The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An order of BIRDS comprised of several families and more than 300 species. It includes COCKATOOS; PARROTS; PARAKEETS; macaws; and BUDGERIGARS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.
BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.
BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
An infant during the first month after birth.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 10 and neuraminidase 7. It has been isolated from a variety of wild and domestic animals including ducks, emu, and mink. It was found for the first time in humans in 2004.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.

Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. (1/1236)

The H5N1 avian influenza virus that killed 6 of 18 persons infected in Hong Kong in 1997 was transmitted directly from poultry to humans. Viral isolates from this outbreak may provide molecular clues to zoonotic transfer. Here we demonstrate that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that were in very rapid evolution. When introduced into new hosts, influenza viruses usually undergo rapid alteration of their surface glycoproteins, especially in the hemagglutinin (HA). Surprisingly, these H5N1 isolates had a large proportion of amino acid changes in all gene products except in the HA. These viruses maybe reassortants each of whose HA gene is well adapted to domestic poultry while the rest of the genome arises from a different source. The consensus amino acid sequences of "internal" virion proteins reveal amino acids previously found in human strains. These human-specific amino acids may be important factors in zoonotic transmission.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from the live bird markets of the Northeast United States. (2/1236)

The presence of low-pathogenic H7 avian influenza virus (AIV), which is associated with live-bird markets (LBM) in the Northeast United States, was first detected in 1994 and, despite efforts to eradicate the virus, surveillance of these markets has resulted in numerous isolations of H7 AIVs from several states from 1994 through 1998. The hemagglutinin, nonstructural, and matrix genes from representative H7 isolates from the LBM and elsewhere were sequenced, and the sequences were compared phylogenetically. The hemagglutinin gene of most LBM isolates examined appeared to have been the result of a single introduction of the hemagglutinin gene. Evidence for evolutionary changes were observed with three definable steps. The first isolate from 1994 had the amino acid threonine at the -2 position of the hemagglutinin cleavage site, which is the most commonly observed amino acid at this site for North American H7 AIVs. In January 1995 a new genotype with a proline at the -2 position was detected, and this genotype eventually became the predominant virus isolate. A third viral genotype, detected in November 1996, had an eight-amino-acid deletion within the putative receptor binding site. This viral genotype appeared to be the predominant isolate, although isolates with proline at the -2 position without the deletion were still observed in viruses from the last sampling date. Evidence for reassortment of multiple viral genes was evident. The combination of possible adaptive evolution of the virus and reassortment with different influenza virus genes makes it difficult to determine the risk of pathogenesis of this group of H7 AIVs.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. (3/1236)

Analysis of the sequences of all eight RNA segments of the influenza A/G oose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus, isolated from a sick goose during an outbreak in Guangdong province, China, in 1996, revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus was genetically similar to those of the H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong in 1997. However, the remaining genes showed greater similarity to other avian influenza viruses. Notably, the neuraminidase gene did no have the 19-amino-acid deletion in the stalk region seen in the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses and the NS gene belonged to allele B, while that of the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses belonged to allele A. These data suggest that the H5N1 viruses isolated from the Hong Kong outbreaks derived their HA genes from a virus similar to the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 virus or shared a progenitor with this goose pathogen.  (+info)

Transmission of Eurasian avian H2 influenza virus to shorebirds in North America. (4/1236)

Influenza A virus of the H2 subtype caused a serious pandemic in 1957 and may cause similar outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolution and the antigenic relationships of avian influenza H2 viruses, we sequenced the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of H2 isolates from shorebirds, ducks and poultry in North America and derived a phylogenetic tree to establish their interrelationships. This analysis confirmed the divergence of H2 HA into two geographical lineages, American and Eurasian. One group of viruses isolated from shorebirds in North America had HA belonging to the Eurasian lineage, indicating an interregional transmission of the H2 gene. Characterization of HA with a monoclonal antibody panel revealed that the antigenicity of the Delaware strains differed from the other avian strains analysed. The data emphasizes the importance of avian influenza surveillance.  (+info)

Characterization of the influenza A virus gene pool in avian species in southern China: was H6N1 a derivative or a precursor of H5N1? (5/1236)

In 1997, an H5N1 influenza virus outbreak occurred in chickens in Hong Kong, and the virus was transmitted directly to humans. Because there is limited information about the avian influenza virus reservoir in that region, we genetically characterized virus strains isolated in Hong Kong during the 1997 outbreak. We sequenced the gene segments of a heterogeneous group of viruses of seven different serotypes (H3N8, H4N8, H6N1, H6N9, H11N1, H11N9, and H11N8) isolated from various bird species. The phylogenetic relationships divided these viruses into several subgroups. An H6N1 virus isolated from teal (A/teal/Hong Kong/W312/97 [H6N1]) showed very high (>98%) nucleotide homology to the human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/156/97 (H5N1) in the six internal genes. The N1 neuraminidase sequence showed 97% nucleotide homology to that of the human H5N1 virus, and the N1 protein of both viruses had the same 19-amino-acid deletion in the stalk region. The deduced hemagglutinin amino acid sequence of the H6N1 virus was most similar to that of A/shearwater/Australia/1/72 (H6N5). The H6N1 virus is the first known isolate with seven H5N1-like segments and may have been the donor of the neuraminidase and the internal genes of the H5N1 viruses. The high homology between the internal genes of H9N2, H6N1, and the H5N1 isolates indicates that these subtypes are able to exchange their internal genes and are therefore a potential source of new pathogenic influenza virus strains. Our analysis suggests that surveillance for influenza A viruses should be conducted for wild aquatic birds as well as for poultry, pigs, and humans and that H6 isolates should be further characterized.  (+info)

Continued circulation in China of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses encoding the hemagglutinin gene associated with the 1997 H5N1 outbreak in poultry and humans. (6/1236)

Since the outbreak in humans of an H5N1 avian influenza virus in Hong Kong in 1997, poultry entering the live-bird markets of Hong Kong have been closely monitored for infection with avian influenza. In March 1999, this monitoring system detected geese that were serologically positive for H5N1 avian influenza virus, but the birds were marketed before they could be sampled for virus. However, viral isolates were obtained by swabbing the cages that housed the geese. These samples, known collectively as A/Environment/Hong Kong/437/99 (A/Env/HK/437/99), contained four viral isolates, which were compared to the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong isolates. Analysis of A/Env/HK/437/99 viruses revealed that the four isolates are nearly identical genetically and are most closely related to A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96. These isolates and the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong viruses encode common hemagglutinin (H5) genes that have identical hemagglutinin cleavage sites. Thus, the pathogenicity of the A/Env/HK/437/99 viruses was compared in chickens and in mice to evaluate the potential for disease outbreaks in poultry and humans. The A/Env/HK/437/99 isolates were highly pathogenic in chickens but caused a longer mean death time and had altered cell tropism compared to A/Hong Kong/156/97 (A/HK/156/97). Like A/HK/156/97, the A/Env/HK/437/99 viruses replicated in mice and remained localized to the respiratory tract. However, the A/Env/HK/437/99 isolates caused only mild pathological lesions in these tissues and no clinical signs of disease or death. As a measure of the immune response to these viruses, transforming growth factor beta levels were determined in the serum of infected mice and showed elevated levels for the A/Env/HK/437/99 viruses compared to the A/HK/156/97 viruses. This study is the first to characterize the A/Env/HK/437/99 viruses in both avian and mammalian species, evaluating the H5 gene from the 1997 Hong Kong H5N1 isolates in a different genetic background. Our findings reveal that at least one of the avian influenza virus genes encoded by the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong viruses continues to circulate in mainland China and that this gene is important for pathogenesis in chickens but is not the sole determinant of pathogenicity in mice. There is evidence that H9N2 viruses, which have internal genes in common with the 1997 H5N1 Hong Kong isolates, are still circulating in Hong Kong and China as well, providing a heterogeneous gene pool for viral reassortment. The implications of these findings for the potential for human disease are discussed.  (+info)

The susceptibility of culture cells to avian influenza viruses. (7/1236)

The susceptibilities of culture cells to twelve avian influenza virus strains were determined with ten established cell lines including MDCK and ESK cells and three primary culture cells. The established cell lines derived from embryonic swine kidney (ESK) and chicken kidney (CK) primary culture cells were more sensitive to the avian influenza viruses than the other eleven cells. The ESK cell had a particularly higher infective titer than the MDCK cell with and without trypsin supplement in culture medium, and dispersion of the infective titers was narrower than that of the MDCK cell. The ESK cell is a suitable candidate for routine work on avian influenza viruses in laboratories.  (+info)

Production and evaluation criteria of specific monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin of the H7N2 subtype of avian influenza virus. (8/1236)

To enhance the rapidity in diagnosing the spread of avian influenza virus (AIV) in chicken layer flocks, studies were initiated to develop more sensitive and specific immunological and molecular methods for the detection of AIV. In this study, the purification of the hemagglutinin protein (H) from field isolates of H7N2, the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and their evaluation as diagnostic reagents are reported. Hybridomas were generated by fusion of SP2/0-Ag14 myelomas and spleen cells from immunized mice. Hybridomas secreting antibodies specific for the H protein were assayed by an ELISA and cloned using limiting dilution. The MAbs produced were characterized by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), immunohistochemistry (IHC), indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA), Western blots, and IFA flow cytometry using various AIV subtypes (i.e., H4N2, H5N3, H7N2). Of the various MAbs assayed, 6 had consistent and reproducible results in each of the assays used. The results obtained in this investigation enhanced the usage of the MAbs to viral H protein in the surveillance of AIV in chickens.  (+info)

On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, ... read more some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2.3.4.4 group A from 2014 into four key waterbird species-Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and common pochard (Aythya ferina)-and compared virus excretion and disease severity with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Our results showed that excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI H5N1 was first reported in Africa in 2006, in Nigeria. The country experienced severe outbreaks in 2006 and 2007, strongly affecting the poultry population. Current knowledge on potential risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in poultry farms in Nigeria is limited. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to identify potential farm-level risk factors for HPAI H5N1 occurrence in two areas of the country that were affected by the disease in 2006 and 2007, namely the States of Lagos and Kano. A case-control study was conducted at the farm level. A convenience sample of 110 farms was surveyed. Data on farm characteristics, farm management and trade practices were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with farms that confirmed positive for HPAI. Having a neighbouring poultry farm was identified as a potential risk factor for disease occurrence [OR, 5.23; 95% CI, (0.88-30.97); P-value = 0.048]. Farm staff washing their hands ...
To identify environmental sites commonly contaminated by avian influenza virus A (H5N1) in live-bird markets in Indonesia, we investigated 83 markets in 3 provinces in Indonesia. At each market, samples were collected from up to 27 poultry-related sites to assess the extent of contamination. Samples were tested by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation. A questionnaire was used to ascertain types of birds in the market, general infrastructure, and work practices. Thirty-nine (47%) markets showed contamination with avian influenza virus in >1 of the sites sampled. Risk factors were slaughtering birds in the market and being located in West Java province. Protective factors included daily removal of waste and zoning that segregated poultry-related work flow areas. These results can aid in the design of evidence-based programs concerning environmental sanitation, food safety, and surveillance to reduce the risk for avian influenza virus A (H5N1) transmission in live-bird
Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses ...
Objective To discuss the imaging features of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2.Methods A descriptive study was carried out on a case of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2 in Meizhou,Guangdong Province,on June 18,2016.Results The patient was a child with cough,and white phlegm was detected followed by yellow sticky sputum,accompanying with fever.Imaging features included exudative patchy ground glass opacity,and pulmonary fibrosis was visible during the recovery period.The patient was discharged from hospital after antiviral and symptomatic treatments.Conclusion For pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2,except for the symptoms of influenza,exudative focus was present in bilateral lung CT images.Clinicians should consider the possibility of viral infection in children who had contact history with poultry and got fever and pulmonary infection.Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are important to improve the prognosis.
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Coopers hawk but not from waterfowl....
Read Isolation and genetic characterization of novel reassortant H6N6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from chickens in eastern China, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Free Online Library: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses.(RESEARCH) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Avian influenza Development and progression Encephalitis
NIAID CEIRS , Research Publication Commentary Smith, J. et al. A comparative analysis of host responses to avian influenza infection in ducks and chickens highlights a role for the interferon-induced transmembrane proteins in viral resistance. BMC Genomics (2015).. The recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 outbreak continues to have significant economic impacts on the international and domestic poultry industries and presents a potential public health concern. Avian influenza infects numerous avian hosts, including chickens and ducks. Reducing the spread of avian influenza requires an understanding of how the virus interacts with its avian hosts. However, it remains unclear why some species are more susceptible than others to certain strains of influenza. For instance, although ducks are infected they show minimal signs of disease to most HPAI viruses, while chickens are highly susceptible and quickly succumb to HPAI infections. Determining which genes are activated in chickens and ...
Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.
Dlugolenski, Daniel, Jones, Les, Saavedra, Geraldine, Tompkins, S. Mark, Tripp, Ralph A. and Mundt, Egbert 2011, Passage of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses mediates rapid genetic adaptation of a wild-bird isolate in poultry, Archives of virology, vol. 156, no. 4, pp. 565-576, doi: 10.1007/s00705-010-0891-x. ...
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within 48 hours for positive cases. The ...
Translation Google Low pathogenic avian influenza virus was detected from feces of wild birds collected in Aichi prefecture Posted on December 12, 2018 On 12th December, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries reported that a low-pathogenic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in water. AU - Brown, Justin D.. AU - Swayne, David E.. AU - Cooper, Robert J.. AU - Burns, Rachel E.. AU - Stallknecht, David E.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Although fecal-oral transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV) via contaminated water represents a recognized mechanism for transmission within wild waterfowl populations, little is known about viral persistence in this medium. In order to provide initial data on persistence of H5 and H7 AIVs in water, we evaluated eight wild-type low-pathogenicity H5 and H7 AIVs isolated from species representing the two major influenza reservoirs (Anseriformes and Charadriiformes). In addition, the persistence of two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses from Asia was examined to provide some insight into the potential for these viruses to be transmitted and maintained in the environments of wild bird populations. Viruses were tested at two temperatures (17 C and 28 C) and ...
Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was due to mutation of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 strain, which caused outbreaks in Italy between 1999 and 2000, and resulted in complete mortality of infected poultry. This outbreak places increased importance on the early detection of H7N1 AIV. Here we describe the development of a detection method for H7N1 virus from infected chickens using a specific antigen-capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA). A panel of mAbs was developed against the surface antigen HA of H7N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Singapore/94. The mAbs were screened by immunoflouorescence assays, ELISA and immunoblotting. Selected mAbs 5E5 and 8F10 were of isotypes IgM and IgG and were conformation- or linear epitope-specific, respectively. These mAbs were used as capture antibodies for AC-ELISA development. The detection limit was as little as 102-103 TCID50 units of virus derived from tissue culture supernatants. Virus from the tracheal swab samples of experimentally infected chickens ...
[email protected] WASHINGTON, January 17, 2016 -- The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the pathogenicity of eight of the nine H7N8 avian influenza detections announced on January 16. The turkey flocks have been confirmed as low pathogenic avian influenza, with additional testing ongoing for the ninth flock.. These January 16 detections were identified as part of surveillance testing in the control area surrounding the initial highly pathogenic H7N8 avian influenza (HPAI) case in that state, identified on January 15.. The pathogenicity of a virus refers to its ability to produce disease. Birds with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) often show no signs of infection or only have minor symptoms. HPAI viruses spread quickly and cause high mortality in domestic poultry. H7 LPAI viruses have been known to mutate into HPAI viruses in the past.. It appears that there was a low pathogenic virus circulating ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Austria Information received on 06/04/2017 from Mr Dr Ulrich Herzog, Chief Veterinary Officer, Verbrauchergesundheit,
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
Citation: Brown, J., Poulson, R., Carter, D., Lebarbenchon, C., Pantin Jackwood, M.J., Spackman, E., Shepherd, E.M., Killian, M., Stallknecht, D. 2012. Susceptibility of avian species to north american H13 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Avian Diseases. 56:969-975. Interpretive Summary: Avian Influenza (AI) viruses vary in their ability to cause disease in different bird species. Gulls are reservoirs for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a wide diversity of influenza viruses have been isolated from them. However, two hemagglutinin subtypes (H13 and H16) are maintained almost exclusively within gull populations. In this study the host range of these gull-adapted influenza strains was examined. Multiple strains of H13 LPAI virus were used to challenge ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), mallards (Anas platryrhynchos), chickens (Gallus domesticus), and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). The susceptibility to H13 LPAI viruses varied between species and viral strain. Gulls ...
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
What is avian influenza? Avian influenza, or bird flu, is an infection caused by influenza A viruses, which normally infect only birds. These influenza A viruses are found in wild birds worldwide and are quite contagious among birds. In many wild species of birds, especially in birds that swim or live near water including ducks, geese and gulls, infection with avian influenza generally does not cause illness, but may lead to serious disease in domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys . What types of avian influenza viruses are there and which cause serious disease in birds? Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on certain proteins present on the outer layer of the virus. These proteins are hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). There are 16 different H subtypes and 9 different N subtypes. Any combination of these two protein types is possible to form a virus subtype, for example H9N3, H7N7, or H5N1. The ability of avian influenza viruses to cause serious ...
The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required. of a 1/10 dilution of bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid [18] is deemed a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The primary subtypes of ...
To assess the impact of different routes of inoculation on experimental infection of avian influenza (AI) viruses in chickens, this study compared virus replication and cytokine gene expression in respiratory and gastrointestinal organ tissues of chickens, which were inoculated with four low pathogenic subtypes, H6N1, H10N7, H10N8, and H13N6 AI viruses via the aerosol, intranasal, and oral routes respectively. Aerosol inoculation with the H6N1, H10N7, and H10N8 viruses significantly increased viral titres and upregulated the interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β genes in the trachea and lung tissues compared to intranasal or oral inoculation. Furthermore, one or two out of six chickens died following exposure to aerosolized H6N1 or H10N8 virus respectively. The H13N6 virus reached the lung via aerosol inoculation although failed to establish infection. Collectively, chickens were more susceptible to aerosolized AI viruses compared to intranasal or oral inoculation, and virus ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 remains a serious concern for both poultry and human health. Wild waterfowl are considered to be the reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses; however, relatively little is known about their movement ecology in regions where HPAI H5N1 outbreaks regularly occur. We studied movements of the ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), a wild migratory waterfowl species that was infected in the 2005 Qinghai Lake outbreak. We defined their migration with Brownian Bridge utilization distribution models and their breeding and wintering grounds with fixed kernel home ranges. We correlated their movements with HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, poultry density, land cover, and latitude in the Central Asian Flyway. Our Akaike Information Criterion analysis indicated that outbreaks were correlated with land cover, latitude, and poultry density. Although shelduck movements were included in the top two models, they were not a top parameter selected in AICc stepwise regression results.
National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats. The virus isolation was performed by inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and AIV isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay. For subtying of AIV, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were confirmed by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 subtypes was performed using 28 H5 AIV isolates. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 819 AIV were isolated from 141,560 samples. Virus isolation rates for AIV were 0.6, 0.4, 0.1, and 2.7% in wild birds (n = 202),
CFIA had earlier stated that the outbreak, which occurred near Woodstock, Ontario, was a case of H5 avian influenza, but the agency had not verified its exact serotype. H5N2 avian influenza has been prevalent in nine avian influenza cases in bordering Minnesota, as well as two confirmed cases in South Dakota. OIE stated that the Ontario outbreak could have been spread through wild birds in the Mississippi flyway, which includes Minnesota, but added that it was doubtful it was related to earlier Canadian avian influenza outbreaks in British Columbia that began in December 2014. ...
Samples from Changhua County, Yunlin County and Pingtung County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farms have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months. Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in two abattoirs in Taipei City and Pingtung County. Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis. H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI. The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir. After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports ...
Samples from Yunlin County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farm has been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farm have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farm are under intensified surveillance for three months ...
Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake ...
Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID,...
Genetic variation on internal protein matric (M1) and non structural protein (NS1) of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Via Virology Journal: Isolation of avian influenza H5N1 virus from vaccinated commercial layer flock in Egypt. The provisional abstract: Background Uninterrupted transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 in Egypt since 2006 resulted in establishment...
Author Summary H5N1 influenza virus has been responsible for poultry outbreaks over the last 12 years-the longest recorded example of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulation in poultry. The ecological success of this virus in diverse species of both poultry and wild birds with sporadic introduction to humans suggests that it is a likely source of the next human pandemic. Genome sequences of H5N1 viruses reveal extensive genetic reassortment (mixing) with other influenza subtypes to produce many H5N1 genotypes that have developed into multiple genetically distinct clades, some of which have spread to affect over 60 countries. Here, we analyze all available sequence data of avian influenza viruses from Eurasia and show that the original HPAI H5N1 virus (referred to as A/goose/Guangdong/1/96) was likely introduced directly into poultry as an intact virus particle from wild aquatic birds. In contrast, H5N1 genotypes were generated in aquatic poultry populations after the introduction of A/goose
Vaccines are found in integrated control strategies to protect poultry against H5N1 high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI). any of the H5 avian influenza vaccines were safeguarded against A/chicken/Western Java/SMI-HAMD/2006 (SMI-HAMD/06) and were partially safeguarded against A/chicken/Papua/TA5/2006 (Papua/06) but were not safeguarded against A/chicken/Western Java/PWT-WIJ/2006 (PWT/06). Experimental inactivated vaccines made with PWT/06 HPAI disease or rg-generated PWT/06 low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) disease seed strains safeguarded chickens from lethal challenge, as did a combination of a commercially available live fowl poxvirus vaccine expressing the H5 influenza virus gene and inactivated Legok/03 vaccine. These studies PHA-767491 indicate that antigenic variants did emerge in Indonesia following widespread H5 avian influenza vaccine usage, and efficacious inactivated vaccines can be developed using antigenic variant wild-type viruses or rg-generated LPAI virus seed strains ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. ...
Avian influenza (AI) or bird flu is a group of viruses that occur naturally in birds. A virus is pathogenic if it can cause illness or death. Some AI viruses can infect birds but not cause many bird illnesses or death. Other AI viruses, termed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), can cause large numbers of bird illnesses and deaths. Currently there is concern about one of these viruses, known as highly pathogenic H5N1, because it is causing severe disease in chickens and other poultry on several continents. It has also been found in wild birds in the same areas. In some instances, people who have had close contact with sick poultry have also become infected and gotten very sick. Approximately half of the people known to be infected have died.. Source. This entry was posted on Monday, May 11th, 2009 at 7:31 am and is filed under Bird Flu. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site. ...
The 64-year-old male patient from Kunming, who was known to have contact with dead poultry, had onset on November 21 and was in a serious condition.. This is the first human case reported in the Mainland since October 2017. As winter approaches, based on the seasonal pattern of avian influenza (H7N9) viruses, their activity in the Mainland is expected to increase, a spokesman for the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP). LISTEN: H7N9 avian influenza in China: Should we be worried?. Since 2013, 1,564 human cases have been reported with all but 31 reported in China. 766 cases have been reported just since Oct. 2016.. Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. Since the virus continues to be detected in animals and environments, and live poultry vending continues, further human cases can be expected.. Related: Avian influenza in humans 2017: Hong Kong officials break it ...
Fluhunter: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1(Determination of virulence potential;PCR-typing of the pathogenicity) , FR304 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
In April and May 2008, whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) were found dead in Hokkaido in Japan. In this study, an adult whooper swan found dead beside Lake Saroma was pathologically examined and the identified H5N1 influenza virus isolates were genetically and antigenically analyzed. Pathological findings indicate that the swan died of severe congestive edema in the lungs. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA genes of the isolates revealed that they are the progeny viruses of isolates from poultry and wild birds in China, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong. Antigenic analyses indicated that the viruses are distinguished from the H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds and poultry before 2007. The chickens vaccinated with A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) survived for 14 days after challenge with A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1), although a small amount of the challenge virus was recovered from the tissues of the birds. These findings indicate that H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are circulating in
Cause of high lethality and dissemination to human being, new development of rapid method for the detection of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is still necessary. For the detection of AIV subtype H5N1, typical pathogenic AIV, new method to confirm sub-typing of this virus is also needed. For the purpose of ultra-rapid detection and sub-typing of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of AIV, this study was planned. As the results we could demonstrate an ultra-rapid multiplex real-time PCR (URMRT PCR) for the detection of AIV In this study, the URMRT PCR were optimized with synthesized AIV H5- and AIV Nl-specific DNA templates and GenSpector TMC, which is a semiconductor process technology based real-time PCR system with high frequencies of temperature monitoring. Under eight minutes, the amplifications of two AIV subtype-specific PCR products were successfully and independently detected by 30 cycled ultra-rapid PCR, including melting point analysis, from |TEX|$1{\times}10^3$|/TEX| copies of
Wild birds are considered natural reservoirs of avian influenza virus (AIV) and at least 105 species of wild birds have been reported to harbor these viruses [1]. The migratory nature of these bird populations may help disseminate AIV across countries and continents. Most of the wild birds have been reported to harbor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses [2-5] although highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have also been isolated from some species [6]. To understand how AIV is evolving in nature, it is important to identify the AIV subtypes circulating within wild bird populations.. A number of surveillance programs have been undertaken to isolate and identify the subtypes of AIV present in wild bird species e.g., waterfowl and geese [3, 7, 8] with limited reports in raptors. Thus, van Borm et al [9] detected HPAI H5N1 in Thai eagles that were smuggled into Belgium and Ducatez et al [10] isolated HPAI H5N1 from vultures in Burkina Faso. Due to their carnivorous feeding ...
Detailed Analysis & SWOT analysis, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Trends 2020, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Growth 2020, Bird Flu TreatmentIndustry Share 2020, Bird Flu TreatmentIndustry Size, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Research, Bird Flu TreatmentMarket Analysis,Bird Flu Treatment market Report speaks about the manufacturing process. The process is analysed thoroughly with respect three points, viz. raw material and equipment suppliers, various manufacturing associated costs (material cost, labour cost, etc.) and the actual process of whole Enterprise Aluminum Lithium Alloys market. Overview of the Bird Flu Treatment Market: -. Report on the Global Bird Flu Treatment Market Report, History and Forecast 2014-2025, Breakdown Data by Companies, Key Regions, Types and Application. Bird flu is a viral infection caused by avian influenza A viruses in birds. The viruses that cause the disease in birds can mutate and spread to humans. Bird flu is named H or N depending on the protein found on the surface of ...
H9N2 is the most prevalent low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in domestic poultry in the world. Two distinct H9N2 poultry lineages, G1-like (A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97) and Y280-like (A/Duck/Hong Kong/Y280/1997) viruses, are usually associated with binding affinity for both α 2,3 and α 2,6 sialic acid receptors (avian and human receptors), raising concern whether these viruses possess pandemic potential. To explore the impact of mouse adaptation on the transmissibility of a Y280-like virus A/Chicken/Hubei/214/2017(H9N2) (abbreviated as WT), we performed serial lung-to-lung passages of the WT virus in mice. The mouse-adapted variant (MA) exhibited enhanced pathogenicity and advantaged transmissibility after passaging in mice. Sequence analysis of the complete genomes of the MA virus revealed a total of 16 amino acid substitutions. These mutations distributed across 7 segments including PB2, PB1, PA, NP, HA, NA and NS1 genes. Furthermore, we generated a panel of recombinant or mutant H9N2 viruses
The United States Department of Agricultures Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) today released an epidemiology report outlining its initial findings through June 5 about how highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was likely entering new premises during this period of time. After conducting investigations on over 80 commercial poultry farms, APHIS analysis indicates that there are likely several ways the virus could be transmitted, including lapses in biosecurity practices and environmental factors. APHIS cannot, however, associate HPAI transmission with one factor or group of factors in a statistically significant way at this time, and will continue to update this report regularly as more analyses are completed. Read More. ...
Polybasic cleavage sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are considered to be the most important determinants indicating virulence of the avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, evidence is accumulating that these sites alone are not sufficient to establish high pathogenicity. There need to exist other sites located on the HA protein outside the cleavage site or on the other proteins expressed by AIV that contribute to the pathogenicity. We employed rule-based computational modeling to construct a map, with high statistical significance, of amino acid (AA) residues associated to pathogenicity in 11 proteins of the H5 type viruses. We found potential markers of pathogenicity in all of the 11 proteins expressed by the H5 type of AIV. AA mutations S-43HA1-D, D-83HA1-A in HA; S-269-D, E-41-H in NA; S-48-N, K-212-N in NS1; V-166-A in M1; G-14-E in M2; K-77-R, S-377-N in NP; and Q-48-P in PB1-F2 were identified as having a potential to shift the pathogenicity from low to high. Our results suggest that the
Reports of sporadic avian influenza outbreaks involving domestic poultry date back to the 1960s. With the exception of A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 (H5N9), which was isolated from a turkey breeding establishment, all viruses characterised prior to 2004 fit the criteria of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). Only in retrospect was A/turkey/Ontario/7732/1966 shown to meet the criteria of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). In 2004, Canada reported its first case of HPAI to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The outbreak, which began in a broiler breeder farm in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, involved an H7N3 LPAI virus which underwent a sudden virulence shift to HPAI. ...
CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low WASHINGTON, April 6, 2015 -- The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza (HPAI) in a third commercial turkey flock in Stearns County, Minnesota. This is the sixth confirmation in a commercial flock in Minnesota. The flock of 76,000 turkeys is located within the Mississippi flyway where this strain of avian influenza has previously been identified. CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in wild birds, backyard flocks and commercial poultry, to be low. No human infections with the virus have been detected at this time.. This flock is in the control area for a previous detection. As part of our response protocol, samples were tested by the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory as part of our standard ...
The discussion of these concerns should take place in a scientific framework and should recognize that control of MPAI reduces the risk of HPAI. That inactivated vaccines have reduced a flocks susceptibility to AI infection, have reduced the quantity of virus shed post challenge, have reduced transmission and have markedly reduced disease losses, are scientific facts. The current regulations preventing vaccination against H5 or H7 MPAI have had the effect of promoting circulation of MPAI virus in commercial poultry and live poultry markets. In the absence of highly pathogenic avian influenza, there is no justification for forbidding the use of inactivated vaccine. ...
EFSAs role is to provide EU risk managers with independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the animal health and welfare dimension of avian influenza and any possible food safety issues. Since the risk of avian influenza was first identified, EFSA has issued a substantial body of scientific advice to assist risk managers in making appropriate decisions and actions. To carry out its scientific work, EFSA exchanges information with national food safety authorities, the European Commission, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and other international organisations active in this field.. EFSA has provided scientific advice on the food safety aspects of avian influenza confirming that there is no available epidemiological evidence that avian influenza can be transmitted to humans through consumption of food.. EFSA has also issued advice on the animal health and welfare aspects of avian influenza, providing information on the risks of the virus entering and ...
The natural reservoir of influenza A virus is waterfowl, particularly dabbling ducks (genus Anas). Although it has long been assumed that waterfowl are asymptomatic carriers of the virus, a recent study found that low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) infection in Bewicks swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) negatively affected stopover time, body mass and feeding behaviour. In the present study, we investigated whether LPAI infection incurred ecological or physiological costs to migratory mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in terms of body mass loss and staging time, and whether such costs could influence the likelihood for long-distance dispersal of the avian influenza virus by individual ducks. During the autumn migrations of 2002-2007, we collected faecal samples (n=10918) and biometric data from mallards captured and banded at Ottenby, a major staging site in a flyway connecting breeding and wintering areas of European waterfowl. Body mass was significantly lower in infected ducks than in ...
It was less than two months ago that FAO issued a warning that H5N8 avian influenza virus had been detected in wild birds in Tyva Republic in southern Russia and would likely spread in a south-westerly direction with the autumn migration of waterbirds. The virus, which is highly pathogenic for poultry, appears already to have travelled westward as far as Poland and Hungary, and southwards to Kerala Province in India, according to recent official notifications to the World Organization for Animal Health, or OIE.. Events in the past week demonstrated that the virus has already spread from wild birds to domestic poultry, said FAO chief veterinary officer Juan Lubroth. The H5N8 virus has been detected in wild birds as well as domestic ducks in four States of India, and in Hungary, in a swan found dead in the southeastern part of the country, and a turkey flock in Totkomlos.. The dead Mute Swan in Hungary was found in late October near saline soda Lake Fehér-tó in Csongrád County, a well-known ...
Both high and low pathogenic subtype A avian influenza remain ongoing threats to the commercial poultry industry globally. The emergence of a novel low pathogenic H7N9 lineage in China presents itself as a new concern to both human and animal health and may necessitate additional surveillance in commercial poultry operations in affected regions. Sampling data was simulated using a mechanistic model of H7N9 influenza transmission within commercial poultry barns together with a stochastic observation process. Parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood. We assessed the probability of detecting an outbreak at time of slaughter using both real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) and a hemagglutinin inhibition assay (HI assay) before considering more intense sampling prior to slaughter. The day of virus introduction and R 0 were estimated jointly from weekly flock sampling data. For scenarios where R 0 was known, we estimated the day of virus introduction into a barn under different sampling
In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and turkey farming operations in the Midwestern region of the United States. As of May 30, more than 43 million birds in 15 states had been destroyed as a result of the outbreak, including nearly 30 million in Iowa alone, the nations largest egg producer. In the Midwestern U.S., the average price of eggs had increased 120% between April 22 and May 30. The effects however were seen nationwide, with prices in California up 71% in the same timeframe.[1] The virus was first identified in Minnesota in early March. Prior to April 20, it affected commercial turkey farms almost exclusively, in the states of Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and at 28 farms in Minnesota, where the virus was initially identified. Migratory waterfowl are assumed to have brought the disease to the Midwest, but how it made its way into poultry barns is undetermined.[2] No human cases have been reported, ...
A unique pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks has emerged along the Central Asia Flyway, where infection of wild birds has been reported with steady frequency since 2005. We assessed the potential for two hosts of HPAI H5N1, the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) and ruddy shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), to act as agents for virus dispersal along this thoroughfare. We used an eco-virological approach to compare the migration of 141 birds marked with GPS satellite transmitters during 2005-2010 with: 1) the spatio-temporal patterns of poultry and wild bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1, and 2) the trajectory of the virus in the outbreak region based on phylogeographic mapping. We found that biweekly utilization distributions (UDs) for 19.2% of bar-headed geese and 46.2% of ruddy shelduck were significantly associated with outbreaks. Ruddy shelduck showed highest correlation with poultry outbreaks owing to their wintering distribution in South Asia, where there is considerable
Background: The H9N2 subtype of influenza A viruses is considered to be widespread in poultry industry. Adamantane is a group of antiviral agents which is effective both in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infections. These drugs inhibit M2 protein ion channel which has role on viral replication. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to evaluate M gene of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 subtype in order to find adamantane drug resistance mutations. METHODS: Over 100 suspected samples were collected from different geographical regions of Iran during 2012-2013. Samples were injected via allantoic sac of 9-11 day-old chicken embryos. A total of 11 out of 100 were AIV. The H9N2 subtype was confirmed by specific RT-PCR. The RT-PCR was conducted for full length M gene. PCR amplified products were purified and then conducted for commercial direct sequencing. Finally, sequences were checked for possible sites of adamantane resistance mutations. RESULTS: Overall, 8 out of 11 viruses
Download Letter to Secretary of State Dijksma on the outbreak of bird flu in Hekendorp. Mr President-In-Office, On a poultry farm in hekendorp (municipality of Oudewater) is on 15 november JL. an outbreak of bird flu (Avian Influenza, AI) of the H5 variant established. It concerns high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is of type H5N8. HPAI is bestrijdingsplichtig in the European legislation. With this letter I message you about this infection and the measures I have affected. Monitoring and early warning In Netherlands are on commercial poultry farms regularly samples taken, which are tested for bird flu (regular monitoring). In Addition There is a system in which veterinarians in certain disease symptoms, that may indicate bird flu, submit samples for research (early warning). For bird flu is a hailing at a suspicion.. Last Friday, 14 november. a poultry farm in hekendorp (municipality of Oudewater) samples submitted because the chicken disease symptoms had that possibly being on bird flu. ...
Sequences of H5N1 virus from live bird markets in China matched sequences from patients who had recently visited the live bird markets, according to a paper in the December 2011 Journal of Virology. Live poultry markets have ...
The 2006 outbreaks of H5N1 avian influenza in Egypt interrupted poultry production and caused staggering economic damage. In addition, H5N1 avian influenza viruses represent a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the rapid detection of H5 viruses is very important in order to control the disease. In this study, a qualitative reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of hemagglutinin gene of H5 subtype influenza viruses was developed. The results were compared to the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Anin vitrotranscribed RNA standard of 970 nucleotides of the hemagglutinin gene was developed and used to determine the assay sensitivity. The developed H5 RT-RPA assay was able to detect one RNA molecule within 7min, while in real-time RT-PCR, at least 90min was required. H5 RT-RPA assay did not detect nucleic acid extracted from H5 negative samples or from other pathogens producing respiratory ...
Backyard chickens can be infected because they may have contact with a wild bird. If you have chickens, keep an eye out for any of the symptoms and report it to public health.. A recent outbreak of bird flu in the United States has spread across 19 states and affected more than 30 million birds. California is one of the 19 states and has had two confirmed commercial poultry flocks infected with flu this year. In January, a turkey flock was found to be infected in Stanislaus County, and in February, a flock of chickens was infected in Kings County. The two outbreaks combined to involve more than 100,000 infected birds.. Dean Blumberg, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at UC Davis Childrens Hospital, explains what bird flu is, how its spread and whether Californians are at risk.. What is bird flu?. Bird flu is the common name for avian influenza. The avian influenza virus is related to human influenza, but it primarily affects various bird species.. How is it spread?. In some ways, its ...
Two street dogs died after eating dead chicken from a poultry farm in India… Azeri dog died from bird flu virus… Suspected bird flu outbreak leaves 4 dogs and about 100 chickens dead in Ivory Coast… Significant numbers of dogs in Thailand carry the H5N1 strain of the bird flu virus. These headlines have caused a lot of dog owners to be apprehensive. Given the fact that dogs are highly valued pets, any dog owner would fear for the health of the pet. What is bird flu? Are dogs really susceptible to this disease?. Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu is an illness that is caused by any strain of the influenza virus that has adapted to a specific host. As the name suggests, the virus has adapted to birds. Bird flu is a highly transmissible disease of birds. This virus has a wide range of symptoms. While some species of wild birds can carry the virus without getting sick, other birds and poultry would get ill when infected. Infected poultry would show either of the two forms of the ...
2008-2009] UNICEF Egypte requested a post-assessment of the impact of the communication efforts made by UNICEF in co-operation with the MOHP on Avian Influenza as well as an evaluation of the whole Community Intervention Education Programme implemented by UNICEF in co-operation with MOHP in rural Egypt. SPAN Consultants provided a key expert team of communciation and health experts to perform the post assessment and evaluation. The assignment aims to obtain reliable and objective information on the impact of Avian Influenza Community Outreach Program on the target communities, in order to use the results as guideline for future planning and design of similar communication interventions. The lesson learned from the evaluation will be applied for further improvement of activities related to raising public awareness on Avian Influenza among the target audiences exposed to the risk of infection. The aims of the UNICEF-supported Avian Influenza Community Education Program are: 1) enhancing knowledge ...
Belmopan, 29th June, 2012. The Belize Agricultural Health Authority has placed a national poultry health alert following Mexico officially reporting a major outbreak of highly pathogenic H7N3 Avian Influenza in three commercial poultry layer farms in the central Mexican state of Jalisco.
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N8, #Germany [16 #poultry / #wildbirds #outbreaks].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N8 subtype, poultry and wild birds epizootics in Germany.. Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Code: [ ][ ]. _____. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8, Germany. Information received on 10/03/2017 from Dr. Karin Schwabenbauer, Ministerial Dirigentin and Chief Veterinary Officer , Directorate of Animal Health, Animal Welfare, Bundesministerium für Ernährung und Landwirtschaft (BMEL) , Bonn, Germany. ...
Title: Highly pathogenic #avian #influenza #H5N6, #Japan [a #poultry #outbreak].. Subject: Avian Influenza, H5N6 subtype, poultry epizootics in Japan.. Source: OIE, full page: (LINK). Code: [ ]. _____. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6, Japan. Information received on 25/01/2017 from Dr Kazuo Ito, Director, International Animal Health Affairs Office, Animal Health Division, Food Safety and Consumer Affairs Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tokyo, Japan. ...
Abstract: The emergence of human infections with a novel H7N9 influenza strain has raised global concerns about a potential human pandemic. To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from wild birds during routine surveillance in China: A/Baers Pochard/Hunan/414/2010 (BP/HuN/414/10) (H7N1) and A/Common Pochard/Xianghai/420/2010 (CP/XH/420/10) (H7N1). To better understand the molecular characteristics of these two isolated H7N1 viruses, we sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed their entire genomes. The results showed that the two H7N1 strains belonged to a Eurasian branch, originating from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic analysis of their hemagglutinin (HA) genes showed that BP/HuN/414/10 and CP/XH/420/10 have a more distant genetic relationship with A/Shanghai/13/2013 (H7N9), with similarities of 91.6% and 91.4%, respectively. To assess the replication and pathogenicity of these viruses in different
The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While prior H5N1 strains have been known, they were significantly different from the current H5N1 strain on a genetic level, making the global spread of this new strain unprecedented. The current H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species especially over a wide area). Unless otherwise indicated, H5N1 in this article refers to the recent highly pathogenic strain of H5N1. In the first two months of 2006 H5N1 spread to Africa and Europe in wild bird populations possibly signaling the beginning of H5N1 being endemic in wild migratory bird populations on multiple continents for decades, permanently changing the way poultry are farmed. In addition, the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 to wild birds, birds in zoos and even ...
What It Means for US Poultry. Large outbreaks of AI do not often occur in the United States. Although there is a fear of potential spillover of AI strains from birds to humans, there is a more imminent risk of economic loss due to AI infections. Although there has been only one report of AI infection in a U.S. commercial flock, the entire industry suffers (4). As of January 7th, 2015, at least 30 countries have implemented restrictions on the importation of US poultry, including a ban on poultry from Oregon and Washington (3). Thailand, South Korea, and Sri Lanka, have gone as far to ban all US poultry and poultry products (3).. AI Clinical Signs. Avian influenza can sometimes have no clinical signs in poultry. In low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI), some clinical signs include coughing, sneezing and nasal discharge. Morbidity and mortality are usually low in LPAI strains. Some clinical signs that can manifest in HPAI include: cyanosis (blue coloration of skin and membranes due to low oxygen) ...
Background A feature difference between extremely and pathogenic avian influenza strains may be the existence of a protracted non-highly, multibasic often, cleavage theme insertion in the hemagglutinin proteins. the insert heres not through the viral genome but from sponsor 28S ribosomal Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10G4 RNA (rRNA) rather. That is a novelty for an all natural acquisition as an identical insertion has up to now only been seen in a lab strain before. Provided the great quantity of viral and sponsor RNA in infected cells, the acquisition of a pathogenicity-enhancing extended cleavage site through a similar route by other low-pathogenic avian strains in future does not seem unlikely. Important for surveillance of these H7N3 strains, the structural sites known to Boc Anhydride enhance mammalian airborne transmission are dominated by the characteristic avian residues and the risk of human to human transmission should currently be low but should be monitored for future changes accordingly. ...
Dennis J. Alexander*. "A review of avian influenza in different bird species" (PDF). Avian Virology, VLA Weybridge, Addlestone ... "WHO confirms human transmission< in Indonesian bird flu cluster". "Avian influenza - situation in Indonesia - update 17". WHO. ... Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. While genetic analysis ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine. ...
... the Environment and Migratory Birds". Avian Influenza & Wild Birds Bulletin. 123 (1). "2nd Turkish teen dies from bird flu". ... "EFSA publishes a scientific statement on the role of migratory birds in the spread of avian influenza amongst bird populations ... subsistence hunter-killed birds, and investigations of sick and dead wild birds. The other two strategies involve domestic bird ... "Avian Influenza in Azerbaijan (in wildlife)". OIE. February 15, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-09-27. "Bird flu virus ...
That makes 7 million birds that have been or will be destroyed in Nebraska since bird flu became epidemic in the upper Midwest ... "USDA Confirms More Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza in Five Flocks in Iowa". APHIS. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.. ... When an infection is confirmed, all birds at the affected farm are destroyed per USDA guidelines. The birds are culled by ... This table shows large bird farm infections during the 2015 outbreak. All birds affected either died of the H5N2 infection ...
In that context, the Magpie Robin (dowel) bird was declared as the national bird of Bangladesh. It is a widely used symbol in ... Dennis J. Alexander (1992). Avian Influenza in the Eastern Hemisphere 1986-1992. Avian Diseases 47. Special Issue. Third ... Professor Kazi Zakir Hossain of Dhaka University proposed to consider the Magpie Robin birds as the national bird of Bangladesh ... N. H. Birds, i. p. 17, pls. xvii. xviii.), and Levaillant (Ois. d'Afr. iii. p. 50) thought it referred to a sun dial and he ...
... for entering sequence data from samples received from National Influenza Centers (NICs) in the WHO Global Influenza ... "The fight against bird flu". Nature. 496 (7446): 397. April 24, 2013. doi:10.1038/496397a. PMID 23627002. Larson, Christina ( ... "Influenza pathogen database of global significance set up in Bonn". BMEL Homepage. 15 April 2010. Archived from the original on ... the global sampling of SARS-CoV-2 is being very capably addressed by the Global Initiative for Sharing All Influenza Data ( ...
Birds, 304) and others use the word κολυμβίς (kolumbis), "diver", for the name of the bird, because of its swimming motion in ... Pigeons are, however, at potential risk for carrying and spreading avian influenza. One study has shown that adult pigeons are ... As prey birds, they must keep their vigilance, and when disturbed a pigeon within a flock will take off with a noisy clapping ... The birds that prey on pigeons in North America can range in size from American kestrels to golden eagles and can even include ...
The current H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It ... and other birds and that it was increasing its ability to infect mammals as well. From this point on, avian influenza experts ... and other birds and that it was increasing its ability to infect mammals as well. From this point on, avian influenza experts ... Avian Influenza A(H5N1). 30. "Malaysia wants its poultry declared bird flu-free". Reuters. September 21, 2005. WHO (September ...
1] Publications and coauthors at ResearchGate Publications at PubMed, including several papers on avian influenza in wild birds ... "Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa1". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (4): 626-629. doi:10.3201/eid1304.061011. ... because that is on the main migratory route for birds. The first birds are already in east Africa." By December of that year, ... "Bird flu fails - for now - to take wing on migratory pathways". Associated Press via USA Today. 2005-12-28. David Brown (2006- ...
In 2005, Chinese poultry farmers were reported to have used amantadine to protect birds against avian influenza. In Western ... influenza and received approval for prophylactic use for influenza A in 1976. During the 1980 influenza A epidemic, the first ... However, amantadine-resistant influenza viruses were first reported during the 1980 influenza A epidemic and resistance ... CDC weekly influenza report - week 35, cdc.gov Alves Galvão MG, Rocha Crispino Santos MA, Alves da Cunha AJ, et al. (Cochrane ...
During the outbreak of panzootic H5N1 influenza, which could be transmitted from birds to people, Capua's lab in Padua received ... best known for her research on influenza viruses, particularly avian influenza, and her efforts promoting open access to ... The department is home to the National FAO/OIE Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease, and is the OIE ... She obtained a Ph.D. from the University of Padua in 2007 on avian influenza epidemiology, inter-species transmission and ...
Supari would later describe in her book an affinity for Peter Bogner, his plea to her government to share its bird flu virus ... On 22 August 2006, two weeks after Supari made her announcement, Nancy Cox, the director of the influenza division at the US ... It's time for the world to change - In the spirit of dignity, equity and transparency - Divine hand behind avian influenza, ... She gained global notoriety in 2007 when she took on the World Health Organization's practice of sharing avian influenza virus ...
Influenza viruses are common among birds and mammals. Human-specific -ssRNA viruses include the measles virus and the mumps ... Borkenhagen LK, Salman MD, Ma MJ, Gray GC (November 2019). "Animal influenza virus infections in humans: A commentary". Int J ... In modern history, some such as Ebola and influenza have caused deadly disease outbreaks. The vesicular stomatitis virus, first ... Notable vertebrate -ssRNA viruses include the Ebola virus, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, the Lassa fever virus, and the ...
Mizáková, A.; Gronesová, P.; Betáková, T. (2008). "Monitoring of influenza viruses in waterfowl and terrestrial birds in ... and small birds trapped in bird ringers' mist nets. One bird killed a twite caught with it in a Heligoland trap.[33] They are ... Birds, volume 4. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 158-160.. *^ Rasmussen, Pamela C; Anderton, John C (2005). Birds of South Asia ... Prummel, W.; Zeiler, J.T.; Brinkhuizen, D.C. (2010). Birds in Archaeology: Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of the ICAZ Bird ...
... for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like illness". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD001957. ... The bird is predominantly black and white, with the back feathers being iridescent and glossy in males, while the females are ... Domesticated birds may look similar; most are dark brown or black mixed with white, particularly on the head. Other colors, ... A study examining birds in northwestern Colombia for blood parasites found the Muscovy duck to be more frequently infected with ...
... for preventing and treating influenza and influenza-like illness". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD001957. ... Domestic birds come in a variety of colors and patterns: Black Blue Chocolate Piebald (white with any color mixed in) White ... The 40-60% of eggs that are fertile result in birds raised only for their meat or for production of foie gras: they grow fast ... "Ultimate homestead bird". Off the Grid. Holderread 2001, p. 97 Zivotofsky, Rabbi Ari Z.; Amar, Zohar (2003). "The Halachic Tale ...
"Bird Flu Soars". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Chan, Margaret. "World now at the start of 2009 ... "Imaging findings in a fatal case of pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1)". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 193 (6): 1500-3. doi: ... New diseases of animal origin appeared for a short time, such as the bird flu in 2007. Swine flu was declared a pandemic by the ... more than 214 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza ...
"Fatal bird flu found on turkey farm in South Carolina". WCMH-TV. April 11, 2020. Worthington, Don (April 14, 2020). "Fatal bird ... On April 10, 2020 a case of Influenza A virus subtype H7N3 was confirmed in what The Post and Courier describes as "a ... Pitt, David (April 11, 2020). "Industry scrambles to stop fatal bird flu in SC". The Post and Courier. " ... Hallman, Tom (May 4, 2020). "State releases avian influenza control area in Chesterfield County". Clemson University. "2010 ...
In 1961 the common tern was the first wild bird species identified as being infected with avian influenza, the H5N3 variant ... "List of Migratory Birds". Birds protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. US Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved 25 January ... Young birds migrate with the adults. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with individuals typically returning for 7-10 ... ISBN 0-262-24036-X.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Tern videos on the Internet Bird Collection Birds portal Animals ...
It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype ... "Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in avian influenza negative birds from live bird markets ... As of 2012, there was an estimated 400 million birds killed from infection of the H5N1 strain of influenza. Studies have shown ... Presently, the highly pathogenic Asian strain of Avian Influenza is still continuing to kill poultry and wild birds alike on ...
"Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 13 (4): 547-552. doi:10.3201/ ... 25 602 birds in 89 colonies) and the remaining 18% occurring in Alaska (5 529 birds in 111 colonies). However, within the last ... "Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Volume 3: Waders to GullsStanley Cramp (Chief Editor) Oxford ... Mickelson, P. G., J. S. Hawkings, D. R. Herter and S. M. Murphy (1980). Habitat use by birds and other wildlife on the eastern ...
These included bird flu, avian influenza, SARS and Hendra virus. The impacts of these diseases can be extremely severe, hence ... The 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak showed just how disruptive such disease outbreaks can be. Avian influenza was ... highly pathogenic forms of avian influenza (bird flu), African swine fever and many others. An outbreak of any of these ... human influenza with pandemic potential plague severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS ...
Thousands of birds were culled. Avian influenza outbreaks of unknown subtypes were later also reported in five other states of ... wild birds and poultry), Germany (October: wild birds; November: wild birds and poultry), Republic of Ireland (October and ... In 2020 and 2021, an ongoing outbreak of Avian influenza subtype H5N8 has been occurring at poultry farms and among wild bird ... 160,000 birds in two poultry farms in Barwala, Panchkula and Raipur Rani are to be culled. 437,000 birds have died in this ...
Individual vagrancy can take birds for long distances. Its plumage varies with location, with birds being coloured from all- ... Falcons are known to be very susceptible to avian influenza. Therefore, an experiment was done with hybrid gyr-saker falcons, ... Cornell Lab of Ornithology Gyrfalcon stamps at bird-stamps.org "Gyrfalcon media". Internet Bird Collection. BirdLife species ... Handbook of Birds of the World. Volume 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 274, plate 28. ISBN ...
Fox M (January 28, 2018). "Adenovirus looks like flu, acts like flu, but it's not influenza". NBC News. Thacker EE, Nakayama M ... Smith BF, Bird RC, Muminova Z, Strong TV, et al. (November 2009). "A genetically engineered adenovirus vector targeted to CD40 ... Naskalska A, Szolajska E, Chaperot L, Angel J, Plumas J, Chroboczek J (December 2009). "Influenza recombinant vaccine: matrix ...
"Losing ground: The top 10 common birds in decline" (PDF). Common birds in decline; a state of the birds report, summer 2007. ... doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2001)118[0290:DEIBCF]2.0.CO;2. "Avian influenza tests complete on wild northern pintail ducks in Montana ... Unusually for a bird with such a large range, it has no geographical subspecies if the possibly conspecific duck Eaton's ... Juvenile birds resemble the female, but are less neatly scalloped and have a duller brown speculum with a narrower trailing ...
Avian influenza and bird migration in Mongolia (funded by OIE, Japan). 2008-2010. Taxonomy and bar-coding of birds (supported ... The society has been celebrating World Migratory Bird Day every year in Mongolia since 2011 by organizing bird watching trips, ... The society collects information on Mongolian birds, which helps create Mongolian National Bird Database. In order to conserve ... Organize ornithological expeditions and field trips for bird watching and bird filming with both Mongolian and international ...
Tens of millions of birds have died of H5N1 influenza and hundreds of millions of birds have been slaughtered and disposed of, ... The global spread of H5N1 influenza in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While other H5N1 influenza strains ... Wild Birds Bulletin. 123 (1). "CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - Protecting Poultry Workers from Avian Influenza (Bird ... "Avian influenza - situation in Egypt - update 5". WHO. "Hong Kong finds H5N1 bird flu in poultry market". Reuters. June 7, 2008 ...
"1918 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses are not pathogenic in birds". Journal of General Virology. 91 (2): 339-342. doi:10.1099/ ... "Hemagglutinin-Pseudotyped Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Influenza Viruses for the Detection of Influenza Virus ... He was the first to identify the biological role of the non-structural NS1 Influenza Protein during infection, the first to ... Fodor, E.; Devenish, L.; Engelhardt, O. G.; Palese, P.; Brownlee, G. G.; García-Sastre, A. (1999). "Rescue of Influenza a Virus ...
There is bad vaccine that stops the disease in the bird but the bird goes on pooping out the virus and maintaining it and ... I think there are substandard vaccines for influenza in poultry all over the world." In response to the same concerns, Reuters ... But if they have been using vaccines now [in China] for several years, why is there so much bird flu? ... According to the CDC article "H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza" by Robert G. Webster et al.: "Transmission of highly ...
Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... Between 1976 and 1998, in 30,000 mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and arthropods sampled from regions of EBOV outbreaks, no ... and birds have also been considered possible viral reservoirs.[1][29] ...
1977). Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa, the Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 1: Ostrich ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ... Hauber, Mark E. (2014). The Book of Eggs: A Life-Size Guide to the Eggs of Six Hundred of the World's Bird Species. University ... "The Birds of North America Online. doi:10.2173/bna.658. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2011. ...
Infected birds will die 6-12 hours after contracting the bacterium, and very few ill birds have been described.[10] Due to ... The recognition of this pathological condition is of ever increasing importance for differential diagnosis with avian influenza ... In wild birds, this disease is most commonly associated with wetlands. Blanchong et al.[9] determined that wetlands act as ... Adult birds and old chickens are more susceptible. In parental flocks, cocks are far more susceptible than hens. [2] ...
A treaty with the remaining Delaware and a few other tribes was negotiated in 1843 at Fort Bird and the Delaware were enlisted ... influenza and dysentery, and recurrent violent racial conflict with Europeans. Iroquoian peoples occasionally fought the Lenape ... birds, shellfish and deer. They developed sophisticated techniques of hunting and managing their resources. ...
Usually organisms that have a higher rate of reproduction than their competitors have an evolutionary advantage. Consequently, organisms can evolve to become simpler and thus multiply faster and produce more offspring, as they require fewer resources to reproduce. A good example are parasites such as Plasmodium - the parasite responsible for malaria - and mycoplasma; these organisms often dispense with traits that are made unnecessary through parasitism on a host.[7] A lineage can also dispense with complexity when a particular complex trait merely provides no selective advantage in a particular environment. Loss of this trait need not necessarily confer a selective advantage, but may be lost due to the accumulation of mutations if its loss does not confer an immediate selective disadvantage.[8] For example, a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from its host. Discarding this synthesis may not necessarily allow ...
Influenza pandemic (1510). *Influenza pandemic (1557-1559). *Second plague pandemic (1348-19th century) ... Bird flu (2003-2005). *Mumps (2009). *Madagascar plague (2008-2017). *Swine flu (2009-2010) ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (Bagassosis, Bird fancier's lung, Farmer's lung). Other. ARDS · Pulmonary edema · Löffler's ... Respiratory failure · Influenza · SARS · Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis · Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. M: RES ...
"Seasonal Influenza (Flu)". Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Nakuha noong 29 June 2011.. ... "bird flu," ay nagpakita ng paglaban sa rimantadine at amantadine.[6] Ang paggamit ng mga antibiyotiko sa pulmonyang sanhi ng ... Call, SA; Vollenweider, MA, Hornung, CA, Simel, DL, McKinney, WP (2005-02-23). "Does this patient have influenza?". JAMA: the ... "Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy adults". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (7): CD001269. doi:10.1002/ ...
Bird * sw:Bird. Black hole * sw:Black hole. Black Sea * sw:Black Sea. Blindness * sw:Blindness. Blood * sw:Blood. Blues * sw: ... Influenza * sw:Influenza. Information * sw:Information. Information technology * sw:Information technology. Infrared * sw: ...
... while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza.[64] This phenomenon, in which certain ... Deforestation reduced populations of insectivorous birds and other creatures that fed on mosquitoes and their eggs. ...
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses. UMN CIDRAP. ... Influenza (Seasonal), World Health Organization, April 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2010.. *↑ World Health Organization. World ... WHO position paper: influenza vaccines WHO weekly Epidemiological Record 19 August 2005, vol. 80, 33, pp. 277-288. ... Eccles, R (2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". Lancet Infect Dis 5 (11): 718-25. PMID ...
Helpful to digestion; prevent from influenza, throat inflammation. Reduce cholesterol in the blood.. Gohyah is not listed in ... An Indonesian-style bitter gourd dish, cooked with sambal, onion, and red bird's-eye chili peppers ...
Annual influenza vaccinations in those with COPD reduce exacerbations, hospitalizations and death.[84][85] Pneumococcal ... Bird fancier's lung. Farmer's lung. Lycoperdonosis. Other. *ARDS. *Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema ... Other recommendations include influenza vaccination once a year, pneumococcal vaccination once every five years, and reduction ... "Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD002733 ...
Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens[citation needed]. close contact ... birds, bats inhaling fungi in guano Influenza Influenza A virus horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals ... Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus) pigs close ... Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of bird flu and swine flu are zoonoses; ...
... (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... 947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2008, ... Pigs can harbor influenza viruses adapted to humans and others that are adapted to birds, allowing the viruses to exchange ...
Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian species including plants, birds, fish, and some species ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... García-Sastre A, Egorov A, Matassov D, Brandt S, Levy DE, Durbin JE, Palese P, Muster T (December 1998). "Influenza A virus ... proteins or block their activation by ubiquitination, thus inhibiting type I IFN production.[25] Influenza A also blocks ...
"mTOR/p70S6K signaling distinguishes routine, maintenance-level autophagy from autophagic cell death during influenza A ... "A bird's-eye view of autophagy". Autophagy. 9 (7): 41-46. ...
"A bird's-eye view of autophagy". Autophagy. 9 (7): 1121-6. doi:10.4161/auto.24544. PMC 3722328. PMID 23615436 ... "mTOR/p70S6K signaling distinguishes routine, maintenance-level autophagy from autophagic cell death during influenza A ...
This genus has one species, influenza A virus. Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a large variety of influenza A. ... "Guide for considering influenza testing when influenza viruses are circulating in the community , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , ... "avian influenza" or simply "bird flu", and is endemic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. This Asian ... Birds are thought to be the main animal reservoirs of influenza viruses.[226] Sixteen forms of hemagglutinin and nine forms of ...
Bird fancier's lung. Farmer's lung. Lycoperdonosis. Other. *ARDS. *Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema ...
... birds and other vertebrates have served as reservoirs.[39] Three genotypes of this virus have been described, each with a ... or other infections such as influenza. Chronic recurrent polyarthralgia occurs in at least 20% of chikungunya patients one year ... The virus may circulate within a number of animals including birds and rodents.[3] Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for ...
One hypothesis for the origin of multicellularity is that a group of function-specific cells aggregated into a slug-like mass called a grex, which moved as a multicellular unit. This is essentially what slime molds do. Another hypothesis is that a primitive cell underwent nucleus division, thereby becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would then form around each nucleus (and the cellular space and organelles occupied in the space), thereby resulting in a group of connected cells in one organism (this mechanism is observable in Drosophila). A third hypothesis is that as a unicellular organism divided, the daughter cells failed to separate, resulting in a conglomeration of identical cells in one organism, which could later develop specialized tissues. This is what plant and animal embryos do as well as colonial choanoflagellates.[26][27] Because the first multicellular organisms were simple, soft organisms lacking bone, shell or other hard body parts, they are not well preserved in the fossil ...
Abnormal behaviour of birds in captivity. *European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC ... Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease). *Botulism. *Campylobacteriosis. * ...
... avian influenza (bird flu), giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis over long distances. Some of these are zoonotic diseases that can ... Classification of bird orders. See also: List of birds. Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Prum, R.O. et al. (2015 ... About 60 extant bird species are flightless, as were many extinct birds.[114] Flightlessness often arises in birds on isolated ... Early diversity of bird ancestors. Ichthyornis, which lived 93 million years ago, was the first known prehistoric bird relative ...
Ruben, J. (1995). "The evolution of endothermy in mammals and birds: from physiology to fossils". Annual Review of Physiology. ... like lizards and birds, they use the same orifice to urinate, defecate and reproduce ("monotreme" means "one hole"). ... Benton, M.J. (December 1999). "Early origins of modern birds and mammals: molecules vs. morphology". BioEssays. 21 (12): 1043- ... After the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs (birds being the only surviving dinosaurs) ...
The earliest evidence of behavioral modernity first appears during the Middle Paleolithic; undisputed evidence of behavioral modernity, however, only becomes common during the following Upper Paleolithic period.[1] Middle Paleolithic burials at sites such as Krapina in Croatia (dated to c. 130,000 BP) and the Qafzeh and Es Skhul caves in Israel (c. 100,000 BP) have led some anthropologists and archeologists (such as Philip Lieberman) to believe that Middle Paleolithic cultures may have possessed a developing religious ideology which included concepts such as an afterlife; other scholars suggest the bodies were buried for secular reasons.[3][4] According to recent[when?] archeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in the Atapuerca Mountains, the practice of intentional burial may have begun much earlier during the late Lower Paleolithic, but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community. Cut-marks on Neandertal bones from various sites - such as Combe Grenal and the ...
... highly pathogenic avian influenza) A/H5N1 strain (media labeled "bird flu") with more human-transmissible Influenza A strains ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe - "an unusually ... Pigs are susceptible to influenza viruses that can also infect both humans and birds, so they may act as a "mixing vessel" in ...
Pamela C. Rasmussen and John C. Anderton publish Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. ... October 5 - The Spanish flu virus is reconstructed and shown to be closely related to the Avian influenza virus. ...
"Chasing loons: Banding the elusive birds at night on the Quabbin Reservoir". masslive.com. Retrieved April 23, 2015.. ... influenza, and perhaps leptospirosis.[83][84] Between 1617 and 1619, what was possibly smallpox killed approximately 90% of the ... "Black-Capped Chickadee:Massachusetts State Bird". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 17, 2015.. ... "Wild Turkey:Massachusetts State Game Bird". StateSymbolsUSA.org. Retrieved April 17, 2015.. ...
Even mammals, including humans, show the segmented bilaterian body plan at the level of the nervous system. The spinal cord contains a series of segmental ganglia, each giving rise to motor and sensory nerves that innervate a portion of the body surface and underlying musculature. On the limbs, the layout of the innervation pattern is complex, but on the trunk it gives rise to a series of narrow bands. The top three segments belong to the brain, giving rise to the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain.[9] Bilaterians can be divided, based on events that occur very early in embryonic development, into two groups (superphyla) called protostomes and deuterostomes.[10] Deuterostomes include vertebrates as well as echinoderms and hemichordates (mainly acorn worms). Protostomes, the more diverse group, include arthropods, molluscs, and numerous types of worms. There is a basic difference between the two groups in the placement of the nervous system within the body: protostomes possess a nerve cord on the ...
Avian Influenza in Wild Birds. Avian influenza A viruses have been isolated from more than 100 different species of wild birds ... Avian influenza refers to infection of birds with avian influenza Type A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild ... Infected birds can shed avian influenza A viruses in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become ... Avian Influenza in Poultry (Domesticated Birds). Domesticated birds (chickens, turkeys, etc.) may become infected with avian ...
HPAI Findings in Wild Birds. *Wild Bird Positive Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Cases in the United States: December 2014 to ... Wild Bird Avian Influenza Surveillance: Total Birds Sampled Per State July 2017 to June 2018 ... Wild Bird Avian Influenza Surveillance: Total Birds Sampled Per State July 2015 to June 2016 ... Wild Bird Avian Influenza Surveillance: Total Birds Sampled Per State July 2016 to June 2017 ...
The GISRS network consists of national influenza centers (NICS) which conduct influenza virus surveillance and study influenza ... Bird Flu in Birds. * Bird Flu in People ... Avian Influenza Type A Viruses. * Asian Avian Influenza A (H5N1 ... Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People. *Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A Viruses with ... is the foundation of influenza preparedness and response for influenza viruses, including avian influenza viruses. ...
Avian influenza or "bird flu" is a viral disease that primarily infects domestic poultry and wild birds. Avian influenza ... Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds. Samples were collected from wild birds ... Dispersal of H9N2 influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America by wild birds. Virology 482:79-83 ... The movement and transmission of avian influenza viral strains via wild migratory birds may vary by host species as a result of ...
... also known as influenza A or the avian flu) primarily infects birds, but can pose health risks to people. Learn how to avoid ... Birds, just like people, get the flu. Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ... Avian And Other Zoonotic Influenza (World Health Organization) Also in Spanish * Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) (Centers for ... Usually bird flu viruses only infect other birds. It is rare for people to get infected with bird flu viruses, but it can ...
What a better way to take care of a bunch of sick birds other than a gatling gun, in the middle of the day on an inhabited ... street? Hey, they have bird flu. You have to do something. Free Shooting Games from AddictingGames ... What a better way to take care of a bunch of sick birds other than a gatling gun, in the middle of the day on an inhabited ... street? Hey, they have bird flu. You have to do something.. Instructions. Aim with MOUSE. Shoot with LEFT MOUSE BUTTON.. Attack ...
Welcome to 10,000 Birds, the worlds favorite birding blog! Learn more about our site, Mike, Corey, or our awesome team of Beat ... 2019 10,000 Birds // All rights reserved. All words, images, and opinions are the property of their respective authors unless ... Avian influenza H5N2 in the Mississippi and Pacific Flyways. April 21, 2015 by Greg 3 Comments ... Achoo! Antarctic Penguins Are Catching Bird Flu. September 28, 2016 by Meredith Mann 1 Comment ...
... and signs of bird flu and the medications used in treatment. Common associated symptoms and signs include headache, fever, and ... Main Article on Bird Flu (Avian Influenza) Symptoms and Signs. * Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). Bird flu (avian flu, avian ... Causes of bird flu (avian influenza). Bird flu is caused by strains of the influenza virus that are able to infect avian (bird ... Bird flu (avian flu or avian influenza) is type of influenza virus that mainly affects wild or domesticated birds. Bird flu ...
Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. Most cases of avian influenza in- ... Avian Influenza, influenza Virus A Flu. type AFlu, Genus A Flu (Eng.) Overview ... Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. ... Avian Influenza, influenza Virus A Flu. type AFlu, Genus A Flu (Eng.) ...
encoded search term (Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)) and Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) What to Read Next on Medscape ... History of exposure to birds, especially living in close proximity to birds, contact with sick or dying birds, or consumption ... Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Clinical Presentation. Updated: Feb 12, 2020 * Author: Nicholas John Bennett, MBBCh, PhD, FAAP, MA( ... Global map of countries where avian influenza (bird and human infections) has been reported. Image courtesy of PandemicFlu.gov ...
... was likely caused by contamination from wild birds, Defras epidemiology report has concluded. ... The avian influenza (AI) outbreak in Dunfermline, Scotland, ... The avian influenza (AI) outbreak in Dunfermline, Scotland, was ... Craigies Farm, a broiler breeder unit housing 38,000 57-week-old birds, was hit by a low-pathogen variant of H5N1 AI in early ... See also: Biosecurity is key to keeping avian influenza at bay. Defras inquiry into the outbreak said evidence available and ...
... or bird flu, is an infectious disease caused by a type of influenza virus. Find out about outbreaks, symptoms, treatment and ... What is bird flu?. Avian influenza, or bird flu, is an infectious disease that is caused by a type of influenza virus. As the ... Bird flu is highly contagious, and can infect all types of birds. Wild birds, especially water birds such as ducks, are the ... influenza A (H7N9) virus.. Influenza A (H5N1). The H5N1 subtype of the bird flu virus is very aggressive, and can cause serious ...
Avian Influenza. (aka bird flu, avian flu) is caused by a type of influenza virus that is hosted by birds, but may infect ... Georgia Reacts to Bird Flu; Issues Temporary Suspensions on Poultry. US - Avian influenza has been confirmed in three states, ... Heat Can Quickly Inactivate Bird Flu Virus. US - The avian influenza virus can be relatively quickly inactivated by heat, shows ... US - Low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza has been found in live-bird markets in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. ...
... game bird farms, wild birds, wild bird rehabilitation facilities, falconry birds, and captive bird collections in zoos/aviaries ... USDA Publishes Updated Interagency Strategic and Surveillance Plans for Avian Influenza Migratory Birds Component Action Menu * ... USDA Publishes Updated Interagency Strategic and Surveillance Plans for Avian Influenza Migratory Birds. Last Modified: Oct 1, ... released two updated interagency plans related to the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds. As part of USDAs on-going ...
... you can stay up to date about the latest developments on avian influenza. Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WVBR) takes care ... What is avian influenza?. Bird flu or avian influenza (AI) is a collective term for different influenza viruses that may be ... We also examine wild birds and waterfowl in order to rule out avian influenza as a cause of the birds death. The goal is to ... Spread of bird flu in the Netherlands Purple = poultry farms. Red = wild birds. Blue = hobby birds. There can be a few days ...
... avian influenza/avian flu) is a disease caused by an influenza virus (H5N1) that primarily affects birds but can infect humans ... Bird flu (avian influenza/avian flu) is a disease caused by an Influenza Virus (H5N1) that primarily affects birds. ... Symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical human influenza-like symptoms [fever, cough, sore throat, and ... Swine flu, a type of influenza caused by a new strain of the H1N1 Type A influenza virus has originated from the pigs. Winter ...
Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for A … ... we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. ... To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, ... Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Oct;15(10):1633-6. doi: 10.3201/eid1510.090439. ...
In the summer of 1968, a new strain of influenza appeared in Hong Kong. This strain, known as H3N2, spread around the globe and ... Influenza evolution In the past 100 years, influenza viruses that emerged from pigs or birds have caused several notable flu ... "Study Identifies Influenza Viruses Circulating In Pigs And Birds That Could Pose A Risk To Humans." Medical News Today. ... Study Identifies Influenza Viruses Circulating In Pigs And Birds That Could Pose A Risk To Humans. ...
Influenza viruses have been shown to affect all types of domestic or captive birds in all areas of the world, but the frequency ... Only type A influenza viruses are known to cause natural infections in birds, but viruses of all 15 haemagglutinin and all nine ... A review of avian influenza in different bird species.. Alexander DJ1. ... Influenza A viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two distinct groups on the basis of their ability to cause disease. ...
... the influenza virus, or the flu, leaves the borders of Southeast Asia and travels to North and South America. About 5 to 20 ... Wild Birds are Carriers of Most Viruses. Wild birds are born with many of these viruses in their intestines and have an inborn ... The birds have been quarantined and have tested positive for the H5N1 virus. People who might have bought these birds may have ... How to Identify Bird Flu (Avian Influenza) Symptoms. Updated on October 30, 2012 ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. ... Pandemic influenza preparedness planning : report on a joint WHO/European Commission Workshop, Luxembourg, 2-3 March 2005  ... Pandemic influenza preparedness planning : report on the second joint WHO/European Commission Workshop, 24-26 October 2005  ...
Flock Killing Planned if Bird Flu Found "Free-ranging chickens and small, backyard flocks will be at greatest risk if deadly ... Bird Flu home , Issues index , Sweet Liberty home page ... bird flu reaches the United States, officials said Wednesday. ... scientists have created a virus that contains genes from human and bird flus and found it lacks what it takes to cause a ...
... has been detected in wild birds in Warwickshire and South Dorset and therefore an Avian Influenza Prevention Zone was ... Avian influenza (bird flu) - Update. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N6) has been detected in wild birds in Warwickshire ... Signs of the Avian Influenza disease. The disease spreads from bird to bird by direct contact or through contaminated body ... Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is usually less serious. It can cause mild breathing problems, but affected birds will ...
Correction for Tian et al., Avian influenza H5N1 viral and bird migration networks in Asia. PNAS June 2, 2015 112 (22) E2980; ... ECOLOGY Correction for "Avian influenza H5N1 viral and bird migration networks in Asia," by Huaiyu Tian, Sen Zhou, Lu Dong, ... Avian influenza H5N1 viral and bird migration networks in Asia - December 22, 2014 ... Correction for Tian et al., Avian influenza H5N1 viral and bird migration networks in Asia ...
Influenza Viruses in Other Wild Birds. LPAI viruses can be found in numerous other bird species (Table 1) (5), but it is ... Influenza Viruses in Gulls and Terns. The first recorded isolation of influenza virus from wild birds was from a Common Tern ( ... Prevalence of influenza A virus in wild birds. Influenza virus prevalence in specific species is given only if tests on ,500 ... Genetic Variation of Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds. Evolution of avian influenza viruses in their natural hosts is slow, but ...
CPSF30 »Influenza »NIH »NS1 »X-ray crystallography »antiviral »binding »bird flu »flu »human cells »influenza A virus protein » ... This so-called NS1 virus protein is shared by all influenza A viruses isolated from humans - including avian influenza, or bird ... Further reports about: , CPSF30 , Influenza , NIH , NS1 , X-ray crystallography , antiviral , binding , bird flu , flu , human ... Discovery opens door for drugs to fight bird flu, other influenza epidemics. 27.08.2008 ...
Several recent outbreaks of avian influenza have suggested strong evidence of migratory birds playing a role in transmitting ... Trade in poultry, poultry products and caged birds, and movement of wild birds also account for H5N1 prevalence in these areas ... and recurrence of H5N1 avian influenza in endemic regions can largely be blamed on movement and infection by migratory birds. ... The interaction of Migratory Birds and Domestic Poultry and its role in sustaining Avian Influenza. SIAM Journal on Applied ...
To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses ... To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses ... The results of this study demonstrated that two low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N1 viruses of the Eurasian branch could ... The results of this study demonstrated that two low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N1 viruses of the Eurasian branch could ...
  • Avian influenza virus (AIV) gained a high profile after the unprecedented bird-to-human transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in 1997. (cdc.gov)
  • Originating in Asia, HPAIV (H5N1) subsequently caused widespread deaths among wild and domestic birds in Southeast Asia and westward throughout Europe and Africa in 2005 and 2006. (cdc.gov)
  • Although the role of wild birds in HPAIV maintenance remains controversial ( 8 ), the magnitude of the subtype H5N1 epidemics increased the demand for early recognition of potential threats to humans and poultry and an understanding of the natural history of AIV in wild birds. (cdc.gov)
  • The government does have a supply of a vaccine for one type of H5N1 bird flu virus and could distribute it if there was an outbreak that spread easily from person to person. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The H5N1 strain of avian influenza virus arose in the late 1990s and proved to be highly pathogenic (causing severe illness and death) in birds. (medicinenet.com)
  • The avian influenza virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known hu-man deaths, are: H1N1 (Spanish flu), H2N2 (Asian Flu), H3N2(Hong Kong Flu), H5N1 is the current pandemic threat. (hubpages.com)
  • Primary viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure have been common among people who have become ill with H5N1 influenza. (hubpages.com)
  • Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia. (medscape.com)
  • H5N1 avian influenza: Timeline of major events. (medscape.com)
  • Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Egypt. (medscape.com)
  • Probable person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). (medscape.com)
  • Tropism of avian influenza A (H5N1) in the upper and lower respiratory tract. (medscape.com)
  • Craigie's Farm, a broiler breeder unit housing 38,000 57-week-old birds, was hit by a low-pathogen variant of H5N1 AI in early January. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Avian influenza of the H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes (see below) have never occurred in Australia. (mydr.com.au)
  • The H5N1 subtype of the bird flu virus is very aggressive, and can cause serious infections in both birds and humans. (mydr.com.au)
  • Scientists are worried because the H5N1 subtype of the bird flu virus is able to mutate rapidly, and can readily mix with viruses that infect other animal species. (mydr.com.au)
  • Bird flu (avian influenza/avian flu) is a disease caused by an Influenza Virus (H5N1) that primarily affects birds. (medindia.net)
  • The most deadly Avian Virus, or bird flu, is the H5N1 virus. (hubpages.com)
  • The birds have been quarantined and have tested positive for the H5N1 virus. (hubpages.com)
  • The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype in Asia, which has subsequently spread to Russia, the Middle East, Europe, and Africa, has put increased focus on the role of wild birds in the persistence of influenza viruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • The persistence and recurrence of H5N1 avian influenza in endemic regions can largely be blamed on movement and infection by migratory birds. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Trade in poultry, poultry products and caged birds, and movement of wild birds also account for H5N1 prevalence in these areas. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In a paper published last week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, authors Lydia Bourouiba, Stephen A. Gourley, Rongsong Liu, and Jianhong Wu analyze the interaction between non-migratory poultry and migratory birds in order to investigate the role of the latter in the spread of H5N1. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • How the interaction of a migratory bird species with domestic poultry contributes to the spread and persistence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus is a question of profound importance to the control of avian influenza spread, and to the effort of mitigating the impact of the disease on the domestic poultry industry,' says corresponding author Stephen Gourley, researcher in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Surrey. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The H5N1 bird flu virus is transmitted from infected birds to humans. (angloinfo.com)
  • Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The recent recognition that the highly pathogenic H5N1 AIV can infect wild birds and has the potential to be spread by these birds to new areas ( 3 , 9 ) has resulted in a tremendous surge of interest in the surveillance of free-flying avian species for AIV. (asm.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) NanoViricides, Inc. (OTC BB: NNVC.OB) (the "Company"), reported today that they are on course with the development of nanoviricides™ drug candidates against highly pathogenic avian influenzas (HPAI) including H5N1 bird flu, and common influenza. (nanowerk.com)
  • Bird Flu H5N1 continues to spread over ever-widening geographic regions and is a major cause of concern for potential pandemic influenza, according to the WHO. (nanowerk.com)
  • A boy died of bird flu in Indonesia, and the H5N1 virus was found as far away as a Ukrainian village of Rivne and also northern part of Iran, reports Voice of America. (nanowerk.com)
  • The Company is developing drugs against a number of viral diseases including H5N1 bird flu, seasonal influenza, HIV, hepatitis C, rabies, and dengue fever, among others. (nanowerk.com)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 have infected a wide range of carnivore species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Within the past 30 years, and before the emergence of HPAI viruses (H5N1), 5 documented outbreaks of influenza virus infections occurred in 2 carnivore species--the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) (1-4), and the American mink (Mustela vison) (5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The sources of most HPAI virus (H5N1) infections in carnivores were traced to infected birds eaten by the animals (12-15,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Until 2005, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) were either wild carnivores kept in captivity or domestic carnivores that ate infected domestic or peridomestic birds (12-14,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Since 2005, and after the spread of HPAI virus (H5N1) of the Qinghai sublineage (clade 2.2) outside Southeast Asia in poultry and wild bird populations, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) included for the first time free-living wild carnivores, which presumably ate infected wild birds (20,21). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The occurrence of HPAI viruses (H5N1) in wild bird populations is likely to result in the exposure and infection of free-living wild carnivore species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, it may likely hunt or scavenge wild birds infected with HPAI viruses (H5N1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, we asked 2 questions: 1) Are red foxes susceptible to infection with a wild bird isolate of HPAI virus (H5N1) from clade 2.2? (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To answer these questions, we experimentally assessed the excretion pattern (based on route, duration, and concentration of virus excretion) and pathogenicity (based on clinical signs, death rates, and distribution of lesions and virus) of a wild bird isolate of clade 2.2 HPAI virus (H5N1) in red foxes infected intratracheally and in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Those agencies have been monitoring and testing for the presence of the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus in migratory birds for several years. (somd.com)
  • All birds in these flyways have tested negative for the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus of concern. (somd.com)
  • Working closely with our state, local and federal partners, we can detect and respond to disease events involving wild birds and screen birds for highly pathogenic H5N1 virus. (somd.com)
  • Because Alaska is at the crossroads of bird migration flyways, scientists believe the strain of highly pathogenic H5N1 currently affecting Southeast Asia would most likely arrive there if it spread to North America via migratory birds. (somd.com)
  • Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in wild birds have received increasing attention in recent years in response to the emergence and spread of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus across Eurasia and Africa [ 3 , 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although there are many kinds of bird flu, the most common kinds that concern health workers are H5N1 and H7N9 bird flu viruses. (nkch.org)
  • Of the 15 serotypes of bird flu, H5N1 is of greatest concern. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bird 'flu' caused by the H5N1 virus that caused epidemics in poultry in Japan, Korea, Thailand, China and Vietnam early in 2004. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There have been numerous deaths from H5N1 avian influenza in the world since the virus first emerged in 2003. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Surveillance continues to show H5N1 avian influenza virus is not present in Australia. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Waterfowl, which are the normal hosts of avian influenza and are thought to have had a role in the spread of the H5N1 virus in Europe, Asia and Africa do not migrate to Australia. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • H5N1 is a particular strain of highly pathogenic avian influenza. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • For example, the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus can survive in bird faeces for at least 35 days at low temperature (4 o C). At a much higher temperature (37 o C), H5N1 viruses have been shown to survive, in faecal samples, for six days. (gofir.com)
  • Additional infections with HPAI H5N2, H5N8 and a newly identified reassortant H5N1 virus were reported in domestic and wild birds in western states in the so-called Pacific flyway. (cdc.gov)
  • This kit is used to detect Bird Flu (H5N1) virus IgG antibodies in chicken serum or plasma. (krishgen.com)
  • The Bird Flu (H5N1) antibody ELISA kit is based on an indirect enzymatic immunoassay (Indirect ELISA).The antigen is coated on plates. (krishgen.com)
  • H5N1 virus in Asia and other parts of the world) have caused severe illness in the past among people, most of whom had prolonged and close contact with infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • BIRD FLU INFECTING A PERSON: graphic artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 shown in green) infecting a person (with lungs and other organs visible). (rkm.com.au)
  • BIRD FLU & HUMAN FLU REPLICATION IN A SINGLE CELL: graphic artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 shown in green) emerging from birds and infecting a cell. (rkm.com.au)
  • BIRDS & BIRD FLU GRAPHIC #1: artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1) emerging from birds and mixing with other strains of influenza virus. (rkm.com.au)
  • BIRDS & BIRD FLU GRAPHIC #2: artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 - shown in green) emerging from birds (swans) and mixing with other strains (blue) of influenza virus, creating the potential for a new strain (red & yellow) which can pass easily from person to person, thereby creating the potential for a pandemic. (rkm.com.au)
  • PANDEMIC FLU GRAPHIC: illustration above shows a cell being infected by bird flu (H5N1) and a human flu virus at the same time. (rkm.com.au)
  • since 2004 our site has tracked news of H5N1 influenza from around the world. (blogspot.com)
  • We aimed to characterize AIVs circulating on commercial farms and in live bird markets (LBMs) during the winters of 2015 and 2016 in the study area and to identify H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in respiratory patients. (peerj.com)
  • Overall, H5N1 was identified in 13.6% of birds from farms, while it was detected in 17% of birds in LBMs. (peerj.com)
  • House sparrows, European starlings, and Carneux pigeons were inoculated with 4 influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from different avian species. (cdc.gov)
  • In summary, recent influenza (H5N1) viruses are pathogenic for small terrestrial bird species but the rate of intraspecies transmission in these hosts is very low. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 , also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1 , is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization , H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic , as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. (altmetric.com)
  • Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV) in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) has increased substantially worldwide in recent years due to the spread of the H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) AIV among domestic and wild birds in Asia, Europe and Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Questions and answers related to H5N1 Bird Flu (Avian Flu). (answers.com)
  • H5N1 is one of the specific strains of bird flu that infects humans. (answers.com)
  • In 1997, a lineage of H5N1 bird flu was transmitted to a child in Hong Kong who died of respiratory problems. (bvsalud.org)
  • They may therefore be responsible for sustaining H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus circulation within the poultry sector, and thus a suitable target for implementing control strategies. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Our results suggest that under plausible parameter scenarios, HPAI H5N1 could be sustained silently within LBMs with the time spent by poultry in markets and the frequency of introduction of new susceptible birds' dominant factors determining sustained silent spread. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza, see Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza A/ H5N1 was first isolated from a goose in China in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until H5N1 , all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the bird flu virus, known as H5N1, rarely infects people, it appears to be highly lethal when it does. (medicinenet.com)
  • The H5N1 strain of bird flu is presently causing disease in water birds and domestic poultry such as chickens, geese and ducks in many countries across Asia, Europe and Africa. (health.gov.au)
  • While there is no evidence that the H5N1 strain of bird flu is in Australia, it is possible that H5N1 could arrive in migratory birds. (health.gov.au)
  • It is currently very difficult for the H5N1 virus to be transmitted from birds to humans - it requires very close contact with sick or dead birds. (health.gov.au)
  • Bird flu, also known as avian influenza, is an H5N1 form of the influenza virus that mainly infects birds, including chicken, ducks and turkeys. (abc.net.au)
  • Immune system proteins can act as a shield by successfully neutralizing various types of influenza including the deadly H5N1 avian flu. (qualityhealthguides.com)
  • When scientists exposed mice, having various kinds of influenza, to these antibodies, they were surprised to notice that the antibodies not only neutralized the seasonal viruses but also the rare and aggressive strain H5N1. (qualityhealthguides.com)
  • This was observed that the mice with H5N1 avian monoclonal antibodies was injected these antibodies, and it cured from the fatal influenza, although three days have been passed. (qualityhealthguides.com)
  • Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. (wikipedia.org)
  • People working with poultry with known or possible infections of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A should follow worker protection and personal protective equipment (PPE) recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza A viruses are classified into the following two categories: low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • These tests tell us whether any highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are found in the wild bird population. (usda.gov)
  • Because Tundra Swans are potentially susceptible to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, we sought to better understand the migration of Tundra Swans throughout North America. (usgs.gov)
  • As many as 20 shorebird species that visit North America in summer have migratory routes through Asia that overlap with past outbreak areas of highly pathogenic avian influenza. (usgs.gov)
  • US - A flock of chickens at a commercial poultry breeding operation located in Chattooga County, Georgia, has tested positive for H7, presumptive low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • US - The Maryland Secretary of Agriculture has extended Emergency Orders to prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza from infecting Maryland poultry flocks, citing continued threats of an outbreak. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • As part of USDA's on-going preparation efforts for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), these updated plans will help USDA with further monitoring of wild birds for the HPAI virus during the fall migration. (usda.gov)
  • Many of the activities outlined in these plans are already being implemented and help warn us of any re-assortments or changes in low or highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild birds which could be detrimental to our domestic flocks. (usda.gov)
  • Most viruses are the mild variant, known as low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI). (wur.nl)
  • However, the mild form of H5 or H7 bird flu may also change into the highly contagious variant, known as high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). (wur.nl)
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N6) has been detected in wild birds in Warwickshire and South Dorset and therefore an Avian Influenza Prevention Zone was introduced in England on 18 January 2018. (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) is usually less serious. (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • The switch from a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus phenotype, common in wild birds and poultry, to the HPAI virus phenotype is achieved by the introduction of basic amino acid residues into the HA0 cleavage site, which facilitates systemic virus replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrated that two low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N1 viruses of the Eurasian branch could infect mammals and may even have the potential to infect humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many of the varieties are what we call low pathogenic avian influenza or LPAI So they don't produce a great deal of morbidity or mortality in the birds. (futurelearn.com)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was recently detected in waterfowl in Utah prompting state and federal veterinarians to reach out to domestic and commercial poultry owners to increase safety measures for their flocks. (utah.gov)
  • High Pathogenic Avian Influenza was recently found in wild or domestic birds in Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, and now Utah. (utah.gov)
  • On April 21 2021, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 has been confirmed in a holding with approximately 9000 geese and 10000 ducks in the town Vinderup in Holstebro municipality. (foedevarestyrelsen.dk)
  • On 21 March 2021 an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (subtype H5N5) was declared in a back yard poultry holding of 4 hens in the town Øm in the municipality Lejre in Zealand. (foedevarestyrelsen.dk)
  • On March 17 2021, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 has been confirmed in a duck holding with 2.200 grey ducks in the town Illebølle in Langeland municipality. (foedevarestyrelsen.dk)
  • On March 17 2021, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 has been confirmed in a turkey holding with approximately 27.600 turkeys near the town Sønderup in Boeslunde municipality. (foedevarestyrelsen.dk)
  • On March 12 2021, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 has been confirmed in a backyard poultry holding near the town Hallenslev in Kalundborg municipality. (foedevarestyrelsen.dk)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in south-east Asia and Russia. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In contrast to the first H5N8 wave, local virus amplification with associated wild bird mortality has occurred in the Netherlands in 2016/17, with evidence for occasional gene exchange with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus from waterfowl, South Korea, 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (H5N6, H4N2 and H1N1). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Low virulence and lack of airborne transmission of the Dutch highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 in ferrets. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses in domestic ducks, China. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Pathobiological features of a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak strains provides evidence for four separate introductions and one between-poultry farm transmission in the Netherlands, November 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Avian influenza viruses (AIV) with H5 or H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes can cause highly pathogenic avian influenza in susceptible poultry ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • It is unknown how the current Asian origin highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses arrived, but these viruses are now poised to become endemic in North America. (usgs.gov)
  • Responding to the recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in North America requires an efficient plan with clear objectives and potential management outcomes. (usgs.gov)
  • WASHINGTON, March 20, 2006 - Secretary of Agriculture Mike Johanns, Secretary of the Interior Gale A. Norton and Secretary of Health and Human Services Michael Leavitt today moved to further ensure the protection of people, domestic poultry and wild birds by unveiling an enhanced national framework for early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in wild migratory birds in the United States. (somd.com)
  • In the early summer, waterfowl hunters and poultry farmers alike heard disturbing news about highly pathogenic avian influenza virus reaching Michigan's wild goose population in Macomb County. (mucc.org)
  • LANSING - This past spring poultry farmers across the United States were affected by a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, which has been documented as the largest domestic animal health disaster in U.S. history. (mucc.org)
  • There have been seven minor incidents of highly pathogenic avian influenza (all involving types of avian influenza which have not caused disease in humans) in Australia, the last being in 2013. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • First identified in Italy in 1878, highly pathogenic avian influenza is characterized by sudden onset of severe disease, rapid contagion, and a mortality rate that can approach 100% within 48 hours. (gofir.com)
  • Other AI viruses, termed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), can cause large numbers of bird illnesses and deaths. (hindustanlink.com)
  • March 20, 2015 - Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses in U.S. domestic and wild birds have the potential to cause human infections, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2006, the United States of America Departments of Agriculture and Interior designed a large-scale, interagency surveillance effort that sought to determine if highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were present in wild bird populations within the United States of America. (unl.edu)
  • While the initial motivation for surveillance focused on highly pathogenic avian influenza, the scale of the data provided unprecedented information on the ecology of avian influenza viruses in the United States, avian influenza virus host associations, and avian influenza prevalence in wild birds over time. (unl.edu)
  • May 26, 2015 - Since December 2014, newly identified highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses have been detected among domestic poultry (backyard and commercial flocks), captive wild birds, and wild birds in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. (altmetric.com)
  • Early detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in its natural reservoirs is a prerequisite for preventing disease spread to humans. (ucm.es)
  • Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) was detected in a commercial turkey flock in Merced County, California on March 17, 2015. (ca.gov)
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) was detected in a commercial poultry operation that consists of broiler chickens and ducks in Kings County, California. (ca.gov)
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Results: The overall proportion of birds that tested positive for influenza A via PCR was 1.90.1%, with evidence of widespread exposure of Australian wild birds to most low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) subtypes (H1-13, H16). (edu.au)
  • Despite all previous highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Australian poultry being attributed to H7 subtypes, widespread detection of H5 subtypes in wild birds may represent an ongoing risk to the Australian poultry industry. (edu.au)
  • Table 2 Low Pathogenic avian influenza virus isolates collected 2005-2007 from wild birds in Mongolia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were detected during the study period. (ac.ke)
  • However, 1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) H12N2 and 4 LPAI H5 subtypes whose neuraminidase subtype was not established were detected in 4 bird species representing both resident and migratory species sampled in 3 sites. (ac.ke)
  • Since 2004 FAO has been at the forefront of the fight against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) - bird flu - in over 95 countries. (fao.org)
  • US - A case of highly pathogenic H7 avian influenza (HPAI) was confirmed in Lincoln County, Tennessee chicken breeder flock this past weekend, according to the Steiner Consulting Group, DLR Division, Inc. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • US - The National Chicken Council (NCC) was notified by the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) that the agency has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H7 avian influenza (HPAI) in a commercial broiler breeder flock in Lincoln County, Tennessee, along the Mississippi flyway. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • ANALYSIS - The risk of high-path avian influenza (HPAI) is expected to have a major impact on US poultry exports in the next few years, according to a report from Rabobank. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Between now and March 2016, HPAI surveillance in wild birds will increase as APHIS Wildlife Services biologists and their State partners collect approximately 41,000 samples from apparently healthy wild birds from targeted areas throughout the United States. (usda.gov)
  • These efforts were led by the Interagency Steering Committee for Surveillance for HPAI in Wild Birds. (usda.gov)
  • Results from the surveillance effort will be incorporated into national risk assessments as well as preparedness and response planning efforts so that HPAI risks are reduced in commercial poultry, backyard poultry, game bird farms, wild birds, wild bird rehabilitation facilities, falconry birds, and captive bird collections in zoos/aviaries. (usda.gov)
  • Avian influenza viruses can be classified as HPAI or low pathogenic (LPAI) strains based on the severity of the illness they cause. (usda.gov)
  • Wild birds can shed both LPAI and HPAI virus into the environment through their oral and nasal secretions and feces. (usda.gov)
  • Since December 2014, the USDA has confirmed cases of HPAI H5 in the Pacific, Central and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). (usda.gov)
  • While wild dabbling ducks appear to have no ill effects from the virus, HPAI H5 is lethal to raptors and its impacts to other wild birds are unknown. (usda.gov)
  • HPAI H5 can cause severe disease and death in domestic birds. (usda.gov)
  • The most dangerous type of avian influenza, fowl pest (HPAI) forms a public health risk. (wur.nl)
  • HPAI viruses are rarely isolated from wild birds, but extremely high isolation rates of viruses of low virulence for poultry have been recorded in surveillance studies, giving overall figures of about 15% for ducks and geese and around 2% for all other species. (nih.gov)
  • HPAI spreads rapidly and has a high death rate in birds. (utah.gov)
  • Here we report on the detection of HPAI H5N8 virus in 57 wild birds of 12 species sampled during active (32/5,167) and passive (25/36) surveillance activities, i.e. in healthy and dead animals respectively, in the Netherlands between 8 November 2016 and 31 March 2017. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Moreover, we further investigate the experimental approach of wild bird serology as a contributing tool in HPAI outbreak investigations. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • With the current circulation of zoonotic HPAI and LPAI virus strains in Asia, increased understanding of the drivers responsible for the global spread of Asian poultry viruses via wild birds is needed. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Although no cases of HPAI were detected in domestic birds in Michigan, backyard poultry owners should take precautions to prevent contact between their birds and wild birds. (mucc.org)
  • Most human infections with similar HPAI viruses in other countries have occurred after prolonged and close contact with infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 2014, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) external icon first detected HPAI H5 avian viruses in wild birds in Washington state. (cdc.gov)
  • While rare, human infections with both LPAI and HPAI viruses have occurred with symptoms ranging from mild (for example, conjunctivitis or mild influenza-like-illness) to severe (for example, pneumonia, multi-organ failure and even death). (cdc.gov)
  • Most human infections with avian influenza viruses (including Asian HPAI H5 viruses and LPAI H7N9 in China ) have occurred in people with direct or close contact with infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in U.S. birds and poultry to be low at this time because infections with avian influenza viruses are rare and - when they occur - these viruses have not spread easily to other people. (cdc.gov)
  • However it's possible that human infections with HPAI viruses associated with these outbreaks in birds may occur at some time. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC has provided guidance on the use of influenza antiviral drugs in the current situation, which includes recommendations for 1) prompt treatment of persons with possible HPAI H5 virus infection, 2) early post-exposure prophylaxis of their asymptomatic close contacts based on risk of exposure, and 3) consideration (based on clinical judgment) of prophylaxis of persons exposed to infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, HPAI causes a severe illness with a high mortality rate among infected birds. (ca.gov)
  • Between 1996 and 2008 however, HPAI outbreaks in poultry have occurred at least 11 times and 4 of these outbreaks have involved millions of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings demonstrate the potential for wild birds as reservoirs and disseminators of HPAI viruses to areas that may be free from the viruses. (ac.ke)
  • These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. (cdc.gov)
  • Domesticated birds (chickens, turkeys, etc.) may become infected with avian influenza A viruses through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or through contact with surfaces that have been contaminated with the viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • When H5 or H7 avian influenza outbreaks occur in poultry, depopulation (or culling, also called "stamping out") of infected flocks is usually carried out. (cdc.gov)
  • See Past Outbreaks of Avian Influenza in North America for more information about avian influenza A virus infections in U.S. poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • An understanding of population-specific movement patterns of this widespread species will facilitate management of wildlife and domestic poultry populations and improve our understanding of the role of migratory birds in the redistribution of pathogens and contaminants. (usgs.gov)
  • Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It may also be possible to catch bird flu by eating poultry or eggs that are not well cooked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bird flu (avian flu, avian influenza) infection in humans may result from contact with infected poultry. (medicinenet.com)
  • Most cases of avian influenza in-fection in humans have resulted from contact with infected poultry (e.g., domesticated chicken, ducks, and turkeys) or surfaces contaminated with secretion excretions from infected birds. (hubpages.com)
  • The key history component that should prompt consideration of avian influenza as a possible diagnosis is exposure to sick, dead, or dying poultry or humans with avian influenza. (medscape.com)
  • For a farm manager's account of living through bird flu, see April's Poultry World . (fwi.co.uk)
  • All outbreaks of bird flu among poultry in Australia have been successfully contained and eradicated. (mydr.com.au)
  • Since late 2003, there have been several reported outbreaks of bird flu among domestic poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. (mydr.com.au)
  • Unlike other influenza strains, the H7N9 virus is difficult to detect in poultry because it causes few or no signs of disease in animals. (mydr.com.au)
  • Human infections with bird flu are not common, but it is possible for people to catch bird flu from infected poultry or surfaces contaminated with droppings, saliva or feathers from infected birds. (mydr.com.au)
  • Human cases of bird flu generally coincide with outbreaks in poultry. (mydr.com.au)
  • US - A project begun in October 2015, after receiving emergency funding from USPOULTRY following the devastating impacts of avian influenza, has found a way to inactivate the virus in poultry feeds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Once in the environment, these viruses can infect backyard poultry through the environment or through direct contact with infected wild birds. (usda.gov)
  • The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in more than 200 backyard and commercial poultry flocks. (usda.gov)
  • Bird flu or avian influenza (AI) is a collective term for different influenza viruses that may be dangerous to poultry. (wur.nl)
  • Free-range poultry farms are at greater risk of an avian influenza infection, because the poultry can come into direct contact with potentially infected wild birds and waterfowl. (wur.nl)
  • Within the European Union legislation exists to prevent avian influenza from being introduced or spread via infected poultry or transport. (wur.nl)
  • In late 2016 and early 2017, besides wild birds, several poultry farms and household flocks were found to be infected with the highly pathogenic variant of avian influenza. (wur.nl)
  • Development of a Multiplex RT-qPCR for the Detection of Different Clades of Avian Influenza in Poultry. (medindia.net)
  • Influenza A viruses infecting poultry can be divided into two distinct groups on the basis of their ability to cause disease. (nih.gov)
  • The Prevention Zone applies to everyone who keeps poultry or captive birds in England, whether they have commercial flocks or just a few birds in a backyard flock. (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • If you own, or are responsible for, poultry flocks of 50 or more birds (not necessarily of the same species) and even if your premises are only stocked for part of the year, then you must, within one month of their arrival at your premises, register your flocks. (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • For poultry flocks of fewer than 50 birds, whilst the law does not require you to register them, we still encourage you to do so as this means we can contact you quickly if there is an outbreak of disease. (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • In wild birds and poultry throughout the world, influenza viruses representing 16 HA and 9 NA antigenic subtypes have been detected ( 2 ), which can be found in numerous combinations (also called subtypes, e.g. (sciencemag.org)
  • All influenza virus subtypes and most HA/NA combinations have been detected in the bird reservoir and poultry, whereas relatively few have been detected in other species. (sciencemag.org)
  • In order to determine how migratory birds might contribute to disease in poultry, the authors first analyze the susceptibility of migratory birds to infection by using a model to trace their path along flyways. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Assuming that migratory birds can only contract the virus while in patches (and not while in transit), the probability of infection of a bird is determined based on its contact rate with infected migratory birds and infected poultry, and time spent in a patch. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Their simulations demonstrate that the arrival of migratory birds in winter can introduce avian influenza to poultry in disease-free periods. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Do not share garden equipment or poultry supplies with your neighbors or other bird owners. (utah.gov)
  • Utah State University is offering an online webinar for backyard poultry owners on the subject of avian influenza awareness. (utah.gov)
  • This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild birds in multiple European countries. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Defra have acted swiftly to try and contain further spread of the disease, which has likely come from migratory birds, yet vets and poultry owners should remain vigilant for signs of the disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The protocol, originally designed for detecting H7 influenza viruses in poultry, is not reliable for wild bird surveillance. (asm.org)
  • Most subtype H5 and H7 isolates in poultry and wild birds are not highly pathogenic, but critical mutations can occur in these low-pathogenicity or nonpathogenic viruses that result in increased virulence ( 1 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • What is unclear is how the viruses may be moving from the wild bird reservoir into poultry holdings. (usgs.gov)
  • By intensifying our monitoring of migratory bird populations, we increase the likelihood of early detection, which is key to controlling the spread of the virus, particularly in our domestic poultry. (somd.com)
  • The ability to effectively prevent the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1into domestic poultry operations is greatly enhanced by being able to rapidly detect the pathogen if it is introduced into wild migratory birds in the United States. (somd.com)
  • Today, the Michigan departments of Agriculture and Rural Development and Natural Resources reminds domestic poultry owners to be aware of the disease risks present during the fall migration of wild birds. (mucc.org)
  • Wild birds can carry various diseases that may spread to poultry operations if the wild and domestic birds have an opportunity to intermingle. (mucc.org)
  • Keeping poultry feed secure so it's not accessible to wild birds or rodents. (mucc.org)
  • Practicing proper biosecurity and preventing contact with wild birds should always be a priority for poultry owners. (mucc.org)
  • Have you been within 3 ft (1 m) of live, sick, or dead poultry, or with wild birds? (nkch.org)
  • Are you a lab or poultry worker who might have been exposed to a bird flu virus? (nkch.org)
  • Although wild birds, the natural hosts, seldom become sick when infected, avian influenza viruses can cause disease in domestic poultry and, rarely, in human beings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 2013 a H7N9 strain of avian influenza in poultry emerged which caused human deaths in China. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Australia's strict biosecurity measures prevent the disease coming into Australia through imported birds or poultry products. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Australia is well prepared to deal with a case of avian influenza should it occur in poultry here. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Workers involved with diseased poultry did not become infected with avian influenza in any of these outbreaks. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Public alarm about avian influenza and confusion between avian influenza and human pandemic influenza may unnecessarily damage Australia's poultry industry. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Influenza A is a viral respiratory infection that can usually occurs in birds (especially poultry) but can be transmitted to humans and cause serious illness. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Other bird species, including domestic poultry, develop disease when infected with avian influenza viruses. (gofir.com)
  • Considerable circumstantial evidence has long suggested that wild waterfowl introduce avian influenza viruses, in their low pathogenic form, to poultry flocks, but do not carry or directly spread highly pathogenic viruses. (gofir.com)
  • Apart from being highly contagious among poultry, avian influenza viruses are readily transmitted from farm to farm by the movement of live birds, people (especially when shoes and other clothing are contaminated), and contaminated vehicles, equipment, feed, and cages. (gofir.com)
  • Control is far more difficult under poultry production systems in which most birds are raised in small backyard flocks scattered throughout rural or periurban areas. (gofir.com)
  • Bird flu (Avian influenza, AI) is an acute contact venereal toxicity infectious disease against the domestic poultry industry at present. (krishgen.com)
  • Wild birds are the major reservoir hosts for influenza A viruses, occasionally transmitting to other species such as domesticated poultry. (org.in)
  • Despite an abundance of genomic data from avian influenza virus (AIV), little is known about whether AIV evolves differently in wild birds and poultry, although this is critical to revealing the dynamics and time-scale of viral evolution. (org.in)
  • In particular, because environmental (water-borne) transmission is more common in wild birds, which may reduce the number of replications per unit time, it is possible that evolutionary rates are systematically lower in wild birds than in poultry. (org.in)
  • BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) cause huge economic losses in poultry industries and pose a substantial threat to human health. (epimodels.org)
  • To date, all testing on poultry in the area has been found to be negative for influenza A virus. (ca.gov)
  • The current worldwide concern about the spread of Avian Influenza among humans and poultry in southeast Asia also has many pigeon fanciers interested in the role of pigeons, especially racing pigeons, in this serious disease. (albertaclassic.com)
  • To date, however, the body of scientific evidence indicates strongly that pigeons are not involved in the transmission of Avian Influenza to domestic poultry. (albertaclassic.com)
  • [10] A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are found worldwide in numerous bird species, causing significant disease in gallinaceous poultry and occasionally other species. (edu.au)
  • Avian influenza (AI) has a worldwide distribution and affects domestic and wild birds, thus causing great economic losses to the poultry industry. (authorea.com)
  • Some of the birds (Laughing doves, Speckled pigeons, Cattle egrets and Senegalese parrots) were captured around poultry houses, while others (Mallards and Geese) were sampled from live bird markets (LBMs). (authorea.com)
  • An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This relative paucity of poultry production suggests that the presence of HPAIV would be the result of wild bird movement alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has serious effects both on poultry and birds, but especially on humans. (answers.com)
  • Bird flu is a general term for some strains of influenza (flu) that are that are found in poultry and other birds. (answers.com)
  • Avian influenza virus that are mostly seen to ducks and goose and can easily spread widely to poultry products such as chickens. (learn-about-birds.com)
  • Live bird markets (LBMs) act as a network 'hub' and potential reservoir of infection for domestic poultry. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • In the 1990s, the world's poultry population grew 76% in developing countries and 23% in developed countries, contributing to the increased prevalence of avian influenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H5N8 strain has been found in wild birds across the UK in recent weeks, and in backyard poultry flocks - one of which had not been housed. (fwi.co.uk)
  • The chance of the virus spreading via migratory birds represents a continuous and unpredictable risk. (wur.nl)
  • Several recent outbreaks of avian influenza have suggested strong evidence of migratory birds playing a role in transmitting the virus over long distances. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Once the flu becomes endemic in the wintering location, the result is sustenance of the flu in migratory birds themselves. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The purpose of this project is to sample migratory birds in western Alaska on the Izembek NWR to determine the presence of influenza A viruses and the role of migratory birds in virus dispersal and maintenance. (usgs.gov)
  • A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The increased efforts come as the spring migration of migratory birds is underway and the spread of avian influenza continues across continents. (somd.com)
  • Since 1998, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) has tested over 12,000 migratory birds in the Alaska flyway and since 2000, USDA has tested almost 4,000 migratory birds in the Atlantic flyway. (somd.com)
  • Since the summer of 2005, the Department of Interior (DOI) has been working with the State of Alaska to strategically sample migratory birds in the Pacific flyway. (somd.com)
  • DOI has already carried out more than 1,700 tests on samples from more than 1,100 migratory birds. (somd.com)
  • We do not know for sure what role wild migratory birds play in the movement of this virus, but the potential exists for them to carry this virus to North America, and we have a responsibility to prepare for that possibility," said Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton. (somd.com)
  • These actions will help us provide an early warning to the agriculture, public health and wildlife communities if the virus is detected in migratory birds. (somd.com)
  • Seasonal and geographical variations in prevalence were positively related to the local density of the wildfowl community and to the wintering period of Eurasian migratory birds in Africa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • There is only the most remote possibility of a human pandemic influenza developing in Australia as a result of migratory birds carrying avian influenza virus to Australia. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Most likely, the virus has been introduced by migratory birds. (flu.org.cn)
  • There is no report on the seroprevalence of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in Yunnan Province. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence report of avian influenza H5 infection in wild migratory birds in China' s southwestern Yunnan Province. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, outbreaks of HPAIV are extremely rare in wild birds ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The situation can be complicated during outbreaks of severe respiratory disease not due to avian influenza. (medscape.com)
  • Since then, there have been several outbreaks among humans in various parts of the world, with most infections traced to contact with sick birds. (mydr.com.au)
  • While there have not been any reports of human infections with bird flu in Australia, several outbreaks have occurred among commercial flocks of birds. (mydr.com.au)
  • These outbreaks are ongoing, and millions of birds have been culled in an attempt to eradicate the disease from domestic bird populations. (mydr.com.au)
  • US - The avian influenza virus can be relatively quickly inactivated by heat, shows emergency research funded after the devastating bird flu outbreaks across the US in 2015. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Also, recently, outbreaks of equine influenza virus (H3N8) infections resulted in respiratory disease in domestic dogs (10,11). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To date, all outbreaks of the highly pathogenic form of avian influenza have been caused by viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes. (gofir.com)
  • Globalization, land encroachment and climate change contribute to outbreaks of such animal diseases - some transmissible to humans - as brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, parasitic illnesses, anthrax, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and certain strains of influenza viruses. (fao.org)
  • In the summer of 1557 parts of Europe had just suffered outbreaks of plague, typhus, measles, and smallpox when influenza arrived from the Ottoman Empire and North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza refers to infection of birds with avian influenza Type A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. (hubpages.com)
  • The first case of laboratory-confirmed avian influenza infection was documented during the SARS outbreak and was mistakenly misdiagnosed as SARS. (medscape.com)
  • Nearly 100 per cent of susceptible birds die from this infection. (mydr.com.au)
  • They often have no symptoms or only mild disease, but can pass the infection to domesticated birds (such as chickens and turkeys), who can develop severe disease. (mydr.com.au)
  • It is impossible to prevent the infection of wild birds. (wur.nl)
  • This virus that causes the bird infection can mutate to infect humans. (medindia.net)
  • To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. (nih.gov)
  • It can cause mild breathing problems, but affected birds will not always show clear signs of infection. (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • The researchers have determined the three-dimensional structure of a site on an influenza A virus protein that binds to one of its human protein targets, thereby suppressing a person's natural defenses to the infection and paving the way for the virus to replicate efficiently. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although avian influenza rarely infects humans, occasional cases of human infection have been observed since the late nineties. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The quantity of birds susceptible to infection is calculated by determining the density of susceptible birds along the flying route. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The avian influenza strains involved have not been implicated in any human infection to date. (utah.gov)
  • Because the reservoir hosts (wild birds) may not show symptoms of infection ( 15 ), the only way to monitor for the presence of H5 and H7 viruses is through active surveillance of wild birds. (asm.org)
  • However, the susceptibility of this species to infection with influenza viruses is unknown. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • and 2) Can red foxes become infected by the presumed natural route of infection, i.e., after feeding on infected bird carcasses? (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Bird flu is an infection caused by a certain kind of avian influenza virus. (nkch.org)
  • There is serious concern that recombination with human influenza viruses may already have occurred raising the danger of human to human infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While all birds are thought to be susceptible to infection with avian influenza viruses, many wild bird species carry these viruses with no apparent signs of harm. (gofir.com)
  • While antiviral drugs are most often used to treat flu, they also can be used to prevent infection in someone who has been exposed to influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, mallards were captured and sampled for influenza A virus infection, and positive samples were subtyped in order to study possible links to the natal area, which were determined by a novel approach combining banding recovery data and isotopic measurements (delta H-2) of feathers grown on breeding grounds. (diva-portal.org)
  • People with close or prolonged, unprotected contact with infected birds or contaminated environments-including owners or caretakers of birds and persons engaged in implementing control measures, such as those culling affected flocks-may be at greater risk of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • On February 12, 2015, the infection was confirmed as influenza A virus subtype H5N8. (ca.gov)
  • In general, free-flying wild birds do not develop significant disease following infection with influenza viruses, but infections are widespread in many of these birds. (albertaclassic.com)
  • We monitored viral replication, death after infection, and transmission to uninfected contact birds of the same species. (cdc.gov)
  • [14] At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opportunity to collect information on host biology (immunological and physiological response to infection) and spatial ecology (migratory performance of infected birds) will provide insights into the extent to which wild birds can act as vectors for AIV over long distances. (altmetric.com)
  • Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Out of the three types of influenza viruses ( A , B , and C ), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, or 'the flu', is a viral infection of the nose, throat and lungs (the respiratory system). (health.gov.au)
  • In Australia during 2009, there were 37,636 cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza infection, including 191 associated deaths. (health.gov.au)
  • Influenza (or "flu") is an infection of the respiratory tract (nose, throat, wind pipe and lungs) caused by the Influenza virus. (org.pk)
  • Domestic birds can also get the infection from wild birds which may not have any symptoms of the disease. (org.pk)
  • It is important to note that the bird can spread the infection even before any symptoms of the disease occur. (org.pk)
  • Influenza caused higher burial rates, near-universal infection, and economic turmoil as it returned in repeated waves. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are different subtypes and strains of the virus that causes bird flu, and some cause more severe disease than others. (mydr.com.au)
  • Type A influenza viruses are divided into subtypes, based on 2 proteins on the surface of the virus, known as haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (mydr.com.au)
  • Subtypes of the influenza A virus can be further categorised into strains. (mydr.com.au)
  • The virus can also mix its genetic material with other subtypes of the influenza A virus, resulting in a completely new and different subtype of virus from either of the original viruses. (mydr.com.au)
  • Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring. (nih.gov)
  • Only type A influenza viruses are known to cause natural infections in birds, but viruses of all 15 haemagglutinin and all nine neuraminidase influenza A subtypes in the majority of possible combinations have been isolated from avian species. (nih.gov)
  • New neuroaminidase and hemagglutinin subtypes develop as a result of antigenic drift, and less commonly, antigenic shift resulting in serious human influenza epidemics, and give rise to the need for annual reformulation of flu vaccines to protect against newer active strains. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All 16 HA (haemagluttinin) and 9 NA (neuraminidase) subtypes of influenza viruses are known to infect wild waterfowl, thus providing an extensive reservoir of influenza viruses perpetually circulating in bird populations. (gofir.com)
  • Acknowledging that these two different patterns were based in part upon different data, a likely interpretation worth further testing is that the early arriving birds with more proximate origins have different influenza A subtypes than the more distantly originating late autumn birds. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thousands of influenza viruses belonging to many subtypes have been recovered from domestic and avian species over the world. (albertaclassic.com)
  • Avian influenza virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family, which is divided into hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes based on the cell surface antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to limited data on circulating Influenza strains in wild birds in Kenya, the study was initiated to determine what subtypes of avian influenza viruses are harbored by wild birds in four migration seasons between October 2005 to June 2009. (ac.ke)
  • The study should be strengthened and maintained to continuously monitor influenza virus subtypes circulating in wild birds. (ac.ke)
  • Avian influenza - also known as 'bird flu' - is used to describe influenza virus A subtypes that primarily affect birds. (health.gov.au)
  • Bird flu spreads easily among birds, although transmission to humans is not common. (medicinenet.com)
  • As in birds, bird flu can lead to complications, including pneumonia and multiorgan failure, and has a high mortality (death) rate in infected humans. (medicinenet.com)
  • As the name implies, the disease mostly affects birds, but it can also affect humans, as well as animals such as cats and pigs. (mydr.com.au)
  • The first cases of bird flu in humans were reported in 1997 in Hong Kong. (mydr.com.au)
  • Many of the cases of bird flu in humans have occurred in Asia. (mydr.com.au)
  • The symptoms of avian influenza in humans are very mild in most cases. (wur.nl)
  • Symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical human influenza-like symptoms [fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches] to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress syndrome). (medindia.net)
  • A new study from MIT reveals that there are many strains of H3N2 circulating in birds and pigs that are genetically similar to the 1968 strain and have the potential to generate a pandemic if they leap to humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Influenza A viruses have been isolated from many species, including humans, pigs, horses, mink, felids, marine mammals, and a wide range of domestic birds, but wildfowl and shorebirds are thought to form the virus reservoir in nature. (sciencemag.org)
  • This so-called NS1 virus protein is shared by all influenza A viruses isolated from humans - including avian influenza, or bird flu, and the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because this NS1 pocket is highly conserved in all influenza A viruses isolated from humans, a drug targeted to the pocket would be effective against all human influenza A strains, including the bird flu. (innovations-report.com)
  • Current risk to humans from avian influenza is low, says @CDCgov. (utah.gov)
  • Historically, close contact of fowl with humans has been shown epidemiologically to foster cross-species jump (avian to human) of new influenza strains (e.g. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The virus is capable of spreading from birds to humans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avian influenza in birds does not easily cause disease in humans. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • National health and agriculture simulation exercises have been held to better prepare Australia for an outbreak of avian influenza in both humans and/or birds. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Less is known of avian influenza virus prevalence in wild birds located in densely populated urban areas, while these birds are more likely to be in close contact with humans. (eur.nl)
  • While no human infections with these H5 viruses have been reported to date, there is concern that these viruses could cause illness in humans, as genetically similar H5 influenza viruses (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year there is a flu season for birds (just as there is for humans) and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. (ca.gov)
  • To date, the avian influenza strains detected within the United States, including the H7N3 strain, have not been found to be transmissible to humans. (ca.gov)
  • There are three types of influenza viruses, namely A, B & C. Type A viruses have been recovered from humans, swine and horses, and occasionally, from birds and other mammals. (albertaclassic.com)
  • This reservoir may serve as a source of viruses for other species, including humans, lower mammals, and birds. (albertaclassic.com)
  • It is an extremely virulent influenza virus that can infect birds, occasionally pigs, rarely infections in other animals, and very rarely humans. (answers.com)
  • Spreading Bird Flu The Bird Flu is spread from animals to humans but not from humans to humans (except in very rare cases). (answers.com)
  • 50 - 60 % of the humans who have caught bird (Avian) flu have died from the disease. (answers.com)
  • There are two strains of this kind of influenza virus are known to infect humans in very rare circumstances. (answers.com)
  • If the virus were able to spread more easily from birds to humans, experts have estimated that millions of people could die after being infected. (medicinenet.com)
  • Just as humans have influenza, other animals also have their own version of influenza. (org.pk)
  • The bird strain of influenza usually does not infect humans. (org.pk)
  • How can humans get bird flu? (org.pk)
  • Between 2003 and 2004, there have been a little over 300 documented cases of bird flu in humans. (org.pk)
  • Bird flu in humans causes a severe illness. (org.pk)
  • How is bird flu detected in humans? (org.pk)
  • A laboratory test is needed to confirm avian influenza in humans. (org.pk)
  • Why do we worry about bird flu in humans? (org.pk)
  • How is avian influenza in humans treated? (org.pk)
  • It may be transmitted to humans through contact with bird droppings or surfaces contaminated by them or through intermediate hosts such as pigs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Symptoms of avian influenza in humans range from typical influenza-like symptoms to eye infections, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, and other severe and life-threatening complications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • LPAI viruses have been isolated from at least 105 wild bird species of 26 different families ( Table 1 ) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • However, wild aquatic birds, particularly waterfowl, waders and gulls, are regarded as a major natural reservoir of LPAI viruses, and these birds generally remain healthy while carrying the viruses ( Alexander, 2000 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Most AI strains are classified as LPAI and cause few clinical signs in infected birds. (ca.gov)
  • Samples were submitted for laboratory testing and confirmed positive for influenza A virus (IAV) H7N3 LPAI. (ca.gov)
  • The majority of the wild birds from which these viruses have been recovered represent gulls, terns and shorebirds or waterfowl such as ducks, geese and swans. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, environmental fecal samples from waterfowl and samples from morbidity and mortality events of all wild bird species also will be collected. (usda.gov)
  • Bird flu is a fatal disease of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and other avian species, especially migratory waterfowl. (medindia.net)
  • If you find dead wild waterfowl (swans, geese, or ducks) or other dead wild birds such as gulls or birds of prey, you should report them to the Defra helpline (03459 33 55 77). (hillingdon.gov.uk)
  • Data set containing avian influenza sampling information for late summer and early autumn waterfowl and gulls within and around the Izembek National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Alaska, 2011-2016. (usgs.gov)
  • Your birds should not have contact with wild birds and migratory waterfowl because they can carry germs and diseases. (utah.gov)
  • Although waterfowl and shorebirds are the natural reservoir hosts of influenza A viruses, many species have not been surveyed in large numbers. (asm.org)
  • Avian influenza viruses have been found in many wild bird species including shorebirds, quail and pheasants, but are most often found in migratory waterfowl like ducks, geese and swans. (mucc.org)
  • Migratory waterfowl and shore birds are the animal hosts of these viruses and can carry avian influenza viruses without showing any signs of disease. (cdc.gov)
  • To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. (altmetric.com)
  • It is particularly important to note that influenza viruses are readily recovered from migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, over the world. (albertaclassic.com)
  • And it has also been shown that the H5N8 virus can multiply in the intestines as well as the respiratory tract of wild birds. (wur.nl)
  • The H5N8 bird flu virus caused major deaths among wild birds in the Netherlands in 2016-2017. (wur.nl)
  • Molecular characterisation of an avian influenza (H5N8) outbreak in backyard flocks in Al Ahsa, Eastern Saudi Arabia, 2017-2018. (medindia.net)
  • Novel reassortant influenza A(H5N8) viruses in domestic ducks, eastern China. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • It is the largest global resource and reference center supporting public health interventions to control and prevent seasonal and pandemic influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • The wild bird monitoring plan is part of the President's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. (somd.com)
  • Here, we report the medical outcomes of 40 women volunteers who became pregnant after vaccination with an experimental virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009 (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09) and their infants. (medworm.com)
  • Avian influenza and human pandemic influenza are different diseases. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • If a human pandemic influenza develops as a result of mutation of an avian influenza virus, it will most likely occur somewhere else in the world and any spread to Australia would be from international travellers. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • image of bird flu viruses and human flu viruses entering the same cell and pandemic influenza emerging, diagram of replication of viruses showing reassortment of viral RNA genome segments (genetic mixing or recombination) creating a new viral strain (reassortant) with the potential to create a catastrophic new flu pandemic against which no flu vaccine will protect. (rkm.com.au)
  • The problem with vaccinating against a flu pandemic is that we do not know what the new pandemic influenza strain will be like. (rkm.com.au)
  • However, avian influenza A viruses are very contagious among birds and some of these viruses can sicken and even kill certain domesticated bird species including chickens, ducks, and turkeys. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza A viruses have been isolated from more than 100 different species of wild birds. (cdc.gov)
  • The movement and transmission of avian influenza viruses in wild birds may differ by the migratory nature of each host species. (usgs.gov)
  • However, mallards may be acommon species to transmit avian influenza viruses once infected. (usgs.gov)
  • Early on, the USGS identified the Northern Pintail as a model species to test the hypothesis that wild birds play a role in the dispersal of avian influenza viruses between continents. (usgs.gov)
  • circulate in numerous species ( 1,2-5 ), and LPAIVs are believed to perpetuate in aquatic bird populations ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A joint study by Wageningen Bioveterinary Research and Erasmus MC shows that this highly pathogenic virus can multiply in the intestines of at least four different species of wild birds (the wigeon, tufted duck, black-headed gull and magpie). (wur.nl)
  • A review of avian influenza in different bird species. (nih.gov)
  • The pig and the bird meet the person and exchange DNA or RNA and the virus "reads" their code and successfully infects all three species. (hubpages.com)
  • And we have a lake here, Lake Carter, which has many bird species on it, if you're lucky enough to see them. (futurelearn.com)
  • The result has been a rapid increase in the numbers of individual wild birds and the diversity of species tested for AIV and specifically for subtype H5 and H7 viruses. (asm.org)
  • Influenza A viruses rarely infect species of the order Carnivora. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In particular, abundant and widespread species of wild carnivores that have opportunistic feeding habits and that feed on wild birds may be at high risk for exposure. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 24). The red fox is also an opportunistic carnivore species and has a diverse diet, which includes small mammals and birds (24,25). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A number of species of wading birds do migrate to Australia but they are not the normal hosts or spreaders of avian influenza. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Here we analyze data from 197,885 samples that were collected from over 200 wild bird species. (unl.edu)
  • The mallard Anas platyrhynchos is a reservoir species for influenza A virus in the northern hemisphere, with particularly high prevalence rates prior to as well as during its prolonged autumn migration. (diva-portal.org)
  • This product is applicable to the different species, different age in chicken serum specific antibody detection of avian influenza virus. (krishgen.com)
  • Species of birds that become infected with the virus of Avian Influenza shed it from the respiratory tract, from the eyes, and in droppings. (albertaclassic.com)
  • It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pooled oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs of each bird species (8-10 samples) were tested for AIV antigen using one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (authorea.com)
  • Thus, these species of birds could play significant roles in the spread of this virus to chickens. (authorea.com)
  • The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. (altmetric.com)
  • During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) and/or virus isolation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP) AIVs were isolated from 6 species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to better understand the ecology of AIV in wild birds, data from wild bird surveillance studies can be used to attempt to identify factors that correlate with AIV detection and isolation from wild birds, such as: reservoir species, bird health status, age, season and location. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current H5Nl strain is a fastmutating and is found in multiple bird species. (ac.ke)
  • Specimens were collected in 13 sites from 3,618 birds representing 150 species with majority of the specimens being collected from sandpipers, plovers and ducks. (ac.ke)
  • All positive Influenza A specimens were further screened for the H5 subtype.Influenza A virus was detected in 1.68% (61/3618) of the all birds representing 23 different species. (ac.ke)
  • Because wild birds can carry Avian Influenza and not appear sick, APHIS works with federal and state partners to conduct surveillance testing on wild birds. (usda.gov)
  • Global influenza surveillance, both epidemiologic and virologic, is the foundation of influenza preparedness and response for influenza viruses, including avian influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • This work is conducted through the World Health Organization's Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS) external icon which was established in 1952. (cdc.gov)
  • The GISRS network consists of national influenza centers (NICS) which conduct influenza virus surveillance and study influenza disease trends. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's Influenza Division is the U.S. lead for influenza surveillance and has served as a WHO CC for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Control of Influenza since 1956. (cdc.gov)
  • Internationally, CDC also plays an important role in helping to establish, maintain and expand influenza surveillance and laboratory capacity in more than 50 countries around the world through the CDC Influenza Division International Program . (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, from a migratory perspective shorebirds constitute an important taxonomic group for avian influenza surveillance sampling in North America. (usgs.gov)
  • Recent demand for increased understanding of avian influenza virus in its natural hosts, together with the development of high-throughput diagnostics, has heralded a new era in wildlife disease surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • We critically reviewed current surveillance to distill a series of considerations pertinent to avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds, including consideration of what, when, where, and how many to sample in the context of survey objectives. (cdc.gov)
  • Rethinking the use of existing surveillance infrastructure can thereby greatly enhance our global understanding of avian influenza and other zoonotic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Consequently, surveillance of aquatic bird populations surged ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • and 4) identification of the pathogens that infect individual birds or populations, often as part of multipathogen surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • July 2, 2015 - Today, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) released two updated interagency plans related to the surveillance of avian influenza in wild birds. (usda.gov)
  • To further understand the character of other influenza viruses of the H7 subtype, we selected two H7N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) isolated from wild birds during routine surveillance in China: A/Baer's Pochard/Hunan/414/2010 (BP/HuN/414/10) (H7N1) and A/Common Pochard/Xianghai/420/2010 (CP/XH/420/10) (H7N1). (frontiersin.org)
  • We report a failure of the real-time reverse transcriptase PCR H7 subtyping protocol currently used in national avian influenza surveillance programs. (asm.org)
  • Active surveillance of live wild birds is likely the best way to determine the true distribution of these viruses. (usgs.gov)
  • Despite considerable effort for surveillance of wild birds for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), empirical investigations of ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds are still scarce. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The DNR routinely conducts avian influenza surveillance on wild bird populations, examining deceased wild birds as well as live-trapped wild birds. (mucc.org)
  • Australia has a surveillance program to detect incursions of avian influenza. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance studies in wild birds are usually conducted in rural areas and nature reserves. (eur.nl)
  • Influenza virus prevalence was investigated in 6059 wild birds sampled in cities in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, and compared with parallel AIV surveillance data from low urbanized areas in the Netherlands. (eur.nl)
  • Large-Scale Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds throughout the" by Sarah N. Bevins, Kerri Pedersen et al. (unl.edu)
  • Ultimately, significant advances in our knowledge of avian influenza will depend on both large-scale surveillance efforts and on focused research studies. (unl.edu)
  • Surveillance of wild bird reservoirs provides an opportunity to add to the understanding of the epidemiology of AIVs. (edu.au)
  • Methods: This study examined key findings from the National Avian Influenza Wild Bird Surveillance Program over a 5-year period (July 2007-June 2012), the main source of information on AIVs circulating in Australia. (edu.au)
  • In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FAO has mobilized over US$ 445 million to combat influenza and emerging disease threats through prevention, surveillance, and control. (fao.org)
  • Influenza viruses are constantly changing, and thus require continued vigilance to protect the United States and the rest of the world not only from seasonal influenza but also from novel influenza A viruses that could trigger a pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • When used to prevent seasonal influenza, antiviral drugs are 70% to 90% effective. (cdc.gov)
  • This product should not be used to treat seasonal influenza cases. (cdc.gov)
  • The median age of those dying was 53 years, compared to 83 years for seasonal influenza. (health.gov.au)
  • Since 2003, there have been more than 500 confirmed human cases of avian influenza, and more than 300 deaths from this disease. (mydr.com.au)
  • No human cases of avian influenza have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally, and there continues to be no public health concern. (utah.gov)
  • Human infections with a new avian influenza A (H7N9) virus were first reported in China in March 2013. (medicinenet.com)
  • Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tanner WD, Toth DJ, Gundlapalli AV. The pandemic potential of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus: a review. (medscape.com)
  • Human cases of H7N9 avian influenza have been reported in China in 2013. (mydr.com.au)
  • The emergence of human infections with a novel H7N9 influenza strain has raised global concerns about a potential human pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the summer of 1968, a new strain of influenza appeared in Hong Kong. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Members of the public were forbidden to bring live birds into the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (angloinfo.com)
  • Transmission to contact birds did not occur frequently: only A/common magpie/Hong Kong/645/2006 virus was shown to transmit to 1 starling. (cdc.gov)
  • The transmission dynamics of influenza A at Hong Kong live bird markets. (sciquest.org.nz)
  • US - The economic losses caused by the avian influenza outbreak across the US in 2015 was $3.3 billion, according to Dr Melburn Stephens, speaking at USPOULTRY's recent 2016 Live Production and Welfare Seminar in Nashville, Tennessee. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Free-ranging chickens and small, backyard flocks will be at greatest risk if deadly bird flu reaches the United States, officials said Wednesday. (sweetliberty.org)
  • The possibility of the disease being transmitted to domestic backyard bird flocks remains high, and we advise bird owners to take extra biosecurity measures to protect their flocks. (utah.gov)
  • The antibody level after immune reflects the vaccine effect, which directly related to immune resistance to avian influenza virus in chicken flocks. (krishgen.com)
  • Birds from the involved flocks will not enter the food system. (ca.gov)
  • It can also result in significant reduction in wild bird populations, which is of great ecological concern. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • So perhaps the first thing would be to explain what ecology is and how it pertains to bird populations. (futurelearn.com)
  • Here we show that urban birds were infected with AIVs and that urban birds were not separated completely from populations of long-distance migrants. (eur.nl)
  • Thus, urban bird populations should not be excluded as a human-animal interface for influenza viruses. (eur.nl)
  • Avian Influenza (AI), commonly called bird flu, is a disease found in some populations of wild water fowl that can infect chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, ducks, geese and guinea fowl, as well as a wide variety of other domesticated and wild birds. (ca.gov)
  • Once AI is introduced into domestic avian populations, subsequent spread is normally caused by domestic bird-to-bird contact or through contact with contaminated people, feed or equipment rather than through secondary introductions from the wild reservoir. (ca.gov)
  • It is enzootic (maintained in the population) in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical historians like Thomas Short, Lazare Rivière and Charles Creighton gathered descriptions of catarrhal fevers recognized as influenza by modern physicians attacking populations with the greatest intensity between 1557 and 1559. (wikipedia.org)
  • But wild birds can easily pass the virus to birds that are being raised for food, such as chickens, ducks, and turkeys. (nkch.org)
  • a serious viral disease of many birds, both domestic (especially chickens, ducks, and turkeys) and wild. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avian influenza viruses are further classified as either "low pathogenic" or "highly pathogenic" based on molecular virus characteristics and the severity of disease they cause in chickens in a laboratory setting. (cdc.gov)
  • It can be used for avian influenza (virus) vaccine immune time of analysis, evaluation of immune effect, chickens with avian influenza in immune status. (krishgen.com)
  • It has been noted that one gram (about 1/30th of an ounce) of contaminated droppings from infected chickens can contain enough highly pathogenic virus to infect 1,000,000 birds. (albertaclassic.com)
  • Therefore, measures to limit the interactions of these wild birds with chickens should be implemented to minimize the spread of AI. (authorea.com)
  • During 2005-2007 there were an estimated 100,000 chickens throughout the country and most birds are reared for egg production in moderately biosecure facilities located in urban centers [ 2 , 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bird flu can have two types of diseases in domestic birds (such as chickens). (org.pk)
  • Most human infections occur after exposure to infected birds or their droppings. (medicinenet.com)
  • Influenza viruses have been shown to affect all types of domestic or captive birds in all areas of the world, but the frequency with which primary infections occur in any type of bird depends on the degree of contact there is with feral birds. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we review our current knowledge on global patterns of influenza virus infections in wild birds, discuss these patterns in the context of host ecology and in particular birds' behavior, and identify some important gaps in our current knowledge. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over the past two decades, many infections with influenza virus subtype H7 have occurred. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most of these infections have been in Asian countries among people who have had close contact with birds raised on farms. (nkch.org)
  • Infections in domestic or confined birds have been associated with several forms of the disease, ranging from unapparent to mild upper respiratory disease, to loss of egg production, through to acute fatal disease. (albertaclassic.com)
  • Shorebirds are a reservoir of avian influenza viruses and long-distance migrants, often crossing large distances in a single flight. (usgs.gov)
  • There is a great deal of speculation about the importance of this very large reservoir of influenza viruses in wild birds. (albertaclassic.com)
  • Wild aquatic birds can be infected with avian influenza A viruses in their intestines and respiratory tract, but usually do not get sick. (cdc.gov)
  • These wild birds are often viewed as reservoirs (hosts) for avian influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • More information about avian influenza in wild birds is available at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center website external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • The global rarity of HPAIV in wild birds and apparent clustering of such cases ( 7 ) present additional challenges to addressing this aim. (cdc.gov)
  • Bird flu (avian flu or avian influenza) is type of influenza virus that mainly affects wild or domesticated birds. (medicinenet.com)
  • The avian influenza (AI) outbreak in Dunfermline, Scotland, was likely caused by contamination from wild birds, Defra's epidemiology report has concluded. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Defra's inquiry into the outbreak said evidence available and genetic analysis of the strain both pointed to an indirect introduction from wild birds. (fwi.co.uk)
  • There was no evidence to indicate direct contact with wild birds, but the official investigation found what it called "potential biosecurity deficiencies" - cited as egg trolleys not being disinfected between lobby areas and external connecting pathways, and mice being found in some houses. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Wild birds, especially water birds such as ducks, are the natural hosts of the virus. (mydr.com.au)
  • US - A Eurasian/North American H5N2 avian influenza virus has been detected in a wild mallard duck in Fergus County, Montana, according to the US Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • US - The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza in a wild mallard duck from a state wildlife refuge near Fairbanks, Alaska. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The first updated plan- U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan for Early Detection and Monitoring for Avian Influenzas of Significance in Wild Birds - describes a unified national system for migratory wild bird sampling involving Federal, State, university and non-governmental organizations. (usda.gov)
  • Wild birds are born with many of these viruses in their intestines and have an inborn immunity against them. (hubpages.com)
  • Wild exotic parrots and birds from Southeast Asia have been smuggled into Europe by poachers and have been stopped. (hubpages.com)
  • Therefore, it is important to monitor H7 viruses in both domestic and wild birds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lots of wild birds are carrying things that are probably reducing their breeding success and survival a little bit. (futurelearn.com)
  • For dead wild birds, call USDA toll free at 1-866-536-7593. (utah.gov)
  • This discovery of avian influenza in a wild bird in Davis County is not unexpected, considering that Utah sits in a major migratory bird flight path," said Dr. Warren Hess, Acting State Veterinarian with the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food. (utah.gov)
  • The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on 12 January confirmed that Avian Influenza of the H5N6 strain has been detected in 17 wild birds in Dorset. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • There have been a number of cases of H5N6 virus in wild birds in Europe in recent months. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Significant substitutions in primer and probe target sequences were identified, especially in wild bird viruses. (asm.org)
  • Wild birds harbor these viruses and have dispersed them at regional scales. (usgs.gov)
  • In 2006, USDA and its cooperators plan to collect between 75,000 to 100,000 samples from live and dead wild birds. (somd.com)
  • Empirical investigation of the interface between the ecology and epidemiology of AIV in wild birds are, however, still in a relatively early phase of scientific exploration, and studies exploring the ecological interactions between AIV and their natural hosts are scarce [ 5 - 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In table 1 , we present the potential ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds based on a review of our current knowledge of the mechanisms, whereby host ecology and the environment may influence AIV transmission in wild birds [ 1 - 29 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Despite the investment of considerable effort in AIV detection in wild birds, there is a lack of data-heavy empirical tests, in particular across vast geographic areas, of the influences of these ecological drivers on AIV transmission [ 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Potential ecological drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds derived from experimental and empirical findings of the ecological interactions between AIV and wildfowl. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Yet, earlier studies have suggested that tropical regions may act as epicentres contributing to year-round AIV perpetuation in wild birds [ 10 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • More recently, AIVs have been found circulating in wild birds across Africa [ 32 - 35 ] indicating that local environmental conditions are favourable for AIV transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Michigan residents who notice the death loss of three or more wild birds should report it to the DNR Wildlife Disease Laboratory at 517-336-5030 . (mucc.org)
  • These viruses are found in wild birds. (nkch.org)
  • Most of the time, wild birds don't get sick from the virus. (nkch.org)
  • After a wild bird infects a farm-raised bird, the virus can easily and quickly spread among hundreds or thousands of birds. (nkch.org)
  • Aviary birds, caged birds and back yard birds are at little risk if simple measures such as preventing them mixing with wild birds and protecting their feed and water supply are adopted. (agriculture.gov.au)
  • In wild birds, routine testing will nearly always find some influenza viruses. (gofir.com)
  • Ring recoveries of urban wild birds sampled for virus detection demonstrated that most birds were sighted within the same city, while few were sighted in other cities or migrated up to 2659 km away from the sample location in the Netherlands. (eur.nl)
  • The latter suggests that wild birds in cities may play a role in the introduction of AIVs into cities. (eur.nl)
  • It has also been found in wild birds in the same areas. (hindustanlink.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Interior and the USDA are the lead federal departments for outbreak investigation and control in wild birds and the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) external icon is the lead agency for such activities in domestic birds. (cdc.gov)
  • and avoid contact with surfaces that appear to be contaminated with feces from wild or domestic birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza is a viral disease that primarily infects wild and domestic birds, but it also can be transmitted to a variety of mammals. (unl.edu)
  • During an outbreak of Avian Influenza (H5N2) nine years earlier (1983-84), again in the north-eastern USA, scientists conducted a survey of wildlife to determine the potential of wild birds to spread disease locally among farms, or to carry the virus to more distant locations. (albertaclassic.com)
  • For the first time since 1961, this HPAIV has also caused extensive mortality in wild birds and has sparked debate of the role wild birds have played in the spread of this virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other than confirmed mortality events, little is known of this virus in wild birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we examined live wild birds in Yunnan Province for H5 specific antibody to better understand the occurrence of this disease in free living birds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sera from 440 wild birds were collected from in Kunming and Northern Ailaoshan of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, and assayed for H5 antibodies using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results of the present survey indicated that the proportion of wild birds had previously infected AIV H5 at other times of the year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thousands of wild birds migrate from North to South in autumn every year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To our knowledge, there is little serological data concerning Avian influenza in wild birds in this migrating corridor, we decided that a serological study would be beneficial to evaluate Avian influenza (H5) exposure using the hemagglutination inhibition test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study was carried out to detect avian influenza H5 antigen and antibodies in some wild birds in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria. (authorea.com)
  • A total of 136 wild birds, comprising 20 Laughing doves (Spilolepia senegalensis), 22 Speckled pigeons (Columba guinea), 25 Cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis), 25 Senegalese parrots (Poicephalus senegalus), 21 Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 23 Geese (Anseranserini) were used for the study. (authorea.com)
  • In conclusion, AIV antibody and antigen were detected in wild birds in Zaria. (authorea.com)
  • Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. (altmetric.com)
  • The primary advantage of this technique is to expedite diagnosis of wild birds, increasing the chances of containing an outbreak in a remote location. (altmetric.com)
  • Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further work is needed to clarify how AIV is maintained in these wild bird reservoirs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the detection, isolation and genetic characterization of nine LPAIVs isolated from wild birds in Mongolia from specimens collected in 2005 through 2007. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, more wild birds are being caught and more domestic birds are being bred. (bvsalud.org)
  • But government officials have said it is unlikely there is a direct link between the two cases - implying that the disease is more likely to have been introduced by wild birds than direct human contact - though an investigation is under way to confirm this. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Chief vet Nigel Gibbens said vigilance and minimising contact between wild birds would remain crucial. (fwi.co.uk)
  • This means complying with the legal requirement currently in place to house birds or otherwise keep them separate from wild birds, and following strict biosecurity measures to minimise the risk of avian flu spreading via the environment. (fwi.co.uk)
  • The study has given animal and public health experts a baseline of influenza virus activity in wild birds. (ac.ke)
  • Wild birds can carry a number of bird flu viruses, but most strains do not seriously affect them. (wa.gov)
  • In the control of the outbreak of avian influenza in the Netherlands in 2003, N95 or equivalent respiratory protection was used. (medindia.net)
  • [12] On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro , the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's really important that all bird keepers heed biosecurity advice issued by Defra, and maintain the highest biosecurity standards. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • For highly pathogenic disease, the most important control measures are rapid culling of all infected or exposed birds, proper disposal of carcasses, the quarantining and rigorous disinfection of farms, and the implementation of strict sanitary, or biosecurity , measures. (gofir.com)
  • Oseltamivir blocks the action of the enzyme, neuraminidase which enables the influenza virus to spread from infected cells to healthy cells. (hubpages.com)
  • Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • This discovery is very important to cure influenza because these viruses are difficult to treat due to their regular mutating nature while hidden in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. (qualityhealthguides.com)
  • Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with the virus as it is shed by infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondary spread is usually associated with human involvement, probably by transferring infective faeces from infected to susceptible birds. (nih.gov)
  • The time of journey for the susceptible birds is the distance between each patch divided by their mean flight velocity. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • specifically marine ducks and other birds that reside predominately on or near the ocean. (usgs.gov)
  • In 2008, the USGS conducted genetic sequencing of avian influenza viruses isolated from pintails in Alaska and revealed a high frequency of Eurasian genes, suggesting viral gene flow between Asian and North America (See Koehler et al. (usgs.gov)
  • Q. If the bird flu were to reach North America, how many people would it kill? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • How did bird flu affect the Netherlands in 2017? (wur.nl)
  • The World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are preparing for the possibility that bird flu could spread to people all over the world in what is called a pandemic. (nkch.org)
  • Pigs can also be infected with human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, allowing for mixtures of genes ( reassortment ) to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza A virus subtype which most people have little to no immune protection against. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bird flu is highly contagious, and can infect all types of birds. (mydr.com.au)
  • SATURDAY, Feb. 18 (HealthDay News) -- Research on a mutated, more contagious form of the bird flu virus can be published in full, the World Health Organization announced Friday, despite concerns that bioterrorists could use the information to start a pandemic. (medicinenet.com)
  • Find out how to prevent and avoid the contagious viruses that cause cold and influenza, and learn treatments for associated aches, pain, and fever. (medicinenet.com)
  • When the bird strain of influenza infects people, it causes a very severe illness in which less than a third of those infected will live. (org.pk)
  • Birds that have been infected with this variant exhibit few disease symptoms. (wur.nl)
  • Fever, headache, body ache, sore throat, nasal congestion and dry cough are some of the symptoms of bird flu. (medindia.net)
  • This year so far bird flu has spread into six districts in West Bengal, India, causing 120,000 birds to be culled in just 5 days, and 194,000 people to be screened for bird-flu-like symptoms, reports Times of India on January 21, 2008. (nanowerk.com)
  • For the people who die from bird flu, the average length of time from the start of symptoms until death is 9 to 10 days. (nkch.org)
  • If your doctor thinks that you may have bird flu, he or she will do a physical exam and ask you questions about your symptoms and past health. (nkch.org)
  • The influenza virus can mutate and produce different strains though the symptoms are the same. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • What are the symptoms of Bird flu (avian influenza)? (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • CDC recommends that people who have had contact with infected bird(s) monitor their own health for possible symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • See the related questions for information about the symptoms of bird flu. (answers.com)
  • Learn flu symptoms, common cold symptoms, the difference between influenza and the common cold, and other facts. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using a combination of satellite telemetry and genomic sequencing of influenza viruses, this project investigates the intercontinental movement of hosts and viruses between the United States and the Neotropics. (usgs.gov)
  • If true, this knowledge would allow novel insight into the origins and transmission of the influenza A virus among migratory hosts previously unavailable through conventional approaches. (diva-portal.org)
  • To check whether these antibodies cure all types of influenza or effective in only certain kinds, the researchers tried almost every strain of influenza. (qualityhealthguides.com)
  • As the strain of influenza virus causing bird flu is specific to birds, it is not able to spread from one person to another. (org.pk)
  • In 1557 a pandemic strain of influenza emerged in Asia, then spread to Africa, Europe, and eventually the Americas. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have had contact with infected birds may also be given influenza antiviral drugs preventatively. (cdc.gov)
  • Appropriate use of influenza antiviral drugs is a key component of response-and-control measures for this outbreak and may help reduce the risk of human cases and subsequent person-to-person spread. (cdc.gov)
  • To assist in this effort, state health departments should be aware that the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has amended its guidance on the use of antiviral drugs that have been stockpiled for use during an influenza pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information about influenza antiviral drugs and avian influenza, visit the CDC avian flu web site or call (800)-CDC-INFO [(800) 232-4636]. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cases have had no link to prior exposure to sick birds, suggesting that spread from asymptomatic birds is possible or that the virus can be transmitted environmentally on fomites. (medscape.com)
  • The early detection of avian influenza remains key to controlling its spread and minimizing its effects," said Dr. John Clifford, USDA chief veterinary officer. (usda.gov)
  • These include a local Avian Influenza Prevention Zone (AIPZ) in Dorset as a precautionary measure to prevent disease spread to other birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The new copies exit the nucleus but get jumbled together and form the genome of a new viral strain (red-yellow virions) that might be as lethal as the bird flu and as easily spread from person to person as the human flu. (rkm.com.au)
  • Spread of the virus can occur by means of droplets of liquid sneezed by infected birds, or in their droppings. (albertaclassic.com)
  • A new H1N1 influenza virus derived from human, swine and avian strains was initially reported in April 2009 in Mexico and subsequently spread around the world. (health.gov.au)
  • How does bird flu spread amongst birds? (org.pk)
  • Surfaces like the cages of infected birds can also spread the virus. (org.pk)
  • There have been occasions when person to person spread of bird flu has occurred, but this is extremely rare. (org.pk)
  • An additional fear is that the strain of bird flu will 'combine' with the strain of human influenza allowing human to human spread to occur more easily. (org.pk)
  • It is also the first pandemic where influenza is pathologically linked to miscarriages, given its first English names, and is reliably recorded as having spread globally. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gave influenza unrestricted access to Athens, Sofia, and Sarajevo as it spread throughout the empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • On land, influenza spread north from the Ottoman Empire over Wallachia to the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania before moving west into continental Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Influenza arrived in the Kingdom of Sicily in June at Palermo, whence it spread across the island. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, H7 subtype influenza viruses, which have important implications for domestic animal and human health, are seasonally abundant in blue-winged teal in spring. (usgs.gov)
  • In 2003, 30 million birds were culled in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany after an H7N7 subtype influenza outbreak. (frontiersin.org)
  • The World Health Organization website provides the latest updates, news and answers to frequently asked questions about human cases of bird flu. (health.gov.au)
  • Cases of pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009 have been confirmed in most other countries throughout the world by the World Health Organization. (health.gov.au)
  • There is no immediate public health concern with this Avian Influenza Virus strain or the others that have been found in the Pacific Flyway since December 2014. (ca.gov)
  • REPORT- Some ethanobotanically important plants from Cholistan area for anti avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 screening. (medindia.net)
  • Avian influenza A(H9N2) is an agricultural and public health threat. (cdc.gov)
  • We characterized an H9N2 virus from a pet market in Bangladesh and demonstrated replication in samples from pet birds, swine tissues, human airway and ocular cells, and ferrets. (cdc.gov)