The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 10 and neuraminidase 7. It has been isolated from a variety of wild and domestic animals including ducks, emu, and mink. It was found for the first time in humans in 2004.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Interrupting the transmission of respiratory tract infections: theory and practice. (1/7176)

Interruption of transmission has always been one of the most attractive approaches for infection control. The technologies available were severely limited before the development of appropriate vaccines. Mathematically, the proportion of those who need to be immune to interrupt transmission can be derived from the Ro, which represents the number of new cases infected by a single case when all contacts are susceptible. Purely respiratory infections have critical characteristics affecting transmission that are different from key childhood vaccine-preventable diseases spread by the respiratory route. They include frequent reinfections and antigenic changes of the agents. Pragmatic approaches to understanding their potential effect can be found in experimental and programmatic use of vaccines such as those for Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus infections. Results of these experiences can in turn strengthen the development of transmission theory.  (+info)

Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning. (2/7176)

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

Evaluation of clinical case definitions of influenza: detailed investigation of patients during the 1995-1996 epidemic in France. (3/7176)

Using clinical predictors, we evaluated clinical case definitions of influenza during the 1995-1996 outbreak in France. Thirty-five general practitioners collected virological specimens and clinical data. Predictors of influenza virus infection were selected with logistic regression models. The results varied with the influenza virus subtype: temperature of >38.2 degrees C, stiffness or myalgia, rhinorrhea, and cough were predictive of influenza A/H3N2, whereas fatigue, lacrimation or conjunctival injection, and the absence of stiffness or myalgia were predictive of influenza A/H1N1. On the basis of this analysis and data from the literature, 12 clinical case definitions were evaluated for their abilities to diagnose influenza virus infection. They were associated with positive predictive values of 27% to 40% and negative predictive values of 80% to 91%. We conclude that focused studies evaluating clinical case definitions of influenza with use of subsets of patients should accompany population-based disease surveillance for optimal estimates of the disease burden associated with influenza epidemics.  (+info)

Biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of H5N1 influenza A virus isolates from humans in Hong Kong. (4/7176)

An H5N1 avian influenza A virus was transmitted to humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and PC6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. The clinical outcomes of infection in Hong Kong residents ranged widely, from mild respiratory disease to multiple organ failure leading to death. Therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of influenza due to these H5N1 isolates, we investigated their virulence in mice. The results identified two distinct groups of viruses: group 1, for which the dose lethal for 50% of mice (MLD50) was between 0.3 and 11 PFU, and group 2, for which the MLD50 was more than 10(3) PFU. One day after intranasal inoculation of mice with 100 PFU of group 1 viruses, the virus titer in lungs was 10(7) PFU/g or 3 log units higher than that for group 2 viruses. Both types of viruses had replicated to high titers (>10(6) PFU/g) in the lungs by day 3 and maintained these titers through day 6. More importantly, only the group 1 viruses caused systemic infection, replicating in nonrespiratory organs, including the brain. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the replication of a group 1 virus in brain neurons and glial cells and in cardiac myofibers. Phylogenetic analysis of all viral genes showed that both groups of Hong Kong H5N1 viruses had formed a lineage distinct from those of other viruses and that genetic reassortment between H5N1 and H1 or H3 human viruses had not occurred. Since mice and humans harbor both the furin and the PC6 proteases, we suggest that the virulence mechanism responsible for the lethality of influenza viruses in birds also operates in mammalian hosts. The failure of some H5N1 viruses to produce systemic infection in our model indicates that multiple, still-to-be-identified, factors contribute to the severity of H5N1 infection in mammals. In addition, the ability of these viruses to produce systemic infection in mice and the clear differences in pathogenicity among the isolates studied here indicate that this system provides a useful model for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza virus infection in mammals.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (5/7176)

From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy. (6/7176)

This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners.  (+info)

Influenza A virus accelerates neutrophil apoptosis and markedly potentiates apoptotic effects of bacteria. (7/7176)

Neutrophils are recruited into the airway in the early phase of uncomplicated influenza A virus (IAV) infection and during the bacterial superinfections that are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in IAV-infected subjects. In this report, we show that IAV accelerates neutrophil apoptosis. Unopsonized Escherichia coli had similar effects, although apoptotic effects of opsonized E coli were greater. When neutrophils were treated with both IAV and unopsonized E coli, a marked enhancement of the rate and extent of neutrophil apoptosis occurred as compared with that caused by either pathogen alone. Treatment of neutrophils with IAV markedly increased phagocytosis of E coli. Simultaneous treatment of neutrophils with IAV and E coli also elicited greater hydrogen peroxide production than did either pathogen alone. IAV increased neutrophil expression of Fas antigen and Fas ligand, and it also increased release of Fas ligand into the cell supernatant. These findings may have relevance to the understanding of inflammatory responses to IAV in vivo and of bacterial superinfection of IAV-infected subjects.  (+info)

A mathematical approach to epidemic control. (8/7176)

A mathematical model of an influenza epidemic which occurred in 1961 is suggested. The mathematics imply conclusions on the practical control of similar outbreaks. This is a technique applicable to one general practice.  (+info)

Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human influenza, human avian influenza infection, human swine influenza infection and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). GIP also promotes the development of and collaboration among, for instance, influenza laboratories, cessation of influenza pandemics, influenza vaccines production, monitoring data sharing, health education [14]. In ...
Global Influenza Medication Market estimate based on the production chain, examination of various market participants, the general revenue earned by each player, production capability of Global Influenza Medication market, Future Strategies, Innovation, Technological trends with SWOT Analysis. Global Influenza Medication Market represented xx billion in 2018 and is projected to reach at a CAGR of xx% from 2019 to 2025. This Report covers a valuable source of perceptive information for business strategists.. Competitive Analysis:. The key manufacturers of the Global Influenza Medication Market: Bristol-Myers Squibb , AstraZeneca , Eli Lilly , Roche , GSK , Novartis , Pfizer , Sanofi , Bayer , Celgene , Seqirus , ,. Global Influenza Medication Market Report offers overall idea about key players and comprehensively analyses of their market position in terms of ranking, core competencies along with detailing the competitive landscape for the market leaders and rolling demand for the product from the ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy adult who presented with influenza like illness. Strain QLD-01 shared genomic similarities ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 influenza season (August 30, 2009--June 12, 2010).. U.S. Viral Surveillance. Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, through June 12, 2010, approximately 740,000 influenza specimens were tested for influenza, and the number of laboratory-confirmed positives was approximately ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in ...
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and behavioral drivers of influenza seasonality is important for optimizing intervention strategies, especially in low and middle-latitude regions.
These findings demonstrate a strong association between early, sustained, and layered application of nonpharmaceutical interventions and mitigating the consequences of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States. In planning for future severe influenza pandemics, nonpharmaceutical interven …
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at http://www.cdc.gov/flu. Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or a single influenza outbreak reported but no increase in cases of ILI; and 5) no activity. § Widespread: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming; regional: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, ...
Background The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase™) is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1). Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Methods and Findings The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus ...
Of the 400 contacts in the group that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 11 (3 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 40 of 392 contacts (10 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-an individual protective efficacy of 73 percent. In the group of 135 affected households that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 10 (7 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 27 of the 136 households (20 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-a household protective efficacy of 63 percent. These findings suggest that treatment of the index case, coupled with simultaneous prophylaxis with Tamiflu of household contacts, can significantly reduce the secondary spread of influenza in households ...
Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza-related hospitalization during a season with mixed outbreaks of four influenza viruses: a test-negative case-control study in adults in Canada Academic Article ...
INTRODUCTION Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with 80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. RESULTS 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks ...
We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RIDT using NS specimens were evaluated against nasal swabs tested by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The performance parameter results were expressed as 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using binomial exact methods, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Two-sample Z tests were used to test for differences in sample proportions. Analysis was performed using SAS software version 9.3. From July 2013 to July
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza viruses in various proportions increased in some countries ranging from local to regional levels. Influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated in Japan and the Republic of Korea, while influenza B predominated in China. In some other countries, A(H3N2) ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can also be infected with human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, allow for mixtures of genes (reassortment) to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza ...
The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of the investigational fluID Rapid Influenza Test and the BinaxNOW® Influenza A & B Test in detecting influenza type A and influenza type B, with respect to fresh nasal wash / aspirate specimens collected from patients presenting with signs and symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI). Specimens to be evaluated in this study will be enrolled in a concurrent clinical study per protocol FLU-05, entitled Prospective Evaluation of the fluID Rapid Influenza Test. All subjects enrolled in the FLU-05 study will have consented to having their samples used in future investigations involving the fluID Test.. This study will be conducted during the 2008-2009 influenza season in North America and Hong Kong, which is anticipated to run from November 2008 to May 2009. Should the influenza season conclude in North America and Hong Kong prior to the attainment of the minimum target enrollment specified in the FLU-05 study, study sites in ...
National Influenza Surveillance Centre. The Laboratory was established in 1962 and recognized as National Influenza Centre by WHO in March 1977.This centre is engaged in influenza surveillance programme and allied research activities. The samples are collected from ILI patients from and surrounding areas of Kasauli.. The influenza surveillance work is carried out by isolating the influenza viruses from clinical materials i.e. (throat washes/swabs) collected from suspected cases of Influenza so as to keep watch on the prevalence of influenza viruses. The objective of surveillance includes the following:-. ...
The rapid evolution of the influenza A virus poses a global challenge to public health. Recent events, such as the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, have heightened concerns of potential pandemics. Thus, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of influenza virus evolution. Due to the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, large-scale sequencing of influenza viruses has become routine work in influenza surveillance, and analyses of these large-scale viral sequence data have significantly enhanced our understanding of influenza evolution. However, opportunities remain to extract even more useful information to inform influenza prevention and control strategy. As we know, seasonal influenza prevention and control rely largely on the availability of effective vaccines. However, timely and accurate recommendation of vaccine strains is quite challenging, as evidenced by frequent antigenic mismatches between the recommended vaccine strains and circulating ...
According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its Prevention and Control of Influenza guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is further divided into two subgroups: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Influenza represents a unique family of viruses since antibodies developed against one strain of influenza offer little or no protection from other strains. There are also two types of vaccines. The live ...
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. One example of a variant flu virus is H3N2v.. Sometimes, human ...
Since 2009, in Ontario, reportable disease surveillance data has been used for timely in-season estimates of influenza severity (i.e., hospitalizations and deaths). Due to changes in reporting requirements influenza reporting no longer captures these indicators of severity, necessitating exploration of other potential sources of data. The purpose of this study was to complete a retrospective analysis to assess the comparability of influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths captured in the Ontario reportable disease information system to those captured in Ontarios hospital-based discharge database. Hospitalizations and deaths of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases reported during the 2010-11 to 2013-14 influenza seasons were analyzed. Information on hospitalizations and deaths for laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were obtained from two databases; the integrated Public Health Information System, which is the provincial reportable disease database, and the Discharge Abstract Database, which
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Comparison of the Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Adult Patients with Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza A or B during the 2011-2012 Influenza Season in Korea. T2 - A Multi-Center Study. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - So, Byung Hak. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Seo, Yu Bin. AU - Choi, Sung Hyuk. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Kim, Young Keun. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2013/5/3. Y1 - 2013/5/3. N2 - Background:During the 2011/2012 winter influenza season in the Republic of Korea, influenza A (H3N2) was the predominant virus in the first peak period of influenza activity during the second half of January 2012. On the other hand, influenza B was the predominant virus in the second peak period of influenza activity during the second half of March 2012. The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ...
Influenza. Action requested: Implement practices to prevent spread of influenza.. Background & Recommendations:. The influenza season is upon us in earnest. As of 1/9/16, the Health District had received reports of only four influenza-related hospitalizations and no influenza-related deaths, heightened school absenteeism, or outbreaks in long term care facilities. However, Providence Regional Medical Center Everett has reported more influenza-related hospitalizations in the past week and The Everett Clinic has reported marked increase in testing and positive results for influenza. Nationally, rates remained low as of last week, but reports are increasing. Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating.. All health care facilities should implement practices to prevent the spread of influenza. All health care providers and ancillary staff who come in direct contact with patients should be vaccinated against influenza; health care ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting influenza virus replication and therefore disease. Individuals with unique or rare polymorphisms in essential genes in this pathway are more susceptible to influenza virus and more likely to require hospital care or succumb to ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens characterized since May have been antigenically and genetically similar to the reference virus for this seasons vaccine. There has been no antiviral resistance detected to date.. Nationwide, influenza-like illness (ILI) activity was at 2.3%, above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 of the ...
Every year, more than one billion people suffer from influenza globally. It results in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 50,000 deaths, according to World Health Organization (WHO).. Influenza, commonly called as flu is an infectious disease caused by a virus. The continuous and excessive use of many approved antiviral medications leads to the development of resistance to these drugs. It worsens the situation and increases the count of serious illness and death.. Johnson and Johnsons investigational antiviral drug, pimodivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the count of virus in patients with a type of influenza.. Now, the company is hopeful to treat those influenza patients with pimodivir who get resistant to the approved line of antiviral medications.. Pimodivir is tested as monotherapy or in combination with the other approved flu drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated seasonal influenza.. Apart from oseltamivir, zanamivir ...
Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Cynthia Morgan, PhD, RN Pandemic Influenza Program Coordinator, Acting Anita Wheeler, BSN, RN School Nurse Consultant. Agenda. Everything you wanted to know about pandemic influenza but couldnt find anyone to ask What you can do to prepare your...
Our prospective surveillance in a district in Kenya is one of the first to report directly-measured rates of influenza-associated hospitalization in African adults and children.4 In developing countries, sentinel hospital surveillance can provide data for describing influenza epidemiology and seasonality, characterizing the circulating strains of influenza virus (to guide vaccinations) and monitoring influenza pandemics. Such surveillance can seldom be used to define the burden of influenza, however, because it often occurs in referral hospitals, where the denominator population is difficult to define and the health-seeking patterns may not be representative of the norm.21,22. The rate of influenza-associated hospitalization that we report in children of Bondo district who were aged < 5 years (i.e. 143.7 cases per 100 000 child-years) is lower than the corresponding values reported in South Africa, Thailand and the United States.23-25 In urban Soweto, South Africa, for example, 309 annual cases ...
Between 1988 and 2009, a probable ILI outbreak in a school was defined by MDH as a doubled absence rate with all of the following primary influenza symptoms reported among students: rapid onset, fever, illness lasting 3 or more days, and at least one secondary influenza symptom (e.g., myalgia, headache, cough, coryza, sore throat, or chills). A possible ILI outbreak in a school was defined as a doubled absence rate with reported symptoms among students, including two of the primary influenza symptoms and at least one secondary influenza symptom. Prior to the 2009-2010 influenza season, the number of schools reporting probable influenza outbreaks has ranged from a low of 38 schools in 20 counties in 1996-1997 to 441 schools in 71 counties in 1991-1992. The definition of ILI outbreaks changed beginning with the 2009-2010 school year. Schools reported when the number of students absent with ILI reaches 5% of total enrollment, or when three or more students with ILI are absent from the same ...
National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 82 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 03 October 2016 to 16 October 2016 (data as of 2016-10-28 04:04:36 UTC).The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 70925 specimens during that time period. 2979 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 2540 (85.3%) were typed as influenza A and 439 (14.7%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 135 (6.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1911 (93.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 21 (25.9%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 60 (74.1%) to the B-Victoria lineage. ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From August 1, 2009 to October 10, 2009, a total of 938 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at Korea University Guro Hospital with influenza-like illnesses were enrolled in the study. Throat or nasopharyngeal swab specimens ...
Introduction Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths.. Methods Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.. Results We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals ,5 years ...
Results and conclusion Knowing that the vaccine is effective (mhRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.54), being willing to prevent influenza transmission (mhRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.70), believing that influenza is highly contagious (RR 2.25; 95% CI 1.66 to 3.05), believing that influenza prevention is important (mhRR 3.63; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.59) and having a family that is usually vaccinated (RR 2.32; 95% CI 1.64 to 3.28) were statistically significantly associated with a twofold higher vaccine uptake. We therefore recommend targeting these predictors when developing new influenza vaccination implementation strategies for hospital HCWs. ...
Description of Invention:. National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. This novel influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited two types of broadly neutralizing, cross-protective antibodies-one directed to the highly conserved HA stem and a second proximal to the conserved receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral HA-providing a new platform for universal and seasonal influenza. In addition, HA-ferritin nanoparticles can be easily produced from simple expression vectors and without the production of infectious virus in eggs, and will facilitate influenza preparedness in the face of emerging epidemics.. This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a ...
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza.² Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States: trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).•TIV is injected into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh. It can be used for people 6 months of age or older, including those with chronic medical conditions, pregnant ...
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, seasonal influenza vaccination). Cases were ILI patients with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for influenza. Vaccination was defined as having received one dose ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire population is immunized at usual vaccination coverage. At higher levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza, the impact of this enhanced risk is less marked, as seasonal vaccine has ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines is being replaced with cell culture vaccines. Cell culture based production of vaccines is expected to reduce the problems associated with ...
Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza outbreaks, and are the consequence of antigenic drift or shift, respectively. For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 ...
To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case-control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%-93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant
We limited our search to studies with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection, which may have underestimated case rates because of variable testing and reporting of results. Other studies have reported estimated incidence rates of influenza-associated outcomes among pregnant women without laboratory confirmation of influenza disease. A study that used multiple data sources-not all of which contained laboratory-confirmed influenza disease-to quantify influenza-associated hospitalizations in Canada from 1994-2000 reported a rate of 150 influenza-associated hospitalizations (95% CI: 140-170) per 100,000 pregnant women per influenza season [37]. This rate was more than 10-fold higher than the highest rate reported by the four studies of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among pregnant women in our study. A study of symptomatic probable and confirmed cases of 2009 pandemic influenza among pregnant women on Reunion Island found a rate of 3,568 cases per 100,000 pregnant women (95% ...
These recommendations for treatment and chemoprophylaxis are the same ones used for others who are at higher risk of complications from influenza. As is recommended for other persons who are treated, antiviral treatment with zanamivir or oseltamivir should be initiated as soon as possible after the onset of influenza symptoms, with benefits expected to be greatest if started within 48 hours of onset based on data from studies of seasonal influenza. However, some data from studies on seasonal influenza indicate benefit for hospitalized patients even if treatment is started more than 48 hours after onset. Health care providers should initiate empiric antiviral treatment as soon as possible. Waiting for laboratory confirmation of influenza to begin treatment with antiviral drugs is not necessary. Patients with a negative rapid influenza diagnostic test should be considered for treatment if clinically indicated because a negative rapid influenza test result does not rule out influenza virus ...
Seqirus Fluvax (previously bioCSL) is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for administration in children ≥5 years of age; however, it is not recommended for use in children , 9 years of age (refer to 4.7.11 Adverse events and 4.7.13 Variations from product information below).. All the influenza vaccines currently available in Australia are either split virion or subunit vaccines prepared from purified inactivated influenza virus that has been cultivated in embryonated hens eggs. The influenza virus composition of vaccines for use in Australia is determined annually by the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee following recommendations by the World Health Organization based on global influenza epidemiology.23. Since the late 1970s, influenza vaccines have contained three strains of influenza virus - two influenza A subtypes and one influenza B lineage (i.e. trivalent influenza vaccines or TIVs). Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) containing four influenza ...
Background Influenza vaccines are reviewed each year, and often changed, in an effort to maintain their effectiveness against drifted influenza viruses. There is however no regular review of influenza vaccine effectiveness during, or at the end of, Australian influenza seasons. It is possible to use a case control method to estimate vaccine effectiveness from surveillance data when all patients in a surveillance system are tested for influenza and their vaccination status is known. Methodology/Principal Findings Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is conducted during the influenza season in sentinel general practices scattered throughout Victoria, Australia. Over five seasons 2003-7, data on age, sex and vaccination status were collected and nose and throat swabs were offered to patients presenting within three days of the onset of their symptoms. Swabs were tested using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Those positive for influenza were sent to the World Health
Influenza, however, is unique among respiratory viral pathogens in that another effective intervention to prevent transmission exists: vaccination. Annual influenza vaccination has been available in the United States since 1945 and has been recommended for persons at high risk of influenza complications since 1960. Unlike many pathogens, the predominant circulating influenza strains vary from year to year, affecting the intensity and severity of the influenza season as well as vaccine effectiveness. According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of influenza vaccine protection, there was 59% effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine in adults aged 18 to 65 years and a higher effectiveness (83%) of the live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) in children.3Although not at levels of other vaccines, influenza vaccination provides some protection and may prevent complications due to influenza such as pneumonia, hospitalizations, and death. Recent studies in children have demonstrated that the ...
In April 2009, novel swine-origin influenza viruses (S-OIV) were identified in patients from Mexico and the United States. The viruses were genetically characterized as a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain originating in swine, and within a very short time the S-OIV strain spread across the globe via human-to-human contact.We conducted a comprehensive computational search of all available sequences of the surface proteins of H1N1 swine influenza isolates and found that a similar strain to S-OIV appeared in Thailand in 2000. The earlier isolates caused infections in pigs but only one sequenced human case, A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1 ...
Despite the 2009 Council Recommendation that seasonal influenza vaccination rates should be improved for the elderly, at risk groups and health care workers, there remains a concerning sub-optimal level of influenza vaccination coverage across Europe with 15,000-70,000 people dying each year due to influenza. These worrying facts led to the creation of a multi-stakeholder Steering Group on Influenza Vaccination, whose members are committed to raising awareness of influenza-related public health issues and encouraging stronger policy driven actions at European and national level in support of influenza vaccination. One of the Steering Groups tasks is to draft an EU Manifesto on Influenza Vaccination, a tangible means of aligning the community on the shared policy requirements to protect European citizens from influenza. The idea of developing a Manifesto will be presented during this satellite symposium. Participants will be invited to give their input to this initiative either during the ...
Recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination are standard in most developed countries. Many rapidly developing countries have recently begun to adopt recommendations for high-risk target groups, such as the elderly. Population-based surveys to determine use, rather than purchases, of seasonal …
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • Influenza vaccinated market (Children and Adult vaccinated market). • Influenza Vaccine Covered (Vaxigrip/Fluzone, Fluarix/ Flulaval, FluMist/Fluenz, Afluria/Fluvax and Fluvirin/Flucelvax, Anflu). • 23 Countries Covered (Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, ...
The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is a cornerstone in influenza pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. However, resistance to the drug is a growing concern. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is not degraded in surface water or sewage treatment plants and has been detected in river water during seasonal influenza outbreaks. The natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can thus be exposed to OC in aquatic environments. Environmental-like levels of OC induce resistance development in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards. There is a risk of resistance accumulation in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds when oseltamivir is used extensively. By reassortment or direct transmission, oseltamivir resistance can be transmitted to humans potentially causing a resistant pandemic or human-adapted highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus. There is a need for more research on resistance development in the natural influenza reservoir and for a prudent use of ...
During previous influenza seasons, only trivalent influenza vaccines that included antigen from 1 influenza B virus were available. However, since 1985, 2 antigenically distinct lineages (ie, Victoria or Yamagata) of influenza B viruses have circulated globally. In most years, vaccination against a B virus of 1 lineage confers little cross-protection against a B virus strain from the other lineage. Thus, trivalent vaccines offer limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the vaccine. Furthermore, in recent years, it has proven difficult to consistently predict which B lineage will predominate during a given influenza season. Therefore, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine with influenza B strains of both lineages may offer improved protection. Postmarketing safety and vaccine effectiveness data are not yet available, prohibiting a full risk-benefit analysis of newer versus previously available products.. For the 2013-2014 season, the inactivated influenza ...
Recently, a novel swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus was identified as a significant cause of febrile respiratory illnesses in Mexico and the United States. It rapidly spread to many countries around the world, prompting the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on June 11, 2009. Data from several cohorts in different age groups that received licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines suggest that these vaccines are unlikely to provide protection against the new virus. Adults are more likely to have measurable levels of serum hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) or neutralizing antibody than are children. These data indicate the need to develop vaccines against the new H1N1 strain and suggest that different vaccine strategies (e.g., number of doses, need for adjuvant) may be appropriate for persons in different age groups. Based on clinical data from other novel influenza A viruses, a higher dose, or multiple doses of an unadjuvanted, inactivated influenza H1N1 vaccine may be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal influenza vaccination rates in the HIV outpatient study-United States, 1999-2013. AU - Durham, Marcus D.. AU - Buchacz, Kate. AU - Armon, Carl. AU - Patel, Pragna. AU - Wood, Kathy. AU - Brooks, John T.. AU - Hays, Harlen. AU - Wood, Kathleen C.. AU - Hankerson, Darlene. AU - Debes, Rachel. AU - Subramanian, Thilakavathy. AU - Dean, Bonnie. AU - Palella, Frank J.. AU - Chmiel, Joan S.. AU - Jahangir, Saira. AU - Flaherty, Conor Daniel. AU - Dixon-Evans, Jerian Denise. AU - Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.. AU - Stewart, Cheryl. AU - Hammer, John. AU - Greenberg, Kenneth S.. AU - Widick, Barbara. AU - Franklin, Rosa. AU - Yangco, Bienvenido G.. AU - Chagaris, Kalliope. AU - Ward, Doug. AU - Thomas, Troy. AU - Avery, Patricia. AU - Fuhrer, Jack. AU - Ording-Bauer, Linda. AU - Kelly, Rita. AU - Esteves, Jane. AU - Tedaldi, Ellen M.. AU - Christian, Ramona A.. AU - Ruley, Faye. AU - Beadle, Dania. AU - Graham, Princess. AU - Novak, Richard M.. AU - Wendrow, Andrea. AU - Smith, ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish one universal immunoassay for universal influenza vaccine(s) because the approaches towards these vaccines ...
Hannah Blake. pharmaphorum. A new seasonal influenza vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. Developed by Protein Sciences Corp, Flubok is the first trivalent influenza vaccine made using an insect virus (baculovirus) expression system and recombinant DNA technology. Flublok is approved for the prevention of seasonal influenza in people 18 through 49 years of age.. Unlike current flu vaccines, Flublok does not use the influenza virus or eggs in its production. Flubloks novel manufacturing technology allows for production of large quantities of the influenza virus protein, hemagglutinin (HA) - the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that is essential for entry of the virus into cells in the body. The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA.. While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it has already been used to make vaccines to prevent other infectious diseases. These ...
The influenza A virus was isolated for the first time in 1931, and the first attempts to develop a vaccine against the virus began soon afterwards. In addition to causing seasonal epidemics, influenza viruses can cause pandemics at random intervals, which are very hard to predict. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing the spread of influenza infection. However, seasonal vaccination is ineffective against pandemic influenza viruses because of antigenic differences, and it takes approximately six months from isolation of a new virus to develop an effective vaccine. One of the possible ways to fight the emergence of pandemics may be by using a new type of vaccine, with a long and broad spectrum of action. The extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus is a conservative region, and an attractive target for a universal influenza vaccine. This review gives a historical overview of the study of M2 protein, and summarizes the latest developments in the preparation of M2e
Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of
Annual influenza vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention at both the individual and community level.26 Past concerns about an increase in HIV viral load following influenza vaccination have not been substantiated, particularly in individuals on ART.13,27-31 Currently in the United States, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is recommended for patients with HIV according to the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines. Studies examining the immune response of children and adolescents with HIV on ART to inactivated influenza vaccination have generally shown immune responses comparable to those seen in individuals without HIV.32 Children with HIV-related immunologic impairment or with symptomatic HIV demonstrate decreased immune responses to influenza vaccination (see Recommendation Table). High-dose IIV was recently studied in a small cohort of children and young adults with HIV, though it was not significantly more immunogenic in these patients than ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The most serious side effect that can occur after influenza vaccination is an allergic reaction in people who have a severe allergy to eggs. For this reason, children who have an allergy to eggs should not receive the influenza vaccine. According to the National Center for Infectious Diseases, part of the CDC, the influenza vaccine causes no side effects in most children who are not allergic to eggs.. Less than one-third of people who receive the vaccine experience some soreness at the vaccination site, and about 5 to 10 percent experience mild side effects, such as a headache or a low-grade fever for about a day after vaccination. Because these mild side effects mimic some influenza symptoms, some people believe influenza vaccine causes them to get influenza. However, according to the CDC, influenza vaccine produced in the United States has never been capable of causing influenza because the only type of influenza vaccine that has been licensed in the United States to the present time is made ...
Local disease burden data are necessary to set national influenza vaccination policy. In 2010 the population of South Africa was 50 million and the HIV prevalence was 11%. We used a previously developed methodology to determine severe influenza burden in South Africa. Hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) incidence was calculated, stratified by HIV status, for four age groups using data from population-based surveillance in one site situated in Gauteng Province for 2009-2011. These rates were adjusted for each of the remaining 8 provinces based on their prevalence of risk factors for pneumonia and healthcare- seeking behavior. We estimated non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI from healthcare utilization surveys at two sites and used the percent of SARI cases positive for influenza from sentinel surveillance to derive the influenza-associated SARI rate. We applied rates of hospitalized and non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI to census data to calculate the national ...
Excerpt] A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population, begins to cause serious illness and then spreads easily person-to- person worldwide. A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemics impact. Companies that provide critical infrastructure services, such as power and telecommunications, also have a special responsibility to plan for continued operation in a crisis and should plan accordingly. As with any catastrophe, having a contingency plan is essential. In the event of an influenza pandemic, employers will play a key role in protecting employees health and safety as well as in limiting the impact on the economy and society. Employers will ...
The Human Medicines (Coronavirus and Influenza) (Amendment) Regulations 2020 (SI 2020/1125) is a statutory instrument (SI) that ... A new regulation (174A) has been added to Regulation 174 of the Human Medicines Regulations 2012 which will provide temporary ... "Government response: consultation on changes to the Human Medicines Regulations to support the rollout of COVID-19 and flu ... On 2 December 2020, a temporary authorisation was issued under Regulation 174 of the Human Medicines Regulations 2012 (as ...
... rather than limiting influenza circulation or eliminating human influenza sickness. This is in contrast with the high herd ... H5N1 vaccine Seasonal influenza vaccine brands Universal influenza vaccine "AusPAR: Influenza Haemagglutinin Recombinant". ... A filtered and purified Influenza A vaccine for humans is being developed[when?] and many countries have recommended it be ... "Seasonal influenza and 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women - 10 states, 2009-10 influenza season" ( ...
The first three hemagglutinins, H1, H2, and H3, are found in human influenza viruses. By phylogenic similarity, the HA proteins ... Influenza Research Database Database of influenza protein sequences and structures 3D macromolecular structures of influenza ... "Influenza Type A Viruses". Avian Influenza (Flu). CDC. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2018. Suzuki Y (March 2005). " ... providing them with an ability to bind to receptors optimal for human influenza viruses". This finding seems to explain how an ...
Influenza Research Database. Retrieved 1 February 2017. Guo, YJ; Xu, XY; Cox, NJ (1992). "Human influenza A (H1N2) viruses ... "Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)". Nebraska Department of Health & Human Services. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. ... "The International Pledging Conference on Avian and Human Pandemic Influenza Is Successfully Held in Beijing". Webster, R. W. ( ... Influenza Timeline of global health "WHO Europe - Influenza". World Health Organization (WHO). June 2009. Archived from the ...
... is known only to infect humans and seals. This limited host range is apparently responsible for the lack of ... "Influenza Historic Timeline , Pandemic Influenza (Flu) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-07-08. Retrieved 2022-11-23. "Influenza B ... "Pinkbook: Influenza , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2022-09-22. Retrieved 2022-11-23. "Influenza Historic Timeline , Pandemic Influenza ( ... Wikispecies has information related to Influenza B virus. Influenza Research Database Database of influenza genomic sequences ...
"Human transmission suspected in fresh EI cases". horsetalk. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2020. "EI in retreat: Christmas ... Also known as "horse flu" and "A1 influenza", the rapid outbreak was of the Influenza A virus strain of subtype H3N8. While the ... The Equine Influenza has also had an ongoing effect on the Largest National Equine Endurance Event The Shahzada which was to be ... "Equine influenza conquered". NSW Department of Primary Industries. 28 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 March ...
"Preparing for the next human influenza pandemic: Celebrating 10 years of the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework". World ... "Asian Influenza". The New York Times. 9 June 1957. p. 170. Retrieved 20 March 2022. "CDC influenza report no. 6". CDC Influenza ... was a recombination of avian influenza (probably from geese) and human influenza viruses. As it was a novel strain of the virus ... Michaelis M, Doerr HW, Cinatl J (August 2009). "Novel swine-origin influenza A virus in humans: another pandemic knocking at ...
The International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza is committed to protecting human and animal health as well as ... Transparency in reporting of influenza cases in humans and in animals caused by strains that have pandemic potential, to ... President George W. Bush announced the International Partnership on Avian and Pandemic Influenza in his remarks to the High- ... Noting that enhanced global cooperation on avian and pandemic influenza will provide a template for global cooperation to ...
Bird flu Human flu Swine influenza Equine influenza Canine influenza Bat influenza Variants have also sometimes been named ... Influenza A virus has the following subtypes: Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 Influenza A virus ... The influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are: ... HA: (hemagglutinin): Avian influenza HA binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza HA binds alpha 2-6 sialic ...
... biological and genetic analysis of avian and human H2N2 viruses Influenza Research Database Database of influenza sequences and ... Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 (A/H2N2) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the ... of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak.[citation needed] The Asian Flu ... "Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, epidemiology and control". Vaccine. 20 (25-26): 3068-3087. ...
Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5. (2005). "Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (13): 1374- ... responsible agency for avian influenza in humans in US - Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other ... In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus (a human flu virus of type A) usually have symptoms that include ...
Type A influenza was isolated from humans and identifies as a virus in the 1930s by Wilson Smith, Christopher Andrewes, and ... Type A influenza vaccine is for the prevention of infection of influenza A virus and also the influenza-related complications. ... Influenza vaccines are generally used for preventing influenza illness and influenza-related complications. Different from the ... Subtypes of influenza A vaccine are classified based on the influenza A virus subtype. Influenza A virus is classified ...
"CDC has antigenically characterized 1,567 seasonal human influenza viruses [947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... Influenza A (H3N2) Outbreak, Nepal Hot topic - Fujian-like strain A influenza New Scientist: Bird Flu Influenza Research ... "Recommended composition of influenza virus vaccines for use in the 2009-2010 influenza season". "Weekly U.S. Influenza ...
Guo, YJ; Xu, XY; Cox, NJ (1992). "Human influenza A (H1N2) viruses isolated from China". The Journal of General Virology. 73 (2 ... CDC (2017-04-13). "Information on Avian Influenza". Influenza Research Database Database of influenza genomic sequences and ... Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 (A/H1N2) is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). It is ... The virus does not cause more severe illness than other influenza viruses, and no unusual increases in influenza activity have ...
... with no confirmed cases of human-to-human transmission. Other types of avian-origin H10 influenza have been reported in human ... Influenza A virus subtype H10N3 is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). It is mostly present in wild avian species ... "The whole genome analysis for the first human infection with H10N3 influenza virus in China". The Journal of Infection. doi: ... "Influenza A virus surveillance in live-bird markets: first report of influenza A virus subtype H4N6, H4N9, and H10N3 in ...
Phase 4 is characterized by verified human-to-human transmission of an animal or human-animal influenza reassortant virus able ... The Influenza A virus subtypes that have been confirmed in humans, ordered by the number of known human pandemic deaths, are:[ ... If influenza remains an animal problem with limited human-to-human transmission it is not a pandemic, though it continues to ... "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only ...
... that causes influenza. Influenza D viruses are known to infect pigs and cattle; no human infections from this virus have been ... ICTVdB database for Influenza viruses Wikispecies has information related to Influenza D virus. Influenza Research Database ... Influenza A virus can infect a variety of animals as well as humans, and its natural host or reservoir is birds, whereas ... More studies are needed to conclude whether or not the Type D virus can infect humans. Influenza D virus is 50% similar in ...
... of human-to-human transmission of H5N8. "Avian influenza overview - update on 19 November 2020, EU/EEA and the UK" (PDF). ... "WHO , Human infection with avian influenza A (H5N8) - the Russian Federation". Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. ... "Human infection with avian influenza A (H5N8) - the Russian Federation". World Health Organization. 26 February 2021. Archived ... There was no indication of human-to-human transmission and the seven cases were described as "mild." Anna Popova, head of ...
2008-01-24), Paleomicrobiology: Past Human Infections, ISBN 9783540758556 Scot Weese, "Bug of the month:Equine influenza Virus ... It is the main cause of equine influenza and is also known as equine influenza virus. In 2011, it was reported to have been ... Transmission of the equine influenza virus (EIV) to humans has not occurred during outbreaks of the disease in horses. A ... www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/china-reports-first-human-case-h3n8-bird-flu-2022-04-26 Equine influenza ...
Studies indicate that avian influenza viruses have a seasonal pattern, much like human seasonal influenza viruses. If this is ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (A/H7N9) is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A (avian influenza virus or bird ... Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. H7 influenza infections in ... Viruses portal Antigenic shift Influenza A virus subtype H9N2 Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Pandemic H1N1/09 virus Influenza ...
"H6 Influenza Viruses Pose a Potential Threat to Human Health". Journal of Virology. 88 (8): 3953-3964. doi:10.1128/JVI.03292-13 ... Avian influenza, Subtypes of Influenza A virus, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... H6N2 is an avian influenza virus with two forms: one has a low and the other a high pathogenicity. It can cause a serious ... Transmission of avian influenza viruses from wild aquatic birds to domestic birds usually cause subclinical infections, and ...
Ogata T, Yamazaki Y, Okabe N, Nakamura Y, Tashiro M, et al (July 2008). Human H5N2 Avian Influenza Infection in Japan and the ... There is no evidence of human-to-human spread of H5N2. On November 12, 2005 it was reported that a falcon was found to have ... "WHO - Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous ... Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 virus in poultry later gained accentuated virulence in the United States and Mexico. A ...
"CHP notified of human case of avian influenza A (H7N4) in Mainland". www.info.gov.hk. Retrieved 10 December 2018. (Articles ... "WHO - Avian influenza A(H5N1)- update 31: Situation (poultry) in Asia: need for a long-term response, comparison with previous ... H7N4 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus).[citation needed] A highly pathogenic ...
"Human Infection with Influenza Virus A(H10N8) from Live Poultry Markets, China, 2014". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (12): ... The influenza A virus subtype H10N8 is an avian influenza virus. It is one of three H10 subtype avian influenza viruses ... "Influenza Type A Viruses". cdc.gov. Retrieved 20 April 2020. (Articles with 'species' microformats, Taxobox articles possibly ... Montomoli, Emanuele; Trombetta, Claudia Maria (2014). "Is influenza A/H10N8 a potential candidate for the next pandemic?". ...
... a surrogate model for human influenza infection. In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused ... H2N3 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its ... Bird flu Dog flu Horse flu Human flu Swine flu Richt, J. A.; Rockx, B.; Ma, W.; Feldmann, F.; Safronetz, D.; Marzi, A.; Kobasa ... Researchers concluded the swine H2N3 virus represents a threat to humans with the potential for causing a larger outbreak in a ...
... is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). H10N7 was first reported in humans in Egypt in ... Influenza Research Database Database of influenza sequences and related information. (Articles with short description, Short ... Karunakaran D, Hinshaw V, Poss P, Newman J, Halvorson D (1983). "Influenza A outbreaks in Minnesota turkeys due to subtype ... Zohari, S; Neimanis, A; Härkönen, T; Moraeus, C; Valarcher, J F (20 November 2014). "Avian influenza A(H10N7) virus involvement ...
Influenza in humans is subject to clinical surveillance by a global network of more than 110 National Influenza Centers. These ... Most cases of ILI are caused not by influenza but by other viruses (e.g., rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, human respiratory ... Furthermore, except perhaps during the peak of a major outbreak of influenza, most cases of ILI are not due to influenza. ILI ... "2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 15 ending April 18, 2009". FluView: A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report Prepared by the ...
All other humans exposed to the infected cats tested negative. CDC: Influenza Type A Viruses "flu research". Archived from the ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N2 (A/H7N2) is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus. This subtype is one of several sometimes ... H7N2 is considered a low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus. With this in mind, H5 & H7 influenza viruses can re-assort ... January 2002 Avian influenza H7N2 in Wales and the Northwest of England North Wales bird flu outbreak ends Influenza Research ...
"Current Approaches for Diagnosis of Influenza Virus Infections in Humans". Viruses. 8 (4): 96. doi:10.3390/v8040096. PMC ... A rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) tells whether a person has a current influenza infection by detecting the influenza ... "Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2018-09-08. "Accuracy of ... "Interim Guidance for the Detection of Novel Influenza A Virus Using Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests". H1N1 Flu. Centers for ...
... which like other influenza viruses, causes influenza. Influenza C viruses are known to infect humans and pigs. Flu due to the ... Influenza Research Database Database of influenza genomic sequences and related information. Viralzone: Influenza virus C ... Influenza virus C does not have this capability and it is not thought to be a significant concern for human health. Therefore, ... Influenza A virus can infect a variety of animals as well as humans, and its natural reservoir (natural host) is birds, whereas ...
"Evaluation of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus in China, 2013-15". Scientific ... Human-to-human transmission (HHT) is an epidemiologic vector, especially in case the disease is borne by individuals known as ... Riou J, Althaus CL (January 2020). "Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), ... Riou, Julien; Althaus, Christian L. (2020). "Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 ...
11563-11567 Subbarao EK, London W, Murphy BR (1993). A single amino acid in the PB2 gene of influenza A virus is a determinant ... 1331-1342 Collins PL, Hill MG... Murphy BR (1995). Production of infectious human respiratory syncytial virus from cloned cDNA ... "The Influenza Viruses and their Vaccines - Seminar Notice". NIH Clinical Center. Retrieved 18 July 2019. Alexander C. Schmidt, ... influenza virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Subbarao K, McAuliffe J... Murphy B (2004). Prior infection and passive ...
... human being." With the help of legal scholar Louis Brandeis, he developed his New Freedom platform, focusing especially on ... became sick during Paris peace talks after World War I with what some specialists and historians believe was the influenza that ... which serves as the temporary headquarters of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Geneva ...
... influenza, and pneumonia). Eighteen African-American Army nurses served stateside caring for German prisoners of war (POWs) and ... and other areas of human and exact sciences, serving the needs of Official Temporary Technical (OTT) of Institution. In 2001 ...
Human Kinetics. ISBN 9780736073943. Oliver, Ray. "The Games", The History of the Olivers of Broken Hill. Accessed: December 6, ... Variations of this following rhyme, a wordplay on "influenza," were heard around the time of the 1918 flu pandemic: I had a ...
The superinduced human beta interferon messenger RNA was prepared by Tan's lab for Cetus corp. to clone the human beta ... The H5N1 influenza virus, also known as bird flu, has resistance to interferon and other anti-viral cytokines that is ... Large amounts of human beta interferon were made by superinducing the beta interferon gene in human fibroblast cells. Cantell's ... Superinduction of the human beta interferon gene was also used by Israeli scientists to manufacture human beta interferon. ...
"Simulation Study of the Effect of Influenza and Influenza Vaccination on Risk of Acquiring Guillain-Barré Syndrome - Volume 21 ... Deeks' areas of research interest include communicable disease outbreaks, vaccine safety, vaccine program evaluation, human ... Deeks participated in a 2015 simulation study exploring the relationship between influenza vaccination and Guillain-Barré ... Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 14 (6): 1378-1391. doi:10.1080/21645515.2018.1433971. ISSN 2164-5515. PMC 6037463. PMID ...
Many viruses that cause human disease express viroporins. These viruses include hepatitis C virus, HIV-1, influenza A virus, ... Oxford JS (January 2007). "Antivirals for the treatment and prevention of epidemic and pandemic influenza". Influenza and Other ... The human papillomavirus 16 E5 protein, the least well-studied of the three known oncogenic HPV proteins, was reported in 2012 ... Suzuki T, Orba Y, Okada Y, Sunden Y, Kimura T, Tanaka S, Nagashima K, Hall WW, Sawa H (March 2010). "The human polyoma JC virus ...
On 14 October 2021, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) adopted a ... Two weeks before receiving pegcetacoplan, patients must receive vaccinations for pneumonia, meningitis, or influenza type B. ... This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of Health and Human Services. "Pegcetacoplan ... Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the United States Department of Health and Human Services, Complement system, ...
Zhang Z, Chang H, Li Y, Zhang T, Zou J, Zheng X, Wu J (February 2010). "MicroRNAs: potential regulators involved in human ... influenza, herpes simplex, rubella, and Toxoplasma gondii". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 35 (6): 1163-82. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn054 ...
Butler warned against the purity societies because of their "fatuous belief that you can oblige human beings to be moral by ... They holidayed in Naples in 1889, but George contracted influenza in the 1889-90 pandemic. They returned to Britain but George ... and an end to human trafficking of young women and children into European prostitution. Grey grew up in a well-to-do and ... got from English country villages by every artifice and sold to these human shambles". She visited Brussels where she met the ...
In 2013, Schulten's group published a simulated structure of the human immunodeficiency virus capsid containing 64 million ... published research examining the development of drug resistance to Tamiflu in H1N1pdm swine influenza and H5N1 avian influenza ... "Molecular Dynamics Simulations Suggest that Electrostatic Funnel Directs Binding of Tamiflu to Influenza N1 Neuraminidases". ...
Troubled by a boil on his leg, he squeezed it, and a child sprang out, which, as the first human, also took the name of his ... influenza and smallpox decimated the tribe. In the late 1870s and early 1880s, European redcedar cutters and Chinese that were ...
... the first isolation of the virus from a human. It was safer but involved the use of large amounts of human serum, which limited ... February 2011). "A nasally administered trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is well tolerated, stimulates both mucosal and ... At the time, chronic infectious hepatitis was not known, so when human serum was used in vaccine preparation, serum drawn from ... United States Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 14 July 2019. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious ...
His approach to prehistory was rooted in the notion that the human race was biologically united and that human diversity arose ... He survived the war, but during his return to Britain in 1919 succumbed to the influenza pandemic and died mid-journey. Grahame ... The History of Human Societies series) Coles 1997, p. 357; Fagan 2001, p. 2. Fagan 2001, p. 2. Coles 1997, pp. 357-358; Fagan ... 1961). The Dawn of Civilization The First World Survey of Human Cultures in Early Times. London: Thames and Hudson. Clark, ...
... announces phase 6 influenza transmission (human to human) in the United States. This would probably result in immediate ... Human Services, (2007) Interim Pre-Pandemic Planning Guidance: Community Strategy for Pandemic Influenza Mitigation in the ... The PSI was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a new pandemic influenza planning tool for use ... Released by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on February 1, 2007, the PSI was designed to ...
Mechanism of Emergence of Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains in Poultry, Domestic Animals and Humans, and Molecular Basis of the ...
The plant is used medicinally by many African peoples, including the Maasai, who use it for malaria, cough, and influenza. The ... "Ethnobotanical survey and threats to medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of human diseases in Nyeri County, ... Extracts of the plant have demonstrated antiviral activity against H1N1 influenza in the laboratory. The harvest of this slow- ... 2005). Identification of antiviral activity of Toddalia asiatica against influenza type A virus. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 30: ...
It also reflected his aesthetic that art and culture were the highest human achievement that transcended history. In 1900 he ... His wife Pauline had developed problems with her sight, whilst Richard developed serious influenza. The safety of his Jewish ...
Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes. Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level, making ... Some influenza A and B viruses have become resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, and the search for new ... they do not demonstrate unreasonable side effects to humans or the environment. Even once certain products are on the market, ...
Smallpox is the first human disease ever to be eradicated. This success gave impetus to WHO's global Expanded Program on ... Langmuir AD, Henderson DA, Serfling RE (1964). "The epidemiological basis for the control of influenza". American Journal of ... Statement of Tommy G. Thompson: Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services. US House of Representatives Committee on ... Washington, DC: Assistant Secretary for Legislation, Department of Health and Human Services; 2015. "Tommy G. Thompson, ...
Engagements and topics undertaken by the GACVS have included the safety of vaccines for measles, influenza, human papilloma ... influenza, human papilloma virus, Japanese encephalitis, rotavirus and hepatitis B. In May 2020, during the global emergency of ...
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only ... This new strain appears to be a result of reassortment of human influenza and swine influenza viruses, in all four different ... Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all ...
One particularly severe influenza in 1928 killed as many as one in ten native people along the Mackenzie River. Fort Providence ... However, human activities such as oil extraction have threatened water quality in the headwaters of the Mackenzie River. In ... The Mackenzie valley is believed to have been the path taken by prehistoric peoples during the initial human migration from ... The Mackenzie valley is believed to have been the path taken by prehistoric peoples during the initial human migration from ...
Imported cases have not manifested in larger epidemics outside of Africa due to a lack of human to human transmission in ... and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, A(H5N1) and A(H7N9)". Am J Infect Control. 44 (5 Suppl): e91-e100. doi:10.1016/j ... There is no vaccine for humans as of 2019. Researchers at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious ... Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically the Natal multimammate mouse or African rat, also ...
An adjuvant using squalene is Seqirus' proprietary MF59, which is added to influenza vaccines to help stimulate the human ... It is the first oil-in-water influenza vaccine adjuvant to be commercialised in combination with a seasonal influenza virus ... An influenza vaccine called FLUAD which used MF59 as an adjuvant was approved for use in the US in people 65 years of age and ... An estimated 12% of bodily squalene in humans is found in sebum. Squalene has a role in topical skin lubrication and protection ...
This strain was isolated directly from the epithelium of the terminal ileum of a healthy human subject, and is one of the most ... severity of symptoms associated with the common cold with a similar effect to that of neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza. ... infantis strains of human origin". Journal of Microbiological Methods. 87 (1): 10-16. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2011.06.014. PMID ... B. longum colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract, where it, along with other Bifidobacterium species, represents up to 90% ...
"RNF144A ring finger protein 144A [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Center for Biotechnology ... 2019-09-26). "RNF144A shapes the hierarchy of cytokine signaling to provide protective immunity against influenza". doi:10.1101 ... Somatic mutations of RNF144A have been catalogued in cancer genetic databases in several primary human tumors, including breast ... June 2015). "Human HOIP and LUBAC deficiency underlies autoinflammation, immunodeficiency, amylopectinosis, and ...
Louay M. Safi (born September 15, 1955), scholar and Human Rights activist, and a vocal critic of the Far Right. Author of ... professor of epidemiology and the inventor of the live attenuated influenza vaccine Wentworth Miller, actor on Prison Break ...
... neuraminidase inhibitors targeting influenza, and terminase inhibitors targeting human cytomegalovirus. Many pesticides are ... provided that no analogous enzyme is found in humans. (This is often the case, since such pathogens and humans are genetically ... Humans do not make peptidoglycan, therefore antibiotics that inhibit this process are selectively toxic to bacteria. Selective ... Many drug molecules are enzyme inhibitors that inhibit an aberrant human enzyme or an enzyme critical for the survival of a ...
However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred - CDC ... Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ... However, sporadic human infections with influenza viruses that ... including any confirmed case of human infection with a "novel" (non-human) influenza virus.‬‬ ... Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses. *Reported Infections with Variant Influenza Viruses in the United States ...
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Prevention and control of influenza pandemics and annual epidemics  World Health Assembly, 56 (‎World Health Organization, ...
Influenza and Bacterial Co-Infections in Maryland - CDC ... CDC Confirms Typical Human Influenza A H3N2 Virus in Maryland ... Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing Results When Influenza is Circulating. *Algorithm: Interpreting Influenza Testing ... Overview of Influenza Testing Methods. *Multiplex Assays Authorized for Simultaneous Detection of Influenza Viruses and SARS- ... The best way to prevent influenza and its complications is an annual influenza vaccine. The United States is experiencing a ...
Human Disease from Influenza A (H5N1), Thailand, 2004 Tawee Chotpitayasunondh*, Kumnuan Ungchusak†, Wanna Hanshaoworakul†, ... Epidemic curve showing the dates of onset for 12 confirmed and 21 suspected human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection, ... Human Disease from Influenza A (H5N1), Thailand, 2004. ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health ...
Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A Viruses with Possible Limited, Non-Sustained Human-to-Human Transmission ... Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans. *Detecting Bird Flu Avian Influenza A Virus Infection in ... Although avian (bird) influenza (flu) A viruses usually do not infect people, there have been some rare cases of human ... Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans. The reported signs and symptoms of bird flu virus ...
The One Health Initiative is a movement to forge co-equal, all inclusive collaborations between physicians, osteopathic physicians, veterinarians, dentists, nurses, and other scientific-health and environmentally related disciplines.
The Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt recently reported two new human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus ... 27 March 2014 - The Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt recently reported two new human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1 ... Epidemic and pandemic-prone diseases , News , New human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) in Egypt ... a total of 175 human cases, including 63 deaths, have been reported in Egypt from avian influenza A(H5N1). ...
... other stakeholders involved in the management of actual and potential human health issues related to domestic avian influenza ... Since simultaneous infection with human influenza and avian influenza viruses in an intermediary host, including a human, may ... 2.3 Human Health Context. Avian influenza infection in humans can potentially occur as a result of contact with infected ... Current Avian influenza (H5N1) affected areas, including a table of human H5N1 and avian H5N1 affected areas can be found at ...
This case does not change the human risk assessment for the general public, which CDC considers to be low. ... This one H5-positive human case does not change the human health risk assessment. CDC will continue to watch this situation ... The only previous human case associated with this group of H5N1 viruses produced in no symptoms. Spread of earlier H5N1 viruses ... A person has tested positive for avian influenza A(H5) virus (H5 bird flu) in the U.S., as reported by Colorado and confirmed ...
Implementation of the community network of reference laboratories for human influenza in Europe.. Meijer, A., Valette, M., ... Implementation of the community network of reference laboratories for human influenza in Europe. Journal of Clinical Virology: ... EISS has established a functioning Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe and laid the ... EISS has established a functioning Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe and laid the ...
Epidemiological and genetic investigations of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses ... Epidemiological and genetic investigations of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses. Euro Surveill. 2014;19 ... Epidemiological and genetic investigations of human-to-human transmission of zoonotic influenza viruses, Page 1 of 1 ...
There is uncertainty regarding which specific proteases activate a given HA in the human respiratory tract. Understanding the ... Here we utilized fluorogenic peptides mimicking the HA cleavage motif of representative IAV strains causing disease in humans ... Regarding IAVs currently of concern for human adaptation, cleavage site peptides from H10 viruses showed very limited cleavage ... Overall our data provide novel tool allowing the assessment of human adaptation of IAV HA subtypes. ...
The epidemiology of influenza pandemics demands that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people occupy centrestage in future ... Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities forgotten in new Australian National Action Plan for Human Influenza Pandemic ... Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Influenza Study Group: David Durrheim, Glenn Pearce, Kylie Taylor, Peter Massey ... Adrian Miller, And David N Durrheim, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Influenza Study Group ...
Colombia reports eighth human death from influenza. Today 22:04 --. Bogot?, 17 Jul (Notimex) .- A child who suffered from Down ... Colombia reports eighth human death from influenza July 17, 2009, 10:36 PM. ... which was raised to 202 the number of people affected by human influenza throughout the country.. The national monitoring ... Re: Colombia reports eighth human death from influenza. Source: http://www.canalrcn.com/noticias/ind...1n1-en-bogota/. Google ...
Pabbaraju K, Tellier R, Wong S, Li Y, Bastien N, Tang JW, Full-genome analysis of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from a human, ... Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014;20(9):1580-1582. doi ... Potential Human Adaptation Mutation of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus, Canada On This Page ... Binding of the hemagglutinin from human or equine influenza H3 viruses to the receptor is altered by substitutions at residue ...
Disease Outbreaks Influenza, Human Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype Influenza In Birds ... Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses This health advisory provides an update on the avian influenza A (H7N9) ... www.who.int/influenza/human animal interface/influenza h7n9/InterimSurveillanceRecH7N9 10May13.pdf ... Title : Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) vruses Corporate Authors(s) : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...
The One Health Initiative is a movement to forge co-equal, all inclusive collaborations between physicians, osteopathic physicians, veterinarians, dentists, nurses, and other scientific-health and environmentally related disciplines.
The objective of the Avian Influenza Control and Human Pandemic Preparedness and Response Project for Moldova is to minimize ... the threat posed to humans by Highly . ...
Johnson & Johnson Announces Collaboration with U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to Fight Influenza ... Johnson & Johnson Announces Collaboration with U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to Fight Influenza ... Today, there are more than one billion cases of influenza globally each year, resulting in approximately five million cases of ... Assets within Janssens portfolio include JNJ-5806 (formerly AL-794), a potent small molecule inhibitor of influenza A and B ...
Learn more about avian influenza in humans and the EU response. Consult maps and tables on avian influenza in humans situation ... influenza A viruses cause natural infections in birds while influenza B and C types usually affect humans. Influenza A viruses ... Links between human and avian influenza. Influenza viruses are classified as types A, B and C, and they are found in various ... Avian influenza viruses able to infect humans and to spread easily from person to person may cause an influenza pandemic. ...
Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) vruses Cite CITE. Title : Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) vruses ... Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus : recommendations for human health investigations and response. ... Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus : recommendations for human health investigations and response ... Title : Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus : recommendations for human health investigations and response ...
... submited by kickingbird at Jun, 29, 2022 16 ... China: A human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) reported in Guangxi Autonomous Region 9 days ago ... China: Confirmed human case of avian influenza A(H9N2) reported in Gansu province 9 days ago ... WOAH: Portugal-influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity (non-poultry including wild birds) (H5N1) 11 days ago ...
A human multi-epitope recombinant vaccinia virus as a universal T cell vaccine candidate against influenza virus. ... As a proof-of-concept, we have designed a novel influenza virus immunogen based on the NP backbone containing human T cell ... These findings suggest that DNA prime/poxvirus boost with human multi-epitope recombinant influenza virus proteins is a valid ... Upon challenge with influenza virus, the vaccinated mice exhibited decreased viral load in the lungs and a delay in mortality. ...
Comparison of Human and Animal Surveillance Data for H5N1 Influenza A in Egypt 2006-2011. In: PloS one. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 9. ... Comparison of Human and Animal Surveillance Data for H5N1 Influenza A in Egypt 2006-2011. PloS one. 2012 Sep 27;7(9):e43851. ... Comparison of Human and Animal Surveillance Data for H5N1 Influenza A in Egypt 2006-2011. / Rabinowitz, Peter M.; Galusha, ... Dive into the research topics of Comparison of Human and Animal Surveillance Data for H5N1 Influenza A in Egypt 2006-2011. ...
Panflu to vaccinate humans against H5N1 given the significant concern that it may evolve into a virus capable of human-to-human ... a human use vaccine against the H5N1 strain of pandemic influenza virus. Panflu was jointly developed with China CDC. ... Sinovac is currently developing human vaccines against the H5N1 strain of pandemic influenza, Japanese encephalitis and SARS. ... Sinovac Commences Phase II Clinical Trials for Pandemic Influenza Vaccine (H5N1). Wednesday May 9, 8:20 am ET ...
HLA restriction of cell-mediated lysis of influenza virus-infected human cells. Share Share Share ... HLA restriction of cell-mediated lysis of influenza virus-infected human cells. ...
  • When further tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests at CDC, the virus was unreactive with antisera to strains currently prevalent in the world but reacted with antisera to influenza A(H1N1) viruses related to swine influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Results of preliminary HI tests performed at the University of Wisconsin with monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin of swine influenza virus indicate that the isolate resembles viruses isolated during the summer from pigs in Wisconsin. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: Influenza A viruses circulate naturally in many nonhuman hosts including swine, horses, and numerous avian species (1). (cdc.gov)
  • however, the genetic composition of most animal influenza viruses appears to biologically restrict the range of hosts and prevent the viruses from crossing the species barrier. (cdc.gov)
  • Virus isolation on other occasions has proven that viruses genetically similar to those found in swine in the United States have caused human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry has been conducted since 2009. (who.int)
  • March 16, 2012 - CDC has confirmed that the influenza viruses isolated from the cluster of severe respiratory illness in one family in Maryland are seasonal influenza A H3N2 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic sequencing has confirmed that this is a typical human seasonal H3N2 virus that is more than 99% similar to other H3N2 influenza viruses submitted by the state of Maryland this season. (cdc.gov)
  • Although avian (bird) influenza (flu) A viruses usually do not infect people, there have been some rare cases of human infection with these viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Asian lineage H7N9 and highly pathogenic avian influenza Asian lineage H5N1 viruses have been responsible for most human illness from bird flu viruses worldwide to date, including the most serious illnesses and illness with the highest mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • Human infections with bird flu viruses can happen when virus gets into a person's eyes, nose or mouth, or is inhaled. (cdc.gov)
  • Human infections with bird flu viruses have occurred most often after unprotected contact with infected birds or surfaces contaminated with bird flu viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • However, because of the possibility that bird flu viruses could change and gain the ability to spread easily between people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person spread is extremely important for public health. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC has posted guidance for clinicians and public health professionals in the United States on appropriate testing, specimen collection, and processing of samples from patients who might be infected with avian influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • In birds, all of which are thought to be susceptible, influenza viruses may cause asymptomatic infection or a wide spectrum of symptoms, ranging from mild illness to a highly contagious and rapidly fatal disease. (canada.ca)
  • Wild birds can serve as a silent reservoir for avian influenza viruses. (canada.ca)
  • This is the second human case associated with this specific group of H5 viruses that are currently predominant, and the first case in the United States. (hstoday.us)
  • More than 880 human infections with earlier H5N1 viruses have been reported since 2003 worldwide, however, the predominant H5N1 viruses now circulating among birds globally are different from earlier H5N1 viruses. (hstoday.us)
  • The only previous human case associated with this group of H5N1 viruses produced in no symptoms. (hstoday.us)
  • Assets within Janssen's portfolio include JNJ-5806 (formerly AL-794), a potent small molecule inhibitor of influenza A and B viruses including strains with pandemic potential, and a "universal" vaccine candidate, which aims to protect against all influenza strains. (jnj.com)
  • Influenza viruses are classified as types A, B and C , and they are found in various birds and mammals, including humans. (europa.eu)
  • In addition to man, influenza A viruses cause natural infections in birds while influenza B and C types usually affect humans . (europa.eu)
  • Influenza A viruses are also frequently isolated from pigs and horses. (europa.eu)
  • Wild birds are thought to be the reservoir of influenza A viruses. (europa.eu)
  • Influenza A viruses have a segmented genome allowing for genetic re-assortment . (europa.eu)
  • As a result, circulating influenza viruses show a high level of genetic variations and may develop the capability of crossing the species barrier . (europa.eu)
  • Avian influenza viruses able to infect humans and to spread easily from person to person may cause an influenza pandemic . (europa.eu)
  • the majority of human infections is caused by HPAI viruses following direct exposure to infected birds. (europa.eu)
  • only HPAI viruses are fatal to humans. (europa.eu)
  • The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • H3N8 viruses are a different influenza A virus subtype and unrelated to H5N1 viruses currently spreading among wild birds and poultry in the United States and globally. (cdc.gov)
  • H3N8 viruses have been sporadically detected in poultry in China and some have been found to be genetically closely related to the human cases reported in 2022 [ 3 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Sporadic human infections with bird flu viruses have occurred with different bird flu virus subtypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Over the past two decades, H7N9 viruses have caused the highest number of human infections with bird flu viruses, and H5N1 viruses have caused the second highest number of human infections . (cdc.gov)
  • Most human infections with avian influenza A viruses have resulted from direct contact with, or close exposure to, infected birds/poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • Both of the human infections with H3N8 viruses reported in 2022 were in children. (cdc.gov)
  • All close contacts of the first two reported cases tested negative for influenza A viruses, and both children recovered [ 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • The Influenza viruses and influenza / edited by Edwin D. Kilbourne. (who.int)
  • Influenza : the viruses and the disease / Charles H. Stuart-Harris, Geoffrey C. Schild. (who.int)
  • It is a collective term for several influenza viruses. (wur.nl)
  • In contrast to measles, smallpox and poliomyelitis, influenza is caused by viruses that undergo continuous antigenic change and that possess an animal reservoir. (nature.com)
  • Although it is not clear whether a new pandemic is imminent, it would be prudent to take into account the lessons we have learned from studying different human and animal influenza viruses. (nature.com)
  • A concern is that the imposition of new rules for working with infectious influenza viruses under high security and high containment conditions will stifle scientific progress. (nature.com)
  • The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments, and the viral particle has two major glycoproteins on its surface: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ( Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • With at least 15 different hemagglutinin and 9 different neuraminidase subtypes, there is considerable antigenic variation among influenza viruses. (nature.com)
  • Influenza A viruses of the H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes are responsible for seasonal epidemic events. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The global spread of H5N8 avian influenza viruses is a public health concern The first confirmed outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) in birds was documented in Scotland in 1959 with the influenza A H5N1 subtype, although there have been numerous suspected HPAIV outbreaks documented globally since 1878. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genetic characterizations and phylogenetic relationships of four clade 2.3.4b H5N8 highly avian influenza viruses identified from a sick whooper swan and environmental samples collected in the Yellow River Reservoir Area in late November 2020 suggest these isolates might be imported into China via migratory birds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Influenza A Viruses and Zoonotic Events-Are We Creating Our Own Reservoirs? (semanticscholar.org)
  • To be better prepared against H5N8 and other influenza A viruses, mutational and reassortment libraries can potentially be built, allowing them to be tested on various models complemented with deep-sequencing and automation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An assessment of the incidence of influenza among vaccinated and unvaccinated volunteers will be conducted within 180 days of observation (PCR diagnostics for the detection of influenza viruses). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A second respiratory specimen from the same patient was collected on April 26, 2022, and tested negative for influenza viruses on April 27, 2022, by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment Laboratory Services. (cdc.gov)
  • Specimens from close contacts of the A(H5)-positive individual and persons who participated in depopulation activities at the same facility were collected on April 20, 2022, and tested negative for influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • These individuals are being monitored for symptoms and additional respiratory specimens are being obtained and re-tested for influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Ancestors of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses first emerged in southern China and led to large poultry outbreaks in Hong Kong in 1997, which resulted in 18 human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The influenza viruses pose a threat to human health and medical services, and vaccination is an important way to prevent infection . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pigs are natural hosts for the same subtypes of influenza A viruses as humans and integrally involved in virus evolution with frequent interspecies transmissions in both directions. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • These results, together with the comparable sizes of pigs and humans, indicate that the pig is a valuable model for understanding how best to apply mAbs as therapy in humans and for monitoring antigenic drift of influenza viruses in humans, thereby providing information highly relevant to making influenza vaccine recommendations. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory illness typically in the nose, throat, and lungs caused by influenza viruses. (michigan.gov)
  • Avian influenza subtype A(HxNy) viruses are zoonotic and may occasionally infect humans through direct or indirect contact, resulting in mild to severe illness and death. (who.int)
  • The novel approach, which is radically different from existing influenza A vaccines, and treatments based on neuraminidase inhibitors, could be extended to a host of viruses that use a similar approach to infecting humans, such as Zika, HIV, and malaria. (fomatmedical.com)
  • It is effective with influenza and we have reason to believe it will function with many other viruses. (fomatmedical.com)
  • The human body makes rare antibodies effective against all flu viruses and these might be boosted to design a better universal flu treatment, researchers report. (abc.net.au)
  • Influenza viruses are highly contagious and can cause seasonal epidemics, manifesting as an acute febrile illness with variable degrees of severity, ranging from mild fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (medscape.com)
  • Influenza viruses cause a broad array of respiratory illnesses responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children. (medscape.com)
  • Influenza viruses cause epidemic disease (influenza virus types A and B) and sporadic disease (type C) in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Interactions between influenza viruses and human macrophages were examined to detect potential mechanisms for enhanced febrile reactions previously associated with administration of an avian-human H1N1 reassortant vaccine. (utmb.edu)
  • Influenza serological testing of stored sera from NHA NES 2010 collection across various age groups, were used in this study to determine the population level of cross-reactive antibodies to H3N2v virus and historical seasonal H3N2 viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibody titers against H3N2v and historical seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses were measured with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay at Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • In some cases, swine flu viruses infect humans too. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Influenza, commonly known as "flu", is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by viruses. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • There are four types of influenza viruses called A, B, C and D. Of these, flu A and B are commonly known to cause human illnesses and large epidemics in almost every season. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • QIVc uses a cell-based flu vaccine production process, an alternative to traditional egg-based manufacturing where reference influenza viruses are grown in the yolk of fertilised hens eggs. (edu.au)
  • The Virotag ® INVB reagent specifically detects Influenza B seasonal flu viruses (human influenza virus B of the Yamagata and Victoria strains). (sartorius.com)
  • This reagent is used to quantify seasonal influenza B viruses rapidly and precisely using the Virus Counter ® Platform. (sartorius.com)
  • Co-infection rates between the viruses ranged from 1% (hMPV and Adenovirus) to 12% (hMPV and Human Bocavirus). (pediatriceducation.org)
  • They are active against both influenza A and influenza B viruses. (medscape.com)
  • In clinical trials, a single intravenous dose of peramivir, a sialic acid analogue and a selective inhibitor of neuraminidases produced by influenza A and B viruses, is effective and well tolerated in subjects with uncomplicated seasonal influenza virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Because subtyping data from the Unified State Laboratory: Public Health indicated that 99% of all circulating influenza viruses were 2009 H1N1, all influenza hospitalizations during this period were considered to have resulted from pandemic influenza. (blogspot.com)
  • However, the study of immunity, particularly in the elderly, can no longer be limited to efficacy of vaccination, given the emergence of new viral strains of common viruses, such as avian influenza, and the threat of using viruses to which there are no current vaccines as agents of bioterrorism. (msu.edu)
  • The lectures will cover human and animal-pathogenic viruses, bacteria and fungi as well as parasites (protozoa, helminths). (uni-luebeck.de)
  • This is based on a lesson learned in the 1983-84 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in poultry in the northeastern U.S. The lesson was to prevent viruses of low pathogenicity from circulating in a population, thus reducing their potential to change to highly pathogenic viruses. (acsh.org)
  • Macauley explained that up to 50 per cent of all viruses that infect our cells, the most well known of which is influenza, bind to sugars on cell receptors to gain access and infect the cell. (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • The best way to prevent influenza and its complications is an annual influenza vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a need to develop a universal vaccine against influenza virus infection to avoid developing new formulations of a seasonal vaccine each year. (pasteur.fr)
  • Many of the vaccine strategies for a universal vaccine target strain-conserved influenza virus proteins, such as the matrix, polymerase, and nucleoproteins, rather than the surface hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. (pasteur.fr)
  • These findings suggest that DNA prime/poxvirus boost with human multi-epitope recombinant influenza virus proteins is a valid approach for a general T-cell vaccine to protect against influenza virus infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • SVA - News ), a leading provider of biopharmaceutical products in China, today announced that the China State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) recently granted Sinovac approval to commence the Phase II clinical trial of Panflu(TM), a human use vaccine against the H5N1 strain of pandemic influenza virus. (sinovac.com)
  • On September 7, 2006, the results were published in 'The Lancet,' a global renowned medical periodical, that provided worldwide recognition for the Phase I clinical trial results of the pandemic influenza vaccine (H5N1) developed by Chinese scientists. (sinovac.com)
  • As a result, the seasonal influenza vaccine must be reformulated and readministered on a yearly basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For participants, for whom 2 doses of influenza vaccine were recommended per Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidance, a second dose of the same volume as the first dose was administered during Visit 2 (28 days after Visit 1). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For participants for whom 2 doses of influenza vaccine were recommended, a second dose was administered on Day 28. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study is Multicenter, phase 3, Open-Label trial that explored the preventive effectiveness, safety and immunogenicity of single dose a allantoic split inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine in healthy adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study will include 2000 volunteers, 1,000 of whom will be vaccinated intramuscularly with a single dose of allantoic split inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Chi-square test , multivariable logistic regression analysis , and sum-rank test were used to analyze the factors associated with influenza vaccine immune response . (bvsalud.org)
  • Vaccination history , age, health condition, and frequency of colds were important factors affecting the seroconversion rate of the influenza vaccine in human . (bvsalud.org)
  • The mission of Alana's Foundation is "to prevent deaths caused by influenza, a vaccine preventable disease and provide support for families whose child has died from any illness. (michigan.gov)
  • This is a summary of the European public assessment report (EPAR) for Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca. (europa.eu)
  • It is not intended to provide practical advice on how to use Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca. (europa.eu)
  • For practical information about using Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca, patients should read the package leaflet or contact their doctor or pharmacist. (europa.eu)
  • What is Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca and what is it used for? (europa.eu)
  • Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca is a vaccine developed to protect children aged between 12 months and 18 years against influenza (flu) during a flu pandemic. (europa.eu)
  • Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca contains live, attenuated (weakened) influenza A virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) strain. (europa.eu)
  • How is Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca used? (europa.eu)
  • Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca is available as a nasal spray. (europa.eu)
  • How does Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca work? (europa.eu)
  • Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca is a pandemic preparedness vaccine. (europa.eu)
  • What benefits of Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca have been shown in studies? (europa.eu)
  • Three main studies involving 107 adults found that Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca was able to prepare the immune system to defend itself against the H5N1 virus strain in individuals who had never come into contact with it. (europa.eu)
  • In those who received the second vaccine 3 weeks to 5 years after vaccination with Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca, antibodies increased 4-fold in 73% (8 out of 11) of the individuals compared with 10% of the individuals who had not been previously vaccinated with Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca. (europa.eu)
  • This showed that antibodies against Pandemic influenza vaccine H5N1 AstraZeneca increased substantially when vaccinated adults came into contact with the virus again. (europa.eu)
  • Is there any vaccine for canine influenza? (whitedust.net)
  • The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends that women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season be vaccinated with inactivated influenza virus vaccine, and that all pregnant women receive a dose of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in every pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • The diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is recommended for infants beginning at age 2 months, and influenza vaccine is recommended for infants aged ≥6 months. (cdc.gov)
  • To protect young infants before they are age-eligible for vaccination, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended since 2004 that all women who are or will be pregnant during influenza season receive inactivated influenza vaccine ( 1 ), and since 2013 that all pregnant women receive the tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A cell-based influenza vaccine has effectively provided protection against the flu in children and adolescents, according to a new study. (edu.au)
  • The research found the cell-based quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIVc) produced a sufficient immune response in children aged two to 18 years. (edu.au)
  • The findings, published in The New England Journal of Medicine , were the first on the absolute efficacy of a cell-based influenza vaccine in children as young as two years of age. (edu.au)
  • The overall vaccine efficacy was 54.6 per cent, meeting the pre-specified endpoint for success and showing benefit across three influenza seasons and all eight countries. (edu.au)
  • But this can result in mutation of the influenza virus leading to an antigenic mismatch between the circulating reference and inactivated strains contained within the seasonal flu vaccine. (edu.au)
  • Professor Nolan said cell-based vaccine technology may also offer additional advantages including increased scalability and production speed in the event of an influenza pandemic. (edu.au)
  • A comparison of fetal-loss reports in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during three consecutive influenza seasons shows there was a synergistic toxicity causing spontaneous abortions (SAB) and stiillbirths (SB) following the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommendations of pandemic and influenza vaccines administered to pregnant women. (sott.net)
  • In 2011, Dr. Alessandro Bertoucci who analyzed the practices of 256 physicians treating more than 600,000 patients, reported that a staggering 91% of pregnant women are declining influenza vaccines due to fears of miscarriage and suspected toxins in the vaccine itself. (sott.net)
  • A study published last year in the Human and Experimental Toxicology journal found a direct statistical correlation between higher vaccine doses and infant mortality rates. (sott.net)
  • It was a confirmation that many anti-vaccine advocates have long awaited and further establishes and adds to preliminary evidence that vaccinations are toxic poisons having no place in the human body. (sott.net)
  • Since 1997, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended the routine vaccination of pregnant women with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) after the first trimester of pregnancy. (sott.net)
  • The safety and effectiveness of the pandemic (monovalent influenza) A-H1N1 vaccine had not been previously established in pregnant women. (sott.net)
  • An independent survey was conducted by the National Coalition of Organized Women (NCOW) via the Internet to serve as a second surveillance source for pregnant women suffering A-H1N1 fetal loss during the two-vaccine 2009/10 influenza season. (sott.net)
  • Organoids generated from dozens of tissues and organs available commercially, or accessible through published protocols include patient-derived models of liver , heart, pancreas, brain, GI tract, kidney, and recently, of human airways suitable for drug and vaccine development and for studying infectious human respiratory diseases. (corning.com)
  • ABSTRACT - Despite substantial improvements, influenza vaccine production-and availability-remain suboptimal. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Here we show that mRNA vaccines induce balanced, long-lived and protective immunity to influenza A virus infections in even very young and very old mice and that the vaccine remains protective upon thermal stress. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • In ferrets and pigs, mRNA vaccines induce immunological correlates of protection and protective effects similar to those of a licensed influenza vaccine in pigs. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • It has an mRNA vaccine against prostate and lung cancer tumours in human trials. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • We and others have shown that the immune response to influenza vaccine is reduced in the elderly as evidenced by lower antibody titers, decreased T cell proliferative responses, reduced cytotoxic T cell activity, and altered cytokine production compared to young controls. (msu.edu)
  • Short-term supplementation with Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) improves the antibody response to influenza B vaccine Nutr Res. (msu.edu)
  • Avian influenza vaccine in poultry is effective in reducing the infection and shed of the virus but has not been used routinely as part of a U.S. control program because "stamping out," rather than reduction of the disease, is essential as a long-term strategy. (acsh.org)
  • However, while there is a vaccine to prevent influenza, there is no vaccine to prevent RSV. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • SGS's experience in both virus development and in conducting human challenge trials safely and to exacting standards provides the potential to gain efficacy data concerning the vaccine prior to initiating a phase III study. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • Additional vaccines recommended for pre-teens and adolescents are the Meningococcal vaccine that protects against meningitis, the HPV vaccine that protects against cervical cancer and genital warts (and is recommended for both males and females now), the second dose of chicken pox vaccine if not given already, and the annual influenza vaccine. (edcgov.us)
  • The El Dorado County Health and Human Services Agency's Public Health Division offers the Tdap vaccine, and other childhood and adolescent vaccines, by appointment at low cost. (edcgov.us)
  • These engineered adenoviruses, when put into a vaccine, trigger an immune response in the human body, protecting against COVID-19. (allianceforscience.org)
  • This is a new technology: no adenovirus vector vaccines for other diseases are yet widely available, though vaccines for HIV, influenza, Ebola and malaria using this platform are in clinical trials and an Ebola vaccine has been briefly deployed. (allianceforscience.org)
  • The state of Maryland reported that all four people were confirmed to be positive for seasonal influenza A (H3N2) infection by the state Laboratories Administration. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial infections can occur as co-infections with influenza or occur after influenza infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Concurrent infection (co-infection) with staph - which is what seems to have occurred in the cluster in Maryland - is a potentially catastrophic complication of influenza that can progress rapidly to serious illness and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemic curve showing the dates of onset for 12 confirmed and 21 suspected human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection, Thailand, 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • The cases were laboratory-confirmed at the Central Public Health Laboratory in Egypt which is also a national influenza centre, as well as at US NAMRU-3, a WHO reference laboratory for diagnosis of influenza A(H5N1) infection. (who.int)
  • The occurrence of predominantly mild illness or asymptomatic infection in birds due to influenza is referred to as "low pathogenic avian influenza" or LPAI. (canada.ca)
  • Moreover, the Ministry confirmed 11 more cases of infection, nine of them in the capital Bogota, which was raised to 202 the number of people affected by human influenza throughout the country. (flutrackers.com)
  • However , the large epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza that currently affect poultry in Asia, and the widespread presence of the virus in the environment increase opportunities for human exposure and infection . (europa.eu)
  • These measures contribute to reduce the opportunities for human exposure and infection. (europa.eu)
  • While in the past decade there has been extensive global surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) infection in both animals and humans, there have been few attempts to compare these data streams and evaluate the utility of such integration. (elsevier.com)
  • It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • April 14, 2023 - The National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China reported a confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A(H3N8) virus "H3N8 bird flu" on March 27, 2023. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the third human infection with H3N8 bird flu virus and first fatality ever reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on what is currently known, this human case of H3N8 virus infection is not thought to pose a risk to the health of the U.S. public at this time. (cdc.gov)
  • According to a statement from the Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention , the third human infection with H3N8 virus occurred in an adult in China who reportedly had a history of exposure to live poultry and wild birds (which had been observed around the home). (cdc.gov)
  • Public health measures include to report all suspected cases of influenza and to identify all cases might have been exposed to common source of infection and they should be monitored for 7 days. (who.int)
  • The purpose of this HAN Health Advisory is to notify public health workers, clinicians, and the public of the potential for human infection with this virus and to describe the CDC's recommendations for patient investigation and testing, infection control including the use of personal protective equipment, and antiviral treatment and prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • The mAbs recognized the same two major immunodominant haemagglutinin (HA) epitopes targeted by humans, one of which is not recognized by post-infection ferret antisera that are commonly used to monitor virus evolution. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • We investigated potential sources of infection for 6 confirmed influenza A (H5N1) patients who resided in urban areas of People's Republic of China. (cdc.gov)
  • 280 confirmed human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection from 12 countries have been reported ( 1 ), detailed data on sources of infection for most patients are limited ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The new solution targets an aspect of infection that does not change: all hemagglutinin varieties of influenza A must bind to human sialic acid. (fomatmedical.com)
  • Nanostructured glycan architecture is important in the inhibition of influenza A virus infection" appears in the Advance Online Publication (AOP) published today on Nature Nanotechnology's website. (fomatmedical.com)
  • There is no specific cure or medicine for dog influenza as it is a viral disease, yet on diagnosis of the secondary bacterial infection, on visiting a veterinary doctor he can prescribe for some antibiotics in order to provide for supportive care and boosting up its immunity. (whitedust.net)
  • Australian researchers have helped develop a new class of influenza drug that tricks the virus by using its own mechanism of infection. (abc.net.au)
  • Antiviral therapy is available for the treatment of influenza virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride are approved for the prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • They are not active against influenza B virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • All confirmed and probable influenza-associated hospitalizations* reported by infection-prevention programs and laboratories in the state from April 27, 2009, to May 21, 2010, were analyzed by the Utah Department of Health. (blogspot.com)
  • Therefore, a major emphasis of our research is to study the response of young and aged mice to primary influenza infection at the site of infection, i.e., the lung, with a particular interest in NK cell phenotype and function. (msu.edu)
  • We also study the effects of nutritional interventions, including antioxidants and nutraceuticals, on outcome to primary influenza infection or as adjuvants to vaccination in both animal models and in humans. (msu.edu)
  • A second emphasis of our research focuses on the effects of caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition on the NK cell response to influenza infection. (msu.edu)
  • While elderly CR mice have been reported to have an increased response to influenza vaccination, our data have shown that CR increases susceptibility to influenza infection in both adult and aged mice. (msu.edu)
  • We have further demonstrated that CR alters NK cell phenotype and impairs NK cell function, leading to the inability to recover from influenza infection. (msu.edu)
  • However, refeeding CR mice prior to influenza infection, restores NK cell function, enabling recovery from influenza infection. (msu.edu)
  • Activation mechanisms of natural killer cell during influenza virus infection. (msu.edu)
  • Natural killer cell function is altered during the primary response of aged mice to influenza infection. (msu.edu)
  • Short-term refeeding of previously energy-restricted C57BL/6 male mice improves nutritional status and restores natural killer cell function after primary influenza infection. (msu.edu)
  • In order to curtail the threat of further spread of the disease in poultry and, consequently, lessen the number of cases of infection and death in humans, world governments are exploring and implementing preparatory and response strategies. (acsh.org)
  • Is mass vaccination of poultry augmenting the spread of the virus between poultry, increasing infection of workers, and boosting the potential of a virus adapting to people, allowing it to transmit from human to human? (acsh.org)
  • The performance of the human challenge or the controlled human infection model (CHIM) and the value of the efficacy data associated is directly related to the quality of the challenge agent. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sugars found on the surface of human cells influence COVID-19 infection, according to a University of Alberta-led study that is one of the first to observe this relationship and suggests that cells in the brain might be particularly susceptible. (indiaeducationdiary.in)
  • Our data suggests that COVID-19 has an infection fatality rate that is in the same ball park as seasonal influenza. (humansbefree.com)
  • NEW BRUNSWICK, N.J., - September 15, 2017 - Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) announced that Janssen Research & Development LLC (Janssen) are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) to develop a comprehensive portfolio of therapeutics and vaccines to protect communities in the event of an influenza pandemic and other infectious disease threats. (jnj.com)
  • Other Transaction Authority (OTA), Janssen and BARDA, a component of ASPR, will invest equally to advance Janssen's extensive portfolio of investigational influenza medicines and vaccines throughout the duration of the collaboration. (jnj.com)
  • Mr. Weidong Yin, Chairman, President and CEO, stated, 'The authorization by the SFDA is an important milestone for Sinovac as we continue to advance our pipeline of vaccines against human infectious diseases. (sinovac.com)
  • Sinovac Biotech Ltd. is a China-based biopharmaceutical company that focuses on the research, development, manufacture and commercialization of vaccines that protect against human infectious diseases. (sinovac.com)
  • Sinovac's vaccines include Healive(TM) (hepatitis A), Bilive(TM) (combined hepatitis A and B) and Anflu(TM) (influenza). (sinovac.com)
  • Sinovac is currently developing human vaccines against the H5N1 strain of pandemic influenza, Japanese encephalitis and SARS. (sinovac.com)
  • Increasing the availability of new antiviral drugs and developing superior vaccines will provide us with better approaches to control influenza and to have a positive impact on disease load. (nature.com)
  • Factors affecting the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in human. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, the effectiveness of influenza vaccines is affected by various aspects. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to explore factors related to the immune response to influenza vaccines . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is a need for developing optimized vaccination strategies for vulnerable groups to improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines in human . (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition, the company presented extensive supportive data from large studies and from clinical practice on how well other similar pandemic and seasonal live attenuated influenza A vaccines work in children. (europa.eu)
  • Vaccination of pregnant women induces the production of antibodies that are transferred across the placenta to the fetus and provide passive protection until infants are old enough to receive DTaP and influenza vaccines ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Professor Nolan said because cell-based flu vaccines, grown in animal cells, were designed to produce an exact match to the World Health Organization's selected influenza strains by avoiding egg-adapted changes, they could potentially provide greater effectiveness. (edu.au)
  • Goldman's most recent study Comparison of VAERS fetal-loss reports during three consecutive influenza seasons successfully correlated fetal toxicity resulting from the administration of both the pandemic (A-H1N1) and seasonal influenza vaccines during the 2009/10 season. (sott.net)
  • Many of these studies, used "no Thimerosal" influenza vaccines, had insufficient statistical power to adequately detect and assess complications due to the small sample size. (sott.net)
  • Nor was the combination of two different influenza vaccines ever tested in pregnant women. (sott.net)
  • But DNA vaccines seem unlikely ever to be approved, because of worries that they might be incorporated into human DNA, disrupting gene regulation. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Influenza vaccines based on mRNA may offer a solution as sequence-matched, clinical-grade material could be produced reliably and rapidly in a scalable process, allowing quick response to the emergence of pandemic strains. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • Thus, mRNA vaccines could address substantial medical need in the area of influenza prophylaxis and the broader realm of anti-infective vaccinology. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • His team used CureVac's process to make durable mRNA vaccines for common human flu strains, as well as H5N1 bird flu. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • The collaboration comes after SGS's success in the development of a novel GMP-manufactured, non haemagglutinating, wild-type strain of Influenza A H3N2 (A/Belgium/4217/2015), which is approved for use as a challenge agent in studies demonstrating the early efficacy of influenza drugs and vaccines in healthy volunteers. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • SGS has a wealth of expertise in early phase clinical trials, first in human (FIH) studies, human challenge testing and complex PK/PD studies with a focus on infectious diseases, vaccines, and respiratory therapeutics. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • When mapped to the H5 HA protein structure by using FluSurver in GISAID ( http://www.gisaid.org , http://flusurver.bii.a-star.edu.sg ), both mutations are found in the immediate receptor-binding pocket, and G225R has been known to change specificity of an H3N2 virus toward human erythrocytes ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Here, the structure of the A/Northern Territory/60/1968 (H3N2) influenza virus NP is presented at 2.2 Å resolution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Strains of influenza A are characterized according to the variation of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase they carry, thus the origin of the familiar H1N1 or H3N2 designations. (fomatmedical.com)
  • The H3N2 strain is an avian flu virus that is dissimilar from its human complement. (whitedust.net)
  • Cells exposed to that strain were compared with cells exposed to wild-type and cold-adapted H1H1 and H3H2 strains and an avian-human H3N2 strain. (utmb.edu)
  • Global migration dynamics underlie evolution and persistence of human influenza A (H3N2). (uchicago.edu)
  • Bedford T, Cobey S, Beerli P, Pascual M. Global migration dynamics underlie evolution and persistence of human influenza A (H3N2). (uchicago.edu)
  • HI A/AICHI/2/1968: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H3N2 virus A/Aichi/2/1968. (cdc.gov)
  • HI A/VICTORIA/3/1975: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H3N2 virus A/Victoria/3/1975. (cdc.gov)
  • HI A/BANGKOK/1/1979: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H3N2 virus A/Bangkok/1/1979. (cdc.gov)
  • HI A/BRISBANE/10/2007: Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer against the influenza A/H3N2 virus A/Brisbane/10/2007. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza virus A (H3N2), commonly known as "Hong Kong Flu", was found to be responsible for this febrile outbreak. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 was previously known as Swine Flu, while A (H3N2) is popularly known as Hong Kong Flu in Nepal. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • During the study period of January 1998 to December 2013, we identified 44 distinct influenza epidemics, including 16 epidemics of seasonal influenza A(H3N2), 10 of A(H1N1), four of A(H1N1pdm09) and 14 of influenza B ( figure 1a -d). (ersjournals.com)
  • Weekly activity of influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI) + proxy) of a) influenza A(H3N2), b) influenza A(H1N1), c) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and d) influenza B (black lines) along with the 44 predefined epidemics (grey bars) of these virus type and subtypes, and e) the weekly smoothed average of ozone (O 3 ) concentrations in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2013. (ersjournals.com)
  • Wim van Loon, Managing Director at SGS Benelux, said: "SGS is an innovative company and the experience we gained from developing our novel H3N2 challenge strain to combat influenza has allowed us to look at new opportunities, such as this collaboration. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • Firstly, legislation adopted by the EU to prevent the spread of avian influenza amongst birds and poultry (control measures to be applied, preventive vaccination) has a direct impact on human health. (europa.eu)
  • Formats: Text / Collections: Medicine in the Americas, 1610-1920 / Subjects: Influenza, Human -- prevention & control and Vaccination / Authors: Rosenow, Edward C. (Edward Carl), 1875-1966 / Titles: Studies in influenza and pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • Objectives - This article examines the association between introduction of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Program and changes in vaccination rates over time in Ontario, compared with the other provinces combined. (ices.on.ca)
  • Analytical Techniques - Cross-tabulations were used to estimate vaccination rates for the total population aged 12 or older, for groups especially vulnerable to the effects of influenza, and by selected socio-demographic variables. (ices.on.ca)
  • Vaccination during pregnancy protects infants from influenza and pertussis during the first year of life through passively acquired maternal antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • Among 113,730 women in Minnesota who had delivered a live birth during March 2013-December 2014 and for whom immunization records were available, 58% received a Tdap vaccination and 46% received an influenza vaccination during their pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Tdap and influenza vaccination coverage was assessed among pregnant women in Minnesota. (cdc.gov)
  • Tdap and influenza vaccination coverage was assessed among women in Minnesota who had delivered a live birth during March 2, 2013-December 31, 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • Frequently cited peer-reviewed reports on the safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy do not reveal any adverse outcomes among women. (sott.net)
  • This is evidenced by the excellent results obtained in Hong Kong with vaccination and in research studies in poultry on avian influenza. (acsh.org)
  • Effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed to control and combat the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H5N1. (kent.ac.uk)
  • For 3 severely ill patients, only relatives and contacts were interviewed to assess possible influenza (H5N1) subtype exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • We estimated the daily effective reproduction number ( R t ), a real-time measure of transmissibility, for each influenza type/subtype using data from the subtropical city of Hong Kong, which has excellent influenza surveillance data, near year-round circulation of influenza, and considerable variations in environmental factors and pollutant levels. (ersjournals.com)
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype for the causative agent of what is colloquially called 'swine flu. (bvsalud.org)
  • The reported signs and symptoms of bird flu virus infections in humans have ranged from no symptoms or mild illness [such as eye redness (conjunctivitis) or mild flu-like upper respiratory symptoms], to severe (such as pneumonia requiring hospitalization) and included fever (temperature of 100ºF [37.8ºC] or greater) or feeling feverish*, cough, sore throat, runny or stuff nose, muscle or body aches, headaches, fatigue, and shortness of breath or difficulty breathing. (cdc.gov)
  • The reported symptoms of avian influenza in humans range from typical influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches) to eye infections (conjunctivitis), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, and other severe and life-threatening complications. (europa.eu)
  • We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enhanced surveillance for influenza-like illness and pneumonia of unknown origin was established in China after the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza is one of the most significant causes of acute upper respiratory tract infections worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • Swine Influenza as the name suggests is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus. (hindustantimes.com)
  • In a typical year, 5-15 per cent of the world's population contracts influenza and there are up to 650,000 respiratory-related deaths. (edu.au)
  • Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, is a respiratory disease of pigs. (dmagazine.com)
  • Nobody yet knows for sure the definitive origins of the newly recognized coronavirus now known as 2019-nCoV that's currently spreading across the globe as a human respiratory pathogen. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Common viral causes of pneumonia include Respiratory Syncytial virus, Influenza and B, Parainfluenza, Human metapneumovirus and Adenovirus. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • One study in Finland found ~15% (5% for each group) of rapid virus detection specimens had adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus (a Parvoviridae virus causing respiratory infections identified in 2005). (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Unlike the Ebola virus, the primary means of coronavirus transmission is through the respiratory system, and human remains of those who died from the coronavirus don't pose the same threat as those transmitted through the blood or other bodily fluids. (arktimes.com)
  • Before the AAAS Fellowship, Crawford served as a Human-Animal Interface Intern with the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland, where he worked closely with WHO efforts to monitor and contain threats presented by avian influenza and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome corona virus). (aplu.org)
  • The avian influenza virus has many forms of pathogenicity ranging from mild to severe strains, the latter of which can produce devastating respiratory problems and rapid, widespread mortality in poultry and other birds. (acsh.org)
  • reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated it was positive for influenza A virus but negative for contemporary seasonal human H1pdm09 and H3 influenza A virus subtypes. (cdc.gov)
  • During this period, there were 1972 human infections with nine different A(HxNy) subtypes notified in the WPR. (who.int)
  • In recent years there has been a change in the primary subtypes and frequency of reports of human A(HxNy) in the region, with a reduction of A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), and conversely an increase of A(H5N6) and A(H9N2). (who.int)
  • No formal surveillance is conducted for influenza with bacterial co-infections, however, these are well documented in the literature going back to the 1918 influenza pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Illness in humans from bird flu virus infections have ranged in severity from no symptoms or mild illness to severe disease that resulted in death. (cdc.gov)
  • 27 March 2014 - The Ministry of Health and Population in Egypt recently reported two new human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infections to WHO. (who.int)
  • In fact, over the past years, avian influenza infections in humans have been repeatedly reported from Asia. (europa.eu)
  • considering the massive exposure, there are very few human infections resulting from HPAI. (europa.eu)
  • The previous two human infections with H3N8 virus were also reported in China, during 2022. (cdc.gov)
  • An investigation did not find any additional human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The elevated trend of human infections with the emerging AIV during ongoing COVID-19 circulation still highlights the alert of the possible risk for the next human pandemic3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since the last report, an additional 134 human avian influenza infections were notified from 1 October 2017 to 31 July 2022. (who.int)
  • In particular, mobility characterization is key to predict the spatial and temporal diffusion of human-transmitted infections. (springeropen.com)
  • Animal flu Have you have wondered about flu infections in species other than humans? (abc.net.au)
  • Serological evidence of human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BackgroundHighly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus poses a global public health threat given severe and fatal zoonotic infections since 1997 and ongoing A(H5N1) virus circulation among poultry in several countries. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Seroprevalence was higher in persons exposed to A(H5N1) clade 0 virus (1.9%, range 0.7-3.2%) than in participants exposed to other clades of A(H5N1) virus (range 0-0.5%) (p ConclusionsThese low seroprevalences suggest that subclinical and clinically mild human A(H5N1) virus infections are uncommon. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Standardized serological survey and laboratory methods are needed to fully understand the extent and risk of human A(H5N1) virus infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Detected U.S. Human infections with H3N2v by State since August 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • Pertussis and influenza infections can result in severe disease in infants. (cdc.gov)
  • We combined information on influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in the community and laboratory surveillance data to estimate weekly incidence rates of influenza virus infections in the community, referred to as ILI + rates [ 4 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Moreover, a cultural practice of close living conditions between the Chinese people and their livestock has resulted in human infections and death. (acsh.org)
  • Adenoviruses, which exist in the wild in humans and typically cause mild infections such as the common cold, have been genetically engineered to express viral antigens found in SARS-CoV-2, usually those of the infamous spike protein that the coronavirus uses to break into human cells. (allianceforscience.org)
  • A person has tested positive for avian influenza A(H5) virus (H5 bird flu) in the U.S., as confirmed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and reported by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment on April 28, 2022. (cdc.gov)
  • The specimen was forwarded to the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for further testing, was received at CDC on April 27, 2022, and confirmed as influenza A(H5) virus using RT-PCR the same day. (cdc.gov)
  • Click the link below to learn more about how to protect yourself from influenza during the 2022-2023 flu season. (michigan.gov)
  • Preliminary investigations have detected no outbreaks of influenza-like illness in the surrounding communities. (cdc.gov)
  • The scope of this document has been expanded from the previous version which provided recommendations during poultry outbreaks, to include the human health issues that may arise from confirmed cases of AI in wild birds or single cases in domestic birds. (canada.ca)
  • Methodology: We compared reports of bird outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 in Egypt for 2006-2011 compiled by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) EMPRESi reporting system with confirmed human H5N1 cases reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) for Egypt during the same time period. (elsevier.com)
  • Principal Findings: Both human cases and bird outbreaks showed a cyclic pattern for the country as a whole, and there was a statistically significant temporal correlation between the data streams. (elsevier.com)
  • CDC has guidance for specific groups of people with exposure to poultry, including poultry workers and people responding to outbreaks of avian influenza A(H5N1) in poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • Nearly a half-million poultry deaths: There are 3 avian influenza outbreaks in Victoria. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Remove constraint Titles: Studies in influenza and pneumonia. (nih.gov)
  • US researchers believe they have found a way that influenza makes people more prone to potentially deadly pneumonia. (abc.net.au)
  • Common bacterial organisms causing pneumonia worldwide include Streptococcus pneumonia (leading bacterial cause when isolated), H. influenza type b and non-typeable, Staphlococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and non-typhoid Salmonella. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Avian influenza is an infectious disease of birds caused by type A strains of influenza virus. (canada.ca)
  • When influenza has resulted in severe epizootics, characterized by sudden onset, severe illness and rapid death of affected birds/flocks, with a mortality rate that can approach 100%, the strain is referred to as "highly pathogenic avian influenza" or HPAI based on the observed morbidity and mortality in affected bird population(s). (canada.ca)
  • The U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are the lead federal departments for avian influenza outbreak investigation and control in wild birds, and USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is the lead agency for such activities in domestic birds such as poultry. (hstoday.us)
  • At the governorate level, the first outbreak in birds in a season usually but not always preceded the first human case, and the time lag between events varied widely, suggesting regional differences in zoonotic risk and/or surveillance effectiveness. (elsevier.com)
  • Avian influenza is transmitted by infected wild (water) birds and their faeces. (wur.nl)
  • We also examine wild birds and waterfowl in order to rule out avian influenza as a cause of the birds' death. (wur.nl)
  • Starting in January, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) detected highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus in wild birds in the United States followed by multiple detections in U.S. commercial poultry and backyard bird flocks [1,2]. (cdc.gov)
  • There are many different strains of avian influenza that cause varying degrees of illness in birds. (tn.us)
  • The most common types of avian influenza are routinely detected in wild birds and cause little concern. (tn.us)
  • Highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza are of greater concern because they are easily spread among birds and are typically deadly to domesticated poultry. (tn.us)
  • If domestic poultry or other farm birds exhibit signs of avian influenza (ranging from sneezing, coughing and ruffled feathers to sudden and high numbers of bird losses), bird owners should consult their local veterinary professional and notify state or federal animal health officials. (tn.us)
  • Keep in mind that movement of domesticated birds is risky with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) circulating in our environment. (tn.us)
  • If the recent increase in avian influenza cases has you concerned, you likely have nothing to worry about and don't need to take any added measures, according to a University of Alberta expert on influenza in birds. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In light of the nation-wide outbreak of Avian Influenza, it is more important than ever to follow cleaning and sanitation steps and only purchase birds with known health histories. (mainechristmastree.com)
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, recent detections of this strain of influenza in birds in Maine and several other states present a low risk to the public . (mainechristmastree.com)
  • Bird flu" is a severe form of avian influenza, a viral disease that normally only infects birds and pigs. (acsh.org)
  • The H5N1 avian influenza virus, more commonly known as the Asian bird flu, is a unique strain because it is not only highly pathogenic in poultry and other birds but has developed the rare ability to transmit directly from birds to humans in a limited number of cases. (acsh.org)
  • Unfortunately, it can also be fatal to mammals (including humans) who come into close contact with infected birds. (celitron.com)
  • It is highly suspected that this how chickens can become infected with the virus, with avian influenza spreading from the migrating birds to poultry. (celitron.com)
  • Humans can contract the disease by close contact with birds or their carcass, and even their droppings. (celitron.com)
  • About two years ago, a similar incident occurred in Lancashire and Preston, where two flocks of pheasants (over 11 000 birds) had become infected with avian influenza. (celitron.com)
  • In addition, non-disease-causing viral vectors are a popular choice as a delivery system for the influenza virus antigens. (pasteur.fr)
  • Upon challenge with influenza virus, the vaccinated mice exhibited decreased viral load in the lungs and a delay in mortality. (pasteur.fr)
  • Cases of influenza can be confirmed with possible viral culture for H5N1 or positive PCR for H5N1 or positive IFA test using monoclonal antibodies against H5N1 or a four-fold rise in H5N1 specific antibody titre. (who.int)
  • The influenza nucleoprotein (NP) binds to the viral genomic RNA and is essential for its replication. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cells exposed to the avian-human H1N1 virus showed increased synthesis of viral neuraminidase, previously reported to induce fever-producing cytokines, but no detectable increase in production of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α measured by immunoassay, or decrease in interleukin-1 inhibitor activity by bioassay. (utmb.edu)
  • The most common viral pathogens recovered from hospitalized patients admitted with CAP include human rhinovirus and influenza . (medscape.com)
  • Since the clinical signs of avian influenza can resemble other diseases, such as Newcastle Disease in poultry, the diagnosis of avian influenza must be made on the basis of laboratory confirmation. (canada.ca)
  • Avian Influenza (AI) is a serious disease of poultry occuring more and more frequently all over the world. (europa.eu)
  • Animal husbandry systems where humans live in close cohabitation with poultry and pigs are considered as potential sources of new strains capable to cross the species barrier from animal to man. (europa.eu)
  • direct contact with infected poultry appears to be the favourite way of transmission from poultry to humans. (europa.eu)
  • In a multivariate risk model, lower temperature, lower urbanization, higher poultry density, and the recent occurrence of a bird outbreak were associated with increased risk of a human case of HPAI in the same governorate, although the positive predictive value of a bird outbreak was low. (elsevier.com)
  • Within the European Union legislation exists to prevent avian influenza from being introduced or spread via infected poultry or transport. (wur.nl)
  • There is a need for systematic avian influenza surveillance in live bird markets in Pakistan to monitor for potential A(H5Nx) variants that may arise from poultry populations, including mutations associated with increased haemagglutinin affinity to human α-2,6 receptors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Detection of A(H5) virus in one person who was involved in culling of poultry does not change the human health risk assessment, which remains low for the general public. (cdc.gov)
  • In Vietnam, 8 of 9 patients with influenza A (H5N1) reported close contact with sick or dead poultry ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We describe findings of investigations of urban patients with influenza A (H5N1), who had no known direct contact with sick poultry or poultry that died of illness in China. (cdc.gov)
  • Parrots, parakeets, and other psittacines are not poultry but are susceptible to avian influenza. (tn.us)
  • There is no evidence to suggest that eating properly cooked poultry or eggs could transmit the virus to humans. (tn.us)
  • As we navigate a global human pandemic, avian influenza (or "bird flu") has been detected in domestic poultry across Victoria. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By contrast, the policy in the United States for control of avian influenza in poultry is eradication or "stamping out" of the disease. (acsh.org)
  • The first case of avian influenza in poultry in April 1983 was caused by a virus of low pathogenicity, and by October of that year the virus had changed to a highly pathogenic form. (acsh.org)
  • Veterinarians working at the fair stated that influenza-like illness had occurred among pigs at the fair. (cdc.gov)
  • This week's FluView is reporting 15 states with widespread influenza activity and 5 states with high influenza-like-illness activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, there are more than one billion cases of influenza globally each year, resulting in approximately five million cases of severe illness and up to half a million deaths. (jnj.com)
  • China CDC conducted epidemiologic investigations by interviewing confirmed influenza (H5N1) patients and their relatives, reviewing medical records, and visiting patient households and places visited by patients within 2 weeks of illness onset. (cdc.gov)
  • However, peak workplace absenteeism was correlated with the highest occurrence of both influenza-like illness and influenza-positive laboratory tests. (cdc.gov)
  • People with influenza like illness (ILI) must go through laboratory testing for the confirmation of virus. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • The figure below displays the number of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases reported during the 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 influenza seasons. (wvidep.org)
  • The figure below demonstrates the percent of visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) reported by West Virginia sentinel providers during the 2010-11 influenza season. (wvidep.org)
  • Influenza-associated hospitalizations have been a reportable condition in Utah since 2005, and surveillance for influenza hospitalizations has been a valuable tool for identifying and tracking the population impact of serious influenza illness. (blogspot.com)
  • During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Utah public health officials used comparisons with hospitalization data from three previous influenza seasons to rapidly assess the impact of 2009 H1N1 and enable public health authorities to target persons at greatest risk for severe illness. (blogspot.com)
  • This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which determined that 1,327 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations were reported, compared with an average of 435 seasonal influenza hospitalizations during three previous influenza seasons, and 25.5% of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations resulted in severe illness (intensive-care unit [ICU] admission or death), compared with 14.0% of seasonal influenza hospitalizations. (blogspot.com)
  • Surveillance for influenza hospitalizations can provide essential data to public health authorities that will help them identify those populations at greatest risk for severe illness. (blogspot.com)
  • A confirmed case of influenza (H5N1) was defined according to World Health Organization case definitions ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Member States in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) communicate and notify the World Health Organization of any human cases of A(HxNy) through the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) mechanism. (who.int)
  • An influenza virus isolated from a 32-year-old Wisconsin woman who had been exposed to pigs has been identified as a swine influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • A paired serum specimen showed a fourfold or greater rise in HI antibody against swine influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Further investigation is under way to determine whether the swine influenza virus may have infected others with known exposure to pigs at the fair or from the ill woman to persons with whom she had close contact. (cdc.gov)
  • Swine influenza virus. (medscape.com)
  • RSS feed with the new postings from the Public Health Agency of Canada site about the human swine influenza. (bvsalud.org)
  • The actual swine flu virus does not typically infect humans. (dmagazine.com)
  • Swine flu has become a nickname for H1N1, an influenza type A virus that infects humans. (dmagazine.com)
  • This nickname was given due to the similarities seen in the lab between human H1N1 and the swine equivalent. (dmagazine.com)
  • It has entry terms H1N1 Virus and Swine-Origin Influenza A H1N1 Virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • To infect its victims, influenza A heads for the lungs, where it latches onto sialic acid on the surface of cells. (fomatmedical.com)
  • A deadly strain of bird flu known to infect humans is spreading rapidly and silently through chicken populations across China. (abc.net.au)
  • The strain of bird flu found in the chickens was H5N8, which affects a variety of chickens, but has not yet been found to infect humans. (flutrackers.com)
  • Scientists are to create mutant forms of the H7N9 bird flu virus that has emerged in China so they can gauge the risk of it becoming a lethal human pandemic. (abc.net.au)
  • Manual for the laboratory diagnosis and virological surveillance of influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza research database: an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza research and surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • 7th Joint WHO Regional Office for Europe and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Annual European Influenza and COVID-19 surveillance meeting. (who.int)
  • From 7 to 8 October 2021, the 7th Joint WHO Regional Office for Europe and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (‎ECDC)‎ European Influenza and COVID-19 Surveillance Meeting was held online. (who.int)
  • The increased need for accurate influenza laboratory surveillance data in the European Union required formalisation of the existing network of collaborating national influenza reference laboratories participating in the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). (nivel.nl)
  • The objective is to provide high quality reference services for human influenza surveillance, early warning and pandemic preparedness in Europe. (nivel.nl)
  • After passing the tests were made according to the protocols for doctors and this was confirmed Friday that it was a case of human influenza virus, so the family was put under medical surveillance. (flutrackers.com)
  • Background: The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic (transmissible between animals and humans) in origin, and therefore integrated surveillance of disease events in humans and animals has been recommended to support effective global response to disease emergence. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Integrating data streams of surveillance for human and animal cases of zoonotic disease holds promise for better prediction of disease risk and identification of environmental and regional factors that can affect risk. (elsevier.com)
  • Such efforts can also point out gaps in human and animal surveillance systems and generate hypotheses regarding disease transmission. (elsevier.com)
  • All suspected cases of influenza A (H5N1) are reported through a national surveillance system to the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC). (cdc.gov)
  • Exploring national surveillance for health-related workplace absenteeism: lessons learned from the 2009 influenza a pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • A person has tested positive for avian influenza A(H5) virus (H5 bird flu) in the U.S., as reported by Colorado and confirmed by CDC. (hstoday.us)
  • On this page, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WVBR) informs you about the latest bird flu (avian influenza) developments in the Netherlands. (wur.nl)
  • What is bird flu or avian influenza? (wur.nl)
  • Avian influenza (AI) is also known as bird flu. (wur.nl)
  • Some types of bird flu are transmissible to humans (zoonosis). (wur.nl)
  • Avian influenza (often referred to as bird flu ) is a virus that affects bird populations. (tn.us)
  • China revealed the first human case of H10N3 bird flu on Tuesday, an announcement that has so far raised no alarm among world health authorities. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The avian influenza (also known as bird flu) is a virus that can spread from bird to bird, or from bird to human. (celitron.com)
  • Influenza A is known for causing large epidemics and even pandemic (beyond borders) in humans. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI). (europa.eu)
  • Influenza virus was isolated postmortem from a sputum specimen obtained on September 14 and was identified by monoclonal antibody as type A virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Sialic acid receptor specificity on erythrocytes affects detection of antibody to avian influenza haemagglutinin. (cdc.gov)
  • Using a biopanning based approach a large array of scFvs against H5N1 virus were isolated from the human semi-synthetic ETH-2 phage antibody library. (kent.ac.uk)
  • These studies provide proof of the concept that human mAbs in scFv format with well-defined H5N1 recognition patterns and in vitro neutralizing activity can be easily and rapidly isolated by biopanning selection of an entirely artificial antibody repertoire using inactivated H5N1 virus as a bait. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the zonulin testing elisa reagents distributed by Genprice. (influenza-x.org)
  • Infectious diseases spread from one country to the other very easily due to rapid globalisation, human migration and international travels. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Adrian Wildfire, Project Director of Infectious Diseases and Human Challenge Unit at SGS, said: "This partnership combines expertise from both companies with a view to bring a truly life changing therapy to the market. (manufacturingchemist.com)
  • Wageningen Bioveterinary Research (WBVR) is the designated institute in the Netherlands that performs diagnosis of avian influenza. (wur.nl)
  • Here we generated pig influenza-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from H1N1pdm09 infected pigs. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • For example, 'Hong Kong flu' emerged in 1968 by probable genetic reassortment between the previously circulating human strains of 'Asian flu' and an animal virus that donated the gene for the new virus hemagglutinin (2). (cdc.gov)
  • As a proof-of-concept, we have designed a novel influenza virus immunogen based on the NP backbone containing human T cell epitopes for M1, NS1, NP, PB1 and PA proteins (referred as NPmix) as well as a construct containing the conserved regions of influenza virus neuraminidase (N-terminal) and hemagglutinin (C-terminal) (referred as NA-HA). (pasteur.fr)
  • Influenza A produces numerous variations each of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, all of which are antigens within the pathogen that provoke an immune system response. (fomatmedical.com)
  • Understanding the environmental drivers of influenza transmissibility would contribute to the early intervention and long-term control strategies of seasonal influenza, a serious public health problem that causes considerable morbidity and mortality each year. (ersjournals.com)
  • Laboratory testing is performed by the National Influenza Center of China CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • The laboratory evaluation of a nasal wash specimen done in the emergency room was positive for human metapneumovirus. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • A 2006 survey will also be carried out to provide an early warning for the possible entry of highly pathogenic avian influenza into Canada. (canada.ca)
  • The first avian influenza outbreak since 2017 has been confirmed in Europe on the 10th December 2019, at a chicken farm in Suffolk, United Kingdom. (celitron.com)
  • Influenza virus is a leading cause of disease worldwide, affecting up to 500 million people each year. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Influenza remains an important disease in humans and animals. (nature.com)
  • The United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention has more information at a federal level about seasonal influenza. (michigan.gov)
  • We can incorporate fine-grained human mobility behaviors into disease spreading models like the Global Epidemic and Mobility (GLEaM) one [ 14 ], which already makes use of socio-demographic data and of aggregated data on population mobility patterns. (springeropen.com)
  • According to experts there can be no transmission of the disease from dogs to humans. (whitedust.net)
  • Among black women aged 45-54 years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease death rate decreased 60% from 28.4 per 100,000 in 2006 to 11.5 in 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • Offering in-depth coverage of all areas of health and disease, Human Diseases and Conditions, 3rd ed. offers current and accurate information on approximately 450 diseases and conditions. (credoreference.com)
  • RSS feed with updates on influenza A (H1N1) at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) website. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the following article, we'll update you about the latest news concerning avian influenza, and one the best method you can choose for animal disease control. (celitron.com)
  • However, it is important to note that one cannot catch the disease by eating thoroughly cooked chickens or eggs, and that the virus does not spread from human to human…so far. (celitron.com)
  • The disease coordinate for H1N1 in humans is Influenza, Human. (bvsalud.org)
  • A big-name corporate player is Johnson & Johnson, via its subsidiary Janssen, which uses a genetically modified human adenovirus technology it calls AdVac. (allianceforscience.org)
  • How Common Is Human Metapneumovirus? (pediatriceducation.org)
  • Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family that is closely related to avian metapneumovirus. (pediatriceducation.org)
  • In the 1960's when turkeys were often raised outdoors, cases of low pathogenic avian influenza were often reported in the autumn. (canada.ca)
  • The complex questions of what makes an influenza virus transmissible from one human to another and from one species to another, as well as how the immune system interacts with the virus, will require the active collaboration and unencumbered work of many scientific groups. (nature.com)
  • In a study on immune-compromised mice, the treatment reduced influenza A mortality from 100 percent to 25 percent over 14 days. (fomatmedical.com)
  • Influenza is perhaps the best characterized model for studying the immune response to virus, and influenza and its secondary pneumonias represent a major public health concern in the U.S., particularly among the elderly. (msu.edu)
  • Unlike the 1968 event, the case in Wisconsin probably represents direct transmission of influenza virus from a pig to a human host. (cdc.gov)
  • Airborne transmission of influenza A/H5N1 virus between ferrets. (cdc.gov)
  • Aged mice also exhibit altered innate immunity, including a decrease in inducible natural killer (NK) cell activity, although such changes have not been consistent in humans. (msu.edu)