The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A viral infection of mice, causing edema and necrosis followed by limb loss.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A species of ORBIVIRUS infecting cattle and sheep. It is transmitted by culicine mosquitoes and gnats (CULICOIDES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Diseases of plants.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A highly fatal contagious disease of goats and sheep caused by PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS VIRUS. The disease may be acute or subacute and is characterized by stomatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, and pneumonia.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the penaeid shrimp. Species of the genus Penaeus are the most important commercial shrimp throughout the world.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing a severe, often fatal enteritis and pneumonia (PESTE-DES-PETITS-RUMINANTS) in sheep and goats.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
"Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus". The Lancet. 351 ( ... He claimed that he alerted mainland health officials on 12 January 2020 to suspected human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2 ... In the outbreak of avian influenza virus H5N1 in 1997 in Hong Kong, Yuen was the first to report in the Lancet about the ... Yuen is currently the Chair of Infectious Disease at the Department of Microbiology of the University of Hong Kong. He co- ...
Most viral diseases of humans are zoonotic in origin, having been historically transmitted to human populations from various ... animal species; examples include SARS, Ebola, swine flu, rabies, and avian influenza. The exact mechanisms which facilitate ... Wildlife zoonotic diseases of microbial origin are also the most common group of human emerging diseases, and CST between ... Diseases such as HIV and human adenoviruses have been associated with NHP interactions. In places where contact between humans ...
Infectious Diseases: QIAGEN offers several comprehensive test panels for detection of bacterial and viral pathogens. The ... The company also has a global leadership position in screening for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV), the primary ... portfolio encompasses assays for the detection of individual pathogens such as Influenza, HIV, Hepatitis, and healthcare- ... As up to 10% of people with latent TB infection will develop the active disease in the course of their lives, the ...
An influenza pandemic, Spanish Flu, killed anywhere from 17 to 100 million people between 1918 and 1919. A new viral disease, ... It took over two-hundred thousand years of modern human history and 6 million years of human evolution up to 1804 for the ... Because of increased life spans, the prevalence of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other diseases of old ... Effective vaccines were also developed for a number of other serious infectious diseases, including influenza, diphtheria, ...
An influenza pandemic, Spanish Flu, killed anywhere from 20 to 100 million people between 1918 and 1919. A new viral disease, ... In addition to human spaceflight, unmanned space probes became a practical and relatively inexpensive form of exploration. The ... Because of increased life spans, the prevalence of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other diseases of old ... Effective vaccines were also developed for a number of other serious infectious diseases, including influenza, diphtheria, ...
... and influenza in pigs and birds, before those viruses were transferred to humans. Viral infections can cause disease in humans ... Common human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold, influenza, chickenpox and cold sores. Serious diseases such as ... Vaccines are available to prevent over fourteen viral infections of humans and more are used to prevent viral infections of ... Some viruses of humans and other animals are spread by exposure to infected bodily fluids. Viruses such as influenza are spread ...
... of disease among non-human animals. During the 20th century significant epizootics of viral diseases in animals, particularly ... The disease - which killed tens of thousands of people - was probably influenza or a similar viral infection, but records from ... Most viruses are species-specific and would have posed no threat to humans. The rare epidemics of viral diseases originating in ... The diseases caused by viruses such as HIV and influenza virus have proved to be more difficult to control. Other diseases, ...
... is a contagious viral avian disease affecting many domestic and wild bird species; it is transmissible to humans. Though it can ... rarely it can cause a mild fever and influenza-like symptoms and/or conjunctivitis in humans. Its effects are most notable in ... The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avulavirus. Strains of Newcastle disease virus have been used to ... Strains of Newcastle disease virus have also been used to create viral vector vaccine candidates against Ebola and Covid-19. ...
He is one of the worlds' leading scientists investigating the emergence of viral diseases transferring from animals to humans, ... He has over 400 published research items, and over 60 patents, mainly in the field of clinical virology of Influenza virus and ... and epidemiological control of these pandemic viral diseases. Leo Poon was born in the then British colony of Hong Kong and is ... These have included epidemic avian influenzas such as H5N1, pandemic H1N1/2009 and H7N9. He made an active contribution to ...
"Prion Diseases". CDC. Retrieved 2016-03-25.. *^ Evans, Alfred (1982). Viral Infections of Humans. New York, NY: Plenum ... The Medical and Scientific Conceptions of Influenza, Human Virology at Stanford *^ Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of ... viral diseases by vaccination for a long time, the development of antiviral drugs to treat viral diseases is a comparatively ... The study of the manner in which viruses cause disease is viral pathogenesis. The degree to which a virus causes disease is its ...
Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases: Personal Protective Equipment for ... can transfer disease to a new host. In the 21st century, the role of fomites in disease transfer is higher than ever in human ... For example, avian influenza survives on both porous and non-porous materials for 144 hours. Contaminated needles are the most ... For humans, common hospital fomites are skin cells, hair, clothing, and bedding. Fomites are associated particularly with ...
... alike in that no new acute viral respiratory disease of humans had been isolated since the identification of influenza virus 20 ... He was a pioneer in research on adenoviruses and their role in human diseases. The discoveries of adenoviruses by Rowe et al. ( ... "Serologic Evidence for Human Infection with Adenovirus-Associated Viruses". JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. ... Hopkins, N.; Rowe, W. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Holland, C. A. (January 1985). "At least four viral genes contribute to the ...
Viruses in Riboviria are associated with a wide range of diseases, including many of the most widely known viral diseases. ... Dengue virus Ebolavirus hantaviruses Hepatitis B virus the human immunodeficiency viruses Human orthopneumovirus influenza ... Viral mRNA is translated by the host cell's ribosomes to produce viral proteins. In order to produce more viruses, viral RNA- ... Coronaviruses and influenza viruses cause disease in various vertebrates, including bats, birds, and pigs. The family ...
RNA viruses are associated with a wide range of disease, including many of the most widely known viral diseases. Notable ... Influenza (Orthomyxoviridae) Measles (Paramyxoviridae) Mumps virus (Paramyxoviridae) Human respiratory syncytial virus ( ... Coronaviruses and influenza viruses cause disease in various vertebrates, including bats, birds, and pigs. Plant viruses in the ... Many of the most widely known viral diseases are caused by RNA viruses in the kingdom, which includes coronaviruses, the Ebola ...
As a result, PPIA contributes to viral diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis C, measles, and influenza A. Peptidylprolyl isomerase A ... Peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), also known as cyclophilin A (CypA) or rotamase A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by ... Due to its various functions, PPIA has been implicated in a broad range of inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis and ... Of the 18 known human cyclophilins, PPIA is the most abundantly expressed isozyme. In particular, PPIA is predominantly ...
A side effect of domestication has been zoonotic diseases. For example, cattle have given humanity various viral poxes, measles ... In both of those cases, humans became entangled with these species as the relationship between them intensified, and humans' ... and tuberculosis; pigs and ducks have given influenza; and horses have given the rhinoviruses. Many parasites have their ... Caldararo, Niccolo Leo (2012). "Evolutionary Aspects of Disease Avoidance: The Role of Disease in the Development of Complex ...
Viral[edit]. Further information: Viral disease. Pathogenic viruses are mainly those of the families of: Adenoviridae, ... Some notable pathogenic viruses cause smallpox, influenza, mumps, measles, chickenpox, ebola, and rubella. Viruses typically ... that causes disease in humans.. The human physiological defense against common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis) is mainly the ... but can cause diseases in humans. Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients ...
Preventing Transmission of Pandemic Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases: Personal Protective Equipment for ... "Evaluation of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus in China, 2013-15". Scientific ... Human-to-human transmission (HHT) is a particularly problematic epidemiologic vector, especially in case the disease is borne ... Riou J, Althaus CL (January 2020). "Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), ...
Viruses portal Waterborne diseases "Influenza: Insights Into Cell Specificity Of Human Vs. Avian Viruses". ScienceDaily. 10 ... Despite advances in vaccination and prevention of viral diseases, it is estimated that in the 1980s a child died approximately ... Viruses are a major cause of human waterborne and water-related diseases. Waterborne diseases are caused by water that is ... human Influenza virus or avian influenza viruses respectively). Different viruses can have different routes of transmission; ...
Human clinical trials were conducted for viral vector vaccines against several infectious diseases including Zika virus, ... influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, HIV, and malaria, before the vaccines targeting SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID- ... "Understanding and Explaining Viral Vector COVID-19 Vaccines". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021-02-25. ... A viral vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material coding for a desired antigen into the ...
Diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans are termed zoonoses. A well-known zoonosis is rabies, a viral infection ... Canine herpesvirus Canine influenza CPV-2 (canine parvovirus) Kennel cough Bacterial diseases in dogs are usually not ... Other diseases affecting dogs include endocrine diseases, immune-mediated diseases, and reproductive diseases. Diabetes ... Although dogs do not seem to be as susceptible to such diseases as humans, similar rickettsial diseases have been spread by ...
They are found in a variety of viral genomes but are particularly common in RNA viruses. Many viruses that cause human disease ... Oxford JS (January 2007). "Antivirals for the treatment and prevention of epidemic and pandemic influenza". Influenza and Other ... Loss of membrane polarization can promote viral yields through a variety of mechanisms that operate throughout the viral life ... Gonzalez ME, Carrasco L (2005). "Viral proteins that enhance membrane permeability". In Fischer WB (ed.). Viral membrane ...
... human herpesvirus 6, human herpesvirus 7, and human herpesvirus 8 Orthomyxoviruses: influenza Picornaviruses: echovirus ... National Library of Medicine » Medical Subject Headings »Virus Diseases (C02) » Hepatitis, Viral, Human (C02.440) » Scope Note ... The most common cause of hepatitis is viral. Although the effects of various viruses are all classified under the disease ... The risk factors lead to development of HCC in chronic HCV is synchronous liver diseases, viral genotype, lifestyle factors and ...
"Association between adverse clinical outcome in human disease caused by novel influenza a H7N9 virus and sustained viral ... "2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 32 ending August 15, 2009". Flu Activity & Surveillance. Centers for Disease Control and ... Zanamivir is a medication used to treat and prevent influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses. It is a neuraminidase ... Zanamivir is used for the treatment of infections caused by influenza A and influenza B viruses, but in otherwise-healthy ...
The Spanish flu was an unusually severe and deadly strain of H1N1 avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... 29 June 2020). "Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human ... Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only ...
Affected birds usually do not appear ill, and the disease is often mild as avian influenza viral subtypes go. Some variants of ... Ogata T, Yamazaki Y, Okabe N, Nakamura Y, Tashiro M, et al (July 2008). Human H5N2 Avian Influenza Infection in Japan and the ... There is no evidence of human-to-human spread of H5N2. On November 12, 2005 it was reported that a falcon was found to have ... "WHO - Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous ...
... respiratory diseases such as SARS and human influenza, airway physiology,[55] cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disease. ... Viral diseases include canine distemper and influenza. Health problems can occur in unspayed females when not being used for ... which produced a form of influenza that spread to other cage mates. The human influenza virus (Influenza type A) was ... Ferrets are an important experimental animal model for human influenza,[52][53] and have been used to study the 2009 H1N1 ( ...
... spectrum of activity means that EICAR and related derivatives continue to be investigated for the treatment of viral diseases. ... influenza, measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus among others, although it is not active against coronaviridae such as ... but was unsuccessful in human clinical trials. It has broad spectrum antiviral effects with activity against pox viruses, ...
... to humans has not occurred during outbreaks of the disease in horses. The present day lineages of equine influenza pose no ... "Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control". Vaccine. 20 (25-26): 3068-3087. doi: ... Equine influenza (EI) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of horses and related animals such as donkeys, mules and ... Diseases that have very long incubation periods can be more difficult to control. Aerosolized influenza virus is inhaled and ...
... viral infections (zika, HIV, and influenza), autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune ... Being at the top of the food pyramid, humans are most at risk for the detrimental effects of these metals in our food. These ... For this reason, it is also hard to conduct human studies. Like any medical research, there is a large range of risk associated ... Researchers have not tested this study on human injury. Factors like severity of injury and general recovery time will ...
... , also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ... Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... "Ebola Virus Disease". SRHD. Retrieved 15 September 2020.. *^ a b c d "Q&A on Transmission, Ebola". Centers for Disease Control ... Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Viral Special Pathogens Branch ...
The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States,url=,journal=Arch. Intern. ... ref name="NelsonWilliams2007",{{citation,author1=Kenrad E. Nelson,author2=Carolyn Masters Williams,title=Infectious Disease ... Sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution,url=,journal=Science,language=en, ... synonym = I ftofti, nazofaringiti akut viral, nazofaringiti, riniti viral, rinofaringjiti, coryza akute, koka e ftohtë,ref,{{ ...
The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito.[3] It infects only humans ... Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.[3] In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite ... while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza.[64] This phenomenon, in which certain ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ...
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses. UMN CIDRAP. ... "Influenza: Viral Infections: Merck Manual Home Edition". Merck. Retrieved 15 March 2008. ... Influenza (Seasonal), World Health Organization, April 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2010.. *↑ World Health Organization. World ... WHO position paper: influenza vaccines WHO weekly Epidemiological Record 19 August 2005, vol. 80, 33, pp. 277-288. ...
Ginaldi, L.; M.F. Loreto; M.P. Corsi; M. Modesti; M. de Martinis (2001). "Immunosenescence and infectious diseases". Microbes ... Voehringer, D.; M. Koschella; H. Pircher (2002). "Lack of proliferative capacity of human effector and memory T cells ... Haq, Kamran; McElhaney, Janet E. "Immunosenescence: influenza vaccination and the elderly". Current Opinion in Immunology. 29: ... stimulation the accumulation and the clonal expansion of memory and effector T-cells hampered immune defences against viral ...
Zu Rhein, G.M.; Chou, S.M. (1965). "Particles Resembling Papova Viruses in Human Cerebral Demyelinating Disease". Science. 148 ... "Potential transmission of human polyomaviruses through the gastrointestinal tract after exposure to virions or viral DNA". J. ... Zurhein, G; Chou, S. M. (1965). "Particles Resembling Papova Viruses in Human Cerebral Demyelinating Disease". Science. 148 ( ... the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 25 (3): 471-506. doi:10.1128/CMR.05031-11 ...
... there is little human data as of 2017.[202][203][204][205] The small amount of human data there is has shown poor results.[202] ... "Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD002733. ... People with COPD can experience flare-ups that are often triggered by a viral or bacterial respiratory infection.[100] The ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other names. Chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease ...
This made him realise that the vector of the disease were lice that were discarded with the patient's own clothes.[3] Nicolle ... One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... over 400,000 doses of vaccine against the Hong Kong influenza. ... the toxin was supplied by a horse inoculated with the viral ... This disease used to kill thousands of children every year: an associated condition was commonly called croup, which created ...
Tandon BN, Acharya SK (April 1987). "Viral diseases involving the liver". Baillieres Clin. Gastroenterol. 1 (2), s. 211-30. ... Human herpesvirus 7 ve Human herpesvirus 8[19]. *Orthomyxovirus: Influenza[20]. *Parvoviridae: Parvovirus B19[12] ... Pokora Z (2001). "[Role of gastropods in epidemiology of human parasitic diseases]". Wiad Parazytol (Polish). 47 (1), s. 3-24. ... Viral hepatitler (15 aile). **Adenoviridae: Adenovirus. *Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] ...
... though it has now mutated to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, ... "Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.. ... Most human diseases originated in other animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve non-human to human transmission ... Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus) pigs close ...
GO:0022415 viral process. • signal transduction. • immune system process. • viral entry into host cell. • negative regulation ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... Another pathogen is influenza virus and its hemagglutinin protein, which interacts with CLEC5A. Through this interaction is ... May 2008). "CLEC5A is critical for dengue-virus-induced lethal disease". Nature. 453 (7195): 672-6. Bibcode:2008Natur.453..672C ...
Other viruses isolated from humans include the Syr-Darya valley fever virus and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus. "Viral ... There are currently three species in this genus including the type species Cardiovirus A. Diseases associated with this genus ... They have been associated with gastroenteritis, influenza-like symptoms and non polio associated acute flaccid paralysis in ... Human and vertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are zoonosis and fomite. The 3' end of the genome encodes ...
"Pandemic Influenza". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 29 ... H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. Its name derives from ... "CDC has antigenically characterized 1,567 seasonal human influenza viruses [947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ...
For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... Main article: Plant disease resistance § Immune system. Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ... "Pathophysiology: Principles of Disease. Computing Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences: Academic Electronic Press. Archived from ...
"Detecting gene-gene interactions that underlie human diseases". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 10 (6): 392-404. doi:10.1038/nrg2579 ... "Viral quasispecies evolution". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 76 (2): 159-216. doi:10.1128/mmbr.05023-11. PMC ... "Stability-mediated epistasis constrains the evolution of an influenza protein". eLife. 2: e00631. doi:10.7554/eLife.00631. PMC ... and model-free detection of combinations of genetic variants that are predictive of a phenotype such as disease status in human ...
2002). "Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression in a large cohort ... Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ... "The challenges of eliciting neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and to influenza virus". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6 (2): 143-55. doi: ... Over M (1992) (PDF). The macroeconomic impact of AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, Population and Human Resources Department. The ...
Knowledge of ATG genes provided scientists more convenient tools to dissect functions of autophagy in human health and disease ... these findings have not been examined in non-viral systems. ... autophagy from autophagic cell death during influenza A ... Mitochondria is involved in Parkinson's disease. In idiopathic Parkinson's disease, the disease is commonly caused by ... Parkinson disease[edit]. Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder partially caused by the cell death of brain and ...
The common cold is the most common human disease[54] and people are affected all around the world.[16] Adults typically have ... "The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (4 ... It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans. The average person gets two to three colds every year. The average child ... The flu causes 5% to 15% of cases.[3] Other cases may be caused by human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial ...
List of human parasitic diseases. *List of infectious diseases. *Pathogenic bacteria. *Viral disease ... Influenza) or endogenous (from normal flora e.g. candidiasis).[19] ... For example, some diseases such as measles employ a strategy whereby it must spread to a series of hosts. In these forms of ... Causes and transmission of infectious diseases[edit]. See also: Infection. Infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi ...
a b Time Lines of Infection and Disease in Human Influenza: A Review of Volunteer Challenge Studies Archived 13 June 2012 at ... October 2005). "Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution". Nature. 437 ( ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.[1] Symptoms can be mild to severe. ... Influenza B almost exclusively infects humans[47] and is less common than influenza A. The only other animals known to be ...
During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... 1987). "Functional role of the alpha-chain of complement receptor type 3 in human eosinophil-dependent antibody-mediated ... Hashimoto, G.; Wright, P. F.; Karzon, D. T. (1983-11-01). "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza ... virus-infected cells". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 (5): 785-794. doi:10.1093/infdis/148.5.785. ISSN 0022-1899. PMID ...
Viral antigen was detected in a muscle biopsy of a person suffering a recurrent episode of disease three months after initial ... the virus can circulate from humans to mosquitoes and back to humans.[10] The transmission of the pathogen between humans and ... or other infections such as influenza. Chronic recurrent polyarthralgia occurs in at least 20% of chikungunya patients one year ... Human habitation and the mosquitoes' environments were then very closely connected. During periods of epidemics humans are the ...
Lauckner, G. (1980). Diseases of protozoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Kinne, O. (ed.). Vol. 1, p. 84, John Wiley & Sons, ... in viral infections. The fact that all known cell fusion molecules are viral in origin suggests that they have been vitally ... Two viral components have been identified. The first is syncytin, which came from a virus. The second identified in 2007 is ...
R. M. Bush; W. M. Fitch; C. A. Bender; N. J. Cox (1999). "Positive selection on the H3 hemagglutinin gene of human influenza ... Viral disease. *Helper virus. *Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle ... In influenza viruses[edit]. In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and ... HA1 human influenza type A". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 94 (15): 7712- ...
Animals are vaccinated to keep them from getting diseases, and to keep them from infecting humans with diseases.[19] Pets as ... Klein SL, Jedlicka A, Pekosz A (May 2010). "The Xs and Y of immune responses to viral vaccines". Lancet Infect Dis 10 (5): 338- ... Egg protein is present in influenza and yellow fever vaccines, because they are made using chicken eggs. Vaccines may also ... Scientists are also working on vaccines against many noninfectious human diseases, such as cancers and autoimmune disorders.[23 ...
"CDC Briefing on Public Health Investigation of Human Cases of Swine Influenza". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Hilleman M (19 August 2002). "Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control". Vaccine ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe - "an unusually ...
The initial symptoms were similar to other viral diseases that are still extant, such as influenza and the common cold: fever ... Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ... Infectious skin disease: Viral cutaneous conditions, including viral exanthema (B00-B09, 050-059) ... "Smallpox Disease and Its Clinical Management" (PDF). From the training course titled "Smallpox: Disease, Prevention, and ...
The cause of Reye syndrome is unknown.[2] It usually begins shortly after recovery from a viral infection, such as influenza or ... Ku AS, Chan LT (April 1999). "The first case of H5N1 avian influenza infection in a human with complications of adult ... A Disease entity in childhood". Lancet. 2 (7311): 749-52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(63)90554-3. PMID 14055046.. ... The cause of Reye syndrome is unknown.[2] It usually begins shortly after recovery from a viral infection, such as influenza or ...
Infectious diseases - viral systemic diseases (A80-B34, 042-079). Oncovirus. DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV ... Lukes RJ, Collins RD (October 1974). "Immunologic characterization of human malignant lymphomas". Cancer. 34 (4 Suppl): 1488- ... The cause for the increase in incidence of this disease in the immunocompetent population is unknown. ...
... though it has now evolved to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, ... Other haemorrhagic fevers (Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever[ ... Thus, much of human exposure to infectious disease has been zoonotic.. Many modern diseases, even epidemic diseases, started ... Most human diseases originated in animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve animal to human transmission, like ...
Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus.. Yuen KY1, Chan PK, ... Avian Influenza A H5N1 virus causes human influenza-like illness with a high rate of complications in adults admitted to ... Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. We describe the clinical ... All seven patients older than 13 years had severe disease (four deaths), whereas children 5 years or younger had mild symptoms ...
Influenza A virus Subject viral diseases of animals and humans Remove constraint Subject: viral diseases of animals and humans ... disease transmission; viral diseases of animals and humans; ferrets; airborne transmission. Abstract:. ... The influenza virus ... respiratory tract diseases; strains; human diseases; poultry diseases; avian influenza; lungs; guinea pigs. Abstract:. ... ... Influenza A virus; microbial genetics; genetic recombination; viral diseases of animals and humans; signs and symptoms (animals ...
... is a rather contagious viral infection that infects the respiratory tract. Fever, cough, muscle aches, fatigue,... ... Avian influenza is a disease that has been wreaking havoc on human populations since the 16th century. With the recent outbreak ... Viral Infection: Influenza or Flu Essay. 1475 Words 6 Pages Influenza or "flu" is a rather contagious viral infection that ... Influenza: Disease Analysis. 793 Words , 3 Pages Influenza Influenza is also referred to as flu and it is a respiratory ...
... domestic and wild birds have the potential to cause human infections - CDC ... Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses in U.S. ... Avian influenza (bird flu) is a viral disease of birds. Migratory waterfowl and shore birds are the animal hosts of these ... Sustained human-to-human transmission with avian influenza has not been documented. ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza in humans, seasonal * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Viral hepatitis ... Communicable disease threats report, 11 - 17 March 2018, Week 11 Publication - 16 Mar 2018. ... European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control An agency of the European Union ... This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 11-17 March 2018 and includes updates on ...
Both epidemiological investigations of chicken sources and phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences indicated that the ... In the study, a sudden emergence of human cases of H7N9 was documented in urban area of Wenshan City. Chickens were an ... Samples derived from the patients, their close contacts, and environments were tested for influenza A(H7N9) virus by real-time ... The emergence of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Wenshan City, southwestern China in 2017. ...
Infectious disease * Viral hepatitis (1) * Influenza in humans, avian origin (1) * Cholera (1) ... Remove this filter Infectious disease: Ebola haemorrhagic fever * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza in humans, ... 20 May 2017 and includes updates on influenza, measles, hepatitis A, cholera, polio, Ebola virus disease and Legionnaires ... Communicable disease threats report, 14 May - 20 May 2017, week 20 Surveillance report - 19 May 2017. ...
Epub ahead of print] Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease. Wong J (https:// ... Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31583825#) 2019 Oct 3. doi: 10.1111/irv.12687. [ ... Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 ... Epub ahead of print] Improving immunological insights into the ferret model of human viral infectious disease.. Wong J1, Layton ...
Acute Viral Infections, Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis scheduled on December 26-27, 2019 in December 2019 in Vienna is for the ... Viral molecular epidemiology. Zoonotic viral diseases. Influenza. Respiratory viruses. Human immunodeficiency virus. Acquired ... Viral infectious diseases. Viral Infections, causes and treatment. Treatments of viral infectious diseases. ... Viral hepatitis. Virology. Ecology and others. Pox disease. Polio. Measles, mumps, and rubella. Hemorrhagic fevers and acute ...
... and medical-care impact of respiratory tract viral infections (RTVIs). Controls consisted of a group of subj … ... A longitudinal cohort study of older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were stratified by FEV(1) at ... In this heavily influenza-vaccinated cohort ( approximately 90% vaccinated each year), picornaviruses, parainfluenza viruses, ... Respiratory viral infections in adults with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 ...
Purification of influenza virus in the K-II zonal centrifuge. Nature. 1969;221:1255-6. DOIPubMed ... Global Screening for Human Viral Pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(7):768-773. doi:10.3201/eid0907.030004.. ... Plasma viral loads as a function of time after onset of illness are not known for most viral diseases, but they appear to be ... Viral Pathogens That May Be Missed. Not all human viral pathogens will be detected easily by analyzing plasma or serum samples ...
Viral and Hosts Factors Modulating Human Severe Influenza Virus Disease. 5:00 p.m.. Closing Remarks - Adolfo Garcia-Sastre. ... dedicated to understanding basic human biology and disease and advancing scientific discoveries to profoundly impact human ... Host-Microbe Interactions: Harnessing Co-Evolution to Treat Disease. 4:00 p.m.. Ren Sun, PhD. University of California, Los ... The Love-Hate Relationship Between Host Proteins and Viral RNAs. 11:00 a.m.. Harmit Malik, PhD. Fred Hutch Cancer Research ...
Viral diseases; Airborne particles; Airborne particulates; Air contaminants; Microbiology; Infectious diseases; Influenza; ... Humans; Men; Women; Aerosols; Aerosol particles; Samplers; Statistical analysis; Respiration; Respiratory infections; Lung; ... The samples were tested for the presence of viable influenza virus using a viral replication assay (VRA). Results: Fifty-three ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Viral infections; Viral diseases; Aerosols; Aerosol sampling; Avian influenza; Surveillance; Agricultural; Agriculture; ... The detection of aerosolized viruses can serve as an important surveillance and control tool in agriculture, human health, and ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Viral nucleic acids are then extracted from the resin to facilitate molecular analyses through a reduction in the effective ...
1998) Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with influenza H5N1 virus. Lancet 351:467-471. ... Avian influenza (H5N1) was first associated with human disease in 1997 (1). Since its re-emergence in 2003, antigenically ... Avian influenza, Epidemic and pandemic alert response. Available at www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/index.html. ... Committee for Human Medicinal Products. (1997) Note for guidance on harmonisation of requirements for influenza vaccines, CPMP/ ...
... viral disease that affects domestic animals (such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels) and humans. RVF is most ... human infection results in mild febrile illness; it causes a nonfatal influenza-like disease. No treatment identified.. ... can be passed to humans (called in humans Crohns Disease). Johnes disease usually enters a herd when an infected, but healthy ... A zoonotic disease is an illness that animals pass to humans; a disease such as anthrax or ringworm that can be transmitted ...
Fifth Disease Fifth disease is a mild viral infection caused by human parvovirus B19. About half of people get fifth disease ... H1N1 Influenza H1N1 influenza is a viral infection. Its not the same as seasonal flu (influenza). The first outbreak occurred ... Rheumatic fever is a rare disease. It usually doesnt happen in the United States. Its tied to the bacteria that… ... Tonsillitis is an inflammatory disease that occurs when your tonsils become infected by a virus or bacteria. ...
... airway organoids are of interest for both drug and vaccine development and are valuable tools for studying infectivity in human ... respiratory diseases, particularly for challenging viral diseases like COVID-19. ... simulate human airway epithelium and as a proof of concept can discriminate human-infective influenza viruses from poorly human ... 2019). Long-term Expanding Human Airway Organoids for Disease Modeling. EMBO J. DOI: 10.15252/embj.2018100300. 10. Zhou, et al ...
Insights gained from influenza genomic sequence data: viral diversity within human populations The advent of large amounts of ... JCVI viral projects are supported by the NIAID Genomic Sequencing Center for Infectious Disease (GSCID). The viral sequencing ... Education Environmental Sustainability Human Health Infectious Disease JCVI Plant Genomics Sequencing Synthetic Biology ... Sequencing of high yield influenza reassortants at JCVI As part of the Influenza Genome Sequencing Project, JCVI will be ...
... to their biological identity and as an alternative to their presentation in many college textbooks as pathogens of the human ... This college level instructional aid is a concise yet comprehensible review of human viral diseases specifically designed for ... 1. Viral Influenza (Flu). II. Family Paramyxoviridae. 1. Mumps. 2. Measles. 3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus. 4. Respiratory ... Classroom Lectures on Human Viral Diseases Presented at the City University of New York. An Explanation of Basic Principles. ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Viral haemorrhagic fever * Remove this filter Infectious disease: Influenza in humans, ... disease, influenza, West Nile fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, plague, monkeypox, marburg virus disease, malaria and cholera. ... Communicable disease threats report, 12-18 November 2017, Week 46 Publication - 17 Nov 2017. ... European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control An agency of the European Union ...
Remove this filter Infectious disease: Avian influenza in humans * Infectious disease * Viral haemorrhagic fever (4) ... Ebola virus disease, influenza, influenza A(H9N2) and measles. ... Influenza in humans, avian origin * Influenza in humans, ... and includes updates on influenza, avian influenza, rubella, measles, plague, polio, Ebola virus, MERS and Enterovirus D68. ... Communicable disease threats report, 28 December 2014 - 3 January 2015, week 1 Surveillance report - 2 Jan 2015. ...
Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans, for instance by ... Diseases that are mainly transmissible to other animals or humans in this way include: *Avian influenza , which is a viral ... Interactive infographic - "How do Animal diseases affect humans?". Zoonoses are transmissible between animals and humans in a ... Avian influenza primarily affects birds, but there have been cases of viruses being transmitted to humans and other animals ...
Diseases that are mainly transmissible to other animals or humans in this way include: *Avian influenza , which is a viral ... Other zoonotic diseases are mainly transmitted to humans through other means than food, including:. *By vectors, i.e. living ... Certain zoonotic diseases in humans are mainly caused by consuming contaminated food or drinking water and include for example ... Avian influenza primarily affects birds, but there have been cases of viruses being transmitted to humans and other animals ...
... humans. Human-to-swine transmission of influenza viruses occurs far more frequently than swine-to-human, and is central in ... Research Project: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES TO CONTROL VIRAL DISEASES OF SWINE Location: Virus and Prion Research ... Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface. Trends in Microbiology. 23(3):142-153. ... Title: Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface ...
Viral[edit]. Further information: Viral disease. Pathogenic viruses are mainly those of the families of: Adenoviridae, ... Some notable pathogenic viruses cause smallpox, influenza, mumps, measles, chickenpox, ebola, and rubella. Viruses typically ... that causes disease in humans.. The human physiological defense against common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis) is mainly the ... but can cause diseases in humans. Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients ...
Viral; Herpes Simplex; Immune System; Immunity, Cellular; Immunity, Innate; Inflammasomes; Influenza, Human; Molecular Biology ... Human; Hodgkin Disease; Immune System Diseases; Immunophenotyping; Macrophages; Molecular Probe Techniques; Monocytes; Tumor ... Arboviruses; Autophagy; Central Nervous System Viral Diseases; DNA Viruses; Encephalitis, ... Pneumonia, Viral; Pregnancy Complications; Proviruses; RNA Viruses; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Tumor Virus Infections; ...
Viral; Herpes Simplex; Immune System; Immunity, Cellular; Immunity, Innate; Inflammasomes; Influenza, Human; Molecular Biology ... Human; Hodgkin Disease; Immune System Diseases; Immunophenotyping; Macrophages; Molecular Probe Techniques; Monocytes; Tumor ... Arboviruses; Autophagy; Central Nervous System Viral Diseases; DNA Viruses; Encephalitis, ... Pneumonia, Viral; Pregnancy Complications; Proviruses; RNA Viruses; Sexually Transmitted Diseases; Tumor Virus Infections; ...
Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza ... discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases ... discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases ... Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza ...
  • Widespread distribution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in domesticated and wild birds continues to pose a threat to public health, as interspecies transmission of virus has resulted in increasing numbers of human disease cases. (usda.gov)
  • Although highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses have yet to acquire the ability to transmit efficiently among humans, the increasing genetic diversity among these viruses and continued outbreaks in avian species underscore the need for more effective measures for the control and prevention of human H5N1 virus infection. (usda.gov)
  • The three types of influenza viruses that exist to date include A, B, and C viruses. (bartleby.com)
  • Seasonal epidemics within the human population are caused by A and B viruses. (bartleby.com)
  • March 20, 2015 - Ongoing outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses in U.S. domestic and wild birds have the potential to cause human infections, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (cdc.gov)
  • While no human infections with these particular viruses have been reported at this time and CDC believes the risk of human infection is low, similar H5 viruses have infected people in other parts of the world and it's possible that human infections associated with these viruses may occur in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Most human infections with similar HPAI viruses in other countries have occurred after prolonged and close contact with infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Migratory waterfowl and shore birds are the animal hosts of these viruses and can carry avian influenza viruses without showing any signs of disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza viruses are further classified as either "low pathogenic" or "highly pathogenic" based on molecular virus characteristics and the severity of disease they cause in chickens in a laboratory setting. (cdc.gov)
  • While rare, human infections with both LPAI and HPAI viruses have occurred with symptoms ranging from mild (for example, conjunctivitis or mild influenza-like-illness) to severe (for example, pneumonia, multi-organ failure and even death). (cdc.gov)
  • Most human infections with avian influenza viruses (including Asian HPAI H5 viruses and LPAI H7N9 in China ) have occurred in people with direct or close contact with infected birds. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections in U.S. birds and poultry to be low at this time because infections with avian influenza viruses are rare and - when they occur - these viruses have not spread easily to other people. (cdc.gov)
  • However it's possible that human infections with HPAI viruses associated with these outbreaks in birds may occur at some time. (cdc.gov)
  • While antiviral drugs are most often used to treat flu, they also can be used to prevent infection in someone who has been exposed to influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The influenza A viruses are further classified into subtypes based on the antigenicity divergence and sequence comparison of the two viral surface glycoproteins, HA and NA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At present, seasonal A influenza is caused by the viruses of subtypes A(H1N1) and A(H3N2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease produced by the avian influenza viruses (AIV) that transmitted across species to humans is called human-avian influenza. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ongoing circulation of these viruses continues to pose a pandemic threat due to their rapid geographical expansion and genetic diversity, and may eventually the adaptation to humans which may result in human-to-human transmission [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Influenza Other Respir Viruses. (flutrackers.com)
  • Ferrets are a well-established model for studying both the pathogenesis and transmission of human respiratory viruses and evaluation of antiviral vaccines. (flutrackers.com)
  • This review examines current immunological insights gained from the ferret model across relevant human respiratory diseases, with a focus on influenza viruses. (flutrackers.com)
  • Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (flutrackers.com)
  • In this heavily influenza-vaccinated cohort ( approximately 90% vaccinated each year), picornaviruses, parainfluenza viruses, and coronaviruses were most commonly identified. (nih.gov)
  • We base this system on the physical isolation of viruses from large pooled samples of human serum and plasma ( e.g., discarded specimens from diagnostic laboratories), followed by shotgun sequencing of the resulting genomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Such a system could monitor the levels of known viruses in human populations, rapidly detect outbreaks, and systematically discover novel or variant human viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The traditional process of discovering previously unknown human viruses, or variants of known viruses, is neither rapid nor thoroughly systematic. (cdc.gov)
  • Facilitated by the relative ease with which viruses can be isolated from seawater (using commercial filters), investigators in this area have examined a broad and essentially unbiased population of viral agents at the genome sequence level (including phage) and estimated the number of different genomes present (~5,000) ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • One would expect that a comprehensive survey of human viruses, defining what we might term the human "virome" would be, at least conceptually, even more straightforward. (cdc.gov)
  • Schematic representation of a process for systematic discovery of human viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Our proposed approach ( Figure ), in which large populations are continually monitored for new human-infective viruses, has not been considered technically feasible or medically necessary in the past. (cdc.gov)
  • A method for the improved detection of aerosolized influenza viruses and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2. (cdc.gov)
  • The detection of aerosolized viruses can serve as an important surveillance and control tool in agricultur e, human health, and environmental settings. (cdc.gov)
  • For this study, various quantities of two negatively charged viruses, type A and type B influenza viruses (FluMist Quadrivalent vaccine) and the male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage MS2 (MS2), were nebulized into a custom-built bioaerosolization chamber, and sampled using BioSamplers with and without anion exchange resin. (cdc.gov)
  • Compared to direct testing of the BioSampler liquid, detection was improved by 6.77x and 3.33x for type A and type B influenza viruses, respectively, by using the anion exchange resin. (cdc.gov)
  • Since its re-emergence in 2003, antigenically distinct H5N1 viruses have become widely dispersed among birds and have caused more than 400 human infections ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Clade 1 H5N1 viruses predominated in the Indochina peninsula before 2007, whereas H5N1 viruses from Indonesia, Central Asia, Europe, and Africa are clustered in a divergent clade 2 group with geographically distinct sublineages and are responsible for most current human infections. (pnas.org)
  • Chinese and European researchers recently described a method for producing airway organoids for evaluating the infectivity of novel viruses in humans. (corning.com)
  • In addition, the organoids secreted serine proteases which are required for influenza viruses to infect cells. (corning.com)
  • The investigators concluded that differentiated airway organoids "morphologically and functionally simulate human airway epithelium and as a proof of concept can discriminate human-infective influenza viruses from poorly human-infective viruses. (corning.com)
  • By publishing these series of concise lectures on human viruses, Igor has rendered a powerful teaching tool for beginning instructors during their initial years of coping with the immense amount of information to be covered in preparation for their Microbiology classes. (mellenpress.com)
  • I enthusiastically endorse Igor V. Zaitsev's book, I believe it will make a useful resource for teachers, biologists, students and general public in the fascinating areas of human viruses. (mellenpress.com)
  • Pigs can also be carriers of this virus as well as of other influenza viruses. (europa.eu)
  • Avian influenza primarily affects birds, but there have been cases of viruses being transmitted to humans and other animals through close contact with infected birds. (europa.eu)
  • The genetic diversity of influenza A viruses circulating in swine has expanded greatly since 2009, presenting new threats to human health. (usda.gov)
  • Human-to-swine transmission of influenza viruses occurs far more frequently than swine-to-human, and is central in seeding swine populations globally with new viral diversity. (usda.gov)
  • Overcoming the bias towards viewing swine more as sources of human viruses than as recipients is key to accurately understanding the human-animal interface and the role of humans in the evolution of pandemic viruses in swine. (usda.gov)
  • Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. (usda.gov)
  • Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and enteric viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Potential sdAb-based therapeutics against viruses that are particularly important for public health, such as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and enteric viruses are discussed (Table 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, other avian influenza viruses including low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) can also be a risk to public health. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it shares similar receptor binding epitopes with human influenza viruses and can infect humans [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • There is a risk for LPAI subtypes H5 and H7 to become high-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in chickens due to constant virus shedding and transmission to new birds within the flock or neighboring flocks [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Sporadically, viruses transmit from aquatic wild birds to poultry or mammals, and new genotypes of influenza virus may become established in these new "non-natural" hosts. (mdpi.com)
  • The most important of those influenza viruses are the H5 and H7 subtypes. (mdpi.com)
  • Since 1997 there have been several outbreaks of H5N1 influenza viruses transmitted to the human population directly from poultry, showing great virulence and low rates of survival [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • These viruses are known as High Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses (HPAIV). (mdpi.com)
  • PB1-F2 is a multifunctional protein and contributes to the pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study we have investigated the apoptotic and inflammatory responses of PB1-F2 protein from influenza viruses of diverse pathogenicities in A549 lung epithelial cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Sequence analysis revealed that PB1-F2 proteins derived from different influenza viruses varied at multiple amino acid positions. (hindawi.com)
  • Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses cause severe disease in humans, but the basis for their virulence remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic characterization of H5N1 viruses revealed mutations in the viral polymerase complex associated with mammalian adaptation and virulence. (nih.gov)
  • Black raspberry seed and gallic acid show potent and broad antiviral activity against influenza A and B type viruses. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Isoquercetin inhibit influenza A and B viruses. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Influenza viruses probably first sickened humans 6,000 to 7,000 years ago, corresponding with the early domestication of pigs and cattle. (historylink.org)
  • Because of the relationship of DHOV to the influenza viruses, its biosafety level 2 status, and its similar pathology in mice, the DHOV-mouse model may offer a low-cost, relatively safe, and realistic animal model for studies on the pathogenesis and management of H5N1 virus infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • Lethality to ferrets of H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and poultry in 2004. (ajtmh.org)
  • A mouse model for the evaluation of pathogenesis and immunity to influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans. (ajtmh.org)
  • Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated during the 2003-2004 influenza outbreaks in Japan. (ajtmh.org)
  • Genetic divergence of the NS genes of avian influenza viruses. (ajtmh.org)
  • The book presents detailed exposition on the properties of viruses, how viruses replicate, and how viruses cause disease. (exlibris.ch)
  • In support of Objective 1, Subobjective 1.1, to identify genes associated with quantity and duration of virus shedding and test up- or down-regulation of genes associated with virus replication in vitro with viruses of different genotypes, messenger RNA was extracted from porcine alveolar macrophages and lung tissue from pigs infected with influenza A virus (IAV) from a previously completed study. (usda.gov)
  • The role of these four HA amino acids in the adaptation of human H3 to swine was evaluated in reverse engineered viruses containing HA genes with site-directed mutagenesis, alone or in combination. (usda.gov)
  • The test detected a range of human and animal influenza virus A subtypes, including the H5N1 and H9N2 viruses that recently caused human disease in Hong Kong. (asm.org)
  • In this paper, we evaluate a new version of this test, Directigen FluA+B, that detects influenza type A and B viruses and discriminates between them. (asm.org)
  • The influenza type A viruses of human, avian, and porcine origin and human influenza type B viruses used for testing the reactivity profile of the Directigen FluA+B test in this study are listed in Table 1 . (asm.org)
  • At the end of last century and at the beginning of this century zoonotic viruses emerged that were of serious risk for the human population: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (CoV), highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1, and pandemic influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1). (eur.nl)
  • Both SARS-CoV and influenza A viruses cause respiratory disease that may lead to severe and even fatal cases of pneumonia. (eur.nl)
  • Thus, swine influenza viruses evolve more slowly than human viruses, possibly because they are not subjected to the same degree of immune selection. (scribd.com)
  • Influenza A viruses are widespread in nature and cause disease in a variety of species, including humans, lower mammals, and birds (14). (scribd.com)
  • Influenza A viruses of the HlNl subtype were first detected in pigs in the United States in 1930. (scribd.com)
  • Such viruses continue to circulate in pigs and cause substantial disease problems, resulting in delayed marketing and increased expense for care and medication (7, 13). (scribd.com)
  • therefore, the viruses may be subjected to little immune pressure and consequently undergo less antigenic variation than do human strains. (scribd.com)
  • Although many viruses cause no harm or disease when introduced to a host, others can lead to severe disability or even death. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • AI viruses can sometimes spread to domestic poultry and cause large-scale outbreaks of serious disease. (majortests.com)
  • The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. (asm.org)
  • To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret models to evaluate the relative virulence of selected 2003 and 2004 H5N1 viruses representing multiple genetic and geographical groups and compared them to earlier H5N1 strains isolated from humans. (asm.org)
  • Four of five human isolates tested were highly lethal for both mice and ferrets and exhibited a substantially greater level of virulence in ferrets than other H5N1 viruses isolated from humans since 1997. (asm.org)
  • Rapid disease progression and high lethality rates in ferrets distinguished the highly virulent 2004 H5N1 viruses from the 1997 H5N1 viruses. (asm.org)
  • However, the apparent enhancement of virulence of these viruses in humans in 2004 was better reflected in the ferret. (asm.org)
  • As traditional medications become less effective against today's potent and aggressive viruses, natural alternatives are proving capable of fighting off many common viral threats. (scribd.com)
  • This book is the beginning, for me, of a similar exploration into the world of viruses, emerging and resistant viral diseases, and more ecologically responsible (and often more effective) forms of treatment. (scribd.com)
  • The student is expected to: compare the structures of viruses to cells, describe viral reproduction, and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza. (explorelearning.com)
  • Simply stated, viruses are any of a large group of sub-microscopic infectious agents, which produce a wide range of significant diseases in humans, animals and plants. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • By helping the body to build an immune system response against specific viruses, vaccines have been effective at preventing some types of human viral infections. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases, such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • H9N2 influenza viruses are panzootic in domestic poultry in Eurasia and since 1999 have caused transient infections in humans and pigs. (asm.org)
  • These results show an increasing genetic and biologic diversity of H9N2 viruses in Hong Kong and support their potential role as pandemic influenza agents. (asm.org)
  • Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses ( 23 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • After transfer to new avian or mammalian hosts, the viruses evolve rapidly and cause mild or occasionally severe respiratory disease ( 1 , 11 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • In 1997, 18 humans were infected with avian H5N1 influenza virus, and six died, refocusing global attention on the potential role of avian influenza viruses as precursors of human pandemic influenza virus strains ( 25 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Genetic characterization of avian influenza viruses circulating in China in 1997 revealed that the H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from humans and poultry in Hong Kong were probably reassortants that had obtained internal gene segments from either avian H9N2 (A/Quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 [Qa/HK/G1/97]-like) or H6N1 (A/Teal/Hong Kong/W312/97-like) viruses ( 6 , 7 , 14 ). (asm.org)
  • H9N2 viruses of both lineages have been isolated from humans ( 14 , 20 ), and a virus of the Dk/HK/Y280/97-like lineage has been isolated from pigs in southern China ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • These H9N2 influenza viruses have acquired receptor-binding specificity for sialic acid with a terminal α2-6Gal linkage, as on human cells, as well as for sialic acid with an α2-3Gal linkage, as on avian cells ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Between 2000 and 2001, H9N2 influenza viruses in southern China were transmitted from terrestrial poultry back to domestic ducks, in which multiple genotypes were generated through reassortment ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of H9N2 viruses throughout Asia, along with their demonstrated ability to infect mammals, puts them high on the list of influenza viruses with pandemic potential. (asm.org)
  • These mutations, the study noted, were already "known in [some human influenza] viruses to increase binding for these receptors. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Avian viruses prefer binding to ?2-3-linked sialic acids on receptors of intestinal epithelial cells, while human viruses are usually specific for the ?2-6 linkage on epithelial cells of the lungs and upper respiratory tract. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The switch from ?2-3 to ?2-6 receptor specificity is a critical step in the adaptation of avian viruses to a human host and appears to be one of the reasons why most avian influenza viruses, including current avian H5 strains, are not easily transmitted from human-to-human following avian-to-human infection. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The glycan microarray offers a detailed picture of viral receptor specificity that can be used to map the evolution of new human pathogenic strains, such as the H5N1 avian influenza, and could prove invaluable in the early identification of emerging viruses that could cause new epidemics. (rxpgnews.com)
  • No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally. (usda.gov)
  • Among the seven viruses/genotypes detected with higher frequencies, multiplex PCR sensitivities were correlated significantly with viral loads determined by the TaqMan RT-PCR in FluA, H1N1-p and RSV ( p =0.011−0.000). (springer.com)
  • Most recently the VRDL has incorporated whole genome sequencing for influenza virus strain typing for situational awareness of circulating influenza viruses. (ca.gov)
  • Although emerging and re-emerging diseases are associated with all types of microbes, viruses (and in particular RNA viruses) predominate (Taylor et al. (springer.com)
  • December 14, 2009 - WASHINGTON - Beginning in January, the Marian Koshland Science Museum is offering several public programs and free "science cafés" that explore a wide range of topics, from identity theft to the U.S. Census to viruses such as influenza and AIDS. (koshland-science-museum.org)
  • All standard viruses share a general structure of genetic material, or viral genome, and a protein coat, called a capsid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Instead, they use host cell machinery to make both the viral genome and capsids of the newly formed viruses, or virions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exactly how viruses function in this manner is best understood by examining general viral structure, classification, and reproductive strategies. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Avian flu, or 'bird flu,' is a predominantlyrespiratory illness causedby influenza viruses normally foundin birds. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • These viruses are geneticallydistinct from influenza viruses thatinfect humans. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • It has the propensity to acquiregenes from influenza viruses thataffect other species. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Vaccines are exceptionally difficult to create (only 27 vaccines have been successful against human diseases) and despite extensive efforts, no effective vaccines exist against the aforementioned viruses. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The concept is important in understanding and controlling emerging infectious diseases in humans, especially those caused by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathogens of more distantly related species, on the other hand, such as plant viruses, may not be capable of infecting humans at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human infection with an avian influenza A virus (subtype H5N1) was reported recently in Hong Kong. (nih.gov)
  • Case notes of 12 patients with virus-culture-confirmed influenza A H5N1 infection were analysed. (nih.gov)
  • Influenza or "flu" is a rather contagious viral infection that infects the respiratory tract. (bartleby.com)
  • INFLUENZA Introduction One can claim that influenza is an infection that has victimized people from just about every generation that we have known. (bartleby.com)
  • The emergence of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was reported in Wenshan City, southwestern China in 2017. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both epidemiological investigations of chicken sources and phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences indicated that the source of infection was from Guangxi Province, which lies 100 km to the east of Wenshan City. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yunnan Province, southwest China (Fig. 1 ), did not experience of human infection during the first four epidemic waves of the H7N9 virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Four months later, indigenous human cases of H7N9 virus infection were demonstrated in the urban area of Wenshan City of the province. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abrupt emergence of human infection has attracted considerable attention on the current prevention and control strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fifth disease is a mild viral infection caused by human parvovirus B19. (familydoctor.org)
  • H1N1 influenza is a viral infection. (familydoctor.org)
  • Human infection mainly results from the inhalation of dust contaminated with bacteria from the placenta and birth fluids or faeces from infected animals. (europa.eu)
  • Today, while many medical advances have been made to safeguard against infection by pathogens, through the use of vaccination , antibiotics , and fungicide , pathogens continue to threaten human life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Notably, although antibodies have been proven to be effective against a number of diseases, most FDA-approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used to treat cancer and immune disorders ( 1 , 2 ), and only one antiviral humanized mAb, palivizumab, has been approved as a prophylactic to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in neonates and immunocompromised individuals ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • According to the world health organization (WHO) update, 2011, since 2003, 520 confirmed cases of human infection with H5N1 have been reported, of which 307 died due to disease complications. (hindawi.com)
  • We investigated a swine model to evaluate mismatched influenza vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) after pH1N1 infection. (fda.gov)
  • Vaccinating pigs with whole inactivated H1N2 (human-like) virus vaccine (WIV-H1N2) resulted in enhanced pneumonia and disease after pH1N1 infection. (fda.gov)
  • Symptoms of IAV infection is mostly mild in humans but may progress to fatal viral pneumonia if the virus spreads from the upper airways to the alveolar space in the lower respiratory tract [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • PB1-F2 has been shown to have proapoptotic activity when expressed either independently or during influenza virus infection [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Influenza H5N1 infection in humans is characterized by high pharyngeal virus loads and frequent detection of viral RNA in rectum and blood. (nih.gov)
  • Correlations between virus load and immunological parameters in influenza H5N1 infection. (nih.gov)
  • A woman who has herpes lesions inside the vagina or on the cervix may have pelvic pain and discharge that may be misdiagnosed as a yeast infection, cervicitis (an inflammation of the cervix) , or pelvic inflammatory disease. (amazonaws.com)
  • acute disseminated encephalomyelitis an acute or subacute encephalomyelitis or myelitis occurring most commonly following an acute viral infection, especially measles, but sometimes occurring without a recognizable antecedent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The infection in humans resembles influenza, with little or no indication of nervous system involvement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our data potentially support the hypothesis that variation among individuals in skin microbiome structure drive differences in susceptibility to infection and lethal outbreaks of disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • During the 1918 influenza pandemic, healthy young adults unusually succumbed to infection and were considered more vulnerable than young children and the elderly. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is associated with control of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection of macaques. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After intranasal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal infection with Dhori virus (DHOV), adult mice developed a fulminant and uniformly fatal illness with many of the clinical and pathologic findings seen in mice infected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Pathogenesis of influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in a primate model. (ajtmh.org)
  • Pathology of fatal human infection associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Report of highly pathogenic avian influenza infection route elucidation team, 2004. (ajtmh.org)
  • Routes of infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan. (ajtmh.org)
  • It is increasingly true that specific diagnosis of acute viral diseases impacts on individual patient care decisions, including infection control, use of antiviral therapy, and other aspects of clinical management. (asm.org)
  • The pathology of influenza virus infection was studied in cynomolgus macaques, ferrets, and cats. (eur.nl)
  • Children is the most susceptible to this disease, whereas young children, older adults and people with impaired immunity are the most likely to have severe infection. (bartleby.com)
  • Canine influenza is a highly contagious viral disease that can look similar to typical upper respiratory infection/kennel cough, with coughing, sneezing and lethargy. (marinij.com)
  • Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious viral disease of birds often causing no obvious signs of infection. (majortests.com)
  • The ability of anti-stem antibodies to inhibit neuraminidase enabled animals to better survive a severe influenza infection have been shown in mice experiments. (hcplive.com)
  • 2009. Swine influenza A (H1N1) infection in two children-Southern California, March-April 2009 . (springer.com)
  • Nancy Cox, chief of the influenza branch at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, said scientists have never found a human case of H5N2 infection. (wsj.com)
  • Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. (nih.gov)
  • Avian Influenza A H5N1 virus causes human influenza-like illness with a high rate of complications in adults admitted to hospital. (nih.gov)
  • The two most important AIV causing human threats are the H5N1 and H7N9 subtypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian influenza (H5N1) was first associated with human disease in 1997 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • AI is also a significant public health concern because of recent highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks causing also human deaths in Asia, Europe, and North Africa. (hindawi.com)
  • In this review we summarize and discuss the most important findings in this field, focusing mainly on H5N1 virulence factors and their impact on the modulation of the innate immunity in humans. (mdpi.com)
  • Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. (nih.gov)
  • To assess the relevance of these findings for human disease, we performed virological and immunological studies in 18 individuals with H5N1 and 8 individuals infected with human influenza virus subtypes. (nih.gov)
  • Viral RNA in blood was present only in fatal H5N1 cases and was associated with higher pharyngeal viral loads. (nih.gov)
  • We observed low peripheral blood T-lymphocyte counts and high chemokine and cytokine levels in H5N1-infected individuals, particularly in those who died, and these correlated with pharyngeal viral loads. (nih.gov)
  • Our observations indicate that high viral load, and the resulting intense inflammatory responses, are central to influenza H5N1 pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Similar systemic histopathologic findings have been reported in the few fatal human H5N1 cases examined at autopsy. (ajtmh.org)
  • Avian influenza H5N1 in tigers and leopards. (ajtmh.org)
  • Neurovirulence in mice of H5N1 influenza virus genotypes isolated from Hong Kong poultry in 2001. (ajtmh.org)
  • Our results suggest it is possible that blow flies could become a mechanical transmitter of H5N1 influenza virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness. (ajtmh.org)
  • H5N1- Avian Influenza A (Bird Flu) D.A. Richman Justin Pavlic Samantha McCormick Emily Piotrowski Avian Influenza is a viral disease of wild and domestic birds. (majortests.com)
  • Bird Flu Avian influenza is caused by the H5N1 virus. (majortests.com)
  • RxPG] The H5N1 avian influenza virus, commonly known as "bird flu," is a highly contagious and deadly disease in poultry. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Federal officials said the virus discovered in a Gonzales County flock isn't nearly as dangerous to humans as the H5N1 strain sweeping across Asia. (wsj.com)
  • In the outbreak of avian influenza virus H5N1 in 1997 in Hong Kong, Yuen was the first to report in the Lancet about the unusual clinical severity and high mortality of infected patients, which could be identified by the in-house molecular test at his laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Are the Differences Between Bacterial, Viral Fungal and Parasitic Infections? (bartleby.com)
  • bacterial, viral fungal and parasitic infections? (bartleby.com)
  • Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it is almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. (bartleby.com)
  • Introduction An emerging area of research focus on the investigation of viral infections involved in neurodegenerative diseases. (bartleby.com)
  • Data suggests that viral infections promote hallmark events seen in neuronal degeneration such as in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). (bartleby.com)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Acute Viral Infections, Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Acute Viral Infections, Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICAVICSD 2019 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Acute Viral Infections, Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis . (waset.org)
  • A longitudinal cohort study of older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were stratified by FEV(1) at enrollment was done to define the etiology, frequency, severity, and medical-care impact of respiratory tract viral infections (RTVIs). (nih.gov)
  • Learn more about how air-liquid interface culture methods using permeable supports assist researchers in more accurately mimicking in vivo conditions to model respiratory diseases in the study of cystic fibrosis, asthma, wound healing, and respiratory epithelium infections, like SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). (corning.com)
  • Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans , for instance by consuming contaminated foodstuffs or through contact with infected animals. (europa.eu)
  • Zoonoses are infections or diseases that can be transmitted directly or indirectly between animals and humans. (europa.eu)
  • Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus , typhoid fever , diphtheria , syphilis , and Hansen's disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • Life-threatening fungal infections in humans most often occur in immunocompromised patients or vulnerable people with a weakened immune system, although fungi are common problems in the immunocompetent population as the causative agents of skin, nail, or yeast infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian influenza virus infections in the human population are rare due to their inefficient direct human-to-human transmission. (mdpi.com)
  • In mild cases the disease is indistinguishable from other viral infections as influenza or dengue. (calameo.com)
  • A condition resembling poliomyelitis, which was first described in the mid-1980s in California, often following viral infections (e.g., herpes, hepatitis, CMV) or which may be induced by an unrecognised virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Before 1918 the average mortality rate for most influenza was only about one-tenth of 1 percent, or approximately one fatality for every 1,000 infections. (historylink.org)
  • Although influenza is a viral disease, secondary bacterial infections such as pneumonia, are often responsible for fatalities. (si.edu)
  • For hospitalized children ( 19 ) and adults ( 1 ), rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections reduced hospital stay and antibiotic use and was cost-effective. (asm.org)
  • In humans, viral infections causing respiratory disease have been known for many years. (eur.nl)
  • Also, pathological description of human cases with uncomplicated viral pneumonia is sparse because patients have multiple therapeutic interventions and secondary co-infections that may alter the pathology. (eur.nl)
  • This thesis focusses on the pathology of SARS-CoV and influenza A virus infections in experimental animals. (eur.nl)
  • The pathology of these virus infections in animals is compared to that in humans and is related to the pathogenesis. (eur.nl)
  • Additionally, temporal and spatial dynamics for the pathology of different influenza virus infections in ferrets is described in a time course experiment. (eur.nl)
  • Human infections have been a result of direct contact with infected birds and exposure to contaminated environments. (rentokil.com)
  • Therefore, bioactive compounds from mushrooms could be candidates for treating viral infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Stephen Harrod Buhner offers in-depth instructions on how to prepare and use herbal formulations to prevent and treat infections such as SARS, influenza, and encephalitis. (scribd.com)
  • And they are very, very effective for emerging and resistant viral infections. (scribd.com)
  • Others are not and cause diseases including strep throat, urinary tract infections and tuberculosis. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. (usda.gov)
  • Since infectious diseases are dynamic, the maps are presented in the context of a changing world, and how these changes are influencing the geographical distribution on human infections. (wiley.com)
  • Some viral infections can cause damage to the host cell, resulting in disease to the organism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, many viral infections are asymptomatic and do not result in disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are no cures for viral infections, due in part to the difficulty of developing drugs that adversely affect only the virus and not the host. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast to humans, MERS-CoV-exposed dromedaries develop only very mild infections and exceptionally potent virus-neutralizing antibody responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Yuen was one of the lead authors of an article in Clinical Infections Diseases, published in August 2020, which described the first proven case of a COVID-19 reinfection of a patient with a different strain of SARS-CoV-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 11-17 March 2018 and includes updates on seasonal influenza, dengue, measles, Borna diseas virus, hepatitis A, Lassa fever, yellow fever and malaria. (europa.eu)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 14 May - 20 May 2017 and includes updates on influenza, measles, hepatitis A, cholera, polio, Ebola virus disease and Legionnaires' disease. (europa.eu)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 23-29 November 2014, and includes updates on influenza, avian influenza, rubella, measles, plague, polio, Ebola virus, MERS and Enterovirus D68. (europa.eu)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 26 April - 2 May 2015, and includes updates on Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, influenza, Salmonella Enteritidis, Borna virus, measles, rubella and Ebola virus. (europa.eu)
  • This issue covers the period from 10-16 February 2019 and includes updates on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), dengue, Ebola virus disease, influenza, influenza A(H9N2) and measles. (europa.eu)
  • H1N1, a causative agent of influenza was identified in spring of 2009. (bartleby.com)
  • Communication of H1N1 and seasonal influenza occur through droplets created when individuals with the illness cough, sneeze, or talk. (bartleby.com)
  • The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. (usda.gov)
  • Since the beginning of 20th century, there have been four pandemics: Spanish influenza (H1N1) in 1918/1919, Asian influenza (H2N2) in 1957, Hong Kong influenza (H3N2) in 1968, and H1N1 influenza in 2009 [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Genesis and pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Join Nicole Lurie, assistant secretary for preparedness and response at the Department of Health and Human Services, and Katherine Edwards, professor of pediatrics of the Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Nashville, for a discussion of the pros and cons of public health responses to H1N1, how responses to the current outbreak differed those from past influenza pandemics, and the media's influence on public perceptions. (koshland-science-museum.org)
  • Clinical presentation was that of an influenza-like illness with evidence of pneumonia in seven patients. (nih.gov)
  • Pathogenic bacteria contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia , which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas , and foodborne illnesses , which can be caused by bacteria such as Shigella , Campylobacter , and Salmonella . (wikipedia.org)
  • those weakened by an influenza virus were left more vulnerable to bacterial pneumonia. (historylink.org)
  • However, influenza can cause more serious disease that can result in pneumonia and, less commonly, death. (marinij.com)
  • Among unvaccinated persons, hospitalization rates for pneumonia and influenza were twice as high in the influenza seasons as they were in the interim (noninfluenza) periods. (nih.gov)
  • Influenza vaccination was associated with fewer hospitalizations for pneumonia and influenza (adjusted risk ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.28 to 0.82]) and with lower risk for death (adjusted odds ratio, 0.30 [CI, 0.21 to 0.43]) during the influenza seasons. (nih.gov)
  • It was also associated with fewer outpatient visits for pneumonia and influenza and for all respiratory conditions. (nih.gov)
  • An example of a virus having an icosahedral structure is adenovirus, the virus that can cause acute respiratory disease or viral pneumonia in humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vaccine-induced disease enhancement has been described in connection with several viral vaccines in animal models and in humans. (fda.gov)
  • These findings should be considered during the evaluation of universal influenza vaccines designed to elicit HA2 stem-targeting antibodies. (fda.gov)
  • There is little evidence supporting the belief that vaccines are effective in preventing influenza in healthy adults. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Bacterial vaccines from the 1930s.Catarrhalis Immunogen (Combined) Parke, Davis & Co. and Sherman's Influenza Vaccine. (si.edu)
  • WHO works with the MoHP to provide seasonal influenza vaccines to vulnerable groups, including health workers in fever and chest hospitals, people working in poultry farms, rapid response teams, veterinarians and pilgrims going to Saudi Arabia for Hajj. (who.int)
  • Accordingly, preventative measures such as vaccines play an important role in the treatment of viral diseases. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that govern host-pathogen interactions is a subject of intense research in the field of infectious disease. (eventbrite.com)
  • Brucellosis - a chronic infectious disease of some domestic animals, for example, cattle, dogs, goats, and pigs, caused by bacteria and may lead to spontaneous abortion (also called Bang's disease and undulant fever). (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • JCVI viral projects are supported by the NIAID Genomic Sequencing Center for Infectious Disease (GSCID). (jcvi.org)
  • This report examines the influence of environmental factors on infectious disease dynamics. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • The book provides an overview of infectious disease. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • And unlike almost any previous known infectious disease, this virus hit adults between ages 20 and 40 particularly hard. (historylink.org)
  • The perspective represented by this book, that of medical virology as an infectious disease science, is meant to provide a starting point, an anchor, for those who must relate the subject to clinical practice, public health practice, scholarly research, and other endeavors. (exlibris.ch)
  • It is also known as nasophayngitis or rhinopharyngitis, which is a viral infectious disease of upper respiratory tract that affect the nose primarily. (bartleby.com)
  • It may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases. (winentrance.com)
  • Influenza is an infectious disease caused by influenzavirus A or influenzavirus B, genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae. (theallineed.com)
  • Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases is an essential tool for infectious disease specialists, medical microbiologists, virologists, travel medicine specialists, and public health professionals. (wiley.com)
  • Yuen is currently the Chair of Infectious Disease at the Department of Microbiology of the University of Hong Kong. (wikipedia.org)
  • He co-directs the State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Disease of China in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of PRC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral Hepatitis Herpes Bacterial Vaginosis NGU (Nongonococcal Urethritis) MPC (Mucopurulent Cervicitis) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Pubic Lice Scabies Trichomoniasis Vaginitis Yeast (Thrush). (amazonaws.com)
  • Some mushroom compounds that act against HIV, influenza A virus, and hepatitis C virus showed antiviral effects comparable to those of antiviral drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • The influenza virus genes that confer efficient transmission of epidemic and pandemic strains in humans have not been identified. (usda.gov)
  • The rapid spread and severe disease caused by the 1918 influenza pandemic virus makes it an ideal virus to study the transmissibility of potentially pandemic influenza strains. (usda.gov)
  • The active drug substance is a potent and selective inhibitor of the influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme essential to the replication of influenza virus strains A and B. These strains are the major cause of flu in humans. (gilead.com)
  • Highly virulent influenza virus strains increase morbidity and mortality significantly, especially in people among high risk groups such as the elderly. (gilead.com)
  • Currently marketed influenza treatments, which do not target the neuraminidase enzyme, are limited due to activity only against type A strains, adverse side effect profiles and rapid development of drug-resistant virus. (gilead.com)
  • Preexisting human antibodies neutralize recently emerged H7N9 influenza strains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the United States, vaccination is recommended for each annual "flu season," and every year the vaccine is reformulated based on the particular influenza virus strains currently in circulation. (si.edu)
  • In support of Objective 1, Subobjective 1.3, to identify genetic signatures associated with inter-species adaptation in swine, four conserved hemagglutinin (HA) amino acid mutations were identified in swine 2010.1 field H3N2 strains that were distinct from human seasonal precursor H3. (usda.gov)
  • Canine influenza virus (technically referred to as canine influenza H3N2 since there are two strains of the virus) was first identified in the United States in 2015 in the Chicago area. (marinij.com)
  • Influenza virus strains were isolated from poultry in live-poultry markets in Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, during 2003. (asm.org)
  • Consequently, this creates vaccine-resistant strains of the influenza virus annually, which in turn creates the "yearly mad dash" to formulate a matched vaccine. (hcplive.com)
  • In 1918 no vaccine, antibiotic, or clear recognition of the disease was known. (bartleby.com)
  • Lung and airway organoids are of interest for both drug and vaccine development and are valuable tools for studying infectivity in human respiratory diseases, particularly for challenging viral diseases like COVID-19. (corning.com)
  • The design of a universal influenza vaccine has been the major focus of researchers in the influenza vaccinology field. (hindawi.com)
  • Vaccine-Induced Anti-HA2 Antibodies Promote Virus Fusion and Enhance Influenza Virus Respiratory Disease. (fda.gov)
  • Unlike other infectious diseases, where a single dose of vaccine (or single series of doses) confers long-term protection, flu vaccination is an annual affair. (si.edu)
  • Antigenic Drift: How the Influenza Virus Adapts from Vaccine Makers Project on Vimeo . (si.edu)
  • Three examples of early Influenza Virus Vaccine, Types A and B, 1945-1952, made by Lederle Laboratories, Parke, Davis and Co., and E. R. Squibb & Sons. (si.edu)
  • In 1941, determined to avoid another wartime pandemic, the US Army established the Commission on Influenza and Vaccine Development. (si.edu)
  • Identify novel influenza vaccine platforms and improve vaccination strategies. (usda.gov)
  • Disease pathogenesis, transmission, and vaccine efficacy studies will be conducted in the natural swine host. (usda.gov)
  • Just like the flu vaccine for humans, it doesn't always prevent the illness but it can significantly lessen its adverse effects. (marinij.com)
  • The basis of a universal flu vaccine may be formed by antibodies that inhibit a second viral protein as well as the 1 that they bind. (hcplive.com)
  • The basis of a universal flu vaccine may be formed by antibodies that inhibit a second viral protein as well as the 1 that they bind, according to a team of National Institutes of Health (NIH) investigators. (hcplive.com)
  • Influenza vaccine is underused in groups targeted for vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • We propose a system for continuing surveillance of viral pathogens circulating in large human populations. (cdc.gov)
  • It presents pathogens initially with respect to their biological identity and as an alternative to their presentation in many college textbooks as pathogens of the human organ systems. (mellenpress.com)
  • The human physiological defense against common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis ) is mainly the responsibility of the immune system with help by some of the body's normal flora and fauna . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the immune system or "good" microbiota are damaged in any way (such as by chemotherapy , human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or antibiotics being taken to kill other pathogens), pathogenic bacteria that were being held at bay can proliferate and cause harm to the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal pathogens are disease-causing agents of wild and domestic animal species, at times including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of infectious diseases are threatening amphibians worldwide, and evidence is accumulating that the host-associated bacteria that comprise the microbiome may be key in mediating interactions between amphibian hosts and infectious pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • We used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to quantify the skin microbial community structure of over 200 individual wild adult European common frogs ( Rana temporaria ), from ten populations with contrasting history of the lethal disease ranavirosis, caused by emerging viral pathogens belonging to the genus Ranavirus . (frontiersin.org)
  • In recent decades both fungal and viral pathogens have been implicated in population declines and extinctions of multiple amphibian taxa, including toads, newts, and salamanders (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens. (springer.com)
  • Among the total 438 NPS specimens collected during the study period, one or more viral pathogens were detected in 274 (62.6%) and 201(45.9%) specimens by monoplex TaqMan RT-PCR and multiplex ResPlex, respectively. (springer.com)
  • The Qiagen ResPlex II multiplex RT-PCR kit possesses excellent specificity for simultaneous detection of 17 viral pathogens in NPS specimens in pediatric inpatients at the time of admission. (springer.com)
  • The CDPH Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory (VRDL) Respiratory and Gastroenteric Diseases Section serves as a virologic reference laboratory offering diagnostic and specialized testing for influenza and many other viral respiratory pathogens and is one of three National Influenza Reference Centers in the United States. (ca.gov)
  • 2005 ). In particular, anthropogenic factors such as deforestation, habitat fragmentation, urbanisation and modern agricultural practices provide increased opportunities for human interaction with infected reservoirs and vectors, and the existence of rapid global transport networks, and high-density human and animal populations facilitate the spread of pathogens at an unprecedented rate, often over very large distances (Jones et al. (springer.com)
  • A large proportion of viral pathogens that have emerged recently in humans are considered to have originated from various animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fenner and White's Medical Virology, Fifth Edition provides an integrated view of related sciences, from cell biology, to medical epidemiology and human social behavior. (exlibris.ch)
  • Pandemics - and the threat of these episodes - have spurred ongoing investigations of influenza, resulting in a vast body of knowledge that informs the fields of bacteriology, virology, and epidemiology. (si.edu)
  • Over the years, a number of landmark clinical studies in the field of virology have been published, shaping how we treat many infectious diseases today. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • There is increased understanding of past pandemics, strengthened outbreak communications, greater insight on disease spread and approaches to control. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • The misnamed "Spanish Flu" pandemic peaked in late 1918 and remains the most widespread and lethal outbreak of disease to afflict humankind worldwide in recorded history. (historylink.org)
  • During the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza that occurred in Tamba Town, Kyoto Prefecture in 2004, a total of 926 flies were collected from six sites within a radius of 2.3 km from the poultry farm. (ajtmh.org)
  • This final rule will help ensure that if an END outbreak occurs again, the disease can be eradicated within future quarantine areas and disease spread can be prevented. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The 2015 outbreak of avian influenza cost the United States $3.3 billion. (agri-pulse.com)
  • May 29, 2015 -- As part of its ongoing response efforts to the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) disease outbreak, USDA is seeking the assistance of contractors in several areas. (usda.gov)
  • The respiratory disease is so contagious -- the virus is spread on everything from chicken cages to worker boots -- that scientists probably won't know for weeks whether they have been able to contain the Texas outbreak. (wsj.com)
  • Oakland County sees biggest outbreak of dog flu in state The Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development reports there have been 49 confirmed cases of canine influenza since July 13. (freep.com)
  • WHO guideline has been developed to stop or delay pandemic influenza at its initial emergence. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • Pandemic influenza, and primarily avian influenza, is a serious concern for Egypt. (who.int)
  • The Government of Egypt has taken the threat of pandemic influenza seriously and developed the National Influenza Pandemic Executive Committee (NIPEC). (who.int)
  • WHO offers technical support to the NIPEC and participated in the development of the Integrated National Plan for avian and pandemic influenza in response to the rapid spread of avian influenza and pandemic influenza, in collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (who.int)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 28 December 2014 - 3 January 2015, and includes updates on influenza, polio, MERS, Ebola virus and avian influenza. (europa.eu)
  • The Ebola virus comprises a group of pathogenic agents that cause severe and deadly hemorrhagic fevers in humans and other primates. (accessscience.com)
  • The book contains valuable information about firsthand experience of managing Ebola virus disease in Third World countries and offers the best practices to handle possible pandemic outbreaks of Ebola. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • Advances in animal biotechnology can help prevent, prepare for, and respond to outbreaks of infectious diseases such as COVID-19, Ebola, MERS, Zika, among others, by providing prevention strategies and treatments for humans. (agri-pulse.com)
  • However, when humans are infected, a strong inflammatory response is usually induced, characterized by elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines in serum, believed to be important in the severe pathogenesis that develops in a high proportion of these patients. (mdpi.com)
  • In vitro and animal studies indicate that high and disseminated viral replication is important for disease pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Identify mechanisms of influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis and host adaptation to swine. (usda.gov)
  • Understanding the pathogenesis of SARS and influenza is valuable for development of therapeutic and preventive strategies. (eur.nl)
  • People who have had contact with infected birds may also be given influenza antiviral drugs preventatively. (cdc.gov)
  • When used to prevent seasonal influenza, antiviral drugs are 70% to 90% effective. (cdc.gov)
  • Agrimony (A. pilosa) has broad spectrum antiviral activity against Influenzas A, B and Avian Influenza. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Their antiviral targets were mostly virus entry, viral genome replication, viral proteins, and cellular proteins and influenced immune modulation, which was evaluated through pre-, simultaneous-, co-, and post-treatment in vitro and in vivo studies. (mdpi.com)
  • The VRDL testing capabilities for influenza include cell culture for virus isolation, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for influenza typing and sub-typing, strain characterization and antiviral resistance testing. (ca.gov)
  • Although the vast majority of bacteria are harmless or beneficial to one's body, a few pathogenic bacteria can cause infectious diseases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza is pathogenic viral disease, causing the emergence of newer epidemics and pandemics in mammals [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A large dependence on poultry as the main form of animal protein consumption in the normal diet means that highly pathogenic avian influenza also poses a significant threat to food security. (who.int)
  • Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). (usda.gov)
  • Avian influenza (bird flu) is a viral disease of birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian influenza , which is a viral disease occurring in poultry and other birds. (europa.eu)
  • Officials say avian influenza affects birds and its rare for it to spread to humans. (agweb.com)
  • Exotic Newcastle disease is a highly contagious and fatal viral disease that affects all species of birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • However, it is another highly contagious disease of poultry and birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • It affects the respiratory, nervous and digestive systems of birds, and many birds die before demonstrating any clinical signs of the disease. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • How do birds spread disease? (rentokil.com)
  • Like most pests, there is a range of factors which contribute to how birds spread diseases. (rentokil.com)
  • There are a few ways in which we can catch diseases from birds, some being more common than others. (rentokil.com)
  • It is believed that birds can carry over 60 different diseases which have the potential to infect both humans and livestock. (rentokil.com)
  • The main diseases which birds can transmit can be broken down into 3 categories of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. (rentokil.com)
  • Mosquitoes become infected through biting infected birds and transmit the disease to people when they bite. (rentokil.com)
  • Using a recently developed microarray technology-hundreds of microscopic assay sites on a single small surface-the study showed that relatively small mutations can result in switching the binding site preference of the avian virus from receptors in the intestinal tract of birds to the respiratory tract of humans. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. (usda.gov)
  • Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). (usda.gov)
  • Conclusions demonstrating increases in earlier vaccination is more cost-effective and successful in the prevention of influenza associated mortality is perhaps most essential for regions experiencing rapid growth of the virus (Khazeni, Hutton, Garber, Hupert, & Owens, 2009). (bartleby.com)
  • Since the occurrence of the pandemic, great emphasis has been placed on the importance of influenza vaccination and its role in preventing and slowing transmission of the virus. (bartleby.com)
  • Vaccination is an effective way for prevention of viral diseases in poultry. (hindawi.com)
  • Hemagglutinin stem-specific antibodies are perhaps the most promising approach for improving the duration and effectiveness of influenza vaccination,' the authors wrote . (hcplive.com)
  • To define the effects of influenza and the benefits of influenza vaccination in elderly persons with chronic lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • For elderly persons with chronic lung disease, influenza is associated with significant adverse health effects and influenza vaccination is associated with substantial health benefits, including fewer outpatient visits, fewer hospitalizations, and fewer deaths. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, they treated and relieved the viral diseases caused by herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (mdpi.com)
  • Factors underlying emergence may be broadly grouped into (1) 'ecological' changes (such as environmental, agricultural, socio-economic, demographic and behavioural changes) that increase the probability of exposure of susceptible individuals/populations to infected reservoir hosts or vectors, (2) evolutionary changes that lead to increased pathogen virulence, drug resistance, host range or transmissibility and (3) changes in host population susceptibility (e.g. due to malnutrition and HIV-associated immunodeficiency in human populations). (springer.com)
  • Viral shedding starts to decrease after the fourth day, but dogs with H3N2 remain contagious for up to 26 days. (marinij.com)
  • Four cases of a particular strain of canine influenza, H3N2, have been positively identified in the metro Detroit, with two cases in Macomb County, one in Wayne County and one in Oakland County, according to Oakland Veterinary Referral Services. (freep.com)
  • Avian influenza (AI) is a devastating poultry disease with serious economic consequences to the commercial poultry industry. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of them evolve to become genetic variants that are able to cause severe disease in poultry and mammals. (mdpi.com)
  • It can cause illness in poultry and humans. (majortests.com)
  • H9N2 was the most prevalent influenza virus subtype in the live-poultry markets between 2001 and 2003. (asm.org)
  • The discovery of a nasty strain of avian influenza on a small, independent chicken farm in southern Texas could spell big problems for the U.S. poultry industry. (wsj.com)
  • The samples were tested for the presence of viable influenza virus using a viral replication assay (VRA). (cdc.gov)
  • F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) announced today that oral administration of the neuraminidase inhibitor GS 4104 (also known as Ro 64-0796) significantly decreased influenza viral replication and the duration of influenza symptoms when given as treatment. (gilead.com)
  • The first, a viral suppression group, was a control strategy to treat HIV in an uninterrupted manner with the goal of maximal and continuous suppression of HIV replication. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Herpes is a lifelong disease with no cure, but most infected people have long periods without symptoms, interrupted by only occasional outbreaks. (amazonaws.com)
  • These changes can arise in either one or both of the proteins, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), located on the exterior of the influenza A virus. (bartleby.com)
  • Prions are abnormal proteins whose presence causes some diseases such as scrapie , bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral proteins, in complexes termed "capsomers," form the surface of the icosahedron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This is because the influenza virus is constantly changing its surface proteins (called antigens), which makes detection by the human immune system more difficult. (si.edu)
  • Located on the surface of the influenza virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are yin-yang proteins. (hcplive.com)
  • The clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe disease were defined and the results of methods for rapid virus diagnosis were compared. (nih.gov)
  • All seven patients older than 13 years had severe disease (four deaths), whereas children 5 years or younger had mild symptoms with the exception of one who died with Reye's syndrome associated with intake of aspirin. (nih.gov)
  • Factors associated with severe disease included older age, delay in hospitalisation, lower-respiratory-tract involvement, and a low total peripheral white blood cell count or lymphopenia at admission. (nih.gov)
  • However, specific groups, such as the elderly, young children, and individuals with co-morbidities, appear more susceptible to severe illness as well as mortality due to influenza related complications. (bartleby.com)
  • The Phase II trial will enroll patients with severe coronary artery disease receiving maximum therapy. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • According to the University of Wisconsin at Madison, some dogs affected with canine influenza will show only mild symptoms, while others exhibit more severe signs of illness. (marinij.com)
  • VRDL routinely performs diagnostic testing in a variety of situations, including institutional or community respiratory outbreaks, individual cases of severe respiratory illness, and outpatient cases of influenza-like illness submitted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Influenza Sentinel Providers. (ca.gov)
  • It can cause severe disease inhumans. (contemporarypediatrics.com)
  • Methods: Sixty-one adult volunteer outpatients with influenza-like symptoms were asked to cough and exhale three times into a spirometer. (cdc.gov)
  • In humans brucellosis can cause a range of symptoms that are similar to the flu and may include fever, sweats, headaches, back pains, and physical weakness. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • The severity of these diseases in humans varies from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions. (europa.eu)
  • Dosing was initiated 28 hours after volunteers were exposed intranasally to influenza A. GS 4104 decreased the duration of influenza symptoms by approximately 50 percent. (gilead.com)
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) causes acute respiratory inflammation in humans and symptoms include high fever, body aches, and fatigue [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this book, you will learn the symptoms of dengue, how it spreads via mosquitoes, and what new research is emerging to stop the disease in its tracks. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • in other circumstances, medications can manage symptoms and the course of disease. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Humans become infected by coming in contact with animals or animal products that are contaminated with these bacteria. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • Humans are generally infected in one of three ways: eating or drinking something that is contaminated with Brucella , breathing in the organism (inhalation), or having the bacteria enter the body through skin wounds. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • Tonsillitis is an inflammatory disease that occurs when your tonsils become infected by a virus or bacteria. (familydoctor.org)
  • This book is focused on Streptococcus pyogenes, the bacteria responsible for diseases, such as scarlet fever, pharyngitis, impetigo, necrotizing fasciitis, as well as the sequelae of rheumatic fever and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. (e-booksdirectory.com)
  • The causative agent may be viral, bacteria or parasites. (bartleby.com)
  • Although he was confident that the disease was spread by bacteria, he was unable to isolate the disease-causing agent, identify it using an optical microscope, or recreate it by injecting healthy plants with any known bacteria. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • In 1898, Dutch scientist Martinus Beijerinck proposed that tobacco mosaic disease was caused not by bacteria but by a poison, a "filterable virus. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • Seasonal epidemics due to influenza A can lead to extensive morbidity in addition to mortality. (bartleby.com)
  • According to epidemiological features, influenza in humans can be described as seasonal, pandemic or human-avian influenza. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's not the same as seasonal flu (influenza). (familydoctor.org)
  • These treatment and prevention studies will be conducted at more than 100 clinical sites in the United States, Canada and Europe and will enroll patients naturally infected with influenza and those at risk for developing influenza illness during seasonal outbreaks. (gilead.com)
  • An H3 gene from a human seasonal IAV was mutated to contain the four swine-like amino acids and an H3 gene from a swine IAV was mutated to contain the four human-like amino acids. (usda.gov)
  • There is thus a need for rapid, reliable, inexpensive tests for detecting both influenza virus subtypes A and B which can be performed by nonexperts. (asm.org)
  • Influenza pandemics occur when new strain/subtype of virus emerges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different subtype combinations of IAV circulated in humans during the last century. (mdpi.com)
  • Three times during the last century, a new virus subtype emerged in the human population, leading to a pandemic associated with even greater morbidity and mortality. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax - an infectious bacterial disease of mammals that causes skin ulcers and is transmittable to humans by inhalation and through feces and infected meat. (motesclearcreekfarms.com)
  • The most common bacterial disease is tuberculosis , caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which affects about 2 million people mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until the early 1930s influenza was thought by most scientists to be a bacterial rather than a viral disease. (historylink.org)
  • Proof that influenza was a viral disease finally put to rest older theories about the bacterial origin of the disease. (si.edu)
  • The authors of a study on the bubonic plague in Oran stress that the disease "is primarily a bacterial zoonosis affecting rodents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Publication of this Statistical Note would not have been possible without the contributions of several Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff members, to whom we are very grateful. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • The occurrence of food-borne zoonoses in the EU is monitored and analysed annually by EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to provide the Commission and the Member States with up-to-date information on the current situation. (europa.eu)
  • assessing the risks throughout the food chain for human health and also the risks for animal health and making recommendations on the prevention and reduction of food-borne zoonoses. (europa.eu)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers an alphabetical listing of all diseases and conditions with helpful information about each. (coj.net)
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) of a recent swine influenza virus, A/Sw/IN/1726/88 (HlNl), was shown previously to have four antigenic sites, as determined from analysis of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-selected escape mutants. (scribd.com)
  • EFSA's independent scientific advice and scientific assistance on the food safety and animal health-related aspects of zoonotic diseases supported by data collected in Member States help European decision-makers in setting policies and making decisions to protect consumers in the European Union. (europa.eu)
  • Certain zoonotic diseases in humans are mainly caused by consuming contaminated food or drinking water and include for example salmonellosis and listeriosis. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA provides scientific advice on animal health-related aspects of non-food-borne zoonotic diseases and in some cases on the possible impact on public health. (europa.eu)
  • As populations grow and move, zoonotic diseases will become more prevalent and potentially more dangerous. (agri-pulse.com)
  • Wildlife zoonotic diseases of microbial origin are also the most common group of human emerging diseases, and CST between wildlife and livestock has appreciable economic impacts in agriculture by reducing livestock productivity and imposing export restrictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. (usda.gov)
  • In the 1930's researchers succeeded in isolating the influenza virus, first from pigs who are also susceptible to influenza, and shortly after from humans. (si.edu)
  • The geographic distribution of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Wenshan City, Yunnan Province, China in 2017. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WHO supports the implementation of the National Plan through building capacity in surveillance and monitoring of human cases of avian influenza and ensuring a rapid response. (who.int)
  • Such interactions allow the virus membrane to fuse with the membrane of the host cell so that viral genetic material can be transferred to the cell. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The viral genome is made of either deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA), the genetic material found in plants and animals, or ribonucleic acid(RNA), a compound plant and animal cells use in protein synthesis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • inproceedings{McAuley2015HostIF, title={Host Immunological Factors Enhancing Mortality of Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic}, author={Julie L. McAuley and Katherine Kedzierska and Lorena Elizabeth Brown and George Dennis Shanks}, booktitle={Front. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Autopsy series of 68 cases dying before and during the 1918 influenza pandemic peak. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Viral diseases that impact animals include rabies, foot-and-mouth disease, swine flu, bird flu, distemper and equine encephalitis. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • Introduction of these variants into non-reservoir animals increases the risk of human exposures and threatens current advances toward rabies control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influenza, Avian Influenza, and the Impacts of Past and Looming Pandemics Avian influenza is a disease that has been wreaking havoc on human populations since the 16th century. (bartleby.com)
  • All populations had similar species richness irrespective of disease history, but populations that have experienced historical outbreaks of ranavirosis have a distinct skin microbiome structure (beta diversity) when compared to sites where no outbreaks of the disease have occurred. (frontiersin.org)
  • The influenza pandemic of 1918 decimated populations around the world. (si.edu)
  • In recent decades, many infectious diseases have significantly increased in incidence and/or geographic range, in some cases impacting heavily on human, animal or plant populations. (springer.com)
  • In human populations, the majority of disease emergence is driven by ecological factors (Jones et al. (springer.com)
  • There is evidence to suggest that some diseases can potentially be re-introduced to human populations through animal hosts after they have been eradicated in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Samples derived from the patients, their close contacts, and environments were tested for influenza A(H7N9) virus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the study, a sudden emergence of human cases of H7N9 was documented in urban area of Wenshan City. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proactive priming before the next pandemic could induce immune memory responses to novel influenza antigens. (pnas.org)
  • In full-size formats, monoclonal antibodies have been highly successful as therapeutics against cancer and immune diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • These natural remedies will fight off disease and strengthen your immune system, keeping your family healthy and happy. (scribd.com)
  • Furthermore, the viral neuraminidase can be inhibited by antibodies that recognize the viral surface protein hemagglutinin, which can enhance antibody neutralization of the virus and the activation of innate immune cells with anti-viral activity. (hcplive.com)
  • This effect may be significantly due to the role that neuraminidase normally plays in preventing the activation of innate immune cells with anti-viral activity, according to Yewdell and colleagues. (hcplive.com)
  • Additionally, investigators found the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which is approved by the US Food and Drug administration (FDA), further supports the idea since the medication boosts the ability of anti-stem antibodies to activate immune cells exposed to the influenza virus. (hcplive.com)
  • Directigen FluA+B (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), a new rapid test for the detection of influenza virus types A and B, was evaluated with nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from 250 patients in comparison with culture and direct fluorescent antigen (DFA) detection tests. (asm.org)
  • Storage of nasopharyngeal aspirates in virus transport medium at 2 to 8°C for 48 h had little adverse effect on the detection of influenza virus type A, but diagnosis of influenza virus type B is best carried out with fresh specimens. (asm.org)
  • These samples would be pooled and processed by using available technology to isolate virus particles en masse, recover viral nucleic acids, produce amplified shotgun libraries, carry out shotgun sequencing of the mixture of viral genomes, and reconstruct these genomes in silico with the techniques originally developed to sequence the entire human genome from random fragments. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral nucleic acids are then extracted from the resin to facilitate molecular analyses through a reduction in the effective sample volume. (cdc.gov)
  • But when a virus particle, or virion, comes into contact with a host, the virus becomes active, injecting its viral nucleic acid (and sometimes a few enzymes) into the host cell. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response. (usda.gov)
  • This issue of the ECDC Communicable Disease Threats Report (CDTR) covers the period 12-18 November 2017 and includes updates on Legionnaires' disease, influenza, West Nile fever, chikungunya, yellow fever, plague, monkeypox, marburg virus disease, malaria and cholera. (europa.eu)
  • Grant Wade April 22, 2001 Influenza Influenza Influenza, also known as "the flu," is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. (bartleby.com)
  • Influenza infects an estimated 120 million people in the United States, Europe and Japan each year and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. (gilead.com)
  • Rarely infects humans, but can spread from person to person. (rentokil.com)
  • Individuals infected with influenza normally experience mild illness and recover within two weeks. (bartleby.com)
  • Respiratory illness that is generally mild can be attributed to influenza type C and is not responsible for epidemics. (bartleby.com)
  • In addition, another Phase II study showed that GS 4104 given as prophylaxis before experimental exposure to influenza prevented illness and evidence of detectable virus. (gilead.com)
  • The infected chickens showed no signs of disease, but representatives of two viral genotypes were lethal to mice. (asm.org)
  • It was commonly called the "Spanish flu," probably because Spain, which didn't participate in World War I, freely reported illnesses and deaths caused by the disease, information that was censored by the combatant nations. (historylink.org)
  • There is worry that the worldis overdue for another influenza pandemicand that the potentially lifethreateningavian flu virus, to whichhumans have no past immunity, maybecome more easily transmissiblefrom person to person. (contemporarypediatrics.com)