Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Intussusception: A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals: Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.NicaraguaInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Vaccines, Live, Unattenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms without their virulence altered. Examples include smallpox (vaccinia) and adenovirus vaccines.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.United StatesImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.UzbekistanMexicoDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.PhiladelphiaPertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.IndiaToxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.BrazilAmantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.DucksDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
  • He said insurance companies save money if kids get vaccinated, because it is far cheaper to pay for a vaccine than it is to treat a child with measles, pneumonia or diphtheria. (nbcnews.com)
  • On March 22, FDA officials adhered to the precautionary principle and recommended that doctors suspend use of Rotarix vaccine after a private lab identified DNA from a pig virus in Rotarix vaccine and the manufacturer confirmed the seed stock was contaminated too. (nvic.org)
  • Monovalent vaccines segment expected to hold the largest share of the market in 2017. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Global Vaccines Market was valued at $31,216 million in 2016, and is expected to reach $65,148 million in 2023, and register a CAGR of 10.9%, during the forecast period, 2017- 2023. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The report, "Global Vaccine Market Forecast to 2017" provides an extensive research and in-depth analysis of the current status and future outlook of the global vaccine market. (marketpublishers.com)
  • In the recent times, the global market for Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 has surfaced as one of the most promising markets in the pharmaceutical industry, thanks to the significant rise in research and development activities by leading vendors of Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 across the world. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Manufacturers have turned to technological innovations and data-driven customization to satisfy the augmenting consumer demand for efficiency and more accuracy in results, leading to an increased usage of technology in the Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 production processes, which is also reflecting positively on the growth of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The research report on the Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 is an analytical study which comprehensively analyzes the competitive framework of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Using a number of effective assessment tools, such as porter's five forces and value chain analysis, it performs in-depth analyses of the production and supply as well as the demand and sales of Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 and provides deep insights into the future prospects of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The study begins with a detailed overview of the market for Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017, including the definition, classification, and industry chain structure of Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017, and move forward to cover every aspect of this market, counting several criteria based on which the market is classified. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • With chemical industry undergoing a phase of technological disruption, innovations in products are likely to shape the future of the Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Further, it offers an estimation of the market size in terms of value (US$) and in volume (kilo tons) and talks about the key segments and the geographical subdivisions of the market for Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 in details. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • It provides in-depth information on the development trends and the policies and regulations, concerning Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017, implemented in each of the geographical segments. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The predominant applications of the Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 have also been discussed at length in this research study. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • With all these analyses and information, this report can act as a valuable guide to readers looking to gain a clear understanding of all the factors that are influencing the market for Asia pacific oral vaccines market report 2017 at present and are projected to remain doing so over the forecast period. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • This report splits Inactivated Vaccine market By End User, By Disease Indication, which shares the history data information from 2012 to 2016 and forecast from 2017 to 2022. (researchmoz.us)
  • Our analysis estimates the global Infectious Disease Vaccines market to reach nearly US$ 25.6 Billion by 2021, growing at 3.5% CAGR over 2017-2021 forecast period. (ageofautism.com)
  • 100 166 Influenza can exacerbate underlying medical conditions or lead to pneumonia in certain individuals. (drugs.com)
  • If we travel backwards about hundred years, to the years directly preceding the First World War, human mortality was caused, in the main, by influenza, pneumonia, diarrhoea, and enteritis: totalling about 30 % of fatalities. (springer.com)
  • The rabies vaccine was the first human vaccine where the virus was attenuated in a laboratory. (carrington.edu)
  • Their first approaches involved exposure to oxygen or heat, both of which played a role in the development of the rabies vaccine and in the famous anthrax challenge experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Notably, Hilary Koprowski and coworkers developed rabies and oral polio vaccines by passage in chicken embryo or mice ( 14 , 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Founded in 1985, the Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center began as a way of responding to numerous requests to use Kaiser Permanente s large population for vaccine efficacy studies. (webwire.com)
  • The vaccine is designed to provoke an immune response against PCSK9. (nursingtimes.net)
  • Available evidence suggests that rotavirus vaccine does not interfere with the immune response to these vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • The infant's immune response to influenza vaccine administered at the same time as rotavirus vaccine has not been studied. (cdc.gov)
  • Administration of vaccines aids to enhance the immune response against a specific pathogen. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Flagellin stopped rotavirus by rapidly inducing an immune response that would normally be activated by select bacteria rather than a virus. (medindia.net)
  • Flagellin triggered the innate immune system, which provides an immediate response to pathogens, to produce two proteins: Interleukin-22, which prevented the virus from entering cells, and Interleukin-18, which removed existing rotavirus from infected cells. (medindia.net)
  • When the vaccine is given, the body's immune system reacts towards it and produces antibodies against it. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Some people worry that a child's immune system can be 'overloaded' with the number of vaccines they are given. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Mucosal Vaccines is organized in a unique format in which basic, clinical, and practical aspects of the mucosal immune system for vaccine development are described and discussed. (indigo.ca)
  • University of Alabama, Birmingham, U.S.A. and Osaka University, JapanSince the 1970s, Professor Kiyono has been investigating and characterizing unique features of the mucosal immune system to establish mucosal immunology as an area of the immunology field as well as to develop effective and safe mucosal vaccines against infectious dis. (indigo.ca)
  • Before the introduction of vaccines, people could only become immune to an infectious disease by contracting the disease and surviving it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This guide explains how different vaccines interact with immune-suppressing treatment. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Immune-suppressing treatment can make inactivated vaccines work less well and can make live vaccines cause disease. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Your child should be up-to-date on all inactivated vaccines at least two weeks before starting immune-suppressing treatment. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • The main concern with these vaccines is that a suppressed immune system may not respond to them, so they may not work as well. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Therefore, the goal with inactivated vaccines is to make sure that your child has had all of the necessary vaccines at least two weeks before starting immune-suppressing treatment. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • If your child is already taking immune suppression treatment and there are no plans to stop the treatment, your doctor can give inactivated vaccines according to the regular schedule. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Patients whose immune system is suppressed should not take live vaccines. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Your child should have any necessary live vaccines four to six weeks before starting immune-suppressing treatment. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • Vaccines deliver medical intelligence into the body, instructing the immune system about how to recognize and prepare defenses against attempted colonization by enemy invaders, usually a virus or bacterium. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Because Orencia weakens a person's immune defenses, there is a chance that a live vaccine can cause the very disease it aims to prevent. (verywellhealth.com)
  • As of June, 2013, 30,352 adverse reactions to HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix have been reported to VAERS, the U.S. vaccine adverse events reporting system. (sott.net)
  • Each 0.5 ml. vial of Gardasil vaccine contains 50 micrograms(mcg) of polysorbate 80, 225 mcg of aluminum hydrosyphosphate sulphate, 35 mcg of sodium borate and 0.78 mg of L-histidine along with 4 types of human papilloma virus-like particles as disclosed in page 21 of the vaccine product monograph. (sott.net)
  • The study, funded by Merck & Co., manufacturer of the HPV4 vaccine GARDASIL , was a post-licensure commitment to the FDA and the European Medicines Agency. (webwire.com)
  • Although the segment will continue to be one of the leading product varieties, the segment of combination vaccines will expand at an outstanding pace over the forecast period. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Further more, this report provides a deep and thorough evaluation of the top 10 pediatric Vaccines by disease indication. (medgadget.com)
  • The global market for human vaccines is experiencing strong growth, fuelled by favorable demographics (population growth, rising life expectancy), continued new product introductions, indication expansions for some products and rising usage, particularly in India and China. (kaloramainformation.com)
  • To stand up for your right to know and freedom to choose which vaccines that you consider necessary, join the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) , the largest, oldest and most experienced vaccine safety watchdog in America. (schmidtandclark.com)
  • Barbara Loe Fisher of the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) tells me that she has given more than 100 interviews in the last two weeks on the subject of the measles outbreak, but that the media simply will NOT report on the existence of this federal program and the implications for the subject of vaccine safety. (noisyroom.net)
  • But the rate of vaccines refusal rose from 2.5 percent in 2010 to more than 4 percent in 2016, the insurance group found. (nbcnews.com)
  • According to the market research study that has been recently published by Transparency Market Research, in 2016, the global vaccines market was worth US$ 28.0 Bn and is projected to reach a value of US$ 48.0 Bn by the end of 2025. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • In this report, the Asia-Pacific Oral Vaccines market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Transparency Market Research states that the global human vaccines market will exhibit a promising 11.2% CAGR from 2016 through 2024, rising from a valuation of US$28.3 bn in 2015 to US$72.5 bn by 2024. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Acknowledging the exponential growth, the market witnesses today, Market Research Future (MRFR) in its recently published study report asserts that the Middle East and Africa Human vaccines market will reach USD 5.46 BN by 2022 with a CAGR of approximately 11.8 % during the forecast period (2016-2022). (medgadget.com)
  • Increasing per capita health care expenditures along with the rising funds invested in R&D for the development of new vaccines are supporting the growth of the market in the region. (medgadget.com)
  • The first of the new studies focuses on rotavirus, which causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. (usatoday.com)
  • Plus, many vaccines still contain trace amounts (that often aren't even listed on the vaccine insert) from peanut oil , dairy derivatives, foreign proteins, yeast, and eggs - hence all those severe childhood allergies that the doctors just can't seem to figure out. (naturalnews.com)
  • however, this population is known to be at highest risk of severe complications from developing vaccine-preventable illnesses. (aappublications.org)
  • Porcine (pig) gelatin - protects vaccines from freeze drying or heat, and can cause severe allergic reactions. (google.com)
  • These unusual but perceptive observations by Dr. Bhan led to our collaboration to characterize these neonatal rotavirus strains and determine whether newborns asymptomatically infected with these strains were protected against subsequent severe disease with rotavirus. (nih.gov)