The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 10 and neuraminidase 7. It has been isolated from a variety of wild and domestic animals including ducks, emu, and mink. It was found for the first time in humans in 2004.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

Interrupting the transmission of respiratory tract infections: theory and practice. (1/7176)

Interruption of transmission has always been one of the most attractive approaches for infection control. The technologies available were severely limited before the development of appropriate vaccines. Mathematically, the proportion of those who need to be immune to interrupt transmission can be derived from the Ro, which represents the number of new cases infected by a single case when all contacts are susceptible. Purely respiratory infections have critical characteristics affecting transmission that are different from key childhood vaccine-preventable diseases spread by the respiratory route. They include frequent reinfections and antigenic changes of the agents. Pragmatic approaches to understanding their potential effect can be found in experimental and programmatic use of vaccines such as those for Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus infections. Results of these experiences can in turn strengthen the development of transmission theory.  (+info)

Potential advantages of DNA immunization for influenza epidemic and pandemic planning. (2/7176)

Immunization with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept of DNA immunization involves insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and where it induces humoral and cellular immunity. The most effective routes and methods for DNA immunization are bombardment with particles coated with DNA ("gene gun" technique), followed by the intramuscular and intradermal routes. DNA immunization technology has the potential to induce immunity to all antigens that can be completely encoded in DNA, which therefore include all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunization results in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, like that achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. The DNA immunization strategy has the potential to rapidly provide a new vaccine in the face of an emerging influenza pandemic.  (+info)

Evaluation of clinical case definitions of influenza: detailed investigation of patients during the 1995-1996 epidemic in France. (3/7176)

Using clinical predictors, we evaluated clinical case definitions of influenza during the 1995-1996 outbreak in France. Thirty-five general practitioners collected virological specimens and clinical data. Predictors of influenza virus infection were selected with logistic regression models. The results varied with the influenza virus subtype: temperature of >38.2 degrees C, stiffness or myalgia, rhinorrhea, and cough were predictive of influenza A/H3N2, whereas fatigue, lacrimation or conjunctival injection, and the absence of stiffness or myalgia were predictive of influenza A/H1N1. On the basis of this analysis and data from the literature, 12 clinical case definitions were evaluated for their abilities to diagnose influenza virus infection. They were associated with positive predictive values of 27% to 40% and negative predictive values of 80% to 91%. We conclude that focused studies evaluating clinical case definitions of influenza with use of subsets of patients should accompany population-based disease surveillance for optimal estimates of the disease burden associated with influenza epidemics.  (+info)

Biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of H5N1 influenza A virus isolates from humans in Hong Kong. (4/7176)

An H5N1 avian influenza A virus was transmitted to humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and PC6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. The clinical outcomes of infection in Hong Kong residents ranged widely, from mild respiratory disease to multiple organ failure leading to death. Therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of influenza due to these H5N1 isolates, we investigated their virulence in mice. The results identified two distinct groups of viruses: group 1, for which the dose lethal for 50% of mice (MLD50) was between 0.3 and 11 PFU, and group 2, for which the MLD50 was more than 10(3) PFU. One day after intranasal inoculation of mice with 100 PFU of group 1 viruses, the virus titer in lungs was 10(7) PFU/g or 3 log units higher than that for group 2 viruses. Both types of viruses had replicated to high titers (>10(6) PFU/g) in the lungs by day 3 and maintained these titers through day 6. More importantly, only the group 1 viruses caused systemic infection, replicating in nonrespiratory organs, including the brain. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the replication of a group 1 virus in brain neurons and glial cells and in cardiac myofibers. Phylogenetic analysis of all viral genes showed that both groups of Hong Kong H5N1 viruses had formed a lineage distinct from those of other viruses and that genetic reassortment between H5N1 and H1 or H3 human viruses had not occurred. Since mice and humans harbor both the furin and the PC6 proteases, we suggest that the virulence mechanism responsible for the lethality of influenza viruses in birds also operates in mammalian hosts. The failure of some H5N1 viruses to produce systemic infection in our model indicates that multiple, still-to-be-identified, factors contribute to the severity of H5N1 infection in mammals. In addition, the ability of these viruses to produce systemic infection in mice and the clear differences in pathogenicity among the isolates studied here indicate that this system provides a useful model for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza virus infection in mammals.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (5/7176)

From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak.  (+info)

Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy. (6/7176)

This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners.  (+info)

Influenza A virus accelerates neutrophil apoptosis and markedly potentiates apoptotic effects of bacteria. (7/7176)

Neutrophils are recruited into the airway in the early phase of uncomplicated influenza A virus (IAV) infection and during the bacterial superinfections that are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in IAV-infected subjects. In this report, we show that IAV accelerates neutrophil apoptosis. Unopsonized Escherichia coli had similar effects, although apoptotic effects of opsonized E coli were greater. When neutrophils were treated with both IAV and unopsonized E coli, a marked enhancement of the rate and extent of neutrophil apoptosis occurred as compared with that caused by either pathogen alone. Treatment of neutrophils with IAV markedly increased phagocytosis of E coli. Simultaneous treatment of neutrophils with IAV and E coli also elicited greater hydrogen peroxide production than did either pathogen alone. IAV increased neutrophil expression of Fas antigen and Fas ligand, and it also increased release of Fas ligand into the cell supernatant. These findings may have relevance to the understanding of inflammatory responses to IAV in vivo and of bacterial superinfection of IAV-infected subjects.  (+info)

A mathematical approach to epidemic control. (8/7176)

A mathematical model of an influenza epidemic which occurred in 1961 is suggested. The mathematics imply conclusions on the practical control of similar outbreaks. This is a technique applicable to one general practice.  (+info)

Influenza viruses primarily include influenza A virus and influenza B virus. Due to high variability, influenza A viruses, including H1N1, H5N1, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N8, are the typical culprits of pandemic influenza [9-12], while influenza B viruses only lead to limited influenza epidemics [13]. Influenza virus infection always leads to high fever, cough, runny nose and myalgia; many patients have severe pneumonia. Heart, kidney or other organ failure may cause death directly in the most serious cases.. The WHO has established a global influenza program (GIP) to monitor influenza case reports and carry out epidemiological analysis of human influenza, human avian influenza infection, human swine influenza infection and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). GIP also promotes the development of and collaboration among, for instance, influenza laboratories, cessation of influenza pandemics, influenza vaccines production, monitoring data sharing, health education [14]. In ...
Global Influenza Medication Market estimate based on the production chain, examination of various market participants, the general revenue earned by each player, production capability of Global Influenza Medication market, Future Strategies, Innovation, Technological trends with SWOT Analysis. Global Influenza Medication Market represented xx billion in 2018 and is projected to reach at a CAGR of xx% from 2019 to 2025. This Report covers a valuable source of perceptive information for business strategists.. Competitive Analysis:. The key manufacturers of the Global Influenza Medication Market: Bristol-Myers Squibb , AstraZeneca , Eli Lilly , Roche , GSK , Novartis , Pfizer , Sanofi , Bayer , Celgene , Seqirus , ,. Global Influenza Medication Market Report offers overall idea about key players and comprehensively analyses of their market position in terms of ranking, core competencies along with detailing the competitive landscape for the market leaders and rolling demand for the product from the ...
Background: Human Parainfluenza viruses are a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly in children. Of the four Parainfluenza virus serotypes, Parainfluenza 4 is least well characterised from both the clinical, epidemiological and genetic perspectives. Methods: Flocked nose or throat swabs from a previous study investigating viral prevalence in community-based adults suffering from influenza like illness were used as the basis for this study. Samples in which no virus was detected using a 16 viral respiratory pathogen real-time PCR panel were barcoded and pyrosequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium chemistry. The sequences were analysed using the VirusHunter bioinformatic pipeline. Sanger sequencing was used to complete the detected Parainfluenza 4 coding region. Results: A variant Parainfluenza 4 subtype b strain (QLD-01) was discovered in an otherwise healthy adult who presented with influenza like illness. Strain QLD-01 shared genomic similarities ...
Feeling INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS while using Ibuprofen? INFLUENZA LIKE ILLNESS Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ibuprofen Reports and Side Effects.
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
During the 2009--10 influenza season, the second wave of influenza activity from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) occurred in the United States; few seasonal influenza viruses were detected. Influenza activity* peaked in late-October and was associated with higher pediatric mortality and higher rates of hospitalizations in children and young adults than in previous seasons. The proportion of visits to health-care providers for influenza-like illness (ILI), as reported in the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet), was among the highest since ILI surveillance began in 1997 in its current form. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2009--10 influenza season (August 30, 2009--June 12, 2010).. U.S. Viral Surveillance. Since April 2009, the beginning of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, through June 12, 2010, approximately 740,000 influenza specimens were tested for influenza, and the number of laboratory-confirmed positives was approximately ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in ...
Author Summary Human influenza infections have a pronounced seasonal cycle in temperate regions. Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that low humidity conditions in the winter may increase virus survival and enable the virus to transmit efficiently between hosts. However, seasonal influenza activity in some tropical locations occurs during the rainy season, whereas other tropical locations do not experience a well-defined influenza season. The primary goal of this study was to identify the relationship between the timing of seasonal influenza epidemics and climate variability across the globe. We show the importance of thresholds in humidity, temperature and precipitation that affect the epidemiology, and potentially the transmission route, of influenza. A better understanding of the environmental, demographic and behavioral drivers of influenza seasonality is important for optimizing intervention strategies, especially in low and middle-latitude regions.
These findings demonstrate a strong association between early, sustained, and layered application of nonpharmaceutical interventions and mitigating the consequences of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States. In planning for future severe influenza pandemics, nonpharmaceutical interven …
Provisional data reported as of February 10. Additional information about influenza activity is updated each Friday and is available from CDC at Levels of activity are 1) widespread: outbreaks of influenza or increases in influenza-like illness (ILI) cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least half the regions of a state; 2) regional: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in at least two but less than half the regions of a state; 3) local: outbreaks of influenza or increases in ILI cases and recent laboratory-confirmed influenza in a single region of a state; 4) sporadic: small numbers of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or a single influenza outbreak reported but no increase in cases of ILI; and 5) no activity. § Widespread: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, and Wyoming; regional: Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, ...
Background The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase™) is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1). Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Methods and Findings The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus ...
Of the 400 contacts in the group that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 11 (3 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 40 of 392 contacts (10 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-an individual protective efficacy of 73 percent. In the group of 135 affected households that received post-exposure prophylaxis, 10 (7 percent) developed febrile laboratory confirmed influenza illness compared to 27 of the 136 households (20 percent) in the group that received treatment after influenza symptoms appeared-a household protective efficacy of 63 percent. These findings suggest that treatment of the index case, coupled with simultaneous prophylaxis with Tamiflu of household contacts, can significantly reduce the secondary spread of influenza in households ...
Influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza-related hospitalization during a season with mixed outbreaks of four influenza viruses: a test-negative case-control study in adults in Canada Academic Article ...
INTRODUCTION Determining the optimal time to vaccinate is important for influenza vaccination programmes. Here, we assessed the temporal characteristics of influenza epidemics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres and in the tropics, and discuss their implications for vaccination programmes. METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of surveillance data between 2000 and 2014 from the Global Influenza B Study database. The seasonal peak of influenza was defined as the week with the most reported cases (overall, A, and B) in the season. The duration of seasonal activity was assessed using the maximum proportion of influenza cases during three consecutive months and the minimum number of months with 80% of cases in the season. We also assessed whether co-circulation of A and B virus types affected the duration of influenza epidemics. RESULTS 212 influenza seasons and 571,907 cases were included from 30 countries. In tropical countries, the seasonal influenza activity lasted longer and the peaks ...
We evaluated the performance of the Becton Dickinson Veritor™ System Flu A + B rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) to detect influenza viruses in respiratory specimens from patients enrolled at five surveillance sites in Kenya, a tropical country where influenza seasonality is variable. Nasal swab (NS) and nasopharyngeal (NP)/oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected from patients with influenza like illness and/or severe acute respiratory infection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RIDT using NS specimens were evaluated against nasal swabs tested by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). The performance parameter results were expressed as 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated using binomial exact methods, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Two-sample Z tests were used to test for differences in sample proportions. Analysis was performed using SAS software version 9.3. From July 2013 to July
During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. Co-circulation of both B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineage viruses were reported in some countries.. In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically.. In Asia, activity of influenza viruses in various proportions increased in some countries ranging from local to regional levels. Influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated in Japan and the Republic of Korea, while influenza B predominated in China. In some other countries, A(H3N2) ...
Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of the Spanish flu virus shows it to have genes adapted from both human and avian strains. Pigs can also be infected with human, avian, and swine influenza viruses, allow for mixtures of genes (reassortment) to create a new virus, which can cause an antigenic shift to a new influenza ...
The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of the investigational fluID Rapid Influenza Test and the BinaxNOW® Influenza A & B Test in detecting influenza type A and influenza type B, with respect to fresh nasal wash / aspirate specimens collected from patients presenting with signs and symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI). Specimens to be evaluated in this study will be enrolled in a concurrent clinical study per protocol FLU-05, entitled Prospective Evaluation of the fluID Rapid Influenza Test. All subjects enrolled in the FLU-05 study will have consented to having their samples used in future investigations involving the fluID Test.. This study will be conducted during the 2008-2009 influenza season in North America and Hong Kong, which is anticipated to run from November 2008 to May 2009. Should the influenza season conclude in North America and Hong Kong prior to the attainment of the minimum target enrollment specified in the FLU-05 study, study sites in ...
National Influenza Surveillance Centre. The Laboratory was established in 1962 and recognized as National Influenza Centre by WHO in March 1977.This centre is engaged in influenza surveillance programme and allied research activities. The samples are collected from ILI patients from and surrounding areas of Kasauli.. The influenza surveillance work is carried out by isolating the influenza viruses from clinical materials i.e. (throat washes/swabs) collected from suspected cases of Influenza so as to keep watch on the prevalence of influenza viruses. The objective of surveillance includes the following:-. ...
The rapid evolution of the influenza A virus poses a global challenge to public health. Recent events, such as the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, have heightened concerns of potential pandemics. Thus, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of influenza virus evolution. Due to the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies, large-scale sequencing of influenza viruses has become routine work in influenza surveillance, and analyses of these large-scale viral sequence data have significantly enhanced our understanding of influenza evolution. However, opportunities remain to extract even more useful information to inform influenza prevention and control strategy. As we know, seasonal influenza prevention and control rely largely on the availability of effective vaccines. However, timely and accurate recommendation of vaccine strains is quite challenging, as evidenced by frequent antigenic mismatches between the recommended vaccine strains and circulating ...
According to Thompson, et al. (2003), approximately 51,000 people per year died annually due to influenza related diseases between 1990 and 1999. Mortality rates are appreciably higher for those over 65 years of age.. In order to reduce mortality and morbidity from influenza in the U.S., the CDCs Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) released its Prevention and Control of Influenza guide this summer. The report documents important information regarding influenza and gives recommendations to patients and providers regarding when/for whom/in what manner influenza vaccinations should be administered.. According to this paper, influenza is divided into two types: influenza A and influenza B. Influenza A is further divided into two subgroups: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Influenza represents a unique family of viruses since antibodies developed against one strain of influenza offer little or no protection from other strains. There are also two types of vaccines. The live ...
The influenza A and B viruses that routinely spread in people are responsible for seasonal flu epidemics each year. Over the course of a flu season (which typically occurs between October and May), different types of influenza are passed from person-to-person, causing illness. Usually, vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine provides some protection against the strains of flu that are circulating at the time. CDC recommends that everyone 6 months and older get a seasonal flu vaccine each year.. A novel influenza virus is an influenza A virus with a subtype that is different from the flu viruses that usually spread in people (H3N2 and H1N1). Some examples include H7N9, and H5N1. Occasionally, strains of influenza that normally affect birds, pigs, and other animals can infect humans. When flu viruses that normally affect pigs (swine flu viruses) cause infections in humans, these viruses are called variant influenza viruses. One example of a variant flu virus is H3N2v.. Sometimes, human ...
Since 2009, in Ontario, reportable disease surveillance data has been used for timely in-season estimates of influenza severity (i.e., hospitalizations and deaths). Due to changes in reporting requirements influenza reporting no longer captures these indicators of severity, necessitating exploration of other potential sources of data. The purpose of this study was to complete a retrospective analysis to assess the comparability of influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths captured in the Ontario reportable disease information system to those captured in Ontarios hospital-based discharge database. Hospitalizations and deaths of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases reported during the 2010-11 to 2013-14 influenza seasons were analyzed. Information on hospitalizations and deaths for laboratory-confirmed influenza cases were obtained from two databases; the integrated Public Health Information System, which is the provincial reportable disease database, and the Discharge Abstract Database, which
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Comparison of the Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Adult Patients with Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza A or B during the 2011-2012 Influenza Season in Korea. T2 - A Multi-Center Study. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - So, Byung Hak. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Cheong, Hee Jin. AU - Seo, Yu Bin. AU - Choi, Sung Hyuk. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Kim, Young Keun. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2013/5/3. Y1 - 2013/5/3. N2 - Background:During the 2011/2012 winter influenza season in the Republic of Korea, influenza A (H3N2) was the predominant virus in the first peak period of influenza activity during the second half of January 2012. On the other hand, influenza B was the predominant virus in the second peak period of influenza activity during the second half of March 2012. The objectives of this study were to compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ...
Influenza. Action requested: Implement practices to prevent spread of influenza.. Background & Recommendations:. The influenza season is upon us in earnest. As of 1/9/16, the Health District had received reports of only four influenza-related hospitalizations and no influenza-related deaths, heightened school absenteeism, or outbreaks in long term care facilities. However, Providence Regional Medical Center Everett has reported more influenza-related hospitalizations in the past week and The Everett Clinic has reported marked increase in testing and positive results for influenza. Nationally, rates remained low as of last week, but reports are increasing. Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating.. All health care facilities should implement practices to prevent the spread of influenza. All health care providers and ancillary staff who come in direct contact with patients should be vaccinated against influenza; health care ...
Influenza virus kills nearly 500,000 individuals each year and this number can increase dramatically during a pandemic with a novel strain of influenza virus. Infections with influenza virus can be prevented by antiviral drugs like oseltamivir or vaccinations. However, antiviral drugs are not prescribed prophylactically and vaccination is not monitored for efficacy providing ample opportunity for influenza to infect and cause disease. If we can identify individuals that are at increased risk of severe influenza virus we can tailor our care to provide drugs prophylactically to improve health and longevity. The goal of our research is to define genetic biomarkers that predict susceptibility to influenza disease. The interferon pathway is very important for restricting influenza virus replication and therefore disease. Individuals with unique or rare polymorphisms in essential genes in this pathway are more susceptible to influenza virus and more likely to require hospital care or succumb to ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
EDITORIAL. The scramble for influenza vaccine in 2010. In 2009 South Africa, like the rest of the world, experienced the swine flu pandemic caused by influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1). The influenza epidemic curve for South Africa during 2009 testified to the introduction of the virus, as it superseded the influenza A H3N2 strain (H3N2) as the predominant circulating virus at the end of the season.1 Predicting patterns of influenza is difficult, and although most influenza cases in South Africa in 2010 may also be due to H1N1, it is uncertain to what degree H3N2 and influenza B will play their parts. Mercifully, H1N1 in 2009 caused mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in most infected persons; with 12 640 laboratory-confirmed cases (a portion of the true number), only 93 laboratory-confirmed H1N1-associated deaths occurred.2,3. When a new pandemic influenza virus is introduced into a susceptible population, previously healthy people are at risk of severe disease, as are high-risk groups with ...
Alicia provided highlights of the influenza surveillance report from week 47, ending on November 25, 2017. Overall, influenza activity is increasing throughout the country.. The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was 7.2%.. The majority of specimens (75.6%) tested at public health laboratories were influenza A, and 24.4% were influenza B. Influenza A H3 continues to be the dominant strain reported, though smaller numbers of influenza A (H1) and influenza B also have been reported. For the 2017-2018 season as a whole, 89.1% of influenza A specimens were H3. For the B viruses for which lineage information was available, 62.4% were B Yamagata. Specimens characterized since May have been antigenically and genetically similar to the reference virus for this seasons vaccine. There has been no antiviral resistance detected to date.. Nationwide, influenza-like illness (ILI) activity was at 2.3%, above the national baseline of 2.2%. All 10 of the ...
Every year, more than one billion people suffer from influenza globally. It results in about 3 to 5 million cases of severe illness and about 50,000 deaths, according to World Health Organization (WHO).. Influenza, commonly called as flu is an infectious disease caused by a virus. The continuous and excessive use of many approved antiviral medications leads to the development of resistance to these drugs. It worsens the situation and increases the count of serious illness and death.. Johnson and Johnsons investigational antiviral drug, pimodivir has demonstrated a significant reduction in the count of virus in patients with a type of influenza.. Now, the company is hopeful to treat those influenza patients with pimodivir who get resistant to the approved line of antiviral medications.. Pimodivir is tested as monotherapy or in combination with the other approved flu drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for the treatment of acute uncomplicated seasonal influenza.. Apart from oseltamivir, zanamivir ...
Texas Pandemic Influenza Preparedness. Cynthia Morgan, PhD, RN Pandemic Influenza Program Coordinator, Acting Anita Wheeler, BSN, RN School Nurse Consultant. Agenda. Everything you wanted to know about pandemic influenza but couldnt find anyone to ask What you can do to prepare your...
Our prospective surveillance in a district in Kenya is one of the first to report directly-measured rates of influenza-associated hospitalization in African adults and children.4 In developing countries, sentinel hospital surveillance can provide data for describing influenza epidemiology and seasonality, characterizing the circulating strains of influenza virus (to guide vaccinations) and monitoring influenza pandemics. Such surveillance can seldom be used to define the burden of influenza, however, because it often occurs in referral hospitals, where the denominator population is difficult to define and the health-seeking patterns may not be representative of the norm.21,22. The rate of influenza-associated hospitalization that we report in children of Bondo district who were aged < 5 years (i.e. 143.7 cases per 100 000 child-years) is lower than the corresponding values reported in South Africa, Thailand and the United States.23-25 In urban Soweto, South Africa, for example, 309 annual cases ...
Between 1988 and 2009, a probable ILI outbreak in a school was defined by MDH as a doubled absence rate with all of the following primary influenza symptoms reported among students: rapid onset, fever, illness lasting 3 or more days, and at least one secondary influenza symptom (e.g., myalgia, headache, cough, coryza, sore throat, or chills). A possible ILI outbreak in a school was defined as a doubled absence rate with reported symptoms among students, including two of the primary influenza symptoms and at least one secondary influenza symptom. Prior to the 2009-2010 influenza season, the number of schools reporting probable influenza outbreaks has ranged from a low of 38 schools in 20 counties in 1996-1997 to 441 schools in 71 counties in 1991-1992. The definition of ILI outbreaks changed beginning with the 2009-2010 school year. Schools reported when the number of students absent with ILI reaches 5% of total enrollment, or when three or more students with ILI are absent from the same ...
National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 82 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet for the time period from 03 October 2016 to 16 October 2016 (data as of 2016-10-28 04:04:36 UTC).The WHO GISRS laboratories tested more than 70925 specimens during that time period. 2979 were positive for influenza viruses, of which 2540 (85.3%) were typed as influenza A and 439 (14.7%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 135 (6.6%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1911 (93.4%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the characterized B viruses, 21 (25.9%) belonged to the B-Yamagata lineage and 60 (74.1%) to the B-Victoria lineage. ...
PubMed journal article Effectiveness of influenza vaccine for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations in adults, 2011-2012 influenza seaso were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From August 1, 2009 to October 10, 2009, a total of 938 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at Korea University Guro Hospital with influenza-like illnesses were enrolled in the study. Throat or nasopharyngeal swab specimens ...
Introduction Data on the burden and risk groups for influenza-associated mortality from Africa are limited. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk-factors for in-hospital influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) deaths.. Methods Hospitalised patients with SARI were enrolled prospectively in four provinces of South Africa from 2009-2013. Using polymerase chain reaction, respiratory samples were tested for ten respiratory viruses and blood for pneumococcal DNA. The incidence of influenza-associated SARI deaths was estimated at one urban hospital with a defined catchment population.. Results We enrolled 1376 patients with influenza-associated SARI and 3% (41 of 1358 with available outcome data) died. In patients with available HIV-status, the case-fatality proportion (CFP) was higher in HIV-infected (5%, 22/419) than HIV-uninfected individuals (2%, 13/620; p = 0.006). CFPs varied by age group, and generally increased with increasing age amongst individuals ,5 years ...
Results and conclusion Knowing that the vaccine is effective (mhRR 2.22; 95% CI 1.93 to 2.54), being willing to prevent influenza transmission (mhRR 2.31; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.70), believing that influenza is highly contagious (RR 2.25; 95% CI 1.66 to 3.05), believing that influenza prevention is important (mhRR 3.63; 95% CI 2.87 to 4.59) and having a family that is usually vaccinated (RR 2.32; 95% CI 1.64 to 3.28) were statistically significantly associated with a twofold higher vaccine uptake. We therefore recommend targeting these predictors when developing new influenza vaccination implementation strategies for hospital HCWs. ...
Description of Invention:. National Institutes of Health (NIH) inventors at the Vaccine Research Center have developed a novel influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-ferritin nanoparticle influenza vaccine that is easily manufactured, potent, and elicits broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies against multiple strains of influenza. This novel influenza nanoparticle vaccine elicited two types of broadly neutralizing, cross-protective antibodies-one directed to the highly conserved HA stem and a second proximal to the conserved receptor binding site (RBS) of the viral HA-providing a new platform for universal and seasonal influenza. In addition, HA-ferritin nanoparticles can be easily produced from simple expression vectors and without the production of infectious virus in eggs, and will facilitate influenza preparedness in the face of emerging epidemics.. This technology exploits ferritin, a ubiquitous iron storage protein, that self-assembles into spherical nanoparticles and could serve as a ...
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most important way of preventing seasonal influenza virus infections and potentially severe complications, including death. Seasonal influenza vaccination reduces the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or transmitting influenza to others.•Seasonal influenza vaccines do not contain the 2009 H1N1 strain and are not expected to provide significant cross-protection against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza.² Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccines to prevent the 2009 H1N1 virus have been licensed; initial doses of licensed vaccine are expected to be available by mid-October 2009.•Two types of seasonal influenza vaccine are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States: trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV).•TIV is injected into the muscle of the upper arm or thigh. It can be used for people 6 months of age or older, including those with chronic medical conditions, pregnant ...
Background: Following the emergence of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus, monovalent influenza vaccines were developed and marketed in Europe. Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project, we estimated the pandemic influenza vaccines effectiveness (PIVE) using sentinel general practitioners (GP) influenza surveillance networks in seven European countries.. Methods: We conducted a multicentre case-control study between November 2009 and March 2010. Using systematic sampling, GPs swabbed patients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI European Union case definition) within eight days of symptom onset and collected their vaccination history and a list of potential confounders (e.g. age group, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, seasonal influenza vaccination). Cases were ILI patients with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for influenza. Vaccination was defined as having received one dose ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Global Influenza Vaccine Market is worth more than US$ 5 Billion. Globally Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated Population was more than 150 Thousand, but still this figure was significantly less than the Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population. As per our research Pediatrics Influenza Vaccinated population will decline in future and Adult Influenza Vaccinated Population will increase in forecast period.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. United States has the highest market share in Influenza Vaccine Market. United States Influenza Vaccine Market Share was almost 4 times more than China and Japan Influenza Vaccine Market Share. United States & China together captures close to 60 percent in Pediatrics Influenza Vaccine Market Share. Whereas, in adult vaccination segments, United States and Japan will share more than 50 percent market share by 2022. Download Full Report: ...
Vaccination against influenza is considered the most important public health intervention to prevent unnecessary hospitalizations and premature deaths related to influenza in the elderly, though there are significant inequities among global influenza vaccine resources, capacities, and policies. The objective of this study was to assess the social determinants of health preventing adults ≥65 years old from accessing and accepting seasonal influenza vaccination. A systematic search was performed in January 2011 using MEDLINE, ISI - Web of Science, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (1980-2011). Reference lists of articles were also examined. Selection criteria included qualitative and quantitative studies written in English that examined social determinants of and barriers against seasonal influenza vaccination among adults≥65 years. Two authors performed the quality assessment and data extraction. Thematic analysis was the main approach for joint synthesis, using identification and juxtaposition of themes
We used a mathematical model with two circulating influenza strains to evaluate the effect of modified pH1N1 infection risk following receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine on optimal seasonal vaccination strategies in the Canadian population. Our projections suggest that, in the presence of the best currently available information on the epidemiology of pH1N1 in Canada, the decisions by several jurisdictional health authorities to restrict or delay the use of seasonal vaccines until after the likely peak of the autumn pandemic wave represents a reasonable choice under uncertainty. Specifically, in the presence of low levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza strains, even a relatively small enhancement of risk associated with vaccination has a negative impact on total influenza-attributable mortality if the entire population is immunized at usual vaccination coverage. At higher levels of co-circulating seasonal influenza, the impact of this enhanced risk is less marked, as seasonal vaccine has ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines is being replaced with cell culture vaccines. Cell culture based production of vaccines is expected to reduce the problems associated with ...
Influenza virus infection is an ongoing health and economic burden causing epidemics with pandemic potential, affecting 5-30% of the global population annually, and is responsible for millions of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year. Annual influenza vaccination is the primary prophylactic countermeasure aimed at limiting influenza burden. However, the effectiveness of current influenza vaccines are limited because they only confer protective immunity when there is antigenic similarity between the selected vaccine strains and circulating influenza isolates. The major targets of the antibody response against influenza virus are the surface glycoprotein antigens hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hypervariability of the amino acid sequences encoding HA and NA is largely responsible for epidemic and pandemic influenza outbreaks, and are the consequence of antigenic drift or shift, respectively. For this reason, if an antigenic mismatch exists between the current vaccine and
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 ...
To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case-control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test results. Of 319 eligible patients, test results for 139 (44%) were pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus positive. Adjusted effectiveness of seasonal vaccine against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was 79% (95% confidence interval 33%-93%); effectiveness of monovalent vaccine was 47% and not statistically significant. Vaccine effectiveness was higher among adults. Despite some limitations, this study indicates that the first seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine to include the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus strain provided significant
We limited our search to studies with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection, which may have underestimated case rates because of variable testing and reporting of results. Other studies have reported estimated incidence rates of influenza-associated outcomes among pregnant women without laboratory confirmation of influenza disease. A study that used multiple data sources-not all of which contained laboratory-confirmed influenza disease-to quantify influenza-associated hospitalizations in Canada from 1994-2000 reported a rate of 150 influenza-associated hospitalizations (95% CI: 140-170) per 100,000 pregnant women per influenza season [37]. This rate was more than 10-fold higher than the highest rate reported by the four studies of laboratory-confirmed influenza hospitalizations among pregnant women in our study. A study of symptomatic probable and confirmed cases of 2009 pandemic influenza among pregnant women on Reunion Island found a rate of 3,568 cases per 100,000 pregnant women (95% ...
These recommendations for treatment and chemoprophylaxis are the same ones used for others who are at higher risk of complications from influenza. As is recommended for other persons who are treated, antiviral treatment with zanamivir or oseltamivir should be initiated as soon as possible after the onset of influenza symptoms, with benefits expected to be greatest if started within 48 hours of onset based on data from studies of seasonal influenza. However, some data from studies on seasonal influenza indicate benefit for hospitalized patients even if treatment is started more than 48 hours after onset. Health care providers should initiate empiric antiviral treatment as soon as possible. Waiting for laboratory confirmation of influenza to begin treatment with antiviral drugs is not necessary. Patients with a negative rapid influenza diagnostic test should be considered for treatment if clinically indicated because a negative rapid influenza test result does not rule out influenza virus ...
Seqirus Fluvax (previously bioCSL) is registered by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for administration in children ≥5 years of age; however, it is not recommended for use in children , 9 years of age (refer to 4.7.11 Adverse events and 4.7.13 Variations from product information below).. All the influenza vaccines currently available in Australia are either split virion or subunit vaccines prepared from purified inactivated influenza virus that has been cultivated in embryonated hens eggs. The influenza virus composition of vaccines for use in Australia is determined annually by the Australian Influenza Vaccine Committee following recommendations by the World Health Organization based on global influenza epidemiology.23. Since the late 1970s, influenza vaccines have contained three strains of influenza virus - two influenza A subtypes and one influenza B lineage (i.e. trivalent influenza vaccines or TIVs). Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) containing four influenza ...
Background Influenza vaccines are reviewed each year, and often changed, in an effort to maintain their effectiveness against drifted influenza viruses. There is however no regular review of influenza vaccine effectiveness during, or at the end of, Australian influenza seasons. It is possible to use a case control method to estimate vaccine effectiveness from surveillance data when all patients in a surveillance system are tested for influenza and their vaccination status is known. Methodology/Principal Findings Influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is conducted during the influenza season in sentinel general practices scattered throughout Victoria, Australia. Over five seasons 2003-7, data on age, sex and vaccination status were collected and nose and throat swabs were offered to patients presenting within three days of the onset of their symptoms. Swabs were tested using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Those positive for influenza were sent to the World Health
Influenza, however, is unique among respiratory viral pathogens in that another effective intervention to prevent transmission exists: vaccination. Annual influenza vaccination has been available in the United States since 1945 and has been recommended for persons at high risk of influenza complications since 1960. Unlike many pathogens, the predominant circulating influenza strains vary from year to year, affecting the intensity and severity of the influenza season as well as vaccine effectiveness. According to a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of influenza vaccine protection, there was 59% effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine in adults aged 18 to 65 years and a higher effectiveness (83%) of the live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV) in children.3Although not at levels of other vaccines, influenza vaccination provides some protection and may prevent complications due to influenza such as pneumonia, hospitalizations, and death. Recent studies in children have demonstrated that the ...
In April 2009, novel swine-origin influenza viruses (S-OIV) were identified in patients from Mexico and the United States. The viruses were genetically characterized as a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain originating in swine, and within a very short time the S-OIV strain spread across the globe via human-to-human contact.We conducted a comprehensive computational search of all available sequences of the surface proteins of H1N1 swine influenza isolates and found that a similar strain to S-OIV appeared in Thailand in 2000. The earlier isolates caused infections in pigs but only one sequenced human case, A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1 ...
Despite the 2009 Council Recommendation that seasonal influenza vaccination rates should be improved for the elderly, at risk groups and health care workers, there remains a concerning sub-optimal level of influenza vaccination coverage across Europe with 15,000-70,000 people dying each year due to influenza. These worrying facts led to the creation of a multi-stakeholder Steering Group on Influenza Vaccination, whose members are committed to raising awareness of influenza-related public health issues and encouraging stronger policy driven actions at European and national level in support of influenza vaccination. One of the Steering Groups tasks is to draft an EU Manifesto on Influenza Vaccination, a tangible means of aligning the community on the shared policy requirements to protect European citizens from influenza. The idea of developing a Manifesto will be presented during this satellite symposium. Participants will be invited to give their input to this initiative either during the ...
Recommendations for seasonal influenza vaccination are standard in most developed countries. Many rapidly developing countries have recently begun to adopt recommendations for high-risk target groups, such as the elderly. Population-based surveys to determine use, rather than purchases, of seasonal …
5 Countries of Europe Collectively Control more than 80 percent in the Europe Influenza Vaccine Market. Influenza virus is mostly activated in the winter season every year in the European region. Vaccination is the best way to prevent from Influenza virus. It is anticipated that Influenza vaccine market is near to US$ 1 Billion due to a large target population, strong public healthcare infrastructure, high per capita healthcare spending and influenza vaccination program in European countries. Our research report title Europe Influenza Vaccine Market, Vaccinated Population (23 Countries Market Data) By (Child & Adult) & Forecast cover the following points:. • Influenza vaccinated population (Children and Adult vaccinated population). • Influenza vaccinated market (Children and Adult vaccinated market). • Influenza Vaccine Covered (Vaxigrip/Fluzone, Fluarix/ Flulaval, FluMist/Fluenz, Afluria/Fluvax and Fluvirin/Flucelvax, Anflu). • 23 Countries Covered (Netherlands, Denmark, Estonia, ...
The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) is a cornerstone in influenza pandemic preparedness plans worldwide. However, resistance to the drug is a growing concern. The active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) is not degraded in surface water or sewage treatment plants and has been detected in river water during seasonal influenza outbreaks. The natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can thus be exposed to OC in aquatic environments. Environmental-like levels of OC induce resistance development in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards. There is a risk of resistance accumulation in influenza viruses circulating among wild birds when oseltamivir is used extensively. By reassortment or direct transmission, oseltamivir resistance can be transmitted to humans potentially causing a resistant pandemic or human-adapted highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus. There is a need for more research on resistance development in the natural influenza reservoir and for a prudent use of ...
During previous influenza seasons, only trivalent influenza vaccines that included antigen from 1 influenza B virus were available. However, since 1985, 2 antigenically distinct lineages (ie, Victoria or Yamagata) of influenza B viruses have circulated globally. In most years, vaccination against a B virus of 1 lineage confers little cross-protection against a B virus strain from the other lineage. Thus, trivalent vaccines offer limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the vaccine. Furthermore, in recent years, it has proven difficult to consistently predict which B lineage will predominate during a given influenza season. Therefore, a quadrivalent influenza vaccine with influenza B strains of both lineages may offer improved protection. Postmarketing safety and vaccine effectiveness data are not yet available, prohibiting a full risk-benefit analysis of newer versus previously available products.. For the 2013-2014 season, the inactivated influenza ...
Recently, a novel swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus was identified as a significant cause of febrile respiratory illnesses in Mexico and the United States. It rapidly spread to many countries around the world, prompting the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on June 11, 2009. Data from several cohorts in different age groups that received licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines suggest that these vaccines are unlikely to provide protection against the new virus. Adults are more likely to have measurable levels of serum hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) or neutralizing antibody than are children. These data indicate the need to develop vaccines against the new H1N1 strain and suggest that different vaccine strategies (e.g., number of doses, need for adjuvant) may be appropriate for persons in different age groups. Based on clinical data from other novel influenza A viruses, a higher dose, or multiple doses of an unadjuvanted, inactivated influenza H1N1 vaccine may be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal influenza vaccination rates in the HIV outpatient study-United States, 1999-2013. AU - Durham, Marcus D.. AU - Buchacz, Kate. AU - Armon, Carl. AU - Patel, Pragna. AU - Wood, Kathy. AU - Brooks, John T.. AU - Hays, Harlen. AU - Wood, Kathleen C.. AU - Hankerson, Darlene. AU - Debes, Rachel. AU - Subramanian, Thilakavathy. AU - Dean, Bonnie. AU - Palella, Frank J.. AU - Chmiel, Joan S.. AU - Jahangir, Saira. AU - Flaherty, Conor Daniel. AU - Dixon-Evans, Jerian Denise. AU - Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.. AU - Stewart, Cheryl. AU - Hammer, John. AU - Greenberg, Kenneth S.. AU - Widick, Barbara. AU - Franklin, Rosa. AU - Yangco, Bienvenido G.. AU - Chagaris, Kalliope. AU - Ward, Doug. AU - Thomas, Troy. AU - Avery, Patricia. AU - Fuhrer, Jack. AU - Ording-Bauer, Linda. AU - Kelly, Rita. AU - Esteves, Jane. AU - Tedaldi, Ellen M.. AU - Christian, Ramona A.. AU - Ruley, Faye. AU - Beadle, Dania. AU - Graham, Princess. AU - Novak, Richard M.. AU - Wendrow, Andrea. AU - Smith, ...
The development of broadly reactive influenza vaccines raises the need to identify the most appropriate immunoassays that can be used for the evaluation of so-called universal influenza vaccines, and to explore a path towards the standardisation of such assays. To address this critical topic, a workshop on Immunoassay standardisation for universal influenza vaccines was co-organised in June 2015 by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, and the National Institutes of Health / National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, USA. The workshop agenda encompassed a wide range of immunoassays that can be used to assess immune responses to broadly reactive influenza vaccines, from classical serological assays to assays measuring cell mediated immunity. The workshop audience agreed that it was not possible to establish one universal immunoassay for universal influenza vaccine(s) because the approaches towards these vaccines ...
Hannah Blake. pharmaphorum. A new seasonal influenza vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States. Developed by Protein Sciences Corp, Flubok is the first trivalent influenza vaccine made using an insect virus (baculovirus) expression system and recombinant DNA technology. Flublok is approved for the prevention of seasonal influenza in people 18 through 49 years of age.. Unlike current flu vaccines, Flublok does not use the influenza virus or eggs in its production. Flubloks novel manufacturing technology allows for production of large quantities of the influenza virus protein, hemagglutinin (HA) - the active ingredient in all inactivated influenza vaccines that is essential for entry of the virus into cells in the body. The majority of antibodies that prevent influenza virus infection are directed against HA.. While the technology is new to flu vaccine production, it has already been used to make vaccines to prevent other infectious diseases. These ...
The influenza A virus was isolated for the first time in 1931, and the first attempts to develop a vaccine against the virus began soon afterwards. In addition to causing seasonal epidemics, influenza viruses can cause pandemics at random intervals, which are very hard to predict. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing the spread of influenza infection. However, seasonal vaccination is ineffective against pandemic influenza viruses because of antigenic differences, and it takes approximately six months from isolation of a new virus to develop an effective vaccine. One of the possible ways to fight the emergence of pandemics may be by using a new type of vaccine, with a long and broad spectrum of action. The extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus is a conservative region, and an attractive target for a universal influenza vaccine. This review gives a historical overview of the study of M2 protein, and summarizes the latest developments in the preparation of M2e
Establishing a laboratory network of influenza diagnosis in Indonesia: an experience from the avian flu (H5N1) outbreak Vivi Setiawaty, Krisna NA Pangesti, Ondri D SampurnoNational Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, the Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, IndonesiaAbstract: Indonesia has been part of the global influenza surveillance since the establishment of a National Influenza Center (NIC) at the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) by the Indonesian Ministry of Health in 1975. When the outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) occurred, the NIC and US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 were the only diagnostic laboratories equipped for etiology confirmation. The large geographical area of the Republic of Indonesia poses a real challenge to provide prompt and accurate diagnosis nationally. This was the main reason to establish a laboratory network for H5N1 diagnosis in Indonesia. Currently, 44 laboratories have been included in the network capable of
Annual influenza vaccination is a cornerstone of influenza prevention at both the individual and community level.26 Past concerns about an increase in HIV viral load following influenza vaccination have not been substantiated, particularly in individuals on ART.13,27-31 Currently in the United States, inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is recommended for patients with HIV according to the CDC Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines. Studies examining the immune response of children and adolescents with HIV on ART to inactivated influenza vaccination have generally shown immune responses comparable to those seen in individuals without HIV.32 Children with HIV-related immunologic impairment or with symptomatic HIV demonstrate decreased immune responses to influenza vaccination (see Recommendation Table). High-dose IIV was recently studied in a small cohort of children and young adults with HIV, though it was not significantly more immunogenic in these patients than ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The report aims to provide a critical review of evidence on the barriers and drivers of seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in the EU/EEA. The report focuses on high-risk groups where high coverage of seasonal flu vaccination is most important. The 2009 Council of the European Union Recommendation on seasonal influenza vaccination encourages countries to implement measures that would increase seasonal influenza vaccination uptake to at least 75% for defined older age groups, and, if possible, for other risk groups. In support of this, the ECDC report summarises the evidence on what are the barriers and what are the drivers for seasonal influenza vaccination by each risk group ...
The most serious side effect that can occur after influenza vaccination is an allergic reaction in people who have a severe allergy to eggs. For this reason, children who have an allergy to eggs should not receive the influenza vaccine. According to the National Center for Infectious Diseases, part of the CDC, the influenza vaccine causes no side effects in most children who are not allergic to eggs.. Less than one-third of people who receive the vaccine experience some soreness at the vaccination site, and about 5 to 10 percent experience mild side effects, such as a headache or a low-grade fever for about a day after vaccination. Because these mild side effects mimic some influenza symptoms, some people believe influenza vaccine causes them to get influenza. However, according to the CDC, influenza vaccine produced in the United States has never been capable of causing influenza because the only type of influenza vaccine that has been licensed in the United States to the present time is made ...
Local disease burden data are necessary to set national influenza vaccination policy. In 2010 the population of South Africa was 50 million and the HIV prevalence was 11%. We used a previously developed methodology to determine severe influenza burden in South Africa. Hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) incidence was calculated, stratified by HIV status, for four age groups using data from population-based surveillance in one site situated in Gauteng Province for 2009-2011. These rates were adjusted for each of the remaining 8 provinces based on their prevalence of risk factors for pneumonia and healthcare- seeking behavior. We estimated non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI from healthcare utilization surveys at two sites and used the percent of SARI cases positive for influenza from sentinel surveillance to derive the influenza-associated SARI rate. We applied rates of hospitalized and non-hospitalized influenza-associated SARI to census data to calculate the national ...
Excerpt] A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population, begins to cause serious illness and then spreads easily person-to- person worldwide. A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption and eventually, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemics impact. Companies that provide critical infrastructure services, such as power and telecommunications, also have a special responsibility to plan for continued operation in a crisis and should plan accordingly. As with any catastrophe, having a contingency plan is essential. In the event of an influenza pandemic, employers will play a key role in protecting employees health and safety as well as in limiting the impact on the economy and society. Employers will ...
H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human swine influenza). Virus strain. H1N1. Arrival date. 25 April 2009. ... Four were tested positive for influenza H1N1, and a number of others had influenza like symptoms. The ministry said it appeared ... The ten students tested positive for an influenza A virus,[2][3] with three of them later testing positive for swine flu.[4] ... "Influenza A (H1N1) swine flu - update sixty four". Ministry of Health New Zealand.. ...
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 23 July 2013. Archived from the original on 9 June 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2016. " ... Types include: Viral: Injected polio vaccine (Salk vaccine) Hepatitis A vaccine Rabies vaccine Most influenza vaccines Tick- ... WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (7 January 2016). "Influenza". World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved 16 ...
"Recombination of human influenza A viruses in nature". Nature.. *^ Lyttle, D J (Jan 1994). "Homologs of vascular endothelial ... Influenza virus[edit]. The antigenic properties of influenza viruses are determined by both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. ... Recombination between segments that encode for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of avian and human influenza virus segments have ... Plasmodium falciparum, the major etiologic agent of human malaria, has a very complex life cycle that occurs in both humans and ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 1 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Influenza Challenge. Normal References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171872 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... Krueppel-like factor 17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF17 gene.[4][5] ...
It has been researched extensively for its capabilities as an alternative antibiotic as it is harmless to human body cells ... Influenza virus Yeast and mould • Candida albicans • Aspergillus niger • Colletotrichum musae • Colletotrichum gloeosporioide ... Thomas EL, Bates KP, Jefferson MM (September 1980). "Hypothiocyanite ion: detection of the antimicrobial agent in human saliva ... "Lactoperoxidase and human airway host defense". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 29 (2): 206-12. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2002-0152OC. ...
Human health[edit]. Higher humidity reduces the infectivity of aerosolized influenza virus. A study concluded, "Maintaining ... Human comfort[edit]. Although humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in ... Humans are sensitive to humid air because the human body uses evaporative cooling as the primary mechanism to regulate ... Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature - from 30-70%[31] - but ideally not ...
For instance, a person who is vaccinated for influenza not only protects themselves from the risk of influenza, but ... Prior to human testing, vaccines are run through computer algorithms to model how they will interact with the immune system and ... The influenza vaccine was tested in controlled trials and proven to have negligible side effects equal to that of a placebo. ... Vaccines that pass each of these stages of testing are then approved by the FDA to start a three-phase series of human testing ...
Consultation on Human Influenza A/H5 (2005). "Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in Humans". New England Journal of Medicine. ... An example of such is the avian influenza, when an influenza A virus was passed from birds to humans.[33] Xenotransplantation ... human-to-human) or xenograft (animal-to-human), but it is helpful scientifically (for those searching or reading the scientific ... Human organs have been transplanted into animals as a powerful research technique for studying human biology without harming ...
... human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (HEp-2). One means of determining whether the cells are ... Some viruses attach to molecules present on the surface of red blood cells, for example, influenza virus. A consequence of this ... Laurence, Jeffrey C. (2005). "Hepatitis a and B immunizations of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus". The ... "Influenza hemagglutination inhibition assay". Retrieved 19 October 2020.. ...
Influenza (flu) is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this ... Dubé E, Laberge C, Guay M, Bramadat P, Roy R, Bettinger J (August 2013). "Vaccine hesitancy: an overview". Human Vaccines & ... Pleschka S (2013). "Overview of Influenza Viruses". Swine Influenza. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 370. pp. 1- ... For both influenza and norovirus, epidemics temporarily induce herd immunity until a new dominant strain emerges, causing ...
Update bulletins for influenza A H1N1 2009 (human swine influenza) CBC - The Road to Rollout, Nov. 6, 2009 "Bi-weekly and ... These included one seasonal influenza A (H1N1), 13 influenza A (H3N2), 23 Influenza B, and 1, 855 2009 influenza A (H1n1) virus ... "Human Swine Influenza Investigation". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. ... with 20 confirmed to be linked to a new swine influenza strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. As of April 26 there had been ...
Life-threatening influenza and impaired interferon amplification in human IRF7 deficiency". Science. 348 (6233): 448-53. doi: ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 11 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ... The IRF7 gene and product were shown to be defective in a patient with severe susceptibility to H1N1 influenza, while ...
The Medical and Scientific Conceptions of Influenza, Human Virology at Stanford *^ Skloot, Rebecca (2010). The Immortal Life of ... Tests in mice were followed by tests in humans, beginning in 1989. The first human studies attempted to correct the genetic ... viruses that cause serious influenza in humans probably have pigs or birds as their natural host, and HIV is thought to derive ... Evans, Alfred (1982). Viral Infections of Humans. New York, NY: Plenum Publishing Corporation. p. xxv-xxxi. ISBN 0306406764.. ...
North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ... North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe - "an unusually ... Pigs are also known to have been infected by humans. Humans Humans have been affected since early 2009. The November 27, 2009 ... highly pathogenic avian influenza) A/H5N1 strain (media labeled "bird flu") with more human-transmissible Influenza A strains ...
ISBN 0-88240-440-7. Billings, Molly (February 2005). "The Influenza Pandemic of 1918". Human Virology at Stanford. Stanford ... Same as "The Influenza Pandemic of 1918" Bounds, Ken (2001-06-13). "News and Views From The Superintendent". View Number 16. ...
This is not the case in humans as influenza, in this species, produces a respiratory infection. The virus here binds to ... This means that humans can become infected from an animal pathogen, but it does not necessarily take hold and become a human ... Lewis DB (February 2006). "Avian flu to human influenza". Annual Review of Medicine. 57 (1): 139-54. doi:10.1146/ ... For example, the human immunodeficiency virus used to infect and circulate in non-human primates in West-central Africa, but ...
In humans, defects in GSS are inherited in an autosomal recessive way and are the cause of severe metabolic acidosis, 5- ... Cai J, Chen Y, Seth S, Furukawa S, Compans RW, Jones DP (Apr 2003). "Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione". Free ... Human and yeast glutathione synthetases are homodimers, meaning they are composed of two identical subunits of itself non- ... In humans, glutathione synthetase functions in a similar manner. Its product GSH participates in cellular pathways involved in ...
"Update on Human Swine Influenza" (PDF). Centre for Health Protection. 14 June 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 ... "SFH on human swine flu press conference on 1/5". Centre for Health Protection, Hong Kong. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 22 October 2009 ... The 2009 flu pandemic in Asia, part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing what has ... "Influenza A(H1N1): Death toll now 68". Malaysia Ministry of Health. 20 August 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009 ...
When influenza virus undergoes a genetic shift many humans have no immunity to the new strain, and if the population of ... New strains of influenza virus often originate in East Asia; in rural China the concentration of ducks, pigs, and humans in ... The natural hosts of influenza viruses are pigs and birds, although it has probably infected humans since antiquity. The virus ... As with humans, when plants thrive in close proximity, so do their viruses. This can cause huge economic losses and human ...
"Health shocks and Human Capital Accumulation: the Case of Spanish Flu in Italian Regions" (PDF). "Is the 1918 Influenza ... "THE DEADLY VIRUS The Influenza Epidemic of 1918". "The Effect of In-Utero Conditions on Long Term Health Evidence from the 1918 ... It has been hypothesized that a definite link exists between influenza-induced stress on the fetus and schizophrenia. During ... The possibility that maternal exposure to influenza during gestation may be linked to increased rates of schizophrenia later in ...
"Ice as a reservoir for pathogenic human viruses: specifically, caliciviruses, influenza viruses, and enteroviruses". Medical ... The amount of carbon sequestered in permafrost is four times the carbon that has been released to the atmosphere due to human ... Caliciviruses, influenza A, and enteroviruses (ex. Polioviruses, echoviruses, Coxsackie viruses) have all been preserved in ice ... A direct infection from permafrost or ice to humans has not been demonstrated; such viruses are typically spread through other ...
Influenza virus has become increasingly MDR; first to amantadines, then to neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, (2008- ... Antibiotic use has been restricted or regulated for treating animals raised for human consumption with success, in Denmark for ... Phage-resistant bacteria variants have been observed in human studies. As for antibiotics, horizontal transfer of phage ... 2009: 98.5% of Influenza A tested resistant), also more commonly in people with weak immune systems. Cytomegalovirus can become ...
In 2009, H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) was the underlying cause of 77 deaths in Australia. The ABS implemented ... "Health Emergency-H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human Swine Influenza)Outbreaks". Archived from the original on 2 ... Australia had 37,537 confirmed cases of H1N1 Influenza 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) and 191 deaths reported by Department of ... "H1N1 Influenza 09 (Human Swine Flu)". 30 September 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009 ...
... of all subtyped influenza A viruses being reported to CDC were novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses." Portugal First human-to-human ... "Human Swine Influenza Outbreak. Message from the Minister of Health and the Chief Public Health Officer on Human Swine Flu". ... CDC - Influenza (Flu),Weekly Report: Influenza Summary Update Week 09, 2008-2009 Season. CDC - Influenza (Flu),Weekly ... CDC - Influenza (Flu),Weekly Report: Influenza Summary Update Week 19, 2008-2009 Season. "WHO; Influenza A(H1N1) - ...
... demonstrating that the myxomatosis virus does not cause disease in humans. Modern methods for producing influenza vaccines are ... herpes and influenza. Burnet made significant contributions to influenza research; he developed techniques to grow and study ... culture and detection of influenza virus; describing the recombination of influenza strains; ... In Dominant Mammal he argued that the roots of all human behaviour can be found in the behaviour of animals; in Endurance he ...
... s also can acquire human influenza. Babirusa Bushpig Domestic pig Entelodont Feral pig Fetal pig Hog-baiting List of ... pig skin has been shown to be the most similar to human skin. Pig skin is structurally similar to human epidermal thickness and ... Pigs are biologically similar to humans and are thus frequently used for human medical research. The Online Etymology ... Some strains of influenza are endemic in pigs, the most significant of which are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2, the former of which has ...
"Microfluidic Chip for Molecular Amplification of Influenza A RNA in Human Respiratory Specimens". PLoS ONE. 7 (3): e33176. doi: ... and tedious human labour. The requirement of human labour also limits the number and length between time points for experiments ... Secondly, the Human Genome Project (HGP), which started in October 1990, created demand for improvements in DNA sequencing ... A fully automated microfluidic cell culture system has been developed to study osteogenic differentiation of human embryonic ...
Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ... Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however many serious diseases are caused by organisms ... Lower respiratory infections include various pneumonias, influenzas and acute bronchitis. *^ Diarrheal diseases are caused by ...
Several human activities have led to the emergence of zoonotic human pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and ... The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 (or the Spanish flu) killed 25-50 million people (about 2% of world population of 1.7 billion).[ ... Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however, many serious diseases are caused by organisms ... "Influenza of 1918 (Spanish Flu) and the US Navy". 20 February 2006. Archived from the original on 20 February 2006.. ...
Human-to-human transmission of EBOV through the air has not been reported to occur during EVD outbreaks,[3] and airborne ... Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... human consumption of bushmeat has been linked to animal-to-human transmission of diseases, including Ebola.[80] ... Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and ...
... and other human-made water features in the regions they inhabit, and are often tolerated or encouraged in human habitat due to ... "The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ... and other human-made waterways - even to the point of visiting water features in human courtyards.[124] ... Relationship with humansEdit. Further information: Domestic duck. DomesticationEdit. Mallards have often been ubiquitous in ...
"Is the human race evolving or devolving?". Scientific American. From a biological perspective, there is no such thing as ...
File:The Cost Of The Common Cold & Influenza.jpg,upright=1.3,thumb,Një poster britanik nga [[Lufta e Dytë Botërore]] që ... Sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution,url=,journal=Science,language=en, ... Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza,url=,journal=Lancet Infect Dis,language=en,volume=5,issue=11,pages= ... The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States,url=,journal=Arch. Intern. ...
The size of the human genome is so large, compared to the length that could be sequenced directly, that it was necessary to ... "Emergence of Fatal Avian Influenza in New England Harbor Seals". mBio. 3 (4): e00166-e00112. doi:10.1128/mBio.00166-12. PMC ... Probes are often derived from fragments of DNA that were isolated, purified, and amplified for use in the Human Genome Project ... A range of colors in mixtures of fluorescent dyes can be detected, so each human chromosome can be identified by a ...
... and the first-ever human infections with the H7N9 avian influenza virus reported in China in 2013.[16] She attributed the ... Control of human hookworm infection through regular deworming of at-risk school children, endorsed in 2001 ... including United States Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar, have voiced support for Taiwan's inclusion in the ... implementation of the Minamata Convention to protect human health and the environment from effects of exposure to mercury and ...
ኤድስ (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome / AIDS / ኣኳየርድ ኢምዩን ደፊሸንሲ ሲይንድሮም) በዓለም ላይ መሰራጨት እንደጀመረ ኤችኣይቪ (Human Immunodeficiency ... Equine Influenza [376], IBR [377] Vesicular Stomatitis [378], BVD [379] Orf [380] ጥቂት ምሳሌዎች ናቸው። የወፍ ኢንፍሉኤንዛና የመሳሰሉ በሽታዎች ሕዝቡ ...
Human * sw:Human. Human gastrointestinal tract * sw:Human gastrointestinal tract. Human rights * sw:Human rights. Hundred Years ... Influenza * sw:Influenza. Information * sw:Information. Information technology * sw:Information technology. Infrared * sw: ... Universal Declaration of Human Rights * sw:Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Universe * sw:Ulimwengu. Uranus * sw:Uranus. ...
The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito.[3] It infects only humans ... while the native population usually suffered nonlethal symptoms resembling influenza.[64] This phenomenon, in which certain ... Barnes, E. (2005). Diseases and Human Evolution. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico. ISBN 978-0-8263-3065-9. .. ... Pyriproxyfen is recommended as a chemical larvicide, mainly because it is safe for humans and effective even in small doses.[4] ...
In humans moclobemide is rapidly and almost completely absorbed and totally metabolised via the liver.[117] Peak plasma levels ... Curtin, F.; Berney, P.; Kaufmann, C. (Sep 2002). "Moclobemide discontinuation syndrome predominantly presenting with influenza- ... Platelet MAO is of the MAO-B and this is inhibited only to a small degree in humans; the inhibition is due to low levels of ... 1990). "Biotransformation of moclobemide in humans". Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 360: 87-90. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1990. ...
Number of humans who have ever lived. Further information: Paleodemography. Estimates of the total number of humans who have ... measles and influenza.[40] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while ... Human population control is the practice of intervening to alter the rate of population growth. Historically, human population ... Scientists contend that human overpopulation, continued human population growth and overconsumption, particularly by the ...
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses. UMN CIDRAP. ... Influenza (Seasonal), World Health Organization, April 2009. Retrieved 13 February 2010.. *↑ World Health Organization. World ... WHO position paper: influenza vaccines WHO weekly Epidemiological Record 19 August 2005, vol. 80, 33, pp. 277-288. ... Eccles, R (2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". Lancet Infect Dis 5 (11): 718-25. PMID ...
Voehringer, D.; M. Koschella; H. Pircher (2002). "Lack of proliferative capacity of human effector and memory T cells ... Haq, Kamran; McElhaney, Janet E. "Immunosenescence: influenza vaccination and the elderly". Current Opinion in Immunology. 29: ... doi:10.1016/S0531-5565(99)00068-6. Franceschi, C.; M. Bonafè; S. Valensin (2000). "Human immunosenescence: the prevailing of ... "Age-related impairment of p56lck and ZAP-70 activities in human T lymphocytes activated through the TcR/CD3 complex". Exp ...
Exposure to respiratory infectious diseases like tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and influenza can be ... "Human resources for maternal, newborn and child health: from measurement and planning to performance for improved health ... Many jurisdictions report shortfalls in the number of trained health human resources to meet population health needs and/or ... "Health-related rehabilitation services: assessing the global supply of and need for human resources." Archived 2012-07-20 at ...
Copper contamination from the bowl is minimal, as a cup of foam contains a tenth of a human's normal daily intake level.[3][7] ... "Safe administration of influenza vaccine to patients with egg allergy". The Journal of Pediatrics. 133 (5): 624-8. doi:10.1016/ ... in the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza[2]). ...
Pietro Semeraro, I delitti di millantato credito e traffico di influenza,ed. Giuffre, Milano,2000. ... has morphed into an industry that employs more than 10,000 people and represents every facet of human endeavour.[18] ...
Helpful to digestion; prevent from influenza, throat inflammation. Reduce cholesterol in the blood.. Gohyah is not listed in ... With regard to the use of Momordica charantia for diabetes, several animal studies and small-scale human studies have ... but no clinical studies in humans showing a benefit.[9] ...
Pandemic influenza preparedness : the critical role of the syringe.. Vaccine. 2006 May 29;24(22):4874-82. Epub 2006 March 20. K ... Age-related changes in Human blood lymphocyte subpopulations. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, 1994; 70:152-158. K. ... AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, 1996; 12:17-24. F. Hulstaert, K. Strauss, M. Levacher, G. Vanham, L. Kestens, B. Bach. ... of CD8 lymphocyte activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human ...
The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ... Padgett, B.L.; Walker, D.L. (1973). "Prevalence of antibodies in human sera against JC virus, an isolate from a case of ... Pavesi, A. (2005). "Utility of JC polyomavirus in tracing the pattern of human migrations dating to prehistoric times". J. Gen ... The virus is very common in the general population, infecting 70% to 90% of humans; most people acquire JCV in childhood or ...
... there is little human data as of 2017.[202][203][204][205] The small amount of human data there is has shown poor results.[202] ... Annual influenza vaccinations in those with COPD reduce exacerbations, hospitalizations and death.[84][85] Pneumococcal ... Other recommendations include influenza vaccination once a year, pneumococcal vaccination once every five years, and reduction ... "Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6: CD002733 ...
However, the required concentrations are sufficiently toxic to humans and animals that the US FDA declares that ozone has no ... ions produced by air conditioning systems have also been found by a manufacturer to inactivate viruses including influenza.[2] ...
Among these virus-related disorders are the common cold, hepatitis, influenza and influenza-like illness, as well as herpes. ... "The capacity of humans to identify odors in mixtures". Physiology & Behavior. 46 (5): 809-814. 1989-11-01. doi:10.1016/0031- ... Due to cerebrum evolution this processing is secondary and therefore is largely unnoticed in human interactions.[15] Allomones ... This article is about the olfactory system in vertebrates, particularly humans. For the sense of smell in other lifeforms, see ...
One area of particular interest is the study of human papilloma viruses (HPV) and their role in cervical cancers. Researchers ... over 400,000 doses of vaccine against the Hong Kong influenza. ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic ... The work done in the new pavilion by Duclaux clarified how the human body accomplished some of its vital functions, and brought ... affects only the human race - where it resides in sperm, ulceration and cancers that it is able to cause - and, as it will be ...
Human herpesvirus 7 ve Human herpesvirus 8[19]. *Orthomyxovirus: Influenza[20]. *Parvoviridae: Parvovirus B19[12] ... perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic". Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 6 (3), s. e2-5. doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00287. ... Arcay L (May 2001). "[Human microsporidiosis]". Invest Clin (Spanish; Castilian). 42 (Suppl 1), s. 3-42. PMID 11416983.. KB1 ... Atías A (June 1995). "[Update on microsporidiosis in humans]". Rev Med Chil (Spanish; Castilian). 123 (6), s. 762-72. PMID ...
... though it has now mutated to a separate human-only disease. Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, ... Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus) pigs close ... to a human.[1][2][3] Typically, the first infected human transmits the infectious agent to at least one other human, who, in ... Most human diseases originated in other animals; however, only diseases that routinely involve non-human to human transmission ...
"Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. ... Another pathogen is influenza virus and its hemagglutinin protein, which interacts with CLEC5A. Through this interaction is ... Human CLEC5A genome location and CLEC5A gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... This article on a gene on human chromosome 7 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. ...
Other viruses isolated from humans include the Syr-Darya valley fever virus and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus. "Viral ... They have been associated with gastroenteritis, influenza-like symptoms and non polio associated acute flaccid paralysis in ... Human and vertebrates serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are zoonosis and fomite. The 3' end of the genome encodes ... Human and vertebrates serve as natural hosts. There are currently three species in this genus including the type species ...
"CDC has antigenically characterized 1,567 seasonal human influenza viruses [947 influenza A (H1), 162 influenza A (H3) and 458 ... All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/ ... "Pandemic Influenza". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 29 ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ...
For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood ... García-Sastre A, Egorov A, Matassov D, Brandt S, Levy DE, Durbin JE, Palese P, Muster T (December 1998). "Influenza A virus ... Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect plants. Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the ...
Cordell HJ (October 2002). "Epistasis: what it means, what it doesn't mean, and statistical methods to detect it in humans". ... "Stability-mediated epistasis constrains the evolution of an influenza protein". eLife. 2: e00631. doi:10.7554/eLife.00631. PMC ... Human Molecular Genetics. 11 (20): 2463-8. doi:10.1093/hmg/11.20.2463. PMID 12351582.. ... "Detecting gene-gene interactions that underlie human diseases". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 10 (6): 392-404. doi:10.1038/nrg2579 ...
However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred - CDC ... Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ... However, sporadic human infections with influenza viruses that ... including any confirmed case of human infection with a "novel" (non-human) influenza virus.‬‬ ... Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses. *Reported Infections with Variant Influenza Viruses in the United States ...
Information on human infections with influenza viruses that normally circulate in swine (swine influenza) - CDC ... Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with influenza viruses that normally ... Past Reports of Human Infections with Variant Viruses. *Medscape Commentary: CDC Guidance for Swine Influenza Virus Infection ... Interim Information for Clinicians about Human Infections with H3N2v Virus. *Interim Guidance for Enhanced Influenza ...
... notified WHO of a case of laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ... Human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus are unusual and need to be monitored closely in order to identify ... Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China. Disease outbreak news 23 December 2016 ... Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated ...
China notified WHO of two new laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ... Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - update. Disease outbreak news ... More on human infection caused by the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ... So far, there is no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission. ...
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China. Disease outbreak news 15 April 2015 ... Further sporadic human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) infection are expected in affected and possibly neighboring areas. ... WHO risk assessment of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ... of China notified WHO of 20 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, ...
The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus. The viral progenies were titrated by ... Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However ... Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. ... virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a ...
This project falls under the Global Program for Avian Influenza (GPAI) approved by the Banks Board of Directors in January ... Nigeria: Avian Influenza Control And Human Pandemic Preparedness And Response Project. March 29, 2006 ... Avian Influenza Control and Human Pandemic Preparedness and Response Project for Nigeria ... PROJECT DESCRIPTION: This project falls under the Global Program for Avian Influenza (GPAI) approved by the Banks Board of ...
Affinity maturation in a human humoral response to influenza hemagglutinin. Kevin R. McCarthy, Donald D. Raymond, Khoi T. Do, ... Affinity maturation in a human humoral response to influenza hemagglutinin. Kevin R. McCarthy, Donald D. Raymond, Khoi T. Do, ... Affinity maturation in a human humoral response to influenza hemagglutinin. Kevin R. McCarthy, Donald D. Raymond, Khoi T. Do, ... Influenza virus and some other human pathogens evolve to evade herd immunity and, hence, to reinfect previously immune ...
WHO guidelines for investigation of human cases of avian influenza A(H5N1). ... The role of National Influenza Centres (NICs) during interpandemic, pandemic alert and pandemic periods ... or other novel influenza viruses of pandemic potential). The document focuses on the key steps that should be undertaken in an ... and approach for public health authorities and investigators at all levels to plan for and conduct investigations of human ...
Human Swine Influenza Outbreak. April 27, 2009. The recent outbreak of Swine influenza, by a new subtype of the A H1N1 virus, ... Previous PostIssues in Group TravelNext PostHuman Swine Influenza Outbreak - Update #2 ... Swine flu is common in pig populations and the infection is known to be transmitted from pigs to humans. The search now, is for ... The extent of the current outbreak in humans is still unknown; this new viral subtype has not been previously detected in pigs ...
... swine influenza viruses lacking human adaptation markers rarely infect humans. Sporadic human infections documented in the ... 2004) Human and avian influenza viruses target different cell types in cultures of human airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci ... 2013) The emergence of influenza A H7N9 in human beings 16 years after influenza A H5N1: A tale of two cities. Lancet Infect ... Current in vitro models for studying influenza infection in the human respiratory tract involve short-term cultures of human ...
Avian flu and humans Avian influenza poses serious human health risks as well. It is a zoonotic illness -- native in animal ... What causes avian influenza? Avian influenza can be caused by 1 of around 23 different strains of virus, all of which are type ... The disease also presents substantial health risks for humans. Learn more about what avian influenza is and what FAO is doing ... For more on what FAO is doing to help, visit the Animal Production and Health Divisions special Web site on Avian Influenza ...
It is not clear whether prior exposure to circulating human influenza viruses or influenza vaccination confers immunity to H7N9 ... H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase ... The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic ... antibodies bound to the HA stalk domain but exhibited a difference in their breadth of reactivity to different H7 influenza ...
It is not clear whether prior exposure to circulating human influenza viruses or influenza vaccination confers immunity to H7N9 ... Binding of the antibodies to multiple influenza A recombinant HA proteins from group 2 (H3N2 and H7) and group 1 (H1N1 and H5N1 ... H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase ... The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic ...
Currently circulating human influenza A viruses are thought to... ... Although influenza A viruses are occasionally transmitted from ... avian and human influenza A viruses and indicate that all genes other than the M and NS restrict replication of human influenza ... Human influenza a viral genes responsible for the restriction of its replication in duck intestine. *Hatta M ... Currently circulating human influenza A viruses are thought to have originated from avian viruses, yet none of these strains ...
Forecasts of influenza activity in human populations could help guide key preparedness tasks. We conducted a scoping review to ... Influenza forecasting in human populations: a scoping review PLoS One. 2014 Apr 8;9(4):e94130. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. ... Forecasts of influenza activity in human populations could help guide key preparedness tasks. We conducted a scoping review to ... This review suggests need for use of good practices in influenza forecasting (e.g., sensitivity analysis); direct comparisons ...
Predicting the Evolution of Human Influenza A. By Robin M. Bush, Catherine A. Bender, Kanta Subbarao, Nancy J. Cox, Walter M. ... Predicting the Evolution of Human Influenza A. By Robin M. Bush, Catherine A. Bender, Kanta Subbarao, Nancy J. Cox, Walter M. ... A) The 1993-1994 test tree shows the evolution of the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene of human influenza A subtype H3 from ... We have identified a small set of rapidly evolving codons in the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin gene of human influenza A ...
... Haldar, Jayanta. ... "Bifunctional Polymeric Inhibitors of Human Influenza A Viruses." Pharmaceutical Research 27.2 (2009): 259-263. Web.. en_US. ... acts synergistically against the wild-type influenza virus, but not against its drug-resistant mutant, as compared to a ... followed by assaying them against wild-type and drug-resistant influenza A Wuhan viruses. Methods: Individually or together, 1 ...
... influenza human include Measuring Influenza Neutralizing Antibody Responses to A(H3N2) Viruses in Human Sera by ... Expression of Functional Recombinant Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Proteins from the Novel H7N9 Influenza Virus Using the ... Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the Nasal ... Measuring Influenza Neutralizing Antibody Responses to A(H3N2) Viruses in Human Sera by Microneutralization Assays Using MDCK- ...
The emergence of new virus strains coincides with a higher level of influenza-like illness (ILI), which is seen as a peak of a ... Our prediction model using a delay mode provides not only a real-time assessment of the current influenza epidemic activity but ... Monitoring the spread of an epidemic influenza in populations is a difficult and important task. Twitter is a free social ... influenza transmission and developed regression models that can track levels of actual disease activity and predict influenza ...
This document contains the case definition for avian influenza in humans, which is nationally notifiable within Australia. This ... Avian influenza in humans (AIH). This document contains the case definition for avian influenza in humans, which is nationally ... Note: Tests must be conducted in a national, regional or international influenza laboratory whose Avian Influenza in Humans ( ... ...
... ***********************************************. The Department of Health (DH ... reported the latest updates of the first confirmed human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) in Hong Kong this winter, and again ... The CHPs avian influenza page (; and. * Global statistics and affected areas of ... As winter approached, the number of human cases of H7N9 in the Mainland has been increasing. As of yesterday, 16 cases with ...
... there were 28 newly confirmed cases of human swine influenza (Influenza A H1N1) in the past 24 hours. ... This brings to 348 the total number of human swine influenza (HSI) cases in Hong Kong. ... 14 days in relation to a 16-year-old Form Two male student who was confirmed to have been infected with human swine influenza ...
Human infections with swine influenza have been sporadically detected (or at least published in the literature) since the late ... The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1). The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus contained genes from pig, bird and human influenza ... Human infections with swine influenza have been sporadically detected (or at least published in the literature) since the late ... Hence, the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus is, so far, the only SIV that has shown the capacity to spread rapidly between humans. ...
Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. Influenza A virus is responsible for both ... Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User ... Novel strains that cause pandemics arise from avian influenza virus by genetic reassortment among influenza viruses and two ...
... investigating the first imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) in Hong Kong this... ... Update on imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) Update on imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) Update on ... CHP investigates imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9). CHP investigates imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9 ... human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) Update on imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) Update on imported human case ...
Predicting the Evolution of Human Influenza A. By Robin M. Bush, Catherine A. Bender, Kanta Subbarao, Nancy J. Cox, Walter M. ... Predicting the Evolution of Human Influenza A. By Robin M. Bush, Catherine A. Bender, Kanta Subbarao, Nancy J. Cox, Walter M. ... Eighteen codons in the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin genes of human influenza A subtype H3 appear to be under positive ... 2 Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. ...
... from various animal species has been determined to test the relevance of receptor specificity to the ecology of influenza virus ... The receptor specificity of 56 H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates ... Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates Virology. 1994 Nov 15;205(1):17-23. doi: ... Elucidation of the amino acid sequence of several human H2 receptor variants and analysis of known sequences of H2 and H3 ...
  • This document provides a framework and approach for public health authorities and investigators at all levels to plan for and conduct investigations of human cases of A(H5N1) (or other novel influenza viruses of pandemic potential). (
  • Airborne transmission of influenza A/H5N1 virus between ferrets. (
  • Despite intensive care and Influenza A(H5N1) treatment with oseltamivir and antibiotics, the disease pro- gressed, and he died 2 days later. (
  • 3 of illness was tested by reverse transcription PCR, and Human, Vietnam results were positive for influenza A(H5N1) virus. (
  • Laboratory-confirmed cases of subclinical infection (age 18 years), daughter-in-law (age 25 years), and grand- with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in humans are rare, and son (age 1 year) and an unrelated man (age 43 years). (
  • Infection control the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investiga- measures were initiated, and all household members were tion in northern Vietnam. (
  • The subclinical case was detected in 2011 during a con- Chickens were also tested, and 4 chickens in the commune tact investigation of a 40-year-old man suspected of having tested positive for influenza A(H5N1) virus by RT-PCR of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. (
  • Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, for influenza A(H5N1) virus. (
  • Binding of the antibodies to multiple influenza A recombinant HA proteins from group 2 (H3N2 and H7) and group 1 (H1N1 and H5N1) was assessed by ELISA. (
  • Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. (
  • In this review we summarize and discuss the most important findings in this field, focusing mainly on H5N1 virulence factors and their impact on the modulation of the innate immunity in humans. (
  • While exposure to sick or deceased poultry continues to be the main route that humans become infected, experts warn that H5N1 may evolve into a form that can be easily transmitted from person-to-person. (
  • A novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 virus with a backbone of H5N1 virus acquired from the NA gene from the H6N6 virus has been identified. (
  • The test panel and diagnostic system can detect and identify commonly circulating human influenza viruses as well as influenza A (H5N1) viruses. (
  • H5N1 viruses circulate widely in birds in Asia, Africa and Europe and have caused human illness and death. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md., April 17, 2007-The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today announced the first approval in the United States of a vaccine for humans against the H5N1 influenza virus, commonly known as avian or bird flu. (
  • The vaccine could be used in the event the current H5N1 avian virus were to develop the capability to efficiently spread from human to human, resulting in the rapid spread of the disease across the globe. (
  • The H5N1 virus is one version of the influenza A virus commonly found in birds. (
  • Unlike seasonal influenza, where infection ranges from mild to serious symptoms in most people, the disease caused by H5N1 is far more severe and happens quickly, with pneumonia and multi-organ failure commonly seen. (
  • While there have been no reported human cases of H5N1 infection in the United States, almost 300 people worldwide have been infected with this virus since 2003 and more than half of them have died. (
  • To date, H5N1 influenza has remained primarily an animal disease but should the virus acquire the ability for sustained transmission among humans, people will have little immunity to this virus and the potential for an influenza pandemic would have grave consequences for global public health. (
  • The vaccine was obtained from a human strain and is intended for immunizing people 18 through 64 years of age who could be at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus contained in the vaccine. (
  • H5N1 influenza vaccine immunization consists of two intramuscular injections, given approximately one month apart. (
  • Additional information on this H5N1 influenza vaccine is being collected on safety and effectiveness in other age groups and will be available to FDA in the near future. (
  • Sanofi pasteur, the vaccines division of the sanofi-aventis Group, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has licensed its H5N1 vaccine, the first avian influenza vaccine for humans in the U.S. Sanofi pasteur, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health, submitted a Biologics License Application to the FDA for this H5N1 vaccine. (
  • The licensure serves as a first key step in achieving the government's goal of stockpiling vaccine intended to protect those who are at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus contained in the vaccine during the early stages of a pandemic. (
  • The Southeast Asian outbreak of the highly lethal avian influenza A H5N1 infection in humans is unlikely to abate because of the enormous number of backyard farms providing poultry as the main source of food protein in developing countries. (
  • Since 2003, when two cases of human H5N1 infection occurred in Hong Kong SAR, WHO has worked to identify and resolve problems in order to pave the way for rapid development and production of a pandemic vaccine. (
  • These data illustrate the potential of the VLP platform to provide well tolerated and effective vaccines against difficult viral targets, such as the H5N1 avian influenza strain. (
  • Novavax's VLP vaccine consists of recombinant particles that closely mimic the influenza virus and contain three immunologically important proteins HA, NA, and M1 from the H5N1 A/Indonesia/05/2005 avian influenza virus. (
  • January 8, 2014 - Canada has reported the first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus ever detected in the Americas. (
  • Most of the 648 human cases of H5N1 infections that have been detected since 2003 have occurred in people with direct or close contact with poultry. (
  • For people traveling to China, CDC recommends that people take the same protective actions against H5N1 as recommended to protect against H7N9 or other avian influenza A viruses. (
  • According to Canadian health officials, the patient, who died on January 3, 2014, recently traveled to Beijing, China, where avian influenza A H5N1 is endemic among poultry. (
  • This is the first detected case of human infection with avian influenza A H5N1 virus in North or South America. (
  • In 2007, "novel influenza A infections" such as H5N1, became nationally notifiable diseases in the United States. (
  • As mentioned previously, avian influenza A H5N1 is endemic in poultry in China. (
  • Since 2003, 45 cases of human infection with H5N1 have been reported in China and 30 (67%) have died. (
  • Since December 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections in birds have been reported in Asia, Africa, and Europe. (
  • Avian flu (H5N1) is a highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype, originally affecting wildfowl, ducks and geese which first made the genetic leap and started to infect humans in in Asia in 1997. (
  • Humans can become ill when infected with viruses from animal sources, such as avian influenza virus subtypes H5N1 and H9N2 and swine influenza virus subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. (
  • It was called avian influenza (H5N1) as the outbreak was linked to ducks, geese and chickens. (
  • Since then there have been human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia, Africa, Europe, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Pacific, and the near East with hundreds of people becoming sick with this virus and over half dying. (
  • There is also no evidence to suggest that the H5N1 virus can be transmitted to humans through properly prepared eggs. (
  • LAS VEGAS, December 11, 2008 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Vical Incorporated today announced that the company's Vaxfectin(R)-formulated H5N1 pandemic influenza DNA vaccines induced T-cell responses against a matching strain of influenza virus and demonstrated cross-clade antibody responses against a different strain in a Phase 1 clinical trial. (
  • New data presented at the conference indicates that the company's monovalent Vaxfectin(R)-formulated H5N1 pandemic influenza DNA vaccine induced T-cell responses against the H5 antigen in 75% to 100% of evaluable subjects in the various cohorts. (
  • The monovalent vaccine, which was based on the H5N1 influenza virus strain, A/Vietnam/1203/04, also induced antibody responses against the H5N1 influenza virus strain, A/Hong Kong/156/97 from a different clade, in 50% of responders. (
  • Vical's monovalent vaccine contained a plasmid (a closed loop of DNA) encoding the hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein from the H5N1 influenza virus strain, A/Vietnam/1203/04. (
  • H5N1 threat puts human flu back in. (
  • The emergence of the avian influenza virus H5N1 that is currently devastating chicken flocks in many countries and threatening to unleash a worldwide epidemic among humans has triggered a renewed interest among scientists in studying influenza A viruses, according to investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. (
  • The current resurgence of interest in influenza immunology reflects the threat that H5N1 could evolve into a virus that spreads easily among humans. (
  • Between 30 October and 5 November 2020, one new case of human infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus was reported to WHO in the Western Pacific Region. (
  • All household contacts tested negative for Influenza A. As of 5 November 2020, a total of 239 cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus were reported from four countries within the Western Pacific Region since January 2003 (Table 1). (
  • Bridges CB, Lim W, Hu-Primmer J et al (2002) Risk of influenza A (H5N1) infection among poultry workers, Hong Kong, 1997-1998. (
  • Since H5N1 viruses circulate in the avian reservoir and cause high lethality rates when transmitted to humans, infections with the H5N1 subtype pose an ongoing threat. (
  • In this study, the fatal human case isolate A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1) (KAN-1) was analyzed to examine mechanisms of H5N1 viruses to overcome host range restriction. (
  • Interestingly, the KAN-1 polymerase was poorly adapted to human cells, in contrast to other H5N1 viruses isolated from humans. (
  • We identified the NEP protein as a new pathogenicity factor of H5N1 viruses in humans, which is able to overcome this incomplete adaptation of the KAN-1 and avian H5N1 polymerases in human cells. (
  • Furthermore, influenza pandemics that are caused by novel virus strains originating from animal host reservoirs of influenza A virus (IAV) 1 as well as the ongoing highly lethal zoonotic infections with avian H5N1 and H7N9 subtype strains remain a constant threat for the human population ( 2 ). (
  • The recent outbreak of Swine influenza, by a new subtype of the A H1N1 virus, originated in Mexico and severe respiratory illness was first reported in March. (
  • A spokesman for the Hong Kong Department of Health said up to 2.30pm today, there were 28 newly confirmed cases of human swine influenza (Influenza A H1N1) in the past 24 hours. (
  • One known exception is the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. (
  • The A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus contained genes from pig, bird and human influenza viruses, in a combination that was never reported before 2009 in any part of the world. (
  • Hence, the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus is, so far, the only SIV that has shown the capacity to spread rapidly between humans. (
  • The NA genes were also atypical of classical H1N1 swine viruses, forming a cluster of N1 separate from the swine lineage N1 either and more similar to human H1N1 from 2002-2003 or similar to human-like N2 from the same lineage as the triple reassortant H3N2 swine viruses that emerged in 1997-1998 [ 3 , 6 ]. (
  • Such shifts or adaptation of avian viruses for human transmission were associated with large human pandemics caused by H1N1 in 1918, H2N2 in 1957, H3N2 in 1968, and a new H1N1 in 2009. (
  • Our current influenza vaccine strategy is to make educated guesses about the likely dominant drifted strains based on molecular epidemiology studies and then to manufacture trivalent (with H1N1, H3N2, and B Ags) or quadrivalent (adding a second type B strain Ag) vaccines starting ∼6 mo before the season. (
  • Among 555 companion dogs sampled in 2015-2017, 1.3 per cent and 9.5 per cent showed hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titre to CIV of H3N8 or H3N2 subtypes and to A(H1N1)pdm09 human influenza viruses, respectively. (
  • Despite this, all 24 participating laboratories returned results for the three influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 samples, with 82% correctly interpreting results for oseltamivir and 78% correctly interpreting results for zanamivir susceptibility. (
  • A mixed sample consisting of two influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, one with normal inhibition and one with highly reduced inhibition, accounted for three of the four incorrect answers. (
  • A National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical study of healthy adult volunteers who consented to be infected with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus under carefully controlled conditions has provided researchers with concrete information about the minimum dose of virus needed to produce mild-to-moderate illness. (
  • The virus, synthesized in the lab under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, was genetically identical to the virus that caused 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza . (
  • The first upset to this classical concept came with the reappearance of the H1N1 subtype in 1977 after an absence of over 20 years which did not replace the existing H3N2 subtype but circulated together with it and either or both of them would then be responsible for annual seasonal influenza outbreaks (Kilbourne 2006). (
  • To evaluate the efficacy of oseltamivir ,as compared with the placebo arm and zanamivir with its control arm with respect to symptoms duration among patients infected with influenza A ( H1N1 ) virus. (
  • The outbreak of respiratory illnesses in Mexico that began in March 2009 was caused by a swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) that had not been recognized previously in pigs or humans. (
  • As of 17 May 2009, 39 countries have officially reported 8480 cases of influenza A (H1N1) infection. (
  • The H1N1 influenza A virus appears sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir in vitro, but resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. (
  • In general, the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus could cause clinical profiles and virus shedding kinetics similar to those of the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus. (
  • In order to determine the extent of homologous recombination in human influenza A virus, the authors assembled a data set of 13,852 sequences representing all eight segments and of both major circulating subtypes of the virus, H3N2 and H1N1. (
  • Since 1977, strains of influenza A (H3N2), influenza A (H1N1), and influenza B have been responsible for the majority of documented human infections and trivalent vaccines are updated annually to contain the circulating strains. (
  • The health and economic burdens of influenza are substantial, and the world badly needs improved flu vaccines. (
  • Standard influenza vaccines must be reformulated and administered annually to match changes in the HA protein in the viral strains predicted to dominate in the upcoming influenza season. (
  • So-called universal influenza vaccines are being developed and tested by many research groups and could one day eliminate the need for annual vaccination by generating long-lasting antibodies to protect against many existing or emergent influenza virus strains, including those not represented in the vaccine. (
  • Similar to commercially available flu vaccines, the experimental nanoparticle FluMos-v1 vaccine is designed to elicit antibodies directed against the HA protein from four different virus strains, two influenza type A strains of H1 and H3 subtype and two influenza type B strains. (
  • 2021) Quadrivalent influenza nanoparticle vaccines induce broad protection. (
  • Discovery of canonical features in the subset of the influenza repertoire response that is broadly reactive for diverse influenza strains has spurred the recent optimism for creating universal influenza vaccines. (
  • Gradual genetic drift in HA and NA genes causes the antigenic variation that reduces the protective effect of seasonal influenza vaccines. (
  • The existing regulations under the Human Medicines Regulations 2012 for the disapplication of certain advertising restrictions for unlicensed vaccines are expanded by these regulations to permit temporary authorisation of any medicinal products for the purposes of any campaign approved by ministers. (
  • From a pandemic-preparedness point of view, we should potentially start including some of these H3 strains as part of influenza vaccines. (
  • Although the level of antibodies seen in the remaining individuals did not reach that level, current scientific information on other influenza vaccines suggests that less than optimal antibody levels may still have the potential to help reduce disease severity and influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (
  • With the support of FDA, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and other government agencies, sanofi pasteur and other manufacturers are working to develop a next generation of influenza vaccines for enhanced immune responses at lower doses, using technologies intended to boost the immune response. (
  • Genomic analyses of IAV in swine are critical to understanding this risk, the types of viruses circulating in swine, and whether current vaccines developed for use in humans would be predicted to provide immune protection. (
  • To date, only two of the world's roughly 12 major companies producing influenza vaccines have taken work on a pandemic vaccine significantly forward. (
  • Current vaccines that promote immunity to seasonal human H3N2 strains do not protect against H3N2v. (
  • The data obtained from this study provide a basis for more rapid, cost-effective clinical trials to evaluate new influenza drugs or to determine the efficacy of candidate vaccines for both seasonal and pandemic influenza. (
  • A new approach for immunizing against influenza elicited a more potent immune response and broader protection than the currently licensed seasonal influenza vaccines when tested in mice and ferrets. (
  • The studies presented in this Conference illustrate some of the newer aspects of the immune response to infection with influenza virus and vaccination with inactivated vaccines. (
  • Both vaccines were formulated with the company's Vaxfectin(R) adjuvant, which has demonstrated effectiveness with a variety of DNA vaccines in multiple animal models as well as dose-sparing and immune-enhancing ability in animals with a conventional seasonal influenza vaccine. (
  • Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. (
  • Urumin represents a unique class of anti-influenza virucide that specifically targets the hemagglutinin stalk region, similar to targeting of antibodies induced by universal influenza vaccines. (
  • Until recently, many immunologists were relatively uninterested in studying influenza immunity because there were already effective vaccines," said Peter Doherty, Ph.D., member of the St. Jude Department of Immunology and co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize for Medicine. (
  • Alexander DJ (2008) Avian influenza manual for diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 6th edition. (
  • Advanced surveillance by understanding the mechanisms by which influenza viruses acquire the ability to cross the species barrier from birds to humans and new strategies to improve current vaccines are needed to control future pandemics. (
  • Influenza viruses, particularly IAV, evolve quickly, so flu vaccines are updated regularly to match which influenza strains are in circulation. (
  • On 20 December 2016, the Department of Health (DOH), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) notified WHO of a case of laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. (
  • His nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) taken on 19 December was positive for avian influenza A(H7N9) virus RNA. (
  • To date, a total of 808 laboratory-confirmed human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported through IHR notification since early 2013. (
  • Most human cases are exposed to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. (
  • Although small clusters of human cases with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported including those involving healthcare workers, current epidemiological and virological evidence suggests that this virus has not acquired the ability of sustained transmission among humans. (
  • Human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus are unusual and need to be monitored closely in order to identify changes in the virus and/or its transmission behaviour to humans as it may have a serious public health impact. (
  • 17 December 2013 - On 15 and 16 December 2013, the National Health and Family Planning Commission, China notified WHO of two new laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. (
  • On 10 April 2015, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 20 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, including 4 deaths. (
  • Overall, the public health risk from avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses has not changed. (
  • Further sporadic human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) infection are expected in affected and possibly neighboring areas. (
  • The emergence and seasonal persistence of pathogenic H7N9 influenza viruses in China have raised concerns about the pandemic potential of this strain, which, if realized, would have a substantial effect on global health and economies. (
  • H7N9 viruses are able to bind to human sialic acid receptors and are also able to develop resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors without a loss in fitness. (
  • It is not clear whether prior exposure to circulating human influenza viruses or influenza vaccination confers immunity to H7N9 strains. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that 3 of 83 H3 HA-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated by individuals that had previously undergone influenza A virus vaccination were able to neutralize H7N9 viruses and protect mice against homologous challenge. (
  • The H7N9-neutralizing antibodies bound to the HA stalk domain but exhibited a difference in their breadth of reactivity to different H7 influenza subtypes. (
  • The Department of Health (DH) today (December 28) reported the latest updates of the first confirmed human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) in Hong Kong this winter, and again urged the public to maintain strict personal, food and environmental hygiene both locally and during travel. (
  • As winter approached, the number of human cases of H7N9 in the Mainland has been increasing. (
  • His nasopharyngeal aspirate collected today was confirmed to be positive for influenza A(H7N9) virus by the PHLSB tonight. (
  • Recently, Guangdong reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) in this winter. (
  • Human H7N9 cases have also been detected in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Fujian while human H5N6 cases in Hunan and Guangxi since November. (
  • This is the 17th imported human case of avian influenza A(H7N9) confirmed in Hong Kong. (
  • From 2013 to date, 783 human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) have been reported by the Mainland health authorities. (
  • In 2013 in mainland China, a novel avian influenza virus H7N9 began to infect humans and had aroused severe fatality in the infected humans, followed by the annual outbreaks. (
  • Theoretical analysis shows that the endemic will be formed to a large extent once the H7N9 avian influenza virus exists in poultry. (
  • In early 2013, the first case of human infection with the A H7N9 avian influenza virus was found in China, and subsequently the A H7N9 influenza virus was detected in the live poultry market. (
  • At that time, the A H7N9 influenza virus had no pathogenicity or low pathogenicity to poultry. (
  • But, the fatality rate of human infections with the A H7N9 virus is much higher than that of seasonal influenza infections. (
  • The A H7N9 avian influenza virus has brought great harm to the development of poultry industry and the health of public in mainland China. (
  • 7 ] suggested genetic reassortment has occurred since the emergence of A H7N9 HPAI (the highly pathogenic avian influenza) viruses. (
  • Since avian influenza A(H7N9) was first identified in Shanghai, China, in March 2013, there have been a total of five epidemics. (
  • [1] In the fifth wave, 4.09% of cases (31/758) were infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H7N9). (
  • This indicated that the pathotype of the A(H7N9) had switched from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) to HPAI. (
  • Guangdong is one of three provinces with the highest cumulative numbers of reported incidences of human infection with A(H7N9) since 2013. (
  • The collection of data from influenza A(H7N9) cases was decided to be a part of a public health investigation of emerging outbreak, which was exempt from institutional review board assessment. (
  • In the second epidemic wave of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China from October 2013 to October 2014, we estimated that the risk of death among hospitalised cases of infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus was 48% (95% credibility interval: 42-54%), slightly higher than the corresponding risk in the first wave. (
  • Using data on symptomatic cases identified through national sentinel influenza-like illness surveillance, we estimated that the risk of death among symptomatic cases of infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus was 0.10% (95% credibility interval: 0.029-3.6%), which was similar to previous estimates for the first epidemic wave of human infections with influenza A(H7N9) virus in 2013. (
  • We diagnosed avian influenza A H7N9 in all four patients (who were epidemiologically unlinked), two of whom died and two of whom were recovering at the time of writing. (
  • Each had contact with poultry 3-8 days before onset of disease, and all were positive for influenza H7N9 virus by polymerase chain reaction of sputum or throat swab samples (virus was cultured from three of the four patients). (
  • Two of five pigeons and four of 20 chickens from two different wet markets were also positive for influenza H7N9 virus. (
  • These internal H7N9 circulate…maybe mutate a little and unknowingly do this for a year or two under our nose with swine HA and NA genes…in a year or two are the conditions right for H7 and N9 either from birds or maybe a human H7N9 isolate that has some additional alpha 2-6 adaptations to then make that important reassortment leap? (
  • Chinese and U.S. scientists have used virus isolated from a person who died from H7N9 avian influenza infection to determine whether the virus could infect and be transmitted between ferrets. (
  • A new study has found that a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus, which has recently emerged in humans, attaches moderately or abundantly to the epithelium of both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. (
  • The guidance for H7N9 is posted on the CDC website at Human Infections with Novel Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses . (
  • As of November 6, 139 confirmed human cases of avian H7N9 influenza, including 45 deaths, have been reported by the World Health Organization. (
  • Recent studies have shown that certain H7N9 viruses had acquired mutations that might make them more adapted to humans. (
  • However, using X-ray crystallography to study the HA and receptor structures with unprecedented accuracy, the TSRI researchers demonstrated that the HA in avian H7N9 influenza most closely resembles that of viruses that spread easily among birds, yet only weakly attaches to human influenza receptors. (
  • Preferential recognition of avian-like receptors in human influenza A H7N9 viruses. (
  • The study proves that the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus can infect ferrets and cause relatively mild clinical signs. (
  • As the avian influenza A (H7N9) can also infect pigs, surveillance of pigs is needed to prevent the epidemic from spreading further. (
  • Since H7N9 virus has the possibility to infect mammals, such as human, pigs and ferrets, the research team suggests that for better disease control and prevention, the health authority should also take into consideration of other poultry and pets which may have a chance to be contacted with the virus. (
  • To date, a total of 130 laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus have been reported in mainland China since March this year. (
  • YORK, Feb. 10 news (reporter Rui Shi Gang) since January 2014, some provinces and cities of China's continuous reports of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza. (
  • Heilongjiang Province health department attaches great importance to the health of people infected with H7N9 bird flu prevention and control work, recently, has set up a human H7N9 avian influenza infection in the leading group, while the selection of a group of experienced provincial experts, set up a provincial medical treatment Expert Group, Centers for Disease Control Expert Group, the Chinese expert group. (
  • It is reported that people infected with H7N9 avian influenza B infectious statutory Heilongjiang Province in the event of human infection with H7N9 bird flu, the Ministry of Health and Family Planning Commission will adhere to the principles of openness and transparency and timely and accurate notification epidemic prevention and control work. (
  • Any person other units and individuals through the Internet and other media to spread the infection of H7N9 avian influenza false information is an offense. (
  • Long-term Follow-up of 5 Survivors after the First Outbreak of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Shanghai, China. (
  • From April to May 2013, 18 patients with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, and finally, 12 of them survived. (
  • From September to November 2013, 5 survivors with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection discharged from Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were admitted to Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. (
  • A previous study had revealed that the main imaging findings of HRCT during the initial stage of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were GGOs, consolidations, air bronchograms, and interlobular septal thickening. (
  • As a unique mammalian host for influenza A viruses, dogs support the transmission of canine influenza viruses (CIVs) of H3N8 and H3N2 subtypes and are susceptible to infection by avian and human influenza viruses. (
  • Among 182 shelter dogs sampled in 2017-2018, none showed HI titre to CIV and 1.1 per cent reacted to H3N2 human influenza virus. (
  • A new study from MIT reveals that there are many strains of H3N2 circulating in birds and pigs that are genetically similar to the 1968 strain and have the potential to generate a pandemic if they leap to humans. (
  • Strains of H3N2 have been circulating in humans since the 1968 pandemic, but they have evolved to a less dangerous form that produces a nasty seasonal flu. (
  • Sasisekharan and his colleagues wanted to determine the risk of H3N2 strains re-emerging in humans, whose immune systems would no longer recognize the more dangerous forms of H3N2. (
  • Selection of the high-yield variants of the human-avian reassortants led either to twofold decrease in the affinity of HA for most α2-3-sialosides and the appearance of affinity for α2-6-sialosides (H3N2 reassortant), or to decreasing the HA affinity for SiaLe c and SiaLe a (H3N1 reassortant), or to enhancing the ability of NA to discriminate between α2-3/2-6 substrates (H4N1 reassortant). (
  • Characterization of sialidase from an influenza A (H3N2) virus strain: kinetic parameters and substrate specificity. (
  • All tested positive for influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) and one person has been hospitalised and since released. (
  • US - Comparison of genome sequences of the subtype H3N2 isolates recovered from humans and swine from US pig fairs revealed nucleotide identities of more than 99.7 per cent, confirming zoonotic transmission between swine and humans. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) virus was isolated from swine at 10 of the fairs. (
  • According to a concurrent public health investigation, seven of the 10 fairs were epidemiologically linked to confirmed human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. (
  • All influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in this study, regardless of host species or fair, were more than 99.5 per cent identical, indicating that one virus strain was widely circulating among exhibition swine in Ohio during 2012. (
  • The influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) virus, which circulates in swine, has recently been reported in humans, especially children, and is distinct from other seasonal H3N2 strains found in humans. (
  • While these antibodies effectively neutralized H3N2v, they were not effective against currently circulating human H3N2 strains. (
  • However, these antibodies were able to neutralize human H3N2 strains that circulated between 1995 and 2005, indicating that these strains are highly related to H3N2v. (
  • March 16, 2012 - CDC has confirmed that the influenza viruses isolated from the cluster of severe respiratory illness in one family in Maryland are seasonal influenza A H3N2 viruses. (
  • Genetic sequencing has confirmed that this is a typical human seasonal H3N2 virus that is more than 99% similar to other H3N2 influenza viruses submitted by the state of Maryland this season. (
  • The state of Maryland reported that all four people were confirmed to be positive for seasonal influenza A (H3N2) infection by the state Laboratories Administration. (
  • New data presented at the current conference indicates that a single injection of a Vaxfectin(R)-formulated influenza vaccine produced by the company's RapidResponse(TM) manufacturing system provided complete protection of mice against challenge with highly lethal doses of H3N2 influenza virus. (
  • This approach allowed for the definition and quantitative comparison of about 3500 proteins in human lung epithelial cells in response to seasonal or low-pathogenic avian H3N2 IAV. (
  • Antigenic drift due to mutations in the hemagglutinin gene necessitates frequent replacement of influenza A strains in the human vaccine. (
  • A first-in-human, Phase 1 trial assessing the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational nanoparticle influenza vaccine designed to provide long-lasting protection against multiple flu virus strains has begun at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. (
  • Healthy participants 18 to 50 years old will receive either a licensed seasonal influenza vaccine or the experimental vaccine, FluMos-v1. (
  • FluMos-v1 vastly outperformed the seasonal flu vaccine in its ability to elicit protective antibodies to two influenza type A subtypes (H5 and H7) not in the vaccine. (
  • Human repertoire studies suggest that the potential diversity of the human Ab repertoire far exceeds that of the influenza Ag diversity, but the problem for vaccine prevention of new strains is a matter of timing. (
  • On 2 December 2020 a temporary authorisation was issued under Regulation 174 of the Human Medicines Regulations 2012 (as amended by Regulation 174A) for the implementation of the first COVID-19 vaccine, the Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2), to be used in the United Kingdom. (
  • Should such an influenza pandemic emerge, the vaccine may provide early limited protection in the months before a vaccine tailored to the pandemic strain of the virus could be developed and produced. (
  • While working overnight at a swine exhibition, we identified an influenza A virus (IAV) outbreak in swine, Nanopore sequenced 13 IAV genomes from samples we collected, and predicted in real time that these viruses posed a novel risk to humans due to genetic mismatches between the viruses and current prepandemic candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). (
  • As the leading manufacturer of influenza vaccine in the world and a longstanding, responsible member of the immunization community, we will play a key role in helping safeguard human health if an influenza pandemic strikes. (
  • A vaccine could reduce the high morbidity and mortality normally associated with influenza pandemics, if available sufficiently early. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md., Dec 20, 2007 -- Novavax, Inc. (Nasdaq: NVAX) announced today favorable interim results from a Phase I/IIa human clinical trial of its non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate. (
  • Penny Heaton, MD, Chief Medical Officer and Head of Clinical Development stated, 'The initial results from our Phase I/IIa study are promising and support further development of our pandemic influenza vaccine through regulatory licensure. (
  • In addition, these initial results from our pandemic trial bode well for our trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, which is expected to enter human clinical trials during the second quarter of 2008, pending completion of pre- clinical studies,' he added. (
  • In the latest issue of JCI Insight, James Crowe of Vanderbilt University and colleagues describe the isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies with H3N2v-neutralizing capacity from human subjects given an H3N2v candidate vaccine. (
  • Recapitulation of antigenic drift in vitro with human mAbs, in parallel with standard analysis with ferret anti-sera, may contribute to improved selection of vaccine strains by the WHO. (
  • Medical Xpress)-A new study in the US suggests that boosting a certain group of antibodies could help to create a universal vaccine for influenza. (
  • In the USA alone the toll from influenza is estimated at 36 000 deaths and 226 000 hospitalisations, and it ranks as the most important cause of vaccine preventable mortality in that country (CDC 2010). (
  • The best way to prevent influenza and its complications is an annual influenza vaccine. (
  • Cross-clade responses could be important in providing protection against emerging strains of influenza before a matching vaccine could be deployed. (
  • Responses against conserved antigens could provide protection against serious disease or death during an outbreak of a new strain of influenza for which a vaccine had not yet been developed. (
  • Vical's trivalent vaccine contains the H5 plasmid plus separate plasmids encoding consensus sequences of two highly conserved influenza virus proteins: nucleoprotein (NP) and ion channel protein (M2). (
  • We carried out an integrative, longitudinal study combining genetic, transcriptional, and immunologic data in humans given seasonal influenza vaccine. (
  • Vaccination is a primary strategy for the prevention of seasonal influenza, but responses to the vaccine vary markedly, partly because of variation in the genetic makeup or genotype of individuals. (
  • To investigate the genetic basis of variation in the immune response of healthy adults to the seasonal influenza vaccine, Franco et al. (
  • Studies investigating influenza vaccine immunogenicity in humans have consistently shown large inter-individual variability, but the genetic contribution to this variability remains poorly understood. (
  • Sporadic infections and even localized outbreaks among people with variant influenza viruses may occur. (
  • The IHR requires countries to report certain disease outbreaks and public health events, including any confirmed case of human infection with a "novel" (non-human) influenza virus. (
  • WHO advises that travellers to countries with known outbreaks of avian influenza should avoid, if possible, poultry farms, contact with animals in live bird markets, entering areas where poultry may be slaughtered, or contact with any surfaces that appear to be contaminated with faeces from poultry or other animals. (
  • Once domestic birds are infected, avian influenza outbreaks can be difficult to control and often cause major economic damage to poultry farmers in affected countries, since mortality rates are high and infected fowl generally must be destroyed -- the technical term is "culled" -- in order to prevent the spread of the disease. (
  • For more on what FAO is doing to help, visit the Animal Production and Health Division's special Web site on Avian Influenza and the Asian outbreaks. (
  • For overseas exposures, an AI-affected area is defined as a region within a country with confirmed outbreaks of AI strains in birds or detected in humans in the last month (seek advice from the National Incident Room when in doubt). (
  • The outbreaks in poultry and humans have serious impact on livelihoods, economy, and the international trade. (
  • These treatment and prevention studies will be conducted at more than 100 clinical sites in the United States, Canada and Europe and will enroll patients naturally infected with influenza and those at risk for developing influenza illness during seasonal outbreaks. (
  • Nanopore sequencing technology has enabled genome sequencing in the field at the source of viral outbreaks or at the bedside or pen-side of infected humans and animals. (
  • The response to outbreaks of international importance, such as avian influenza in Vietnam, has highlighted the value of this Commission funded project during such incidents. (
  • First, countries experiencing outbreaks need to rapidly share human and animal viruses with laboratories in the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network. (
  • Influenza A viruses are responsible for seasonal disease outbreaks in humans. (
  • Urumin therefore has the potential to contribute to first-line anti-viral treatments during influenza outbreaks. (
  • Influenza A viruses infect a wide range of animals and cause influenza outbreaks among humans. (
  • Since the late 1800s, large outbreaks of novel influenza strains that spread globally, called pandemics, have occurred every 10-50 years. (
  • This increases the risk of the emergence of a reassortant pandemic influenza virus with improved human-to-human transmissibility. (
  • Davis also will present a paper on the 1918 pandemic influenza - Spanish flu - at the Experimental Biology conference in Boston at the end of March. (
  • Banks J, Speidel E, Alexander DJ (1998) Characterisation of an avian influenza A virus isolated from a human-is an intermediate host necessary for the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses? (
  • We present here an extensive structural and biophysical analysis of a lineage of BCRs directed against the receptor binding site (RBS) of subtype H1 influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA). (
  • this new viral subtype has not been previously detected in pigs or humans. (
  • The search now, is for scientists and public health experts to figure out how this viral subtype jumped from pigs to humans and why it is spreading so quickly. (
  • Eighteen codons in the HA1 domain of the hemagglutinin genes of human influenza A subtype H3 appear to be under positive selection to change the amino acid they encode. (
  • This test should help ensure the accuracy of influenza testing results among the different qualified laboratories that conduct influenza subtype testing. (
  • With each pandemic a new subtype of influenza A virus would appear to replace its predecessor and it would then become the regular annual seasonal influenza virus. (
  • If these changes result in a new influenza A virus subtype that can infect humans and spread easily from person to person--an influenza pandemic can occur. (
  • Alexander DJ, Parsons G, Manvell RJ (1986) Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of eight avian influenza A viruses of H5 subtype for chickens, turkeys, ducks and quails. (
  • Banks J, Speidel EC, Harris PA, Alexander DJ (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses of H9 haemagglutinin subtype. (
  • We describe a detailed molecular "case history" of this coevolution (to our knowledge, the most thorough such study so far) through structural and biophysical analysis of a lineage of human antibodies directed at the influenza hemagglutinin receptor binding site. (
  • Scientists from NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) developed FluMos-v1 to stimulate antibodies against multiple influenza virus strains by displaying part of the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein on self-assembling nanoparticle scaffolds. (
  • Chicken serum antibodies to Influenza A/PR/8/34 and Sendai Cantell are readily available. (
  • The production of antibodies to the influenza A and B viruses in the HIV-infected patients was substantially lower than that in healthy persons. (
  • The study showed that 45 percent of individuals who received the 90 microgram, two-dose regimen developed antibodies at a level that is expected to reduce the risk of getting influenza. (
  • The elicited antibodies were closer in sequence to germline than those to Influenza, and contained fewer somatic mutations. (
  • This brings to 348 the total number of human swine influenza (HSI) cases in Hong Kong. (
  • A cross-sectional serological study was performed to assess the exposure history of dogs in Hong Kong to CIV and human influenza viruses. (
  • In the summer of 1968, a new strain of influenza appeared in Hong Kong. (
  • Researchers at Australia's Griffith Institute for Glycomics and the University of Hong Kong have discovered that specific sugar molecules in the respiratory tract (Sialylated O-glycans) are key receptors for influenza viruses and particularly for highly pathogenic strains such as avian flu. (
  • So arose the pandemics of 1918 (the Spanish influenza), 1957 (the Asian influenza) and 1968 (the Hong Kong influenza). (
  • As mentioned the first avian influenza in humans was reported in Hong Kong in 1997. (
  • Butt KM, Smith GJ, Chen H et al (2005) Human infection with an avian H9N2 influenza A virus in Hong Kong in 2003. (
  • Human influenza a viral genes res. (
  • Retrospective tests show that viral lineages undergoing the greatest number of mutations in the positively selected codons were the progenitors of future H3 lineages in 9 of 11 recent influenza seasons. (
  • Influenza causes periodic human pandemics because the segmented viral genome allows the creation of new viruses during coinfection of cells with viruses of two different antigenic subtypes. (
  • A complex interplay of viral, host, and ecological factors shapes the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. (
  • We have recently demonstrated that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) 3 protein of influenza virus and the HA-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Sendai virus (SV) can interact with both the NKp44 and NKp46 receptors and that this interaction leads to increased killing that can overcome the class I MHC-mediated inhibition ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) announced today that oral administration of the neuraminidase inhibitor GS 4104 (also known as Ro 64-0796) significantly decreased influenza viral replication and the duration of influenza symptoms when given as treatment. (
  • Twenty-four hours after treatment was initiated, the influenza viral titers were reduced by more than a hundred fold compared to placebo. (
  • We characterise the evolutionary dynamics of influenza infection described by viral sequence data collected from two challenge studies conducted in human hosts. (
  • Our results do not contradict previous findings of high rates of viral reassortment in vitro and in small animal studies, but indicate that in human hosts the effective rate of reassortment may be substantially more limited. (
  • F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd and Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) announced today the start of human testing of GS 4104, an oral therapy for the potential treatment and prevention of viral influenza. (
  • In multiple animal models, GS 4104 significantly decreased the duration and severity of symptoms when given after viral infection, completely prevented infection when given prior to viral exposure and was well tolerated at levels that exceeded the anticipated human dose. (
  • The study also gives a clearer picture of how much time elapses between a known time of infection, the start of viral shedding (a signal of contagiousness), the development of an immune response, and the onset and duration of influenza symptoms. (
  • The goals of our study were to characterize the bat influenza virus using noninfectious approaches by synthesizing the complete viral genome, then generate a replicative virus and use it as a model to better understand bat influenza viruses," Ma said. (
  • The PB1-F2 protein of the influenza A virus (IAV) contributes to viral pathogenesis by a mechanism that is not well understood. (
  • In an evaluation of nasopharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized children (ages, 0 to 3 years) with acute respiratory tract infections during the winter of 2001 to 2002, a viral pathogen was detected by the multiplex PCR test in 139 (66.8%) of 208 cases, including 45 (21.6%) influenza A virus infections, no (0%) influenza B virus infections, 106 (51%) HRSV infections, and 12 (5.8%) coinfections. (
  • After resolution of discrepant test results by use of additional PCR assays targeting other viral genes, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the multiplex PCR assay for influenza A virus were 100 and 97.7% compared to 43.6 and 98.5% for the antigenic test. (
  • In order to overcome these limitations, we developed a real-time multiplex PCR assay for influenza viruses and HRSV that uses the melting-curve-analysis feature of the LightCycler instrument to rapidly distinguish viral products. (
  • Over the years, influenza A viruses have been one of the most important models for studying how the immune system responds to viral infections. (
  • Influenza may progress to pneumonia, which can be caused by the primary viral infection or by a secondary bacterial infection. (
  • Influenza infection is diagnosed with laboratory methods such as antibody or antigen tests and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify viral nucleic acid. (
  • Our prediction method takes advantage of the fact that phylogenetic trees constructed using hemagglutinin genes from human influenza type A viruses show, over time, a single successful lineage, which we call the "trunk lineage. (
  • Viruses with H1 hemagglutinin genes from the human seasonal lineage ( -cluster) have been isolated from North American swine since 2003. (
  • Genetic reassortment of the segments mixed during coinfection with avian, swine, and human viruses allows complete changing of the surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) to subtypes never seen by humans, resulting in antigenic shifts. (
  • Balanced action of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) is an important condition of influenza virus efficient replication, but a role of HA and NA specificities at oligosaccharide level in maintaining such a balance remains poorly studied. (
  • In this study, the TSRI scientists examined the three-dimensional structures of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein on the surface of the virus and its interaction with the human influenza receptor-the molecule on the surface of human cells that HA binds to before entering the cell and causing infection. (
  • We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. (
  • This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses. (
  • identify a host defense peptide (urumin) from frogs that is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin (HA)-bearing human influenza A viruses. (
  • Urumin targets the conserved stalk region of hemagglutinin and protects naive mice from lethal influenza infection. (
  • Despite a species barrier, subtypes of influenza A can transmit from the avian reservoir to humans and widely spread in the population. (
  • No formal surveillance is conducted for influenza with bacterial co-infections, however, these are well documented in the literature going back to the 1918 influenza pandemic. (
  • A third way to possibly get infected is to inhale particles containing influenza virus. (
  • Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. (
  • All influenza viruses have the capacity to change and it's possible that variant viruses may change such that they infect people easily and spread easily from person-to-person. (
  • When one of these avian or swine viruses gains the ability to infect humans, it can often evade the immune system, which is primed to recognize only strains that commonly infect humans. (
  • SYDNEY, Nov. 19 (Xinhua) -- A research released on Monday has shed new light on how highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the deadly bird flu infect humans. (
  • From this reservoir new viruses or new genes would periodically cross the species barrier and infect humans either directly or indirectly through an intermediate host such as the pig, or a novel gene or two could be transmitted through reassortment in an intermediate host such as the pig. (
  • Influenza B virus (IBV) and Influenza C virus (ICV) primarily infect humans, and Influenza D virus (IDV) is found in cattle and pigs. (
  • IDV can infect humans but is not known to cause illness. (
  • Domestically, CDC reports these cases in its weekly national influenza surveillance report, FluView . (
  • WHO encourages countries to continue strengthening influenza surveillance, including surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) and to carefully review any unusual patterns, ensure reporting of human infections under the IHR (2005), and continue national health preparedness actions. (
  • Beyond these national missions, a regional initiative aimed at improving epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of avian influenza in the region is being prepared by FAO. (
  • Manual for the laboratory diagnosis and virological surveillance of influenza. (
  • Influenza research database: an integrated bioinformatics resource for influenza research and surveillance. (
  • Adapting the PRISMA methodology for systematic reviews, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, Project Euclid, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for publications in English since January 1, 2000 using the terms "influenza AND (forecast* OR predict*)", excluding studies that did not validate forecasts against independent data or incorporate influenza-related surveillance data from the season or pandemic for which the forecasts were applied. (
  • Upon activation of the Serious Response Level (SRL) under the Preparedness Plan for Influenza Pandemic last night (December 27), the DH immediately commenced enhanced surveillance, enhanced port health measures and risk communication accordingly. (
  • Heightened surveillance for further cases has provided no evidence that efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission is presently occurring in Thailand. (
  • This was the second AV EQA panel distributed by the European Reference Laboratory Network for Human Influenza (ERLI-Net), and its predecessor organisation, since the European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) was established in 2008. (
  • As part of an ongoing active influenza A virus surveillance project, nasal swab samples were collected from exhibition swine at 40 selected Ohio agricultural fairs during 2012. (
  • Located in the province 13 cities (prefectures) and part of the county (district) of 20 influenza sentinel surveillance hospitals, 14 influenza laboratory network provincial and municipal levels, disease prevention and control all started, is actively carried unexplained pulmonary infections and influenza surveillance work, and strive to achieve early detection, early diagnosis, early reports. (
  • Bearee AS, Webster RG (1991) Replication of avian influenza A viruses in humans. (
  • We show that the binding of KIR2DL1-Ig is specifically increased after infection with different strains of influenza viruses. (
  • In preclinical studies, GS 4104 demonstrated potent activity against multiple strains of influenza A and B. When given orally, high blood and tissue concentrations of the drug were seen throughout the body, including the lungs. (
  • The controversy rests, patient's daughter, collected 6 days after the woman had to a large extent, on interpretation of serologic tests used to slaughtered a chicken, was positive for influenza A/H5 by detect prior H5 infection and the paucity of virologically real-time RT-PCR, and virus was recovered on day 10 of confirmed subclinical or mild cases. (
  • Sialic acid receptor specificity on erythrocytes affects detection of antibody to avian influenza haemagglutinin. (
  • A fourfold or greater rise in antibody titre to the AI virus detected in the outbreak (or AI virus suspected of causing the human infection), based on testing of an acute serum specimen (collected 7 days or less after symptom onset) and a convalescent serum specimen. (
  • An antibody titre to the AI virus detected in the outbreak (or AI virus suspected of causing the human infection) of 80 or greater in a single serum specimen collected at day 14 or later after symptom onset. (
  • In some individuals this can lead to focusing of the polyclonal antibody response to a single site on the influenza haemagglutinin. (
  • In contrast to Influenza, the antibody response to the Ebola glycoprotein (GP) in vaccinated humans was essentially primary. (
  • Purpose: New antiviral agents were prepared by attaching derivatives of sialic acid (1) and of the drug zanamivir (2) to poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (poly-(1 + 2)) or by mixing poly-1 and poly-2, followed by assaying them against wild-type and drug-resistant influenza A Wuhan viruses. (
  • This report presents the results of the influenza virus antiviral (AV) susceptibility external quality assessment (EQA) which was held for European reference laboratories. (
  • During autumn 2013, an influenza virus antiviral (AV) susceptibility external quality assessment (EQA) was held for European reference laboratories. (
  • Each participant received a panel of seven coded samples containing recent influenza viruses with substitutions known to confer reduced or highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitor class of antiviral drugs. (
  • Our own data indicate that chronic exposure to CS suppresses the ability of epithelial cells to enhance antiviral gene expression in response to influenza infection and activate host defense responses. (
  • The influenza A virus has the ability to quickly generate both antigenic variants that can escape host immunity, as well as genotypes that provide resistance to antiviral drugs typically used to combat flu. (
  • Antiviral treatment is the first line of defense during influenza A pandemics. (
  • Since the human MxA GTPase is an important factor in the immune response against influenza viruses, we analyzed its antiviral activity against KAN-1. (
  • Results of HI testing of serum samples n 2012, a debate was published in Science about the collected during the acute illness phase of the index case- number of humans who have experienced subclinical in- patient were negative. (
  • Clinicians should pay special attention to patients with fever or influenza-like illness who visited wet market with live poultry or had contact with poultry in affected areas within the incubation period, that is 10 days before onset. (
  • In addition, another Phase II study showed that GS 4104 given as prophylaxis before experimental exposure to influenza prevented illness and evidence of detectable virus. (
  • Early treatment of high-risk students and staff: People at high risk for influenza complications who become ill with influenza-like illness should speak with their health care provider as soon as possible. (
  • Lower dosages did not generate responses that met this threshold, thereby establishing the minimum dose of influenza virus needed to produce mild-to-moderate illness. (
  • Yet this virus, despite its public health importance being responsible for causing such a massive burden of illness, is only now in recent times yielding up the secrets of its characteristics and its behaviour in human populations. (
  • Concurrent infection (co-infection) with staph - which is what seems to have occurred in the cluster in Maryland - is a potentially catastrophic complication of influenza that can progress rapidly to serious illness and death. (
  • This week's FluView is reporting 15 states with widespread influenza activity and 5 states with high influenza-like-illness activity. (
  • They are: Influenza A virus (IAV), genus Alphainfluenzavirus Influenza B virus (IBV), genus Betainfluenzavirus Influenza C virus (ICV), genus Gammainfluenzavirus Influenza D virus (IDV), genus Deltainfluenzavirus IAV is responsible for most cases of severe illness as well as seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. (
  • Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease caused by influenza virus infection. (
  • A dynamical model of human immune response to influenza A virus infection. (
  • Influenza A virus infection. (
  • This study illustrates the virological and clinical findings of a fatal H5N6 virus infection in a human patient. (
  • In this study, we demonstrate that the binding of NK-inhibitory receptors is enhanced after influenza virus infection. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared a new test developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to diagnose human influenza infections. (
  • Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for bidirectional transmission of influenza A viruses, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has declared a public health emergency for human swine flu. (
  • Simulations indicate that measures of vaccination in poultry and stopping live poultry transactions are the primary choices for disease control in humans, and strengthened inhibition effects and environmental disinfections can effectively control the outbreak. (
  • In 13 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients receiving a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) annual influenza vaccination was conducted. (
  • This indicates that HAART can protect patients from adverse consequences of influenza vaccination. (
  • We propose that HIV-positive patients receiving HAART should be subjected to annual influenza vaccination. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Influenza vaccination of human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. (
  • VL - 45 IS - 1 N2 - In 13 human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected patients receiving a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) annual influenza vaccination was conducted. (
  • This thesis describes an analysis of the B cell repertoire in humans in response to infection or vaccination with Influenza or Ebola. (
  • We formulate a deterministic transmission and vaccination model to investigate the effects of media coverage on the transmission dynamics of influenza. (
  • The results show that variation at the level of genes involved in membrane trafficking and antigen processing significantly influences the human response to influenza vaccination. (
  • However, the details of how genes influence response to vaccination, and indeed susceptibility to influenza, remain unclear. (
  • Annual vaccination can help to provide protection against influenza. (
  • As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute respiratory symptoms while travelling in or soon after returning from an area where avian influenza is a concern. (
  • Travellers, especially those returning from avian influenza-affected areas with fever or respiratory symptoms, should immediately wear masks, seek medical attention and reveal their travel history to doctors. (
  • Influenza A viruses cause acute respiratory disease in swine. (
  • It caused human infection resulting in severe respiratory disease. (
  • The virus' ability to attach to glycan receptors found on human respiratory-tract cells is key to infecting humans. (
  • Hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette: The new recommendations emphasize the importance of the basic foundations of influenza prevention: stay home when sick, wash hands frequently with soap and water when possible, and cover noses and mouths with a tissue when coughing or sneezing (or a shirt sleeve or elbow if no tissue is available). (
  • Our finding sheds new light on how deadly influenza viruses attach to cells that are present in the respiratory tract and the importance of O-glycans has been overlooked so far," lead researcher Associate Professor Thomas Haselhorst said. (
  • This is a human cell line that has been in use for quite a while in respiratory research," Davis said. (
  • Influenza A viruses are a major source of respiratory disease in humans, causing 36,000 deaths each year in the U.S. and occasionally starting widespread pandemics, according to the CDC. (
  • A multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed with a LightCycler instrument for detection of influenza viruses A and B and the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). (
  • Most of these infections are caused by influenza viruses A and B as well as the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), which are associated with the most severe complications, i.e., bronchiolitis, pneumonitis, and occasionally death ( 3 , 9 , 19 , 23 , 24 ). (
  • From the ‡Unit 17 " Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses", Robert Koch Institut, Seestr. (
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a major cause for respiratory disease in humans, which affects all age groups and contributes substantially to global morbidity and mortality. (
  • Influenza viruses are a major cause for waves of respiratory disease, which affects all age groups and can occur repeatedly in any particular individual. (
  • In humans, influenza viruses are primarily transmitted through respiratory droplets produced from coughing and sneezing. (
  • Influenza virus and some other human pathogens evolve to evade herd immunity and, hence, to reinfect previously immune individuals. (
  • These Ab technologies have been especially pointed at understanding the complex issues of immunity to infection and disease caused by influenza virus, one of the most common and vexing medical problems in man. (
  • Influenza immunity is particularly interesting as a model system because the antigenic diversity of influenza strains and proteins is high and constantly evolving. (
  • Using new technologies for sequencing Ab repertoires at great depth is helping us to understand the central features of influenza immunity. (
  • Genetic drift in influenza occurs in a direction over time ( 1 ), such that older individuals possess immunity to older strains, in patterns that can be recognized by the decade of birth. (
  • We present a simplified dynamical model of immune response to uncomplicated influenza A virus (IAV) infection, which focuses on the control of the infection by the innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • Influenza A virus is responsible for both annual seasonal epidemics and periodic worldwide pandemics. (
  • In the past 100 years, influenza viruses that emerged from pigs or birds have caused several notable flu pandemics. (
  • A prescient commentary by Scholtissek and Naylor in 1988 drew attention to the risks of future pandemics which could result from developments in aquaculture which promote contacts between humans, ducks and pigs (Scholtissek & Naylor 1988). (
  • The active drug substance is a potent and selective inhibitor of the influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme essential to the replication of influenza virus strains A and B. These strains are the major cause of flu in humans. (
  • A polymorphism leading to an amino acid change in the HA that was previously reported to be positively selected during replication in humans altered the organ tropism of KAN- 1 in mice and ferrets. (
  • Furthermore, functional studies revealed that the restriction of avian influenza polymerases in mammals is due to a general defect in RNA-replication and not transcription. (
  • An exception to the rule is a well known 1976 outbreak of swine influenza among young and healthy adult military recruits at a basic-training centre in New Jersey (Fort Dix), in the United States. (
  • Most commonly, human infections with variant viruses occur in people with exposure to infected pigs (e.g., children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). (
  • Swine influenza has not been shown to be transmissible to people through eating properly handled and prepared pork (pig meat) or other products derived from pigs. (
  • There have been documented cases of multiple people becoming sick after exposure to one or more infected pigs and also cases of limited spread of variant influenza viruses from person-to-person. (
  • Swine flu is common in pig populations and the infection is known to be transmitted from pigs to humans. (
  • Although this virus is likely of swine origin, it has not (to date) been detected in pigs prior to its appearance in humans. (
  • As of November 2011, thirty-one cases of swine influenza infection in humans have been reported in the United States between December 2005 and November 2011, of which 11 had a clear history of exposure to pigs. (
  • Within the TRIG viruses, a dominant circulating genotype carries the HA and NA encoding genes of the human seasonal viruses of the H1 lineage (hu-like), identified from pigs in American and Canadian herds [ 4 ]. (
  • Medical Xpress)-A new study in the U.S. has shown that pigs vaccinated against one strain of influenza were worse off if subsequently infected by a related strain of the virus. (
  • There are four types of influenza virus, termed influenza viruses A, B, C, and D. Aquatic birds are the primary reservoir of Influenza A virus (IAV), which is also widespread in various mammals, including humans and pigs. (
  • The study opens new avenues for the development of anti-influenza drugs. (
  • Dual functions of ginsenosides in protecting human endothelial cells against influenza H9N2-induced inflammation and apoptosis. (
  • Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were infected with avian influenza H9N2/G1 to induce IP-10 production and cell death, cells were then incubated with ginsenosides PPT and Re. (
  • Influenza A viruses can bind sialic acid-terminating glycan receptors, and species specificity is often correlated with sialic acid linkage with avian strains recognizing α2,3-linked sialylated glycans and mammalian strains preferring α2,6-linked sialylated glycans. (
  • Here, we present the first examination of the N-glycome of the human lung for identifying natural receptors for a range of avian and mammalian influenza viruses. (
  • The HA genes of these viruses form the δ -cluster in phylogenetic analyses of HA genes from North American influenza A viruses of swine. (
  • However, there was diversity in the internal genes of the American viruses compared with Canadian isolates, mainly due to the presence of the TRIG cassette in the American isolates whereas the Canadian virus internal genes were classical swine or human in lineage. (
  • In this study, we examined the downstream effects of PB1-F2 protein during IAV infection by measuring expression of the cellular genes in response to infection with wild-type WSN/33 and PB1-F2 knockout viruses in human lung epithelial cells. (
  • This study is to test the oseltamivir, zanamivir and placebo arms as the first line treatment for human swine influenza infection. (
  • Influenza, commonly called "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by influenza viruses. (
  • Therefore, the idea was to perform morphological comparisons as well as study differences in response to influenza infection of the 'pseudo' trachea versus human trachea sampled from autopsy material, including individuals who died from an influenza infection. (
  • Their analyses are based on two four-populations models, including migratory birds, resident birds, domestic poultry, and humans, involving the virus in environment. (
  • Avian influenza is highly contagious among chickens and other birds but is usually difficult for humans to catch. (
  • Previous research had shown that compared to influenza viruses that are adapted to spread easily among birds, viruses adapted to humans generally have different amino acids (protein components) at the HA site that recognize and bind to the human receptor. (
  • Influenza, an RNA virus commonly referred to as the 'flu', is an infectious disease that affects both birds and mammals. (
  • Alexander DJ (2001) Ecology of avian influenza in domestic birds. (
  • It also protected naive mice from lethal influenza infection. (
  • Dosing was initiated 28 hours after volunteers were exposed intranasally to influenza A. GS 4104 decreased the duration of influenza symptoms by approximately 50 percent. (
  • Influenza A viruses are important infectious agents for humans, avian species, and many mammalian species, including swine. (
  • Their study, "Characterization of Uncultivable Bat Influenza Virus Using a Replicative Synthetic Virus," was published in the Oct. 2 issue of PLOS Pathogens . (
  • 2014) Characterization of Uncultivable Bat Influenza Virus Using a Replicative Synthetic Virus. (
  • Influenza infects an estimated 120 million people in the United States, Europe and Japan each year and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. (
  • Highly virulent influenza virus strains increase morbidity and mortality significantly, especially in people among high risk groups such as the elderly. (
  • Although human-to-human transmission is a rare event, rapid evolution of the virus might result in a strain, which gains the ability to spread in the human population, leading to high morbidity and mortality. (
  • People at high risk of serious complications from seasonal influenza and H3N2v include children younger than 5, people with certain chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, heart disease, weakened immune systems, pregnant women and people 65 years and older. (
  • Influenza virus exhibits a significant challenge to the human immune system because of antigenic variability in field strains. (
  • Understanding the genetic and structural basis for broadly protective Abs is a major current goal of the influenza immune repertoire field. (
  • This value indicates the percentage of these genetic regions identical to those of the 1968 pandemic strain and helps determine how well an influenza virus can evade a host's immune response. (
  • Subtle changes in antigenicity as a result of mutational changes in the plastic ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome, termed antigenic drift, ensured that epidemics of influenza in temperate climates would be a feature of every winter. (
  • Meanwhile, the start of the fever clinics, medical and health institutions at all levels in Heilongjiang province has increased for suspected human bird flu, unexplained pneumonia, influenza and other epidemics aggregation of vigilance and sensitivity. (
  • IAV and IBV circulate in humans and cause seasonal epidemics, and ICV causes a mild infection, primarily in children. (
  • Currently marketed influenza treatments, which do not target the neuraminidase enzyme, are limited due to activity only against type A strains, adverse side effect profiles and rapid development of drug-resistant virus. (
  • Funning, T.G., Reid, A.H., Taubenberger, J.K.: Influenza A virus neuraminidase: regions of the protein potentially involved in virus-host interactions. (
  • GS 4104 inhibits neuraminidase, an enzyme that allows for newly formed virus to escape from infected cells and is necessary for the spread of influenza from cell to cell. (
  • In September 1996, Gilead and Roche signed a collaborative agreement to develop and commercialize an oral neuraminidase inhibitor for the potential treatment and prevention of influenza virus on a worldwide basis. (