the integrity and function of the genetic material. Some well-known examples of nucleoproteins include histones, which are involved in DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells, and reverse transcriptase, an enzyme found in retroviruses that transcribes RNA into DNA.

The Yellow Fever Vaccine is a vaccine that protects against the yellow fever virus, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The vaccine contains live, weakened yellow fever virus, and it works by stimulating the immune system to produce an immune response that provides protection against the disease.

The yellow fever vaccine is recommended for people who are traveling to areas where yellow fever is common, including parts of Africa and South America. It is also required for entry into some countries in these regions. The vaccine is generally safe and effective, but it can cause mild side effects such as headache, muscle pain, and fever in some people. Serious side effects are rare, but may include allergic reactions or infection with the weakened virus used in the vaccine.

It's important to note that yellow fever vaccine may not be recommended for certain individuals, including infants younger than 6 months, pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, and those with a history of severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of the vaccine or any component of the vaccine. It is always best to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccination.

Hemagglutination is a process where red blood cells (RBCs) agglutinate or clump together. Viral hemagglutination refers to the ability of certain viruses to bind to and agglutinate RBCs. This is often due to viral surface proteins known as hemagglutinins, which can recognize and attach to specific receptors on the surface of RBCs.

In virology, viral hemagglutination assays are commonly used for virus identification and quantification. For example, the influenza virus is known to hemagglutinate chicken RBCs, and this property can be used to identify and titrate the virus in a sample. The hemagglutination titer is the highest dilution of a virus that still causes visible agglutination of RBCs. This information can be useful in understanding the viral load in a patient or during vaccine production.

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

A plague vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against the bacterial infection caused by Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. The vaccine contains killed or weakened forms of the bacteria, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate immune cells that can recognize and fight off the infection if the person is exposed to the bacteria in the future.

There are several types of plague vaccines available, including whole-cell killed vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. The choice of vaccine depends on various factors, such as the target population, the route of exposure (e.g., respiratory or cutaneous), and the desired duration of immunity.

Plague vaccines have been used for many years to protect military personnel and individuals at high risk of exposure to plague, such as laboratory workers and people living in areas where plague is endemic. However, their use is not widespread, and they are not currently recommended for general use in the United States or other developed countries.

It's important to note that while plague vaccines can provide some protection against the disease, they are not 100% effective, and other measures such as antibiotics and insect control are also important for preventing and treating plague infections.

The nasopharynx is the uppermost part of the pharynx (throat), which is located behind the nose. It is a muscular cavity that serves as a passageway for air and food. The nasopharynx extends from the base of the skull to the lower border of the soft palate, where it continues as the oropharynx. Its primary function is to allow air to flow into the respiratory system through the nostrils while also facilitating the drainage of mucus from the nose into the throat. The nasopharynx contains several important structures, including the adenoids and the opening of the Eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the back of the nasopharynx.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

A nose, in a medical context, refers to the external part of the human body that is located on the face and serves as the primary organ for the sense of smell. It is composed of bone and cartilage, with a thin layer of skin covering it. The nose also contains nasal passages that are lined with mucous membranes and tiny hairs known as cilia. These structures help to filter, warm, and moisturize the air we breathe in before it reaches our lungs. Additionally, the nose plays an essential role in the process of verbal communication by shaping the sounds we make when we speak.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Influenza Virus C is a type of influenza virus that causes respiratory illness in humans. It is one of the three types of influenza viruses, along with Influenza A and Influenza B, that are known to infect humans. However, Influenza Virus C is much less common than Influenza A and B and typically causes milder symptoms.

Influenza Virus C is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Orthomyxoviridae. It has a distinct antigenic structure from Influenza A and B viruses and is not typically associated with large outbreaks or epidemics.

Infection with Influenza Virus C can cause respiratory symptoms such as cough, sore throat, and fever. However, it is not known to cause severe illness or death in otherwise healthy individuals. Antiviral medications are generally not recommended for treatment of Influenza Virus C infections, but supportive care such as rest, hydration, and fever reduction can help alleviate symptoms.

It's worth noting that most people develop immunity to Influenza Virus C after infection, which provides protection against future infections with the same strain. However, new strains of Influenza Virus C can emerge over time, which may require updated vaccines to provide adequate protection.

Rimantadine is an antiviral medication that belongs to the class of adamantanes. It is primarily used for preventing and treating influenza A virus infections. Rimantadine works by blocking the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which prevents the virus from spreading within the body.

The medical definition of Rimantadine is:

Rimantadine hydrochloride is a synthetic antiviral agent, chemically designated as 1-[(1R,2S)-2-ethyl-3-adamantanemethyl]-1H-imidazole monohydrochloride. It is a white crystalline powder, freely soluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and chloroform.

Rimantadine is available as an oral medication and is typically prescribed to be taken twice daily. It is most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of flu symptoms. Common side effects of Rimantadine include gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, dizziness, and skin rashes.

It's important to note that Rimantadine is not effective against influenza B virus infections, and its use may be limited due to the emergence of resistant strains of the influenza A virus. Additionally, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as with any medication.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

'Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is characterized by hemagglutinin protein 7 (H7) and neuraminidase protein 3 (N3) on its surface. This subtype has been known to cause outbreaks in poultry populations, and can occasionally infect humans who have close contact with infected birds. It has the potential to cause serious illness or even death, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, it is important to note that H7N3 influenza viruses are not currently circulating in humans and are not a direct threat to public health at this time.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

Rubella vaccine is a preventive measure used to immunize individuals against rubella, also known as German measles. It contains inactivated or weakened forms of the rubella virus that stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The two types of rubella vaccines available are:

1. Live Attenuated Rubella Vaccine (RAV): This vaccine contains a weakened form of the rubella virus, which triggers an immune response without causing the disease. It is the most commonly used rubella vaccine and is often combined with measles and mumps vaccines to create the Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella (MMRV) vaccines.

2. Inactivated Rubella Vaccine: This vaccine contains a killed rubella virus, which is less commonly used but can still provide immunity against the disease.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that children receive one dose of MMR vaccine at 12-15 months of age and another dose at 4-6 years of age. This schedule ensures optimal protection against rubella and other diseases included in the vaccines.

It is important to note that pregnant women should not receive the rubella vaccine, as it can potentially harm the developing fetus. Women who are planning to become pregnant should ensure they have had their rubella immunization before conceiving.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Acellular vaccines are a type of vaccine that contain one or more antigens but do not contain whole cell parts or components of the pathogen. They are designed to produce an immune response in the body that is specific to the antigen(s) contained within the vaccine, while minimizing the risk of adverse reactions associated with whole cell vaccines.

Acellular vaccines are often produced using recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene from the pathogen is inserted into a different organism (such as yeast or bacteria) that can produce large quantities of the antigen. The antigen is then purified and used to create the vaccine.

One example of an acellular vaccine is the DTaP vaccine, which is used to protect against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (whooping cough). This vaccine contains only a small portion of the pertussis bacterium, along with purified versions of the toxins produced by the bacteria. By contrast, whole cell pertussis vaccines contain entire killed bacteria, which can cause more frequent and severe side effects.

Overall, acellular vaccines offer a safer and more targeted approach to immunization than whole cell vaccines, while still providing effective protection against infectious diseases.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Egg hypersensitivity, also known as egg allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in eggs. This reaction can occur when someone with a heightened sensitivity to these proteins comes into contact with them, either by ingesting eggs or being exposed to them through inhalation or skin contact.

The symptoms of egg hypersensitivity can vary widely, ranging from mild reactions such as hives, itching, and stomach discomfort to more severe reactions like anaphylaxis, which can be life-threatening. Anaphylaxis is a sudden and severe allergic reaction that can cause difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a drop in blood pressure.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have an egg allergy, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. This may include avoiding eggs altogether, carrying an epinephrine auto-injector in case of a severe reaction, and wearing a medical alert bracelet to notify others of the allergy in case of an emergency.

Immunologic memory, also known as adaptive immunity, refers to the ability of the immune system to recognize and mount a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposure to a pathogen or antigen that it has encountered before. This is a key feature of the vertebrate immune system and allows for long-term protection against infectious diseases.

Immunologic memory is mediated by specialized cells called memory T cells and B cells, which are produced during the initial response to an infection or immunization. These cells persist in the body after the pathogen has been cleared and can quickly respond to future encounters with the same or similar antigens. This rapid response leads to a more effective and efficient elimination of the pathogen, resulting in fewer symptoms and reduced severity of disease.

Immunologic memory is the basis for vaccines, which work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of a pathogen or its components, inducing an initial response and generating memory cells that provide long-term protection against future infections.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Pneumococcal vaccines are immunizing agents that protect against infections caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus. These vaccines help to prevent several types of diseases, including pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

There are two main types of pneumococcal vaccines available:

1. Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): This vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years old, adults aged 65 and older, and people with certain medical conditions that increase their risk of pneumococcal infections. PCV protects against 13 or 20 serotypes (strains) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, depending on the formulation (PCV13 or PCV20).
2. Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine is recommended for adults aged 65 and older, children and adults with specific medical conditions, and smokers. PPSV protects against 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that recognize and fight off the bacteria if an individual comes into contact with it in the future. Both types of pneumococcal vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective in preventing severe pneumococcal diseases.

I believe there may be a slight confusion in your question. AIDS is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and it weakens the immune system, making people more susceptible to other infections and diseases. There is no vaccine for AIDS itself. However, there are vaccines being developed and tested to prevent HIV infection, which would help prevent AIDS from developing.

SAIDS is not a medical term. If you meant to ask about "HIV vaccines," I can provide a definition:

An HIV vaccine aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An effective HIV vaccine would ideally prevent the initial infection or significantly reduce viral replication and disease progression in infected individuals. Currently, no licensed HIV vaccines are available, but research is ongoing to develop a protective vaccine against HIV infection.

Nasal mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity. It is a delicate, moist, and specialized tissue that contains various types of cells including epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands. The primary function of the nasal mucosa is to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air before it reaches the lungs.

The nasal mucosa produces mucus, which traps dust, allergens, and microorganisms, preventing them from entering the respiratory system. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures on the surface of the epithelial cells, help move the mucus towards the back of the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled.

The nasal mucosa also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and immune cells that help protect against infections and inflammation. It plays an essential role in the body's defense system by producing antibodies, secreting antimicrobial substances, and initiating local immune responses.

Salmonella vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against Salmonella infections, which are caused by bacteria of the Salmonella enterica species. These vaccines typically contain antigens or weakened forms of the Salmonella bacteria that stimulate an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future Salmonella infections.

There are two main types of Salmonella vaccines:

1. Live Attenuated Vaccines: These vaccines contain weakened (attenuated) forms of the Salmonella bacteria that can still replicate but at a much slower rate and with reduced virulence compared to the wild-type bacteria. Examples include Ty21a, a live oral typhoid vaccine, and χ 144, an experimental live oral vaccine against nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars.
2. Inactivated (Killed) Vaccines: These vaccines contain killed Salmonella bacteria or their components, such as proteins or polysaccharides. They cannot replicate and are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines. However, they may not stimulate as strong an immune response compared to live vaccines. An example is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

Salmonella vaccines are primarily used for preventing Salmonella infections in humans and animals, particularly those that cause typhoid fever and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections. Vaccination is an essential component of controlling Salmonella infections, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, where the risk of exposure to Salmonella bacteria is higher.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Ebola vaccines are medical products designed to confer immunity against the Ebola virus, a deadly pathogen that causes hemorrhagic fever. Several Ebola vaccine candidates have been developed and tested in clinical trials, with some showing promising results. The most advanced Ebola vaccine is rVSV-ZEBOV, which has been shown to be highly effective in preventing the disease in clinical trials. It uses a weakened version of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to deliver a protein from the Ebola virus surface, triggering an immune response that protects against infection. Other Ebola vaccine candidates use different approaches, such as delivering Ebola virus genes using a harmless adenovirus vector or using inactivated whole Ebola viruses. These vaccines are still in development and have not yet been approved for widespread use.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hong Kong" is not a medical term or concept. It is a region located on the southeastern coast of China. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help you.

Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was a British colony from 1842 until it was returned to China in 1997. As a SAR, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from those of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems."

The region is known for its impressive skyline, deep natural harbor, and bustling urban center. It is a major port and global financial hub, and it has a high degree of autonomy in administration, legislation, and economic policies. Hong Kong's legal system is based on English common law, and it has its own currency, the Hong Kong dollar.

I hope this clarifies any confusion regarding the term "Hong Kong." If you have any medical questions, please let me know!

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Mucosal administration refers to the delivery of a medication or vaccine via the mucous membranes, which line various body cavities such as the nose, mouth, lungs, and genitals. This route of administration can be beneficial because the mucosa contain immune cells that can help stimulate an immune response, making it useful for vaccines. Additionally, some medications may be absorbed more quickly or effectively through the mucous membranes compared to other routes of administration. However, the duration of action and effectiveness of mucosal administration can vary depending on the specific medication and site of administration.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemadsorption Inhibition Tests" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept in hematology or any other field of medicine. It seems that the term may be a combination of two concepts: hemadsorption and inhibition tests.

Hemadsorption refers to the adherence of red blood cells (RBCs) to endothelial cells, which can occur in various medical conditions such as viral infections. Inhibition tests are laboratory methods used to detect the presence or activity of an antibody, antigen, or enzyme by observing its ability to inhibit a specific reaction.

If you're looking for information on a specific experimental procedure or assay that involves hemadsorption and inhibition tests, I would need more context or details to provide an accurate definition or explanation.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

"Drug storage" refers to the proper handling, maintenance, and preservation of medications in a safe and suitable environment to ensure their effectiveness and safety until they are used. Proper drug storage includes:

1. Protecting drugs from light, heat, and moisture: Exposure to these elements can degrade the quality and potency of medications. Therefore, it is recommended to store most drugs in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight.

2. Keeping drugs out of reach of children and pets: Medications should be stored in a secure location, such as a locked cabinet or medicine chest, to prevent accidental ingestion or harm to young children and animals.

3. Following storage instructions on drug labels and packaging: Some medications require specific storage conditions, such as refrigeration or protection from freezing. Always follow the storage instructions provided by the manufacturer or pharmacist.

4. Regularly inspecting drugs for signs of degradation or expiration: Check medications for changes in color, consistency, or odor, and discard any that have expired or show signs of spoilage.

5. Storing drugs separately from one another: Keep different medications separate to prevent cross-contamination, incorrect dosing, or accidental mixing of incompatible substances.

6. Avoiding storage in areas with high humidity or temperature fluctuations: Bathrooms, kitchens, and garages are generally not ideal for storing medications due to their exposure to moisture, heat, and temperature changes.

Proper drug storage is crucial for maintaining the safety, efficacy, and stability of medications. Improper storage can lead to reduced potency, increased risk of adverse effects, or even life-threatening situations. Always consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for specific storage instructions and recommendations.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spain" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a type of combination vaccine that protect against three serious diseases caused by bacteria: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).

Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, which can be severe enough to cause broken bones or suffocation. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe coughing fits, making it difficult to breathe, eat, or drink.

The "a" in DTaP stands for "acellular," which means that the pertussis component of the vaccine contains only parts of the bacteria, rather than the whole cells used in older vaccines. This reduces the risk of side effects associated with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine while still providing effective protection against the disease.

DTaP vaccines are typically given as a series of five shots, starting at 2 months of age and ending at 4-6 years of age. Booster doses may be recommended later in life to maintain immunity. DTaP vaccines are an essential part of routine childhood immunization schedules and have significantly reduced the incidence of these diseases worldwide.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

Communicable disease control is a branch of public health that focuses on preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases within a population. The goal is to reduce the incidence and prevalence of communicable diseases through various strategies, such as:

1. Surveillance: Monitoring and tracking the occurrence of communicable diseases in a population to identify trends, outbreaks, and high-risk areas.
2. Prevention: Implementing measures to prevent the transmission of infectious agents, such as vaccination programs, education campaigns, and environmental interventions (e.g., water treatment, food safety).
3. Case management: Identifying, diagnosing, and treating cases of communicable diseases to reduce their duration and severity, as well as to prevent further spread.
4. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with infected persons to detect and prevent secondary cases.
5. Outbreak response: Coordinating a rapid and effective response to disease outbreaks, including the implementation of control measures, communication with affected communities, and evaluation of interventions.
6. Collaboration: Working closely with healthcare providers, laboratories, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive approach to communicable disease control.
7. Research: Conducting research to better understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and prevention strategies for communicable diseases.

Effective communicable disease control requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in medicine, epidemiology, microbiology, public health, social sciences, and healthcare management.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Staphylococcal vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against infections caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. These vaccines typically contain components of the bacterial cell wall or toxins that stimulate an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the bacteria if they invade the body in the future.

There are currently no licensed staphylococcal vaccines available for use in humans, although several candidates are in various stages of development. These vaccines aim to prevent a range of staphylococcal infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and toxic shock syndrome.

It's important to note that while antibiotics can be effective against staphylococcal infections, the bacteria have become increasingly resistant to these drugs over time, making vaccines an important area of research and development for preventing and controlling the spread of these infections.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccines are medical products being developed to prevent or ameliorate infection and disease caused by the human cytomegalovirus. CMV is a type of herpesvirus that can cause serious health problems in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing organ transplantation, people living with HIV/AIDS, and newborns infected with the virus before birth (congenital CMV infection).

There are currently no approved vaccines for CMV. However, several vaccine candidates are being investigated in clinical trials to evaluate their safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. These vaccine candidates use various approaches, such as:

1. Live-attenuated viruses: These vaccines contain weakened forms of the virus that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. An example is the Towne vaccine, which has been studied in clinical trials for several decades.
2. Recombinant proteins: These vaccines use specific viral proteins to induce an immune response. For instance, a glycoprotein B (gB) subunit vaccine has shown promising results in phase II clinical trials.
3. Virus-like particles (VLPs): VLPs mimic the structure of the virus but do not contain any viral genetic material. They can be used to induce an immune response without causing infection.
4. DNA vaccines: These vaccines use plasmids containing CMV genes to stimulate an immune response. A DNA vaccine encoding the CMV phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) has been tested in clinical trials.
5. mRNA vaccines: Similar to DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines use genetic material to induce an immune response. Moderna Therapeutics is developing an mRNA vaccine candidate for CMV.

The development of a safe and effective CMV vaccine remains a significant public health priority, as CMV infection can lead to severe complications in vulnerable populations.

Licensure is the process by which a government regulatory agency grants a license to a physician (or other healthcare professional) to practice medicine (or provide healthcare services) in a given jurisdiction. The licensing process typically requires the completion of specific educational and training requirements, passing written and/or practical exams, and meeting other state-specific criteria.

The purpose of licensure is to ensure that healthcare professionals meet minimum standards of competence and safety in order to protect the public. Licensure laws vary by state, so a physician who is licensed to practice medicine in one state may not be able to practice in another state without obtaining additional licensure.

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

Anseriformes is a taxonomic order that includes approximately 150 species of waterfowl, such as ducks, geese, and swans. These birds are characterized by their short, stout bills, which often have serrated edges or a nail-like structure at the tip, and are adapted for filter-feeding or grazing on aquatic vegetation. Anseriformes species are found worldwide, with the exception of Antarctica, and they inhabit a wide range of wetland habitats, including freshwater lakes, rivers, marshes, and coastal estuaries. Many Anseriformes species are migratory and travel long distances between their breeding and wintering grounds. The order is divided into two families: Anatidae, which includes ducks, geese, and swans, and Anhimidae, which includes screamers, a group of large, terrestrial birds found in South America.

An emulsion is a type of stable mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, which are normally unable to mix together uniformly. In an emulsion, one liquid (the dispersed phase) is broken down into small droplets and distributed throughout the other liquid (the continuous phase), creating a stable, cloudy mixture.

In medical terms, emulsions can be used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. For example, certain medications may be formulated as oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions to improve their absorption, stability, or palatability. Similarly, some skincare products and makeup removers contain emulsifiers that help create stable mixtures of water and oils, allowing for effective cleansing and moisturizing.

Emulsions can also occur naturally in the body, such as in the digestion of fats. The bile salts produced by the liver help to form small droplets of dietary lipids (oil) within the watery environment of the small intestine, allowing for efficient absorption and metabolism of these nutrients.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a place name, referring to either a state in the United States or a country in Eastern Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help with those!

An epitope is a specific region on an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) that is recognized and bound by an antibody or a T-cell receptor. In the case of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity, epitopes are typically presented on the surface of infected cells in association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

T-lymphocytes recognize and respond to epitopes through their T-cell receptors (TCRs), which are membrane-bound proteins that can bind to specific epitopes presented on the surface of infected cells. There are two main types of T-lymphocytes: CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, and CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells.

CD4+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class II molecules, which are typically expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells. CD4+ T-cells help to coordinate the immune response by producing cytokines that activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class I molecules, which are expressed on the surface of almost all nucleated cells. CD8+ T-cells are able to directly kill infected cells by releasing cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes that can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cell.

In summary, epitopes are specific regions on antigens that are recognized and bound by T-lymphocytes through their T-cell receptors. CD4+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class II molecules, while CD8+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class I molecules.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccines are immunizations that are designed to protect against the West Nile virus, which is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly those of the Culex species.

There are currently no licensed WNV vaccines available for human use in the United States or Europe. However, there are several veterinary vaccines that have been developed and approved for use in horses and other animals, such as birds and geese. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus, which can help prevent infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in animals that do become infected.

Human WNV vaccine candidates are in various stages of development and testing. Some of these vaccines use inactivated or weakened forms of the virus, while others use only a portion of the viral protein to stimulate an immune response. While these vaccines have shown promise in clinical trials, further research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in larger populations before they can be approved for widespread use.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Viral load refers to the amount or quantity of virus (like HIV, Hepatitis C, SARS-CoV-2) present in an individual's blood or bodily fluids. It is often expressed as the number of virus copies per milliliter of blood or fluid. Monitoring viral load is important in managing and treating certain viral infections, as a higher viral load may indicate increased infectivity, disease progression, or response to treatment.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine, also known as the DT vaccine or Td vaccine (if diphtheria toxoid is not included), is a combination vaccine that protects against two potentially serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus.

Diphtheria is a respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart problems, and nerve damage. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw and neck.

The vaccine contains small amounts of inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus. When the vaccine is administered, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that provide protection against these diseases.

In addition to protecting against diphtheria and tetanus, some formulations of the vaccine may also include protection against pertussis (whooping cough), polio, or hepatitis B. The DTaP vaccine is a similar combination vaccine that includes protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but uses acellular pertussis components instead of the whole-cell pertussis component used in the DT vaccine.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine is typically given as a series of shots in childhood, with booster shots recommended every 10 years to maintain immunity. It is an important part of routine childhood vaccination and is also recommended for adults who have not received the full series of shots or whose protection has waned over time.

Titrimetry is a type of analytical technique used in chemistry and medicine to determine the concentration of a substance (analyte) in a solution. It involves a controlled addition of a reagent, called a titrant, with a known concentration and volume, into the analyte solution until the reaction between them is complete. This point is commonly determined by a change in the physical or chemical properties of the solution, such as a color change, which is indicated by a visual endpoint or an electrical endpoint using a pH or redox electrode.

The volume of titrant added is then used to calculate the concentration of the analyte using the stoichiometry of the reaction and the concentration of the titrant. Titrimetry is widely used in medical laboratories for various applications, such as determining the amount of active ingredients in pharmaceuticals, measuring the strength of acid or base solutions, and assessing the hardness of water.

Poliovirus vaccines are preparations used for active immunization against poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. The two types of poliovirus vaccines available are:

1. Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV): This vaccine contains inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. IPV is typically administered through an injection, usually in combination with other vaccines. It provides a strong immune response and does not carry the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP), which is a rare but serious adverse event associated with the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV).

2. Oral Poliovirus Vaccine (OPV): This vaccine contains live attenuated (weakened) poliovirus strains of all three serotypes. OPV is administered orally and induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, which helps prevent the spread of the virus in a community. However, there is a small risk of VAPP associated with this vaccine, especially after multiple doses. In rare cases, the weakened virus can revert to its virulent form and cause paralytic polio in the vaccinated individual or their close contacts.

Both IPV and OPV have been instrumental in global efforts to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using IPV in routine immunization programs, while using OPV during supplementary immunization activities in areas with a high risk of poliovirus transmission.

"Drug approval" is the process by which a regulatory agency, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), grants formal authorization for a pharmaceutical company to market and sell a drug for a specific medical condition. The approval process is based on rigorous evaluation of clinical trial data to ensure that the drug is safe and effective for its intended use.

The FDA's approval process typically involves several stages, including preclinical testing in the lab and animal studies, followed by three phases of clinical trials in human subjects. The first phase tests the safety of the drug in a small group of healthy volunteers, while the second and third phases test the drug's efficacy and side effects in larger groups of patients with the medical condition for which the drug is intended.

If the results of these studies demonstrate that the drug is safe and effective, the pharmaceutical company can submit a New Drug Application (NDA) or Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for review. The application includes data from the clinical trials, as well as information about the manufacturing process, labeling, and proposed use of the drug.

The FDA reviews the application and may seek input from independent experts before making a decision on whether to approve the drug. If approved, the drug can be marketed and sold to patients with the medical condition for which it was approved. The FDA continues to monitor the safety and efficacy of approved drugs after they reach the market to ensure that they remain safe and effective for their intended use.

'Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype' is a type of influenza virus that causes flu infections in animals and occasionally in humans. The H and N in the name refer to two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). In this subtype, the H7 protein binds to host cells and the N1 protein helps the virus to evade the immune system.

The H7N1 subtype is primarily a bird flu virus, but it has caused sporadic human infections, mainly in people who have had close contact with infected birds. Human-to-human transmission of this subtype is rare and not well understood. Infection with H7N1 can cause severe respiratory illness in humans, particularly in those with underlying health conditions.

It's important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing and new strains can emerge through a process called antigenic shift or drift. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and study these viruses to better understand their potential impact on public health and to develop effective vaccines and treatments.

Freeze-drying, also known as lyophilization, is a method of preservation that involves the removal of water from a frozen product by sublimation, which is the direct transition of a solid to a gas. This process allows for the preservation of the original shape and structure of the material while significantly extending its shelf life. In medical contexts, freeze-drying can be used for various purposes, including the long-term storage of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and diagnostic samples. The process helps maintain the efficacy and integrity of these materials until they are ready to be reconstituted with water and used.

Pneumonia, pneumococcal is a type of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus). This bacteria can colonize the upper respiratory tract and occasionally invade the lower respiratory tract, causing infection.

Pneumococcal pneumonia can affect people of any age but is most common in young children, older adults, and those with weakened immune systems. The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia include fever, chills, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and rapid breathing. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection in the blood), meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), and respiratory failure.

Pneumococcal pneumonia can be prevented through vaccination with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) or the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV). These vaccines protect against the most common strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae that cause invasive disease. It is also important to practice good hygiene, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and washing hands frequently, to prevent the spread of pneumococcal bacteria.

Treatment refusal, in a medical context, refers to the situation where a patient declines or denies recommended medical treatment or intervention for their health condition. This decision is made with full understanding and awareness of the potential consequences of not receiving the proposed medical care.

It's important to note that patients have the right to accept or refuse medical treatments based on their personal values, beliefs, and preferences. Healthcare providers must respect this right, while also ensuring that patients are well-informed about their health status, treatment options, and associated benefits, risks, and outcomes. In some cases, it might be necessary to explore the reasons behind the refusal and address any concerns or misconceptions the patient may have, in order to support informed decision-making.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Nasal lavage fluid refers to the fluid that is obtained through a process called nasal lavage or nasal washing. This procedure involves instilling a saline solution into the nose and then allowing it to drain out, taking with it any mucus, debris, or other particles present in the nasal passages. The resulting fluid can be collected and analyzed for various purposes, such as diagnosing sinus infections, allergies, or other conditions affecting the nasal cavity and surrounding areas.

It is important to note that the term "nasal lavage fluid" may also be used interchangeably with "nasal wash fluid," "nasal irrigation fluid," or "sinus rinse fluid." These terms all refer to the same basic concept of using a saline solution to clean out the nasal passages and collect the resulting fluid for analysis.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) vaccines are designed to protect against infections caused by various strains of the E. coli bacterium. These vaccines typically contain inactivated or attenuated (weakened) forms of the bacteria, which stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The immune system learns to recognize and fight off the specific strain of E. coli used in the vaccine, providing protection against future infections with that strain.

There are several types of E. coli vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) vaccines: These vaccines protect against STEC strains, such as O157:H7 and non-O157 STECs, which can cause severe illness, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).
2. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) vaccines: These vaccines target ETEC strains that are a common cause of traveler's diarrhea in people visiting areas with poor sanitation.
3. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) vaccines: EPEC strains can cause persistent diarrhea, especially in young children in developing countries. Vaccines against these strains are still in the research and development stage.
4. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) vaccines: These vaccines aim to protect against ExPEC strains that can cause urinary tract infections, sepsis, and meningitis.

It is important to note that different E. coli vaccines are designed for specific purposes and may not provide cross-protection against other strains or types of E. coli infections.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Drug resistance, viral, refers to the ability of a virus to continue replicating in the presence of antiviral drugs that are designed to inhibit or stop its growth. This occurs when the virus mutates and changes its genetic makeup in such a way that the drug can no longer effectively bind to and inhibit the function of its target protein, allowing the virus to continue infecting host cells and causing disease.

Viral drug resistance can develop due to several factors, including:

1. Mutations in the viral genome that alter the structure or function of the drug's target protein.
2. Changes in the expression levels or location of the drug's target protein within the virus-infected cell.
3. Activation of alternative pathways that allow the virus to replicate despite the presence of the drug.
4. Increased efflux of the drug from the virus-infected cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

Viral drug resistance is a significant concern in the treatment of viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, herpes simplex virus, and influenza. It can lead to reduced treatment efficacy, increased risk of treatment failure, and the need for more toxic or expensive drugs. Therefore, it is essential to monitor viral drug resistance during treatment and adjust therapy accordingly to ensure optimal outcomes.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Bell palsy is a peripheral facial nerve palsy, which means that it is a weakness or paralysis of the facial nerves (cranial nerve VII) that causes sudden asymmetric weakness on one side of the face. The symptoms can vary from mild to severe and may include:

* Sudden weakness or paralysis on one side of the face
* Drooping of the mouth, causing difficulty with smiling, eating, drinking, or speaking
* Inability to close one eye
* Dryness of the eye and mouth
* Changes in taste sensation
* Discomfort around the jaw and behind the ear
* Headache
* Increased sensitivity to sound

The exact cause of Bell palsy is not known, but it is believed to be related to inflammation or swelling of the facial nerve. It may also be associated with viral infections such as herpes simplex virus or HIV. In most cases, Bell palsy resolves on its own within a few weeks to months, although some people may experience residual symptoms such as facial weakness or asymmetry. Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and antiviral medications, which can help reduce inflammation and speed up recovery.

Shigella vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against Shigella infection, which is caused by the bacterium Shigella spp. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response (the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells) that will provide protection against future Shigella infections.

There are currently no licensed Shigella vaccines available for use, although several candidate vaccines are in various stages of development and clinical trials. These vaccines typically contain inactivated or attenuated (weakened) forms of the bacteria, or specific components of the bacteria that can stimulate an immune response.

Shigella infection can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to have a bowel movement). In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as dehydration, seizures, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which is a serious condition that can cause kidney failure. Shigella infection is most commonly transmitted through contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

In the context of psychology and psychiatry, "rationalization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a psychological concept that is often used in medical settings. Rationalization refers to the process of creating logical explanations or justifications for behaviors, emotions, or beliefs that may actually be driven by unconscious desires or motives.

Rationalization can serve as a defense mechanism that allows individuals to avoid acknowledging unpleasant or uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, or impulses. By providing a rational explanation for their behavior, individuals can maintain a positive self-image and avoid feeling anxious, guilty, or threatened.

For example, a person who engages in excessive spending may rationalize their behavior by telling themselves that they deserve to treat themselves or that they need the items they are purchasing. In reality, their overspending may be driven by deeper emotional issues such as low self-esteem or a fear of missing out.

While rationalization is not a medical term per se, it is an important concept in understanding human behavior and motivation, and it can have implications for mental health treatment. Therapists may help individuals identify instances of rationalization and explore the underlying emotions and motivations that are driving their behavior. By gaining insight into these unconscious processes, individuals can develop more adaptive coping mechanisms and make more informed choices about their actions and decisions.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Civil defense refers to the measures taken by a government or organization to protect its citizens from military attack, sabotage, or other hostile actions. These measures may include evacuation plans, emergency response procedures, and the construction of protective structures such as bomb shelters. In the medical field, civil defense efforts might also involve planning for the provision of healthcare services during and after a disaster or emergency situation. This could include establishing alternate care sites, coordinating with volunteer organizations to provide medical care, and ensuring that medical supplies and equipment are available.

Thimerosal is a mercury-containing organic compound that has been used as a preservative in various pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, to prevent contamination by bacteria. It is metabolized or degraded into ethylmercury and thiosalicylate. Ethylmercury is an organomercurial compound that is less toxic than methylmercury and is excreted from the body more quickly. Thimerosal has been used in vaccines since the 1930s, and its use has been thoroughly studied and reviewed by regulatory agencies and health organizations worldwide. No evidence has been found to link thimerosal-containing vaccines to any harmful effects, except for minor reactions at the injection site. However, due to unfounded concerns about its safety, thimerosal was removed from or reduced in most childhood vaccines in the United States and other countries as a precautionary measure, starting in the late 1990s. Despite the removal of thimerosal from most vaccines, autism rates have not decreased, which supports the conclusion that thimerosal does not cause autism.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Military Personnel" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who serve in the military forces of a country, including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. Medical terms typically refer to specific conditions, diagnoses, treatments, or anatomical features related to healthcare. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify!

The Herpes Zoster vaccine, also known as the shingles vaccine, is a preventive measure against the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in individuals who have previously had chickenpox. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of VZV that boosts the immune system's ability to recognize and fight off the virus, thereby reducing the risk of developing shingles and its complications. It is typically administered as a single dose for people aged 50 and older, or as a two-dose series for those aged 19 and older who have weakened immune systems.

Medical Definition of Mineral Oil:

Mineral oil is a commonly used laxative, which is a substance that promotes bowel movements. It is a non-digestible, odorless, and tasteless oil that is derived from petroleum. When taken orally, mineral oil passes through the digestive system without being absorbed, helping to soften stools and relieve constipation by increasing the weight and size of the stool, stimulating the reflexes in the intestines that trigger bowel movements.

Mineral oil is also used topically as a moisturizer and emollient for dry skin conditions such as eczema and dermatitis. It forms a barrier on the skin, preventing moisture loss and protecting the skin from irritants. However, mineral oil should not be used on broken or inflamed skin, as it can trap bacteria and delay healing.

It is important to note that long-term use of mineral oil laxatives can lead to dependence and may interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K. Therefore, it should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

In the context of healthcare, "safety" refers to the freedom from harm or injury that is intentionally designed into a process, system, or environment. It involves the prevention of adverse events or injuries, as well as the reduction of risk and the mitigation of harm when accidents do occur. Safety in healthcare aims to protect patients, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders from potential harm associated with medical care, treatments, or procedures. This is achieved through evidence-based practices, guidelines, protocols, training, and continuous quality improvement efforts.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in one or both lungs. It's often caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Accumulated pus and fluid in these air sacs make it difficult to breathe, which can lead to coughing, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the underlying cause, the patient's overall health, and age. Pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia, antivirals for viral pneumonia, and supportive care like oxygen therapy, hydration, and rest.

An epidemic is the rapid spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. It is typically used to describe situations where the occurrence of a disease is significantly higher than what is normally expected in a certain area or community. Epidemics can be caused by various factors, including pathogens, environmental changes, and human behavior. They can have serious consequences for public health, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. To control an epidemic, public health officials often implement measures such as vaccination, quarantine, and education campaigns to prevent further spread of the disease.

Maternally-acquired immunity (MAI) refers to the passive immunity that is transferred from a mother to her offspring, typically through the placenta during pregnancy or through breast milk after birth. This immunity is temporary and provides protection to the newborn or young infant against infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the mother's own immune experiences and responses.

In humans, maternally-acquired immunity is primarily mediated by the transfer of antibodies called immunoglobulins (IgG) across the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy. This process begins around the 20th week of gestation and continues until birth, providing the newborn with a range of protective antibodies against various pathogens. After birth, additional protection is provided through breast milk, which contains secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that helps to prevent infections in the infant's gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

Maternally-acquired immunity is an essential mechanism for protecting newborns and young infants, who have not yet developed their own active immune responses. However, it is important to note that maternally-acquired antibodies can also interfere with the infant's response to certain vaccines, as they may neutralize the vaccine antigens before the infant's immune system has a chance to mount its own response. This is one reason why some vaccines are not recommended for young infants and why the timing of vaccinations may be adjusted in cases where maternally-acquired immunity is present.

A Brucella vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against brucellosis, an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. The most commonly used vaccine is the Brucella melitensis Rev-1 strain, which is administered to sheep and goats to prevent the spread of the disease to humans through contaminated food and animal contact.

The Brucella vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce a protective response against the bacteria. When the vaccinated animal encounters the actual bacterial infection, their immune system is better prepared to fight it off and prevent the development of clinical disease.

It's important to note that the Brucella vaccine is not approved for use in humans due to the risk of severe side effects and the possibility of causing a false positive result on brucellosis diagnostic tests. Therefore, it should only be administered to animals under the supervision of a veterinarian.

I understand you are asking for a medical definition of "Horse Diseases." However, it's important to note that there isn't a specific medical field dedicated to horse diseases as we typically categorize medical fields by human diseases and conditions. Veterinary medicine is the field responsible for studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases in animals, including horses.

Here's a general definition of 'Horse Diseases':

Horse diseases are health issues or medical conditions that affect equine species, particularly horses. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections; genetic predispositions; environmental factors; and metabolic disorders. Examples of horse diseases include Strangles (Streptococcus equi), Equine Influenza, Equine Herpesvirus, West Nile Virus, Rabies, Potomac Horse Fever, Lyme Disease, and internal or external parasites like worms and ticks. Additionally, horses can suffer from musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis, laminitis, and various injuries. Regular veterinary care, preventative measures, and proper management are crucial for maintaining horse health and preventing diseases.

"Pyrans" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of heterocyclic compounds containing a six-membered ring with one oxygen atom and five carbon atoms. The name "pyran" comes from the fact that it contains a pyroline unit (two double-bonded carbons) and a ketone group (a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen).

While pyrans are not directly related to medical definitions, some of their derivatives have been studied for potential medicinal applications. For example, certain pyran derivatives have shown anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities in laboratory experiments. However, more research is needed before these compounds can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

In medical terms, "outpatients" refers to individuals who receive medical care or treatment at a hospital or clinic without being admitted as inpatients. This means that they do not stay overnight or for an extended period; instead, they visit the healthcare facility for specific services such as consultations, diagnostic tests, treatments, or follow-up appointments and then return home afterward. Outpatient care can include various services like primary care, specialty clinics, dental care, physical therapy, and more. It is often more convenient and cost-effective than inpatient care, as it allows patients to maintain their daily routines while receiving necessary medical attention.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

In the medical context, the term "eggs" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, if you are referring to reproductive biology, an egg or ovum is a female reproductive cell (gamete) that, when fertilized by a male sperm, can develop into a new individual.

In humans, eggs are produced in the ovaries and are released during ovulation, usually once per month. They are much larger than sperm and contain all the genetic information necessary to create a human being, along with nutrients that help support the early stages of embryonic development.

It's worth noting that the term "eggs" is also commonly used in everyday language to refer to chicken eggs or eggs from other birds, which are not relevant to medical definitions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Virology is the study of viruses, their classification, and their effects on living organisms. It involves the examination of viral genetic material, viral replication, how viruses cause disease, and the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines to treat or prevent virus infections. Virologists study various types of viruses that can infect animals, plants, and microorganisms, as well as understand their evolution and transmission patterns.

Leishmaniasis vaccines do not currently exist for human use, despite extensive research efforts. However, the concept and goal of a leishmaniasis vaccine refer to a potential prophylactic treatment that would prevent or significantly reduce the risk of contracting Leishmania infections, which cause various clinical manifestations of the disease.

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus, transmitted through the bite of infected female sandflies. The disease has diverse clinical presentations, ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions (localized cutaneous leishmaniasis) to destructive mucocutaneous forms (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) and potentially fatal visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar.

The development of an effective vaccine against Leishmania infections is challenging due to the complexity of the parasite's life cycle, genetic diversity, and the variety of clinical outcomes it can cause. Several vaccine candidates have been investigated, primarily focusing on inducing cell-mediated immunity, particularly a Th1 response. These candidates include:

1. First-generation vaccines: These are whole-parasite or live-attenuated vaccines, such as Leishmania major (Lm) strain Friedlin and Leishmania tarentolae. Although these vaccines have shown promising results in animal models, their use in humans is limited due to safety concerns.
2. Second-generation vaccines: These involve subunit or recombinant protein vaccines, which utilize specific antigens from the parasite to stimulate an immune response. Examples include Leishmania antigens such as Leishmania major stress-inducible protein 1 (LiSP1), Leishmania donovani A2, and Leishmania infantum nucleoside hydrolase (LiNH36).
3. Third-generation vaccines: These are DNA or RNA/mRNA vaccines that encode specific antigens from the parasite to stimulate an immune response. Examples include plasmid DNA vaccines encoding Leishmania major HSP70 and Leishmania donovani A2.
4. Adjuvant systems: To enhance the immunogenicity of these vaccine candidates, various adjuvants are being explored, such as saponins (QS-21), cytokines (GM-CSF), and TLR agonists (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides).

Despite significant progress in developing Leishmania vaccines, no licensed vaccine is currently available for human use. Further research is required to optimize the formulation, delivery, and safety of these vaccine candidates to ensure their effectiveness against various Leishmania species and clinical manifestations.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Herpesvirus vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by herpesviruses. These viruses include herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily causes oral herpes, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which primarily causes genital herpes. Additionally, other herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox and shingles, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), which can cause serious complications in newborns and immunocompromised individuals, are also targeted by herpesvirus vaccines.

Herpesvirus vaccines work by exposing the immune system to a weakened or inactivated form of the virus, or to specific viral proteins, which triggers an immune response. This response includes the production of antibodies and activation of T-cells that recognize and attack the virus if it enters the body in the future.

Currently, there are vaccines available for HSV-1 and HSV-2, but they are not widely used. The only FDA-approved herpesvirus vaccine is for VZV, which is marketed as Varivax and prevents chickenpox and reduces the risk of shingles. There are also several experimental vaccines in development for other herpesviruses, including HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV.

... a pandemic flu vaccine H5N1 vaccine "Influenza vaccines - United States, 2019-20 influenza season*". U.S. Centers for Disease ... Novartis developed the first influenza vaccine, which did not need to be grown in chicken eggs, a cell-based vaccine. In 2014, ... "Fluzone intradermal vaccine website". Sanofi Pasteur. "FDA Approves A High Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Specifically ... "Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (VaxigripTetra)". Expert Review of Vaccines. 17 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1080/14760584.2018 ...
An influenza vaccine and a COVID-19 vaccine may be given safely at the same time. Preliminary research indicates that influenza ... Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses. New versions of ... Although most influenza vaccines are produced using egg-based techniques, influenza vaccines are nonetheless still recommended ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.06.021. PMID 32600916. Wikiquote has quotations related to Influenza vaccine. Inactivated Influenza ...
... influenza.infectiousconferences.com. Retrieved 30 June 2020. "3rd WHO Consultation on Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines ... The Global action plan for influenza vaccines (GAP) was a 10-year initiative launched in 2006 by the World Health Organization ... Orphaned articles from June 2022, All orphaned articles, Influenza vaccines, World Health Organization). ... with the purpose to increase the global availability and equitable access to influenza vaccines in the event of an influenza ...
... is a type of influenza vaccine that provides immunity against more than one type of antigen. In ... Influenza symptoms and deaths can be prevented by getting an influenza vaccine every year. Currently circulating influenza ... In contrast to egg-based influenza vaccines, polyvalent influenza vaccines derived from mammalian cells are protected from egg- ... Starting from 2021/2022, all influenza vaccines are quadrivalent, containing two influenza A and two influenza B antigens. ...
... is for the prevention of infection of influenza A virus and also the influenza-related complications. ... Influenza vaccines are generally used for preventing influenza illness and influenza-related complications. Different from the ... 2 type A influenza H1N1 and H3N2 and 2 type B influenza antigens) Subtypes of influenza A vaccine are classified based on the ... Another influenza vaccine was put into market in 1942. It is a bivalent vaccine that offers protection to influenza A and B ...
It is an attenuated live vaccine, unlike other influenza vaccines, which are inactivated vaccines. Live attenuated influenza ... Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is a type of influenza vaccine in the form of a nasal spray that is recommended for ... The live attenuated influenza vaccine is used to provide protection against the flu caused by infection with influenza viruses ... while inactivated vaccines are administered by intramuscular injection. Live attenuated influenza vaccine is sold under the ...
... has issued annual recommendations for influenza vaccine formulations. One reformulation of the influenza vaccine is for the ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2011 southern hemisphere influenza season". World Health ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2012 southern hemisphere influenza season". World Health ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2013 southern hemisphere influenza season". World Health ...
... the US government worked on developing inactivated vaccines for influenza, resulting in the first influenza vaccine being ... "Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines in the severe 2017-2018 epidemic season: a step towards improved influenza vaccine ... In general, influenza vaccines are only effective if there is an antigenic match between vaccine strains and circulating ... Influenza viruses, particularly IAV, evolve quickly, so flu vaccines are updated regularly to match which influenza strains are ...
"Canine Influenza Vaccine, H3N2, Killed Virus". Zoetis. Retrieved 9 June 2016. "Canine Influenza". American Veterinary Medical ... Dogs portal Avian influenza Equine influenza Human flu Swine influenza Cat flu "Canine influenza". American Veterinary Medical ... Canine influenza (dog flu) is influenza occurring in canine animals. Canine influenza is caused by varieties of influenzavirus ... approved the first canine influenza vaccine. This vaccine must be given twice initially with a two-week break, then annually ...
"Flublok Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine)". Food and Drug Administration. "Shingrix (Zoster Vaccine Recombinant, Adjuvanted)". ... A conjugate vaccine is a type of vaccine which combines a weak antigen with a strong antigen as a carrier so that the immune ... October 2012). "Recombinant influenza vaccines". Acta Naturae. 4 (4): 17-27. doi:10.32607/20758251-2012-4-4-17-27. PMC 3548171 ... A subunit vaccine is a vaccine that contains purified parts of the pathogen that are antigenic, or necessary to elicit a ...
"Vaccines Against Influenza". Weekly Epidemiological Record. World Health Organization. 47. 2012. Abel, David Eric; Alagh, Amy ( ... women should also fulfill any missing vaccinations as soon as possible including the tetanus vaccine and influenza vaccine. For ... are less prone to infections such as Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus pneunoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, ...
"Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV] (The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC ... Many vaccine technologies being developed for COVID‑19 are not like influenza vaccines but rather use "next-generation" ... Authorized vaccines of this type are the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines. The CVnCoV RNA vaccine from CureVac failed in ... Authorized vaccines of this type are the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID‑19 vaccine, the Sputnik V COVID‑19 vaccine, Convidecia, and ...
Rappuoli, Rino; Giudice, Giuseppe Del (2008-10-04). Influenza Vaccines for the Future. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN ... She is interested in the co-pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus and its role in influenza virus transmission. She looks to ... Her research considers the development of mammalian model to describe the transmission of respiratory disease and the influenza ... Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C.; Mubareka, Samira; Palese, Peter (2009-01-02). Baric, Ralph S. (ed.). "Transmission of Influenza ...
"Trivalent MDCK cell culture-derived influenza vaccine Optaflu (Novartis Vaccines)". Expert Review of Vaccines. Informa UK ... Flucelvax targets four Influenza sub-types which includes Influenza A subtype H1N1, Influenza A subtype H3N2, and two Influenza ... In 2012, the US FDA approved Flucelvax as the first mammalian cell-based Influenza vaccine in the United States. The vaccine ... "Vaccines Protect You". Vaccines.gov. Retrieved 18 December 2018. Nabel GJ (February 2013). "Designing tomorrow's vaccines". The ...
... and other vaccines are boosted if it is necessary. Free influenza vaccines are offered every year for the vulnerable groups and ... "Influenza vaccine". Finnish institute for health and welfare. (CS1 Finnish-language sources (fi), Articles with short ... HPV vaccines were given first for girls, but from 2020 HPV vaccines are also offered for boys. For adults, the vaccination ... A well-organized vaccination program and good vaccine coverage of the population has been one of the significant factors ...
"Influenza Vaccine". Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Committee to Review Adverse Effects of Vaccines, Board ... Vaccine. 32 (29): 3623-3629. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559. Vaccines and autism: Doja A, Roberts W (November ... Two versions of the vaccine causation hypothesis were that autism results from brain damage caused by either the MMR vaccine ... This has led to unsupported and disproven theories blaming vaccine "overload", the vaccine preservative thiomersal, or the MMR ...
Dormitzer, Philip R. (2014). "Rapid Production of Synthetic Influenza Vaccines". Influenza Pathogenesis and Control - Volume II ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (A/H7N9) is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A (avian influenza virus or bird ... Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. H7 influenza infections in ... Viruses portal Antigenic shift Influenza A virus subtype H9N2 Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Pandemic H1N1/09 virus Influenza ...
"The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 2". medscape.com. Retrieved 31 January 2017. P. CROVARI; M. ... "The Evolving History of Influenza Viruses and Influenza Vaccines 1". medscape.com. Retrieved 31 January 2017. " ... Osterholm, MT; Kelley, NS; Sommer, A; Belongia, EA (January 2012). "Efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines: a ... "FDA Approves Flublok Quadrivalent Flu Vaccine". medscape.com. Retrieved 30 January 2017. "Avian influenza A (H10N8)". WHO. ...
Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... "Pandemic influenza vaccine manufacturing process and timeline". www.WHO.int. Retrieved 19 January 2018. "Influenza vaccine ... The capability to produce vaccines varies widely from country to country; only 19 countries are listed as "influenza vaccine ... The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine that contains purified and inactivated material from three ...
Cholera vaccine Plague vaccine Salmonella vaccine Tuberculosis vaccine Typhoid vaccine Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV ... vaccine Polio vaccine Rotavirus vaccine Rubella vaccine Smallpox vaccine Varicella vaccine Yellow fever vaccine Zoster/shingles ... tuberculosis vaccine, smallpox vaccine) Mucosal: Nasal (e.g. live attenuated influenza vaccine) Oral (e.g. oral polio vaccine, ... Japanese encephalitis vaccine Measles vaccine Mumps vaccine Measles and rubella (MR) vaccine Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) ...
"The virosome concept for influenza vaccines". Vaccine. 23: S26-38. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.04.026. PMID 16026906. Bomsel M, ... They are also being considered for HIV-1 vaccine research. They were used as a drug carrier mechanism for experimental cancer ... A virosome is a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism consisting of unilamellar phospholipid membrane (either a mono- or bi-layer ... As a drug or vaccine delivery mechanism they are biologically compatible with many host organisms and are also biodegradable. ...
... respiratory syncytial virus and influenza vaccines. She has worked extensively with American Indian populations and in Africa ... "Malaria Vaccine Pioneer Awarded the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal in Vaccinology". Sabin Vaccine Institute. 6 May 2008. "The ... Vaccine. 35 (46): 6255-6263. doi:10.1016/J.VACCINE.2017.09.048. PMID 28986035. Wikidata () Piralam, Barameht; Prosperi, ... She said the experience was formative, and led her to view vaccines as being a social justice issue. From 1995 to 1997, she ...
... influenza became a prominent focus for nasal vaccine development. The first live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the ... The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in the form of a nasal spray was one of the first nasal vaccines released on the ... "How Influenza (Flu) Vaccines Are Made , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-11-03. Retrieved 2023-04-14. "Flu vaccine (Nasal)". vk.ovg.ox. ... "Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV] (The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-08-25. Retrieved 2023-04-14. ...
Clar C, Oseni Z, Flowers N, Keshtkar-Jahromi M, Rees K (May 2015). "Influenza vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease". ... Influenza may make heart attacks and strokes more likely and therefore influenza vaccination may decrease the chance of ...
McMahon AW, Iskander JK, Haber P, Braun MM, Ball R (January 2008). "Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in children ... Vaccine. 32 (29): 3623-9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.085. PMID 24814559. "Vaccine Safety ● Do Vaccines Cause Autism?". www. ... A vaccine adverse event (VAE), sometimes referred to as a vaccine injury, is an adverse event caused by vaccination. The World ... Some claimed vaccine injuries are not, in fact, caused by vaccines; for example, there is a subculture of advocates who ...
1906), Influenza vaccine. Instructions to medical officers of health. (1919) Interpreters of Nature. Essays. (1927) Lord ... 1930) Memorandum on prevention of influenza. (1919) On the History of the Decline and Final Extinction of Leprosy as an endemic ...
He has worked on Cochrane reviews examining the effectiveness of the anti-viral oseltamivir and the influenza vaccine. In 2009 ... Jefferson is the lead author of a suite of Cochrane reviews on antivirals, influenza vaccines and physical interventions to ... Jefferson, T; Di Pietrantonj, C; Debalini, MG; Rivetti, A; Demicheli, V (July 2009). "Inactivated influenza vaccines: methods, ... Grush, Loren (18 January 2012). "Researchers claim inadequate research to support anti-influenza drug". Fox News. Retrieved 8 ...
2011). "Lessons from pandemic influenza A(H1N1) The research-based vaccine industry's perspective". Vaccine. 29 (6): 1135-1138 ... In 2007, the WHO organized work on pandemic influenza vaccine development through clinical trials in collaboration with many ... "Poliomyelitis (Polio)". "Tables on clinical evaluation of influenza vaccines". World Health Organization. Archived from the ... As of 2012, the WHO was to report as to whether RTS,S/AS01, were a viable malaria vaccine. For the time being, insecticide- ...
"The Influenza Viruses and their Vaccines - Seminar Notice". NIH Clinical Center. Retrieved 18 July 2019. Alexander C. Schmidt, ... 11563-11567 Subbarao EK, London W, Murphy BR (1993). A single amino acid in the PB2 gene of influenza A virus is a determinant ... Murphy's research has focused on vaccine development for various viruses. In particular, his group is known for working on ... developing vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, influenza virus, dengue virus, and West Nile ...
Cates CJ, Rowe BH (February 2013). "Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with asthma". The Cochrane Database of ... "Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization - report of the extraordinary meeting on the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 ...
Among vaccine recipients, 80% shed one or more vaccine virus (mean duration: 7.6 days). One influenza B vaccine virus strain ... Influenza Vaccine Safety in Pregnant Women and Neonates. Under the previous FDA labeling regulations, influenza vaccines were ... Randomized Assessment of Influenza Vaccine Efficacy Network (RAIVEN). *Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness ... Only one adjuvanted influenza vaccine, Fluad (adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent [aIIV3], Seqirus) is ...
Viruses in the vaccine are inactivated or attenuated, so it is not possible to get the flu from ... Influenza vaccines are developed each year to protect people from the strains expected to be most prevalent. ... Influenza vaccines are developed each year to protect people from the strains expected to be most prevalent. Viruses in the ... vaccine are inactivated or attenuated, so it is not possible to get the flu from the vaccine. ...
INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1982-1983. VACCINE USAGE. General Recommendations. Use in Pregnancy. SUPPLEMENTARY MEASURES. SELECTED ... INFLUENZA VACCINES FOR 1982-1983. The specific antigens and their potency in the vaccine will be the same as in 1981-1982: 15 ... Clinical studies of influenza vaccines--1976. J Infect Dis 1977;136(Suppl):S341-S742.. Kilbourne ED, ed. The influenza viruses ... This revision of the influenza vaccine recommendations updates information on influenza activity in the United States for the ...
High-dose vaccine improved antibody responses and reduced illness among persons aged 65 years and older compared with standard- ... High-dose influenza vaccine provides better protection against influenza when compared with standard-dose vaccine among persons ... 2010fluarix-quadrivalent-fluzone-quadrivalent-influenza-virus-vaccine-quadrivalent-999829. Drugs influenza virus vaccine ... inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) with standard-dose, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-SD) in 31,989 people ...
The latest safety information from CDC on flu vaccines: safety studies, common side effects, vaccine schedule, vaccine package ... Injectable flu vaccines. Flu shots include inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and recombinant influenza vaccines (RIV). Flu ... Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Spontaneous Abortion in the Vaccine Safety Datalink in 2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15. Vaccine ... Inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and recombinant influenza vaccines (RIV) are shots that can be given to children and ...
Influenza vaccines. The most commonly used influenza vaccines are injected inactivated influenza vaccines. These come in a ... Seasonal influenza vaccines are the most effective way to prevent influenza disease, with safe and effective vaccines available ... There are other types of influenza vaccine; adjuvanted, live-attenuated (LAIV) and more recently recombinant influenza vaccines ... It is important to note that for pregnant women, influenza vaccines not only prevent influenza infection in this vulnerable ...
2021-2022 Influenza Vaccine Recommendation and Guidance on Coadministration with COVID-19 Vaccines ... Describe clinical considerations and best practices for coadministration of influenza vaccines and COVID-19 vaccines. ... 2021-2022 Influenza Vaccination Recommendations and Guidance on Coadministration with COVID-19 Vaccines. ... Preparing for the Upcoming Respiratory Virus Season: Recommendations for Influenza, COVID-19, and RSV Vaccines for Older Adults ...
... a pandemic flu vaccine H5N1 vaccine "Influenza vaccines - United States, 2019-20 influenza season*". U.S. Centers for Disease ... Novartis developed the first influenza vaccine, which did not need to be grown in chicken eggs, a cell-based vaccine. In 2014, ... "Fluzone intradermal vaccine website". Sanofi Pasteur. "FDA Approves A High Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Specifically ... "Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (VaxigripTetra)". Expert Review of Vaccines. 17 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1080/14760584.2018 ...
... On September 15, 2009, four influenza vaccine manufacturers received ... None of the approved influenza A 2009 (H1N1) monovalent vaccines or seasonal influenza vaccines contains adjuvants (1--5). ... 2009 monovalent influenza vaccines. Vaccine produced by CSL Limited is approved for use in persons aged ≥18 years (1), vaccine ... 2009 monovalent influenza vaccines in the prevention of influenza caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.* Both ...
How has the influenza vaccine evolved to match the evolution of influenza viruses? ... 2010fluarix-quadrivalent-fluzone-quadrivalent-influenza-virus-vaccine-quadrivalent-999829. Drugs influenza virus vaccine ... The Early Inactivated Vaccines The first research programs attempting to develop an inactivated influenza vaccine, outside of ... Table 1. Examples of mismatch between influenza vaccine B strain and circulating B strain. Country. Year. Circulating influenza ...
Tamiflu & influenza vaccines: more harm than good?. TAMIFLU & INFLUENZA VACCINES: MORE HARM THAN GOOD?. Owen Dyer reminds us ... How can influenza vaccines increase the risk of other infections? There are at least two possible mechanisms: first, influenza ... If influenza vaccines increase the overall risk of viral ARIs, as they do in the studies discussed above, would they also ... By preventing influenza infection a vaccine could prevent this unexpected but positive side effect. The Cowling study discusses ...
2021-2022 Influenza Vaccine Recommendation and Guidance on Coadministration with COVID-19 Vaccines ... Describe clinical considerations and best practices for coadministration of influenza vaccines and COVID-19 vaccines. ... 2021-2022 Influenza Vaccination Recommendations and Guidance on Coadministration with COVID-19 Vaccines. ... Preparing for the Upcoming Respiratory Virus Season: Recommendations for Influenza, COVID-19, and RSV Vaccines for Older Adults ...
National planning assists in determining the actions that should be taken in the upcoming weeks, months, and years to prevent, detect, and respond to risks and threats. These actions can be identified through comprehensive tools such as all-hazards National Action Plans for Health Security (NAPHS), disease-specific plans, contingency plans, and other sources. ...
An expert panel discusses the development of recombinant and cell-based vaccines and new types of influenza vaccines being ... Advancement of Influenza Vaccines Now Viewing. EP: 2. .Influenza Vaccine Development. EP: 3. .Targeting Predominant Strains of ... Addressing Vaccine Hesitancy EP: 12. .Barriers to Influenza Immunizations EP: 13. .Signs of Vaccine Hesitancy and Identifying ... An expert panel discusses the development of recombinant and cell-based vaccines and new types of influenza vaccines being ...
... influenza A H5N1 vaccine), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & ... encoded search term (influenza A (H5N1) vaccine (Audenz)) and influenza A (H5N1) vaccine (Audenz) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Vaccine Makers Ready to Test Bird Flu Vaccine in Humans * Vaccine Makers Prep Bird Flu Shot for Humans Just in Case; Rich ... Influenza vaccines induce antibodies against the viral HA in the vaccine, which then blocks viral attachment to human ...
Advice and warnings for the use of Influenza virus vaccine, h5n1 (Audenz) during pregnancy. ... Influenza virus vaccine, h5n1 Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Influenza virus vaccine, h5n1 is also known as: Audenz ... Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1, Inactivated (influenza virus vaccine, H5N1, inactivated). GlaxoSmithKline. 2022. ... Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1, Inactivated (influenza virus vaccine, H5N1, inactivated). GlaxoSmithKline. 2022. ...
... Your first bout of flu may determine how you fare during the ... Vaccines. Second malaria vaccine to win global approval is cheaper and easier to make ... By the time she is about three years old, a child has usually endured her first influenza infection. If its a nasty bout, her ... mRNA COVID vaccines saved lives and won a Nobel - whats next for the technology? ...
The Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit offers graphics and content for MHS Social Media Managers to use to share on their ... Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit Article. Oct 11, 2022 Prevent the Spread of Influenza and ... Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit Immunizations Article. Jan 24, 2022 Do You Have COVID-19 ... Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit Immunizations Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Toolkit Video. Oct 13, 2021 Flu Season: Staying ...
Unfortunately, influenza vaccine composition needs to be updated annually due to antigenic shift and drift in the viral ... including new platform technologies such as viral-vectored vaccines. We discuss the different vectored vaccines that have been ... We also discuss future perspectives and limitations in the field that will need to be addressed before new vaccines can ... Vaccination is the primary intervention used to curb influenza virus infection, and the WHO recommends immunization for at-risk ...
ACP advocates on behalf of internal medicine physicians and their patients on a number of timely issues. Learn about where ACP stands on the following areas:. ...
Hvivo will conduct a study to find an influenza B dose that creates a safe infection, before launching a human challenge trial ... Hvivo scores £13.1m contract to test influenza B vaccine. by Leigh Mc Gowran ... Influenza B is a strain of flu that is usually less prevalent than the more common type A. It typically causes milder symptoms ... The Irish company aims to find a dose of influenza B that will create a safe infection, before launching a human challenge ...
Complexities in assessing the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines, Page 1 of 1 ... Ongoing avian influenza outbreaks in animals pose risk to humans: read the situation analysis and advice to countries from the ... Complexities in assessing the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(7):pii=20403. https://doi ...
Administration of Influenza Vaccine (Image Provided). Health and Fitness H7N9 Influenza Vaccine Clinical Trials Begin. by eNews ... By administering the vaccine candidate to some volunteers who have received the seasonal influenza vaccine and some who have ... Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now ... will receive the seasonal influenza vaccine (0.5 ml dose) on the first day and two doses (3.75 mcg) of the H7N9 vaccine ...
We do not yet have a proven COVID-19 vaccine, but we know that the influenza vaccines are proven to prevent infection, lessen ... "We are encouraging parents to schedule their childs influenza vaccine visit as soon as possible, ideally before the end of ... Last year was a particularly severe influenza season. As of February 23, 2020, UW Health saw 821 cases of pediatric influenza ... This is compared to the 2018-2019 season when UW Health had only confirmed 76 pediatric influenza cases within the same ...
Unlike vaccines for polio and measles, which confer life-long immunity, the influenza vaccine protects ... ... The best way to prevent influenza is by immunization. ... the influenza vaccine protects for only one year. Influenza ... 1 thought on "Influenza vaccine for life?" * Pingback: Headless HA: universal influenza vaccine? ... A more difficult is how to formulate a vaccine with these epitopes. The most effective influenza vaccines are whole or split ...
... has anyone given their toddler the influenza b vaccine this year? If so, what was your experience? Any side effects? ... Hello mums, has anyone given their toddler the influenza b vaccine this year? If so, what was your experience? Any side effects ...
  • Several diagnoses, including acute upper respiratory illness, otitis media and asthma, were significantly less common during the 2 weeks after influenza vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Although there was a temporal relationship with vaccination, the vaccine did not necessarily cause or prevent these conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Fever, malaise, myalgia, and other systemic symptoms that can occur after vaccination with IIV3 most often affect persons who have had no previous exposure to the influenza virus antigens in the vaccine (e.g., young children) ( 393 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An observational study assessed post-vaccination fever frequency in 314 children aged 24-59 months receiving IIV during the 2013-14 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers found that the percentage of people with hemagglutination-inhibition titers 1:40 (the cut-off for seroprotection) or higher after vaccination was much higher in the high-dose vaccine group when compared with the standard-dose vaccine group. (medscape.com)
  • CDC recommends annual influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older with any flu vaccine licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that is appropriate for the recipient's age and health status. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination is particularly important for people who are at high risk of developing serious complications from influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • As influenza constantly evolves and changes over time and our immunity to influenza wanes, annual vaccination is recommended to protect against influenza. (who.int)
  • The degree of protection afforded by current and prior vaccination varies from year to year, reflecting variations in circulating influenza viruses and their antigenic similarity to the vaccine formulation. (who.int)
  • Reviews have found that influenza vaccination is either cost-saving or has an acceptable cost-effectiveness ration. (who.int)
  • From a societal and employer perspective, especially for high-income countries, influenza vaccination may be cost-effective for health workers and older adults. (who.int)
  • During this COCA Call, presenters will provide updates on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations for the 2021-2022 influenza vaccination season and guidance for coadministration of influenza and COVID-19 vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Outline updates on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations for 2021-22 influenza vaccination season. (cdc.gov)
  • Discuss general influenza vaccination guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has made recommendations previously for which persons should be the initial targets for immunization with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines and has issued guidelines on decisions for expansion of vaccination efforts to other population groups ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An immunogenicity study of an inactivated influenza A (H1N1) monovalent vaccine manufactured by CSL Limited (Parkville, Victoria, Australia) demonstrated that by day 21 after vaccination, antibody titers of 1:40 or more (hemagglutination-inhibition assay) were observed in 116 (97%) of 120 adults who received the 15 μ g dose. (cdc.gov)
  • These trials carried out by the U.S. Army led to the conclusion that vaccination reduced the incidence of both mild and severe clinical episodes of influenza and influenza-related mortality. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccination with live-attenuated or live vaccines is not recommended during ocrelizumab treatment and until B-cell repletion. (medscape.com)
  • A yearly flu vaccination is the best way to reduce influenza illnesses, doctor visits, missed attendance at work or school, and prevent flu-related hospitalizations. (health.mil)
  • Vaccination is the primary intervention used to curb influenza virus infection, and the WHO recommends immunization for at-risk individuals to mitigate disease. (mdpi.com)
  • There are a number of alternate vaccination strategies in current development which may circumvent the need for annual re-vaccination, including new platform technologies such as viral-vectored vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • The Phase 2 studies, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), will test different dosages of the inactivated influenza vaccine candidate (called 2017 H7N9 IIV) as well as different vaccination schedules. (enewspf.com)
  • The best way to help prevent influenza infections is to get an influenza vaccination each year, usually in early November. (mayoclinic.org)
  • 3 Influenza vaccination can reduce illness from influenza, doctors' visits, missed work and school, as well as reduce flu-related hospitalizations and deaths. (prnewswire.com)
  • Influenza vaccination remains a critical public health tool during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, helping to not only reduce the risk of seasonal influenza but also decrease the burden of influenza on healthcare resources. (prnewswire.com)
  • In recent weeks, the CDC has repeatedly emphasized the importance of influenza vaccination this flu season to help reduce the burden of disease and the impact of influenza on the healthcare system and other critical infrastructures during the COVID-19 pandemic. (drugstorenews.com)
  • from children to adults, including influenza vaccination during the 2020-2021 season," said Dr. Leonard Friedland, vice president, director of Scientific Affairs and Public Health, GSK Vaccines. (drugstorenews.com)
  • According to the CDC, annual influenza vaccination is the best way to help protect people 6 months and older against the flu. (drugstorenews.com)
  • While protection is generally expected to last for the whole season, optimal protection against influenza occurs within the first 3 to 4 months following vaccination. (act.gov.au)
  • As the influenza virus is in the community all year it is never too late to have the vaccination. (act.gov.au)
  • Influenza vaccination during pregnancy also protects babies after birth. (act.gov.au)
  • Vaccination remains the best protection pregnant women and newborns have against influenza virus. (act.gov.au)
  • The most common side-effects after influenza vaccination are redness, pain and swelling at the injection site. (act.gov.au)
  • Influenza vaccination is generally not recommended for people with a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) whose first episode occurred with 6 weeks of receiving an influenza vaccine. (act.gov.au)
  • Persons with a history of GBS whose first episode was not after influenza vaccination have an extremely low risk of recurrence of GBS after vaccination and the influenza vaccination is recommended. (act.gov.au)
  • If you have an egg allergy you can still have the influenza vaccination. (act.gov.au)
  • Vaccination is the best way for pregnant women to protect themselves and their babies from whooping cough and influenza. (health.gov.au)
  • Advanced service specification for community pharmacy for the 2023/24 seasonal influenza vaccination programme and patient group direction (PGD). (england.nhs.uk)
  • This document is the advanced service specification for community pharmacy for the 2023/24 seasonal influenza vaccination programme. (england.nhs.uk)
  • This PGD is for the administration of inactivated influenza vaccine to adults in accordance with the community pharmacy seasonal influenza vaccination advanced service and national influenza immunisation programme. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Beginning with the 2010-11 vaccination season, ACIP recommends annual vaccination for all people ages 6 months and older who do not have a contraindication to the vaccine. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Early vaccination of children younger than age 9 years who are first time vaccinees can be helpful in assuring routine second doses before the influenza season begins. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Children age 6 months through 8 years who did not receive AT LEAST 1 dose of the 2010-11 vaccine should receive 2 doses, separated by at least 4 weeks, REGARDLESS of their previous influenza vaccination history. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Children age 6 months through 8 years whose influenza vaccination status from the previous season is not known should also receive 2 doses at least 4 weeks apart. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • RESULTS Claims-based influenza vaccination rates increased from 35.5% to 41.3% from 2000-2003, reflecting historical trends, before declining 14.1% in 2004. (annfammed.org)
  • Annual influenza vaccination has been recommended for preventing influenza and its complications in older Americans for years. (annfammed.org)
  • The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) considers influenza immunization rates a measure of quality of care in various settings, and it has charged its quality improvement organization contractors with promoting vaccination. (annfammed.org)
  • 4 In 2004, there was a severe shortage of influenza vaccine in the United States, resulting in a recommendation to limit vaccination to persons in high-risk groups, including those older than age 65 years who make up the bulk of Medicare beneficiaries. (annfammed.org)
  • Table of influenza vaccines available for 2023-24 including trade name, manufacturer, number of doses, dose-presentation, and vaccination route-site. (mn.us)
  • The influenza vaccines were prepared by treating influenza viruses with a chemical that kills the virus (inactivated virus), and the vaccination was given by injection through the skin. (cochrane.org)
  • We were interested in showing the effects of vaccines on reducing the number of elderly with confirmed influenza, the number who had influenza-like symptoms such as headache, high temperature, cough, and muscle pain (influenza-like illness, of ILI), and harms from vaccination. (cochrane.org)
  • Rick and her colleagues sought to expand on these findings, and investigated whether maternal vaccination against influenza during pregnancy would provide a synergistic benefit when combined with breastfeeding to prevent influenza infection in their newborns. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Exposures included maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and any human milk consumption during the first 3 months of life, and outcomes included lab confirmed influenza infection in the first 6 months of life confirmed via laboratory testing (eg, positive influenza rapid antigen or PCR testing). (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • While exclusive human milk nutrition did enhance rates of influenza infection to 63% when combined with maternal vaccination, Rick did note that any human milk exposure was overall associated with reduced rates of influenza infection in infants. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • She hypothesized that exposure to human milk boosts the protection of influenza vaccination by providing broad immune bolstering effects in infants and perhaps by passing vaccine-specific antibodies directly to infants. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Despite inclusion of seasonal influenza vaccine as an essential element of prenatal care [ 2 ], coverage rates have remained low and, in 2008-2009, the seasonal influenza vaccination rate in pregnant women was reported to be 11.3% [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Once the H1N1 influenza vaccine became available, CDC and ACOG strongly advised H1N1 vaccination for all pregnant women. (hindawi.com)
  • Elderly adults over 65 years of age are recommended to receive seasonal influenza vaccination as they are at a higher risk of infection and its complications than the younger community. (frontiersin.org)
  • The elderly are often stratified according to frailty status where frail individuals are more susceptible to adverse health outcomes than their non-frail counterparts, however, it is not known whether immunity induced by influenza vaccination is impaired in the frail elderly. (frontiersin.org)
  • With most subjects lacking previous history of influenza vaccination, the pre-vaccination titres were likely due to natural exposure and seen to match the pattern of influenza subtype prevalence in the time period of vaccination. (frontiersin.org)
  • The majority of the elderly subjects seroconverted for seasonal influenza upon vaccination, and importantly, influenza vaccination-induced humoral immune responses and seroprotection were similar across the frailty strata, indicating that frail individuals may also benefit from influenza vaccination. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (hereinafter referred to as Taiwan CDC) of the Ministry of Health and Welfare announced today that the second phase of the government-funded influenza vaccination program has begun. (gov.tw)
  • To increase the influenza vaccination rate, Taiwan CDC has once again partnered with PX Mart and local health authorities across the country to establish vaccination stations at designated PX Mart stores. (gov.tw)
  • Additionally, individuals aged 65 and above can receive pneumococcal vaccines in different phases of the vaccination campaign based on their eligibility to effectively reduce the risk of severe respiratory illnesses and death. (gov.tw)
  • To support efforts to encourage the public to get vaccinated against influenza, PX Mart has arranged for approximately 80 of its stores throughout Taiwan to host vaccination stations established by local health authorities. (gov.tw)
  • Taiwan CDC pointed out that this year's government-funded influenza vaccination program is being launched in two phases. (gov.tw)
  • Influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, with an average protection of about 30-80% following vaccination. (gov.tw)
  • Objective: To evaluate the associations between influenza vaccination and other factors and the risk of mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. (elsevier.es)
  • Information on influenza vaccination was extracted from electronic medical records. (elsevier.es)
  • We used a multivariate logistic regression to explore the association between influenza vaccination and mortality from COVID and other risk factors. (elsevier.es)
  • In August 2008, the China CDC issued the 2008 'Guidelines for Influenza Prevention and Control Technology' that highlighted the positive public health implications of receiving the seasonal flu vaccine, the target population and the extension of the vaccination duration. (sinovac.com)
  • Use of influenza-specific antiviral drugs for chemoprophylaxis or treatment of influenza is an important adjunct to vaccination, particularly for controlling outbreaks in closed populations. (medscape.com)
  • View national and state-level influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the general population using interactive maps, trend lines, bar charts, and data tables. (cdc.gov)
  • To prevent seasonal flu, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend routine annual influenza vaccination for all persons aged 6 months or older, preferably before the onset of influenza activity in the community. (medscape.com)
  • Specific recommendations for individuals who should be immunized can be obtained from the CDC, which publishes regular updates of this information (see Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Resources for Health Professionals ). (medscape.com)
  • Influenza vaccination should not be delayed to procure a specific vaccine preparation if an appropriate one is already available. (medscape.com)
  • But one thing is certain - North Macedonia's health authorities want to make sure that access to information and vaccination is as easy as possible so no one is left behind as they prepare for winter amid concerns of a COVID-19 and influenza surge. (who.int)
  • Under the slogan "Protected Together - Vaccines Work", the information and vaccination caravan brought information on seasonal influenza, COVID-19 and all routine childhood vaccines and offered on-the-spot vaccination against COVID-19. (who.int)
  • Objective: Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent seasonal influenza and its severe outcomes. (who.int)
  • The objective of our study was to synthesize information on seasonal influenza vaccination policies, recommendations and practices in place in 2011 for all countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). (who.int)
  • Methods: Data were collected via a questionnaire on seasonal influenza vaccination policies, recommendations and practices in place in 2011. (who.int)
  • Eighteen (50%) reported having established seasonal influenza vaccination policies, an additional seven (19%) reported having recommendations for risk groups for seasonal influenza vaccination only and 11 (30%) reported having no policies or recommendations in place. (who.int)
  • Discussion: In light of the new WHO position paper on influenza vaccines published in 2012 and the increasing availability of country-specific data, countries and areas should consider reviewing or developing their seasonal influenza vaccination policies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with annual epidemics and as part of ongoing efforts for pandemic preparedness. (who.int)
  • Administer all immunizations according to immunization guidelines at least 2 weeks before initiating ofatumumab SC for inactivated vaccines, and whenever possible. (medscape.com)
  • The DHA has embarked on its annual influenza immunization drive. (health.mil)
  • Immunization against influenza and COVID-19 are required for Service members and health care personnel. (health.mil)
  • We are encouraging parents to schedule their child's influenza vaccine visit as soon as possible, ideally before the end of October, to provide the best and earliest protection," said James Conway, MD , pediatrician, Immunization Program medical director at UW Health. (uwhealth.org)
  • The best way to prevent influenza is by immunization. (virology.ws)
  • Immunization (getting a vaccine) against influenza is approved for infants 6 months of age and older, all children, and all adults (including 65 years of age and older). (mayoclinic.org)
  • We are dedicated to making vaccines more accessible, enabling innovation and expanding immunization across the globe. (sabin.org)
  • We make vaccines more accessible, enable innovation and expand immunization across the globe. (sabin.org)
  • Real world studies of influenza vaccines provide critical evidence for understanding the impact of annual immunization linked to the circulating viruses in the community," said Stephen I. Pelton , MD, Professor of Pediatrics at Boston University School of Medicine and Public Health & Boston Medical Center, and study author. (prnewswire.com)
  • A recent claims analysis commissioned by GSK and conducted by Avalere Health showed a significant and sustained drop in immunization rates for recommended vaccines among adolescents and adults throughout the pandemic in 2020, including influenza immunization. (drugstorenews.com)
  • PURPOSE We assessed the impact of the severe influenza vaccine shortage of 2004 on individual physicians' immunization performance. (annfammed.org)
  • METHODS Using 1998-2004 Medicare claims data, we monitored the physician continuity rate (proportion of patients receiving influenza immunization from a physician in 1 year who received a subsequent immunization from the same physician the subsequent year) and other clinician rate (proportion of patients with claims from 1 physician in 1 year with a claim from another clinician the subsequent year) in West Virginia Medicare beneficiaries from 2000-2004. (annfammed.org)
  • We examined vaccine claim trends by clinician and surveys of self-reported immunization to determine whether patients received vaccine from nonphysician clinicians or went without immunization each year. (annfammed.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS The 2004 vaccine shortage had a severe impact on influenza immunization rates in private physician's offices, disrupting continuity of care. (annfammed.org)
  • The West Virginia Medical Institute (WVMI, a Medicare quality improvement organization) has conducted projects aimed at improving rates of influenza immunization in West Virginia since the mid-1990s. (annfammed.org)
  • 7 Zimmerman and colleagues 8 observed no reduction in self-reported influenza immunization rates in an inner-city population with good access to vaccine in 2000 , but respondents' attitudes about influenza vaccine changed for the worse. (annfammed.org)
  • Screening handouts from the Immunization Action Coalition including influenza screening checklists. (mn.us)
  • We created a real-time vaccine registry, educated patients in their own language via educational videos and use of cultural case workers, facilitated patient appointments and transportation, educated staff, and used other interventions to enhance immunization uptake. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this paper is to document a multifactorial highly successful influenza immunization program in our largely immigrant and ethnically diverse obstetric population. (hindawi.com)
  • Modified from The Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases,Haemophilus influenza Type bConjugate Vaccines: Recommendations for Immunization of Infants and Children 2 Months of Age and Older:Update, American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL. (virtualpediatrichospital.org)
  • These data summarize country introduction status of Seasonal Influenza vaccine in the national immunization programme. (who.int)
  • The ACIP's Adult Immunization Schedule for influenza vaccine includes information about the recombinant influenza vaccine and addresses the use of this vaccine and the inactivated influenza vaccine in patients with egg allergy. (medscape.com)
  • Viruses in the vaccine are inactivated or attenuated, so it is not possible to get the flu from the vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for only a small proportion of all respiratory disease, but they are unique in their ability to cause periodic widespread outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness among adults and children. (cdc.gov)
  • Excess deaths in this period were attributable mainly to influenza A viruses, although influenza B epidemics were occasionally associated with excess deaths, as in 1979-1980. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes on the basis of 2 antigens: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Three subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1,H2, H3) and 2 subtypes of neuraminidase (N1, N2) are recognized among influenza A viruses that have caused widespread human disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Although influenza B viruses have shown much more antigenic stability than influenza A viruses, antigenic variation does occur. (cdc.gov)
  • In many states, influenza B viruses were shown to be the cause of localized outbreaks among school-age children. (cdc.gov)
  • Several nursing-home outbreaks, some with associated mortality, were also confirmed to be caused by influenza B viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Sporadic illnesses and a few focal outbreaks caused by influenza A(H1N1) viruses also occurred among children and young adults, but these viruses were less prevalent than influenza B. Influenza A(H1N1) isolates were, as in 1980-1981, similar to A/England/333/80, which can be shown by laboratory tests to be slightly different from A/Brazil/11/78, the current vaccine strain. (cdc.gov)
  • Most information about strains of influenza A(H3N2) likely to be prevalent in 1982-1983 is derived from reports and analyses of viruses isolated in 1981 in Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • There are two main types of influenza (flu) viruses: Types A and B. Influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people (human influenza viruses) are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Also known as live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), this nasal spray contains live viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • To ensure optimal vaccine effectiveness against prevailing strains in both the northern and southern hemispheres, the composition of influenza vaccines is revised twice a year and adjusted to the strains of circulating influenza viruses, as obtained by the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). (who.int)
  • In particular, the Director-General is requested to develop appropriate language for consideration by relevant databases to inform potential users of genetic sequence data of influenza viruses with pandemic potential about the PIP Framework. (who.int)
  • Influenza activity attributed to 2009 H1N1 viruses has increased during September 2009 and is expected to continue through the fall and winter influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • This virus was named Influenza B and the inactivated influenza vaccine had to be bivalent to provide protection against both types of influenza viruses (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • Evolution of influenza viruses and corresponding evolution of influenza vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • they look only at influenza infections and make no attempt to look at the other 200-plus respiratory viruses. (bmj.com)
  • Individuals who recover from influenza can have broad and long-lasting protection against an array of influenza viruses. (bmj.com)
  • The seasonal influenza vaccine is designed to protect against the influenza viruses determined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be the most likely to spread and cause illness among people during the influenza season. (health.mil)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration makes the final decision about vaccine viruses included in influenza vaccines in the United States. (health.mil)
  • During these clinical trials, some participants will receive an adjuvant, called AS03, along with the test vaccine, to confirm that the adjuvant can boost the immune response to the vaccine, as previously shown for other influenza viruses of pandemic potential. (enewspf.com)
  • Ten antibodies were identified that neutralized the infectivity of H5 influenza viruses in cell culture. (virology.ws)
  • That has led some experts to suggest that this type of vaccine would allow continued spread of influenza viruses to other individuals. (fda.gov)
  • In the current study, scientists showed that the vaccine is more effective at reducing transmission of influenza A viruses among mice when it is given intranasally rather than injected intramuscularly. (fda.gov)
  • Influenza virus vaccine is used to prevent infection by the influenza viruses. (mayoclinic.org)
  • There are many kinds of influenza viruses, but not all will cause problems in any given year. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Therefore, before the influenza vaccine is produced each year, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. and Canadian Public Health Services decide which viruses will most likely cause influenza infections for that year. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The antigens, which are substances that cause protective antibodies to be formed, for these viruses are included in the influenza vaccine. (mayoclinic.org)
  • It is necessary to receive an influenza vaccine injection each year, since influenza infections are usually caused by different kinds of viruses and the protection gained by the vaccine lasts for less than a year. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Influenza (Flu) Influenza (flu) is a viral infection of the lungs and airways with one of the influenza viruses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The vaccine does not contain any live viruses. (act.gov.au)
  • This project will explore determine how sequence variation in the UTR's of the influenza vRNA's (particularly, HA and NA) impact the replication/fitness of influenza A viruses by focusing our analysis on the UTR's of high yield reassortants used as vaccine seed stocks and selected naturally circulating strains. (jcvi.org)
  • The sequence of the complete genomes including the HA and NA UTRs of low and high yield reassortant vaccine candidate, and seed stocks and their parental viruses (wild type). (jcvi.org)
  • We will also investigate changes in the HA and NA UTRs of a subset of ~6-10 reassortants vaccine seeds which have been serially passaged in mammalian cell culture or eggs to determine if the substrate/species used to propagate the viruses selects for changes in the UTRs that enhance growth under specific conditions. (jcvi.org)
  • At best, vaccines are only effective against influenza A and B, which represent about 5% of all circulating viruses. (cochrane.org)
  • Inactivated vaccine is prepared by treating influenza viruses with a specific chemical agent that 'kills' the virus. (cochrane.org)
  • Final preparations may contain either the complete viruses (whole-virion vaccine) or the active part of them (split or subunit vaccines). (cochrane.org)
  • [ 74 ] The vaccine viruses recommended by the World Health Organization and the CDC for the 2014-2015 northern hemisphere influenza season are the same as those for the northern hemisphere 2013-2014 influenza season and 2014 southern hemisphere season. (medscape.com)
  • Historically, influenza vaccine has had 50-60% efficacy against infection with influenza A viruses and 70% efficacy against influenza B viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Influenza vaccine component recommendations are based on numerous factors, including global influenza virologic and epidemiologic surveillance, genetic and antigenic characterization, antiviral susceptibility, and the availability of candidate vaccine viruses for production. (medscape.com)
  • Measurement of antibody responses of persons receiving vaccines containing A/Brazil/11/78 antigen, however, indicates that these vaccines should protect against A/England/333/80-like H1N1 strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Influvac Influvac Tetra They contain inactivated purified surface fragments (subunits) from the three different strains of the influenza virus (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and Influenza B virus) that are selected and distributed by the World Health Organization, on the basis of their latest recommendations. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 15, 2009, four influenza vaccine manufacturers received approval from the Food and Drug Administration for use of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent influenza vaccines in the prevention of influenza caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. (cdc.gov)
  • None of the approved influenza A 2009 (H1N1) monovalent vaccines or seasonal influenza vaccines contains adjuvants ( 1-- 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The approved age groups for use of inactivated influenza A (H1N1) monovalent influenza vaccines differ by manufacturer ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Three manufacturers that produce inactivated vaccines approved for prevention of seasonal influenza ( 6 ) also produce formulations of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent influenza vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine approvals were made on the basis of standards developed for vaccine strain changes for seasonal influenza vaccines, adherence to manufacturing processes, product quality testing, and lot release procedures developed for seasonal vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • The age groups, precautions, and contraindications approved for the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine are identical to those approved for seasonal vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • As an example of the type of public health gap to be filled, the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus that caused a pandemic, emerged suddenly. (fda.gov)
  • For the 2021-22 flu season, the World Health Organization and FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee recommended including A/Victoria/2570/2019 (H1N1) pdm09-like virus, A/Cambodia/e0826360/2020 (H3N2)-like virus, B/Washington/02/2019 (B/Victoria lineage)-like virus and B/Phuket/3073/2013 (B/Yamagata lineage)-like virus for egg-based vaccines. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Evidence of the H1N1 influenza vaccine's safety during pregnancy was found by researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Boston University, in collaboration with the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI). (medindia.net)
  • The national study, which was launched shortly after the H1N1 influenza outbreak of 2009, is summarized in two companion papers published online on September 19 in the journal Vaccine . (medindia.net)
  • The overall results of the study were quite reassuring about the safety of the flu vaccine formulations that contained the pandemic H1N1 strain," said Christina Chambers, PhD, MPH, Director of the non-profit Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) Research Center and lead investigator of UC San Diego's team. (medindia.net)
  • Since it was anticipated that the 2009 H1N1 influenza season would be severe, a national study was launched by the Vaccines and Medications in Pregnancy Surveillance System (VAMPSS), a collaboration between UC San Diego School of Medicine and Boston University and coordinated by AAAAI to gather data on the safety of this vaccine during pregnancy. (medindia.net)
  • While the team did observe a slight increase in preterm delivery rates among pregnant women who received the H1N1 vaccine specifically during the 2009-2010 season, vaccinated women overall only delivered an average of two days earlier compared to the unvaccinated group. (medindia.net)
  • An increased risk of severe influenza infection was also observed in postpartum women (those delivered within the previous 2 weeks) during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Most alarmingly, in women who received the H1N1 vaccine in the previous flu season, the odds of spontaneous abortion in the 28 days after receiving a flu vaccine were 7.7 times greater. (theepochtimes.com)
  • For the current 2017-18 flu season , the CDC still recommends that all flu vaccines contain H1N1. (theepochtimes.com)
  • In fact, the rate of miscarriages increased 11-fold in 2009 when the H1N1 vaccine was added to the recommended schedule. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Pandemic vaccine contains only the virus strain that is responsible for the pandemic (e.g. the type A H1N1 for the 2009 to 2010 pandemic). (cochrane.org)
  • To report on a multifaceted approach to increase uptake of the H1N1 vaccine in our ethnically diverse obstetrical population. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2009, a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin caused human infection and acute respiratory illness in Mexico [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This is a retrospective study of H1N1 vaccine coverage achieved in the first month of vaccine availability in 157 pregnant women. (hindawi.com)
  • Two hundred and five elderly subjects of Chinese ethnicity in Singapore (mean age 73.3 ± 5.3 years, 128 females and 77 males) were administered the recommended trivalent inactivated 2013-14 seasonal influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip™) containing A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, during the 2009-2010 novel influenza A H1N1 pandemic, preliminary data from a limited number of states indicated a high prevalence of virus strains resistant to oseltamivir. (medscape.com)
  • Epidemics of influenza B, and to a lesser extent of influenza A, infection have been associated with an increased incidence of Reye syndrome among children and adolescents in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important to note that for pregnant women, influenza vaccines not only prevent influenza infection in this vulnerable group but also their offspring through the transfer of maternal antibodies. (who.int)
  • By preventing influenza infection a vaccine could prevent this unexpected but positive side effect. (bmj.com)
  • Coadministration with live attenuated vaccines may increase infection risk. (medscape.com)
  • We discuss the different vectored vaccines that have been or are currently in clinical trials, with a forward-looking focus on immunogens that may be protective against seasonal and pandemic influenza infection, in the context of viral-vectored vaccines. (mdpi.com)
  • The Irish company aims to find a dose of influenza B that will create a safe infection, before launching a human challenge trial next year. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • This study aims to identify a dose of influenza B that creates a "safe and reproducible infection" by deliberately exposing human volunteers. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • We do not yet have a proven COVID-19 vaccine, but we know that the influenza vaccines are proven to prevent infection, lessen the severity of the virus, and reduce hospitalizations and mortality. (uwhealth.org)
  • The antibodies also protected mice against lethal H5N1 influenza even when administered after infection. (virology.ws)
  • The scientists have now demonstrated the ability of this universal influenza vaccine candidate to reduce the transmission of influenza virus in mice, even though this vaccine does not completely block infection by the virus. (fda.gov)
  • Unlike seasonal influenza vaccines that induce neutralizing antibodies to HA, immunity to NP and M2 might permit some mild, brief infection. (fda.gov)
  • That model suggested that a vaccine reducing transmission, even if it did not completely prevent infection, could reduce the size of outbreaks and slow the rate of mutation of the virus. (fda.gov)
  • Influenza is a virus infection of the throat, bronchial tubes, and lungs. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Each year, thousands of people die as a result of an influenza infection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Until now, scientists had only identified broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting the flu virus stem in humans following natural infection, and the new research provides clear evidence that these antibodies can be induced by a vaccine, as indicated in the Science Daily report. (rtmagazine.com)
  • Bird Flu Bird flu is a viral infection with strains of influenza virus that normally occur in wild birds and domestic poultry. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Influenza infection during pregnancy can lead to premature delivery and even death in newborns and very young babies. (act.gov.au)
  • Side effects can mimic influenza infection but are due to the vaccine's interaction with the immune system. (act.gov.au)
  • Some strains of the avian H7N9 influenza that emerged in China this year have developed resistance to the only antiviral drugs available to treat the infection. (medindia.net)
  • Infants whose mothers were not vaccinated against influenza, but did breastfeed had a 26% reduction in rates of influenza infection. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Infants whose mothers were vaccinated against influenza, but did not breastfeed had a 45% reduction in rates of influenza infection. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • And infants whose mothers were both vaccinated against influenza and also breastfed had a 56% reduction in rates of influenza infection. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Rick also highlighted the utility of these findings as a tool to inform clinician counseling of pregnant persons to reduce risk of influenza infection in their children. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Therefore, elderly individuals above 65 years of age are considered to be at a greater risk of influenza infection and its complications, and it is hence recommended that they receive an annual administration of seasonal influenza vaccine ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Oseltamivir and zanamivir are antiviral neuraminidase inhibitors that are used for chemoprophylaxis and treatment of influenza A and B infection. (medscape.com)
  • Because of this, zanamivir was recommended as the initial choice for antiviral prophylaxis or treatment when influenza A infection or exposure was suspected. (medscape.com)
  • At IDWeek 2023, several authors share a study on mother-infant pairs, evaluating for differences in rates of influenza infections in infants. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Influenza infections disproportionately affected children aged younger than 5 years in 2022-2023, and infections tend to be most severe and result in hospitalization more often in children aged less than one year. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • The vaccine viral strains recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the 2023-2024 Northern Hemisphere influenza season differ from those from the previous influenza season. (medscape.com)
  • All vaccines in the United States for the 2023-2024 influenza season are expected to be quadrivalent vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • An expert panel discusses the development of recombinant and cell-based vaccines and new types of influenza vaccines being explored. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Two types of influenza virus, type A and type B, regularly cause seasonal epidemics of influenza in the United States. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These are very exciting findings, and in my opinion, bode well for a universal influenza vaccine within the next decade. (virology.ws)
  • Headless HA: universal influenza vaccine? (virology.ws)
  • Getting us to a universal influenza vaccine requires collaboration and new thinking. (sabin.org)
  • The world needs a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) - one that is long lasting with the ability to protect against a broad spectrum of mutations. (sabin.org)
  • According to the researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Human Genome Research Institute, and other collaborators, the discovery may help guide development of a universal influenza vaccine. (rtmagazine.com)
  • Two studies of newly isolated monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus suggest that the answer could be yes. (virology.ws)
  • The authors of one study identified human antibodies against influenza virus by phage display. (virology.ws)
  • If another epitope can be identified that elicits neutralizing antibodies against group 2 HA subtypes, then a universal vaccine that confers life-long protection might be feasible. (virology.ws)
  • When animals are immunized with influenza virus, most of the antibodies that are produced are directed against the membrane-distal, globular head of the HA molecule (top of image). (virology.ws)
  • Current vaccines are designed to trigger production of neutralizing antibodies (antibodies that prevent virus from getting into cells) against proteins on the surface of the virus, mainly a protein called HA. (fda.gov)
  • However, the new findings show that even without triggering production of neutralizing antibodies, this universal vaccine reduces virus transmission in mice. (fda.gov)
  • The vaccine works by causing your body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the disease. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Scientists have identified three types of vaccine-induced antibodies that can neutralize diverse strains of influenza virus that infect humans. (rtmagazine.com)
  • The scientists discovered the B cells encoded three classes of antibodies that can neutralize diverse influenza virus subtypes and, therefore, could form the basis of a universal flu vaccine, according to the Science Daily news report. (rtmagazine.com)
  • The antibodies produced by the vaccine protect pregnant women and also pass to the baby, protecting them in their first months of life when they are most vulnerable. (health.gov.au)
  • Pre-existing antibodies due to natural exposure appeared to positively influence vaccine-induced antibody responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Effect of belimumab on vaccine antigen antibodies to influenza, pneumococcal, and tetanus vaccines in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in the BLISS-76 trial. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibodies to vaccine antigens were tested at baseline and Week 52, and percentage changes in antibody levels from baseline and proportions of patients maintaining levels at Week 52 were assessed. (bvsalud.org)
  • GSK today announced it started shipping its quadrivalent influenza vaccines to U.S. healthcare providers and pharmacies for the 2021-22 flu season. (drugstorenews.com)
  • The relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of high-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV-HD) versus standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV-SD) against hospitalizations and mortality in the general older population has not been evaluated in an individually randomized trial. (eswi.org)
  • Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is a nasal spray that can be given to non-pregnant people 2 through 49 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA approved this live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) nasal spray vaccine for persons 2 through 49 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • adjuvanted, live-attenuated (LAIV) and more recently recombinant influenza vaccines. (who.int)
  • Live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have generally been well tolerated in healthy children and adults, but when symptoms do occur, like inactivated influenza vaccines, they are self-limiting and mild. (who.int)
  • A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) manufactured by MedImmune LLC is approved for persons aged 2--49 years ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • [ 8 ] With an inactivated virus vaccine, the amount of antigen required to induce immunity is much greater than that for a live-attenuated virus vaccine, because unlike the live-attenuated virus, the inactivated virus does not replicate in the recipient. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) on the live attenuated virus (nasal spray) flu vaccine in English and other languages. (mn.us)
  • Fluarix Flulaval Fluarix Tetra Influvac and its quadrivalent formulation are surface antigen subunit vaccines marketed by Mylan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optaflu is a trivalent surface antigen inactivated vaccine prepared in cell cultures manufactured by Novartis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA for the hemagglutinin antigen of influenza virus is added to a baculovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, being able to obtain large quantities of virus in the allantoic fluid overcame this problem and an inactivated vaccine with a sufficiently high concentration of antigen could be prepared, after a simple, rapid purification process. (medscape.com)
  • The Octet ® platform's Bio-Layer Interferometry (BLI) technology combines the high-throughput characteristics of a 96-well or 384-well plate format with improvements in precision and reproducibility and is derived from a simpler and more direct vaccine/antigen-antibody binding measurement method. (sartorius.com)
  • This study raises concerns whether this particular strain of influenza antigen is safe during pregnancy. (theepochtimes.com)
  • One of the imponderables is the effect of seasonal influenza vaccines on population immunity. (bmj.com)
  • However, if the virus mutates and becomes easily transmissible between humans, it could result in an influenza pandemic because most people have little to no immunity to it. (enewspf.com)
  • The new version of the vaccine candidate uses an inactivated form of H7N9 influenza virus collected in 2017, to increase the likelihood that the vaccine will provide immunity against a newly-evolved strain of H7N9, which is currently circulating in the wild. (enewspf.com)
  • Unlike vaccines for polio and measles, which confer life-long immunity, the influenza vaccine protects for only one year. (virology.ws)
  • A limitation of such vaccines is that HA mutates frequently, allowing the virus to escape from immunity to an HA-based vaccine. (fda.gov)
  • Antigenic shift results in a completely new strain against which humans have little or no immunity-potentially causing an influenza pandemic. (sabin.org)
  • Researchers from Sanofi Pasteur, which funded the study, conducted a phase 3b-4 double-blind, active-controlled trial in which they compared a high-dose, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-HD) with standard-dose, trivalent, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-SD) in 31,989 people aged 65 years or older. (medscape.com)
  • We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and clinical effectiveness of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccine (aTIV) compared with a non-adjuvanted vaccine (TIV) in subjects ≥65 years old, with or without co-morbidities. (nih.gov)
  • For the trivalent formulation influenza vaccines, two strains of influenza A and one of influenza B are included. (medscape.com)
  • As a consequence, the characteristics of antigenic properties of current strains provide the basis for selecting virus strain(s) to be included in the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaxigrip provides immune responses to three influenza strains and VaxigripTetra adds another B strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bivalent vaccine contained 0.5 ml of virus concentrated from 5 ml of allantoic fluid containing influenza A and the same amount of influenza B. One half of the influenza A allantoic fluid contained the A/PR8 strain and the other half contained the Weiss strain, a strain that had been isolated more recently and that was slightly different from A/PR8. (medscape.com)
  • Influenza B is a strain of flu that is usually less prevalent than the more common type A. It typically causes milder symptoms, though both strains have the potential to cause severe symptoms. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • The pandemic influenza strain was identified in April 2009 and by September 2009, the vaccine was developed and produced, and FDA had approved influenza vaccines from various manufacturers for use by the public. (fda.gov)
  • At least 50 million people were killed by the 1918 influenza strain. (sabin.org)
  • If developed and distributed equitably before the emergence of a novel influenza strain, a UIV could save millions of lives. (sabin.org)
  • 7 Egg-based manufacturing requires a growth-inducing strain to ensure the influenza virus can grow successfully in eggs, which can cause the strain to mutate and result in an influenza virus that can be different from the intended strain. (prnewswire.com)
  • According to a report, a new computer model could help scientists predict when a particular strain of avian influenza might become infectious from bird to human. (medindia.net)
  • The quadrivalent vaccines contain an additional influenza B strain. (medscape.com)
  • Efforts to reduce the impact of influenza in the United States have been aimed at protecting persons at greatest risk of serious illness or death. (cdc.gov)
  • The number of deaths caused by influenza varies greatly from year to year, with about 20,000 to 50,000 deaths annually in the United States (see Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's [CDC] impact of influenza in past years ). (msdmanuals.com)
  • We looked for evidence of the impact of influenza or ILI such as hospital admission, complications, and death. (cochrane.org)
  • The impact of influenza vaccines in older people is modest, irrespective of setting, outcome, population, and study design. (cochrane.org)
  • There are safe vaccines that can help reduce the risk from flu and its potentially serious complications. (cdc.gov)
  • medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of influenza complications. (health.gov.au)
  • Getting sick with the influenza virus while pregnant can lead to serious complications. (act.gov.au)
  • It is especially important to vaccinate pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-related complications. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Individuals 65 years and older are at higher risk of developing serious influenza complications compared with young, healthy adults. (freecme.com)
  • Flu shots include inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and recombinant influenza vaccines (RIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Flublok and its quadrivalent formulation are recombinant subunit vaccines prepared in cell cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant influenza vaccines are produced using recombinant virus technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Welch, one of the advances in influenza vaccines was the development of recombinant and cell-based vaccines. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Please compare, if you would, egg-based vs cell-based vs recombinant influenza vaccines. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Cell culture-based and recombinant vaccines add speed to that process. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Additionally, the specific composition also differs between vaccines that are manufactured using an egg-based culture and those that utilize recombinant or cell culture technologies. (medscape.com)
  • No. CDC and ACIP express no preference for preservative-free vaccine for infants or any other group of vaccine recipients. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • See page 22 of the 2010-11 ACIP influenza recommendations: www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5908.pdf. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • [ 44 , 45 ] The ACIP also publishes recommendations on the use of antiviral agents for prevention and treatment of influenza. (medscape.com)
  • 2 Meeting of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework Advisory Group. (who.int)
  • Over the past year, Sinovac has expanded its manufacturing capacity with the construction of a pandemic influenza vaccine production line with annual capacity of 20 million doses using the grant from China's National Development and Reform Commission. (sinovac.com)
  • Sinovac is currently developing Universal Pandemic Influenza vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine. (sinovac.com)
  • Since the 2005-2006 influenza season, amantadine and rimantadine are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) because circulating strains of influenza virus have proved resistant. (medscape.com)
  • The strains of virus that cause influenza outbreaks change each year. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Influenza vaccines currently available in Australia do not contain live virus, so cannot cause influenza. (act.gov.au)
  • Scientists at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have been studying an influenza vaccine candidate that is based on conserved antigens instead, and in animal models protects broadly against widely divergent influenza virus strains. (fda.gov)
  • This substudy from the phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled BLISS-76 trial evaluated the effects of belimumab on preexisting antibody levels against pneumococcal, tetanus , and influenza antigens in patients with SLE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Consistent with preservation of the memory B cell compartment with belimumab treatment , the proportions of patients maintaining antibody responses to pneumococcal, tetanus , and influenza antigens were not reduced. (bvsalud.org)
  • In general, there is considerable variation in the efficacy and effectiveness of influenza vaccines in different seasons and population groups. (who.int)
  • Kelly H , Steffens I . Complexities in assessing the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Current studies demonstrate that QIVc provides significantly higher effectiveness, compared with standard dose egg-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine, in preventing all-cause hospitalizations and hospitalizations/ER visits related to any respiratory events including pneumonia and asthma/COPD/bronchial events. (prnewswire.com)
  • 7 There are several factors that can impact seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness, which may include mismatch between circulating strains and the influenza strains contained within the seasonal influenza vaccine. (prnewswire.com)
  • (https://www.who.int/influenza/pip/2016RGRecTracking_Oct2018.pdf, accessed 10 December 2018). (who.int)
  • 2018 (http://www.who.int/influenza/pip/AGMR_Oct2018.pdf?ua=1, accessed 3 December 2018). (who.int)
  • This is compared to the 2018-2019 season when UW Health had only confirmed 76 pediatric influenza cases within the same timeframe. (uwhealth.org)
  • 1 This retrospective cohort analysis indicated QIVc was more effective in reducing hospitalizations/emergency room (ER) visits caused by influenza, respiratory related hospitalizations/ER visits and all-cause hospitalizations compared with an egg-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIVe) among individuals 4-64 years of age during the 2018/19 U.S. influenza season. (prnewswire.com)
  • This study, published in Vaccines , adds to recent research, including a study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases demonstrating that QIVc prevented significantly more influenza-related medical encounters among individuals 4 years and older, compared to QIVe during the 2018/19 U.S. influenza season. (prnewswire.com)
  • When you're looking at an egg-based vaccine, you start with a candidate virus that's determined by the FDA, the CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention], and the WHO [World Health Organization]. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Ongoing avian influenza outbreaks in animals pose risk to humans: read the situation analysis and advice to countries from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Cell-based influenza vaccines like QIVc are designed to help avoid egg-adapted changes and may result in vaccine virus strains that are more closely matched to those selected by the World Health Organization. (prnewswire.com)
  • The virus strains contained in the vaccine are usually those that are expected to circulate in the following epidemic seasons (two type A and one or two B strains), which are recommended by the World Health Organization (seasonal vaccine). (cochrane.org)
  • Influenza virus infections occur every year in the United States but vary greatly in incidence and geographic distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1981, most influenza A(H3N2) virus isolates from Asia and the Southern Hemisphere were similar to strains circulating previously. (cdc.gov)
  • Infl uenza virus subunit vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • se revisa todos los años y se actualiza, según corresponda, para que coincida con los virus de la influenza en circulación. (cdc.gov)
  • Fluenz Fluenz Tetra FluMist FluMist Quadrivalent Fluarix, Flulaval and their quadrivalent formulations are split virus inactivated vaccines by GlaxoSmithKline. (wikipedia.org)
  • bioCSL as marketing authorization holder decided to discontinue the usage of Optaflu brand in 2017 due to commercial reasons Vaxigrip Tetra and Fluquadri are quadrivalent split virus inactivated vaccines by Sanofi-Aventis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaxigrip Tetra Fluquadri Sanofi Pasteur produces the following vaccines: Fluzone Vaxigrip/Vaxigrip Tetra Flublok Fluzone and its quadrivalent formulation are split virus inactivated vaccines distributed by Sanofi Pasteur mainly in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Vaxigrip and its quadrivalent formulation Vaxigrip Tetra are split virus inactivated vaccines made by Sanofi Pasteur in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method does not require an egg-grown vaccine virus and does not use chicken eggs in the production process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relatively simple methods developed by Burnet in Australia for culturing the virus on chick embryos, involving inoculation into the allantoic cavity, made it easy to obtain sufficient amounts of the virus strains for the vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • Thomas Francis, head of the US Army Commission, and his colleagues decided to use a vaccine prepared from allantoic fluid containing high concentrations of virus that had been purified and inactivated with formalin. (medscape.com)
  • In 1940, for the first time, a different influenza virus was discovered and isolated. (medscape.com)
  • It was antigenically different from the influenza A(PR8) virus, but had the same properties in terms of culture in eggs. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, in 1942, 10,000 doses of the first bivalent vaccine containing the A/PR8 and B/Lee virus strains were administered in humans for testing. (medscape.com)
  • In 1944, Stanley described in detail the preparation and properties of influenza virus vaccine produced in embryonated hen eggs, concentrated and purified by differential centrifugation and inactivated by different procedures. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, the vaccine increased the risk of virus-associated acute respiratory illness, including influenza, by 73% (OR 1.73, CI 0.99-3.03). (bmj.com)
  • A recent study of virus population dynamics found, at least, that influenza A prevented subsequent rhinovirus infections, and influenza B prevented adenovirus infections. (bmj.com)
  • They usually identify the candidate virus in February, and flu vaccines aren't ready to go until July, August, or September for the next flu season. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • If there's a virus that infects the chicken population and eggs are contaminated [or] they're in short supply, we can develop these cell-cultured, synthetically manufactured vaccines to help with the total supply of flu vaccine out there in the United States. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Influenza-virus-mediated disease can be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, particularly in younger children and older adults. (mdpi.com)
  • The £13.1m contract is with an unnamed, global pharma client and involves the manufacture of this influenza B challenge virus and a characterisation study. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • In January, the Irish company secured a £5.2m contract with an Asia-Pacific biotech to test a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the United States. (enewspf.com)
  • H7N9 is an avian (bird) influenza virus first reported in humans in 2013 in China. (enewspf.com)
  • Influenza virus undergoes antigenic variation, necessitating annual production of a new vaccine. (virology.ws)
  • Is it possible to formulate an influenza vaccine that protects against all virus strains for life? (virology.ws)
  • The most effective influenza vaccines are whole or split virus preparations, but how can these be prepared so that the membrane-proximal HA epitope is immunodominant? (virology.ws)
  • If the globular head of the HA is removed, the virus will not be infectious and cannot be propagated for vaccine production. (virology.ws)
  • The FDA findings are important because they suggest the vaccine could both protect recipients and reduce transmission -- even when virus strains emerge with differing envelope proteins, a type of change, that when it occurs, can make existing influenza vaccines less effective. (fda.gov)
  • The new findings also support those of a mathematical model of influenza virus transmission that was developed by scientists at Princeton University with collaboration of the FDA scientists. (fda.gov)
  • Such a vaccine might reduce the number of illnesses and deaths until a vaccine matched to the new virus is developed and distributed. (fda.gov)
  • Influenza is a highly mutable virus that causes hundreds of thousands of deaths and hospitalizations annually but also poses a persistent pandemic threat. (sabin.org)
  • The influenza virus is constantly undergoing slight genetic mutations. (sabin.org)
  • The investigators examined blood samples from six people who had received a vaccine against H5N1 influenza, also known as the bird flu virus. (rtmagazine.com)
  • In the blood samples they identified B cells that reacted to various subtypes of influenza virus and then characterized and classified the cells' anti-body genetic sequences. (rtmagazine.com)
  • Given the possibility of a resurgence of the influenza virus, it is still important to help protect yourself and those around you from influenza by getting an influenza vaccine," said Gregg Sylvester , MD, Chief Medical Officer at Seqirus. (prnewswire.com)
  • Influenza vaccine is usually given as an injection of inactivated virus into the muscle. (msdmanuals.com)
  • An influenza vaccine that has a higher dose of inactivated virus is recommended for people 65 years old and over. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The influenza virus is constantly changing and evolving, making vaccine creation difficult. (passporthealthusa.com)
  • The vaccine is made by introducing the influenza virus into cell cultures instead of fertilized chicken eggs. (passporthealthusa.com)
  • Protection from influenza vaccine is thought to persist for a year or less because of waning antibody and because of changes in the circulating influenza virus from year to year. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Amantadine and rimantadine are effective against type A influenza virus only. (medscape.com)
  • Zanamivir and oseltamivir are members of a class of drugs termed neuraminidase inhibitors and are active against both influenza virus type A and type B. They are approved for both prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. (medscape.com)
  • Oseltamivir is an inhibitor of neuraminidase, which is a glycoprotein on the surface of the influenza virus that destroys the infected cell's receptor for viral hemagglutinin. (medscape.com)
  • Oseltamivir is effective against influenza virus types A and B. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), evidence suggests that most vaccines (except live- virus vaccines ) are safe, although antibody response may be reduced. (bvsalud.org)
  • elivaldogene autotemcel, influenza A (H5N1) vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • teplizumab decreases effects of influenza A (H5N1) vaccine by Other (see comment). (medscape.com)
  • Sinovac's commercialized vaccines include Healive® (hepatitis A), Bilive® (combined hepatitis A and B), Anflu® (influenza) and Panflu(TM) (H5N1). (sinovac.com)
  • Observations during influenza epidemics indicate that most influenza-related deaths occurred among chronically ill children and adults and older persons, especially those 65 years old. (cdc.gov)
  • however, based on data from previous studies that suggest 50% efficacy of standard-dose vaccine in older adults, they estimate the absolute efficacy of the high-dose vaccine at 62%, "a level of protection similar to that seen with standard-dose vaccines in younger adults. (medscape.com)
  • When asked to comment on these findings, Nasia Safdar, MD, from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health in Madison, said: "This is the first major trial to show that a high-dose influenza vaccine actually reduces influenza in older adults, not just improved antibody responses. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Influenza: High-Dose Vaccine Decreases Flu in Older Adults - Medscape - Aug 14, 2014. (medscape.com)
  • However, based on the available evidence, influenza vaccines have been shown to be efficacious and effective in healthy adults, but effect estimates vary by season and how well the vaccines match the currently circulating influenza strains. (who.int)
  • According to the CDC, "a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine [in August, 2014] indicated that the high-dose vaccine was 24.2% more effective in preventing flu in adults 65 years of age and older relative to a standard-dose vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the protection in adults who still carry the imprint from childhood may be subverted by the seasonal flu vaccine. (bmj.com)
  • Influenza-associated mortality rates are highest among adults aged 65 years and older. (act.gov.au)
  • This activity will update clinicians about Food and Drug Administration approval pathways for influenza vaccines, and current influenza vaccine formulations recommended for adults aged 65 years and older. (freecme.com)
  • The Harvard School of Public Health conducted a national survey of patients' experience trying to get influenza vaccine during the 2004 shortage, finding that 37% of adults aged 65 years and older and 54% of adults younger than 65 years with chronic disease had been unable to get the vaccine. (annfammed.org)
  • Older adults receiving the influenza vaccine may experience less influenza over a single season, from 6% to 2.4%, meaning that 30 people would need to be vaccinated with inactivated influenza vaccines to avoid one case of influenza. (cochrane.org)
  • Since its fi rst fl uenza vaccines available in central nal antigenic sin. (cdc.gov)
  • Unfortunately, influenza vaccine composition needs to be updated annually due to antigenic shift and drift in the viral immunogen hemagglutinin (HA). (mdpi.com)
  • Influenza can also undergo a more significant and abrupt genomic change called antigenic shift, in part due to the mixing of strains in animals like birds or pigs. (sabin.org)
  • Influenza can cause severe pneumonia, worsening of chronic heart and lung disorders, organ failure, and death. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Vaccinating elderly people reduces hospitalisations from influenza infections and pneumonia. (act.gov.au)
  • The findings of lower incidence of hospitalization for influenza or pneumonia and all-cause mortality in the QIV-HD group compared with the QIV-SD group require replication in a future, fully powered trial. (eswi.org)
  • Most commonly, this is influenza pneumonia. (medscape.com)
  • Febrile seizures may occur in the context of febrile illnesses, including influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • The overall efficacy of 24.2% against the primary end point indicates that about one quarter of all breakthrough influenza illnesses could be prevented if IIV3-HD were used instead of IIV3-SD," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • 65years), pregnant women, people with chronic illnesses and children), while influenza vaccines have evidence of being efficacious and effective, the range can vary greatly. (who.int)
  • 4 While the burden of influenza varies each year, the CDC estimates that annually influenza has resulted in between 9 to 45 million illnesses, 140,000 to 810,000 hospitalizations and 12,000 to 61,000 deaths in the U.S. between 2010-2020. (prnewswire.com)
  • Because they are different illnesses, the flu vaccine will not protect you against COVID-19. (copdfoundation.org)
  • The most commonly used influenza vaccines are injected inactivated influenza vaccines. (who.int)
  • Inactivated influenza vaccines, such as TIV and QIV, have an excellent safety profile and are well tolerated by recipients of all ages, including people with underlying health conditions and pregnant women. (who.int)
  • Pregnant women infected with influenza are at increased risk of severe illness compared to non-pregnant women. (drugs.com)
  • Pregnant women with influenza may have increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm labor and delivery. (drugs.com)
  • They can tell you which vaccines the CDC recommends for pregnant people and how to protect you and your baby during flu season. (health.mil)
  • Is the influenza vaccine safe for pregnant women? (act.gov.au)
  • What if I get influenza while I'm pregnant? (act.gov.au)
  • Pregnant women can have the influenza vaccine at any time during each pregnancy and they benefit from it all through the year. (act.gov.au)
  • Despite federal health authorities' recommendations that all pregnant women be vaccinated for influenza, it is estimated that less than 50 percent of women follow this advice, largely because they are concerned about the effects flu vaccines might have on the developing baby. (medindia.net)
  • The team from UC San Diego followed 1,032 pregnant women across the United States and Canada who either chose to receive an influenza vaccine or were not vaccinated during one of the three seasons from 2009-2012. (medindia.net)
  • That's why it's important for pregnant women to get vaccinated against both whooping cough and influenza in every pregnancy. (health.gov.au)
  • Pregnant women can now get both the whooping cough vaccine and influenza vaccine at no cost through the National Immunisation Program. (health.gov.au)
  • Only inactivated (injectable or TIV) vaccine should be given to pregnant women. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • In those years, out of approximately 150 million flu shots given in the U.S. annually, less than 50 million or 34 percent of those vaccines available for pregnant women were thimerosal-free. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Vaccine manufacturers acknowledge that flu vaccines have never been shown to be safe for pregnant women. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Pregnant women are known to be at increased risk for poor maternal and pregnancy outcomes with influenza [ 1 ] and are designated as a "high-risk" or priority population for receiving the influenza vaccine. (hindawi.com)
  • Many obstetric health care workers lack knowledge regarding the safety and clinical importance of influenza vaccine for pregnant women [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Consistent with prior influenza pandemics, pregnant women suffered disproportionally. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this Cochrane Review, first published in 2006, was to summarise research that looks at the effects of immunising the elderly (those aged 65 years or older) with influenza vaccine during influenza seasons. (cochrane.org)
  • With the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated vaccinations, the medical community must also be prepared to discuss the efficacy and safety of influenza vaccines with patients, particularly among high-risk groups. (freecme.com)
  • This is the only LAIV nasal spray vaccine available for use during the 2021-2022 season. (cdc.gov)
  • Template for a generic screening form for clinics/sites to use before giving influenza vaccine-either IIV or LAIV. (mn.us)
  • Table 2 in Kelly et al, Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011;30:107)….A randomized placebo-controlled trial in Hong Kong children found that flu shots increased the risk of noninfluenza viral ARIs fivefold (OR 4.91,CI 1.04-8.14) and, including influenza, tripled the overall viral ARI risk (OR 3.17, CI 1.04-9.83). (bmj.com)
  • The key to the FDA universal vaccine is the choice of viral proteins it targets. (fda.gov)
  • This revision of the influenza vaccine recommendations updates information on influenza activity in the United States for the 1981-1982 influenza season (superseding MMWR 1981;30:279-88) and provides information on the vaccine to be available for the 1982-1983 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • ACIP's influenza recommendations for children age 6 months through 8 years have changed for the 2011-12 season. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) resistance emerged in the United States during the 2008-2009 influenza season, and the CDC issued revised interim recommendations for antiviral treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. (medscape.com)
  • There was little circulation of H3N2 strains in the Americas or Europe during the 1981-1982 influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • During the 1981-1982 winter, influenza activity was generally low in the United States, with no apparent peaks of excess mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • Data were insufficient to be certain about the effect of vaccines on mortality. (cochrane.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends everyone six months and older without contraindications receive an annual influenza vaccine as the best way to prevent seasonal influenza. (prnewswire.com)
  • Currently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends an annual influenza vaccine among individuals 65 years and older. (freecme.com)
  • Studies suggest the frequency of fever after IIV in children may vary in different influenza seasons and settings. (cdc.gov)
  • FLUCELVAX® is a quadrivalent flu vaccine that will protect against four different influenza strains from both the A and B subtypes. (passporthealthusa.com)
  • These first clinical trials demonstrated a good serological response to both influenza A and B. After two doses, there was an eight- to ninefold increase in antibody titer, measured by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. (medscape.com)
  • GSK said it expects to distribute a record supply of more than 50 million doses of its influenza vaccine for the upcoming flu season. (drugstorenews.com)
  • According to the new algorithm, certain children need 2 doses of influenza vaccine this influenza season, separated by at least 4 weeks. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • Taiwan CDC Director-General Chuang Jen-Hsiang mentioned that Taiwan CDC has prepared 6.98 million doses of government-funded influenza vaccines for eligible individuals. (gov.tw)
  • Last year was a particularly severe influenza season. (uwhealth.org)
  • You should not get FLUCELVAX® if you have had a severe allergic reaction to any of the ingredients in the vaccine. (passporthealthusa.com)
  • As of February 23, 2020, UW Health saw 821 cases of pediatric influenza for the 2019-2020 flu season. (uwhealth.org)
  • SUMMIT, N.J. , March 25, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Seqirus, a global leader in influenza prevention, today announced the publication of new real-world evidence (RWE) on the company's cell-based quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (QIVc) in peer-reviewed medical journal Vaccines . (prnewswire.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone 6 months of age and older who do not have contraindications get a flu vaccine every season. (drugstorenews.com)
  • Oseltamivir is approved for use in children older than 1 year, for prevention of influenza following exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Prevention is the most effective management strategy for influenza. (medscape.com)
  • Influenza or "flu" is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can potentially result in hospitalization or death. (health.mil)
  • Influenza and upper respiratory infections are also seen less often in breastfed infants. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Fluenz, FluMist and their quadrivalent formulations are nasal attenuated vaccines by AstraZeneca. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of these flu vaccines were multi-dose formulations, containing 25 micrograms of mercury via the preservative thimerosal. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Influenza epidemics are frequently associated with deaths in excess of the number normally expected. (cdc.gov)
  • More than 200,000 excess deaths are estimated to have occurred in association with influenza epidemics in the United States during 1968-1981. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza epidemics usually begin in late December or midwinter. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Kaiser's data showed that those women who received the seasonal flu vaccine (between 2000 and 2010, when the majority of vaccines distributed contained thimerosal) were 25 percent more likely to give birth to a child who would later be diagnosed with ASD. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) on the seasonal flu shot in English and other languages. (mn.us)
  • We conducted a pragmatic, open-label, active-controlled, randomized feasibility trial in Danish citizens aged 65 to 79 years during the 2021-2022 influenza season. (eswi.org)
  • For healthy children aged 2-8 years who have no contraindications or precautions, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is an appropriate option. (medscape.com)
  • How can influenza vaccines increase the risk of other infections? (bmj.com)
  • The authors performed a retrospective cohort analysis of mother-infant pairs evaluating for differences in rates of influenza infections in infants. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • High-dose influenza vaccine provides better protection against influenza when compared with standard-dose vaccine among persons aged 65 years and older, according to results from a new study published in the August 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine . (medscape.com)
  • Given these study findings however, "our evidence base is now much greater in recommending [high-dose vaccine] to patients," Dr. Safdar concluded. (medscape.com)
  • The CDC recommends the high-dose vaccine for people 65 and over but expresses no preference between it and standard vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anyone 65 or older will want to ask for the high-dose quadrivalent influenza or flu vaccine. (copdfoundation.org)
  • Several coauthors report having various financial relationships with RPS Pharmaceuticals, Sanofi-Pasteur, MedImmune, Protein Sciences, Abt Associates, Pfizer, Romark Pharmaceuticals, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, and ITS Pharmaceuticals outside the submitted work. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccine produced by CSL Limited is approved for use in persons aged ≥18 years ( 1 ), vaccine produced by Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Limited is approved for persons aged ≥4 years ( 2 ), and vaccine produced by Sanofi Pasteur, Inc. is approved for persons aged ≥6 months ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The two clinical trials will test the experimental 2017 H7N9 inactivated influenza vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur, based in Lyon, France, supported by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. (enewspf.com)
  • In the United States, there are currently two ways someone can get a flu vaccine-by injection (a shot) or nasal spray. (cdc.gov)
  • In studies of other seasonal inactivated influenza vaccines, rates of adverse events were not significantly different from placebo injections except for arm soreness and redness at the injection site ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccines can be administered at any time before or after administration of an "allergy injection. (buildyourcnc.com)
  • These vaccines are typically administered by injection through the skin. (cochrane.org)