Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.DucksRabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.DNA Virus InfectionsHost-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.RNA Virus InfectionsVirus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mice, Inbred BALB CRespiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Paramyxoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Mice, Inbred C57BLJC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.PyransCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
... viral entry and the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral viruses,[49][50] etc. ... "Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Macro-scale biological processes, such as the spread of virus infections, can be followed using GFP labeling.[58] In the past, ...
Influenza A virus was found to survive in large numbers on stainless steel. Once surfaces are contaminated with virus particles ... Adenoviruses account for about 10% of acute respiratory infections in children. These viruses are a frequent cause of diarrhea ... Viruses Influenza A Barker, J; Vipond, IB; Bloomfield, SF (2004). "Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread ... After incubation for one hour on copper, active influenza A virus particles were reduced by 75%. After six hours, the particles ...
"Sublingual vaccination with influenza virus protects mice against lethal viral infection". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Thus, preclinical studies have found that sublingual vaccines can be highly immunogenic and may protect against influenza virus ... "Infection and Immunity. 78 (10): 4251-60. doi:10.1128/IAI.00536-10. PMC 2950356 . PMID 20696831.. ... "Evaluation of the Sublingual Route for Administration of Influenza H5N1 Virosomes in Combination with the Bacterial Second ...
"Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Through the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP), virus entry and infection can be visualized in real-time. Once a virus ... Viruses that exhibit this behavior include many enveloped viruses such as HIV and Herpes simplex virus This basic idea extends ... Examples include the poliovirus, Hepatitis C virus and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Many enveloped viruses also enter the cell ...
... herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, respiratory virus infections, influenza infection, T cell immunity, and commensal ... Iwasaki, A; Pillai, P (2014). "Innate immunity to influenza virus infection". Nature Reviews Immunology. 14 (5): 315-328. doi: ... Iwasaki and her team study immune responses to influenza in the lungs and herpes simplex virus in the genital tract. Overall, ... The study, Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in ...
"Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100: 9280-9285. ... "Assembly of endocytic machinery around individual influenza viruses during viral entry". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology ... "Virus trafficking - learning from single-virus tracking". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 5: 197-208. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1615. ... Zhuang and colleagues used single-molecule FRET to study biomolecules and molecular complexes and developed single-virus ...
"Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 23 (4): 222-228. doi: ... A universal flu vaccine is flu vaccine that is effective against all influenza virus strains regardless of the virus subtype or ... "Broadly cross-reactive antibodies dominate the human B cell response against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection". The ... "Universal influenza virus vaccines: what can we learn from the human immune response following exposure to H7 subtype viruses ...
Sládková T, Kostolanský F (2006). "The role of cytokines in the immune response to influenza A virus infection". Acta ... Human herpes viruses are a candidate group of viruses. Individuals having never been infected by the Epstein-Barr virus are at ... It may become permeable to these types of cells secondary to an infection by a virus or bacteria. After it repairs itself, ... viral infections such as the common cold, influenza, or gastroenteritis increase their risk.[5] Stress may also trigger an ...
Liao, Q; Qian, Z; Liu, R; An, L; Chen, X (2013). "Germacrone inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection". Antiviral ...
"Effects of orally administered bovine lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase on influenza virus infection in mice". J. Med. Microbiol ... Herpes simplex virus, HSV • Immunodeficient virus, HIV • Respiratory Syncytial virus, RSV • Echovirus 11 • Influenza virus ... Mikola H, Waris M, Tenovuo J. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by ... inflammation and bacterial infection in the respiratory tract. Lactoferrin with hypothiocyanite has been granted orphan drug ...
Molecular targets and potential antiviral treatments against influenza virus infection Teran, C. G.; Teran-Escalera, C. N.; ... influenza due to its inhibitory effect on a broad range of influenza virus subtypes and efficacy against influenza viruses that ... Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as ... It has also been shown to have activity against influenza A virus in vitro. The mechanism appears to be by selectively blocking ...
GSH is capable of preventing infection from the influenza virus. Patients with mutations in the GSS gene develop glutathione ... Cai J, Chen Y, Seth S, Furukawa S, Compans RW, Jones DP (Apr 2003). "Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione". Free ... and increased susceptibility to pathogenic infections. Treatment of individuals with glutathione synthetase deficiency ...
"Enhanced recognition of human NK receptors after influenza virus infection". Journal of Immunology. 171 (2): 915-23. doi: ...
For severe illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in critically ill hospitalized patients ... Medicines for ectoparasitic infections[edit]. *Ivermectin. Antimigraine medicines[edit]. For treatment of acute attack[edit]. * ... To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection *^ To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of ... To be used for the treatment of T. b. gambiense infection *^ Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the ...
2001). "Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection". FASEB J. 15: 1481-1483. doi:10.1096/fj.00 ... and the influenza virus. High selenium yeast supplementation (200 μg/d) was evaluated in a 9-month double-blind, randomized, ... Viral infection. Findings of increased viral virulence in selenium-deficient hosts support the need for further investigation ... Beck M. Selenium and viral infections. In: Hatfield D, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in ...
"Transcriptional derepression of the ERVWE1 locus following influenza A virus infection". J. Virol. 88: 4328-37. Rolland, A; ... Another study also infected cells with influenza to show that this virus can transactivate HERV-W elements. Influenza produces ... Through qPCR methods and infection of cells with influenza and human herpes simplex 1 it was found that HERV-W has a heighted ... It is common for viruses to take pieces of their host's genome with them if it aids their success. On the other hand, hosts can ...
Mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza, and other common viruses have also been noted. Influenza has often been well-documented ... A number of additional infections, including gastrointestinal infections, dental infection, herpes simplex, varicella, Epstein- ... A variety of inciting infections have been observed. The most common infection sites are in the upper respiratory tract: ... Part III-Treatment and Prevention of Infections". PANS PANDAS Management If Infection. 27: 1-33. Thienemann, M. "Consensus ...
"Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic". Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 6 (3 ... Arenavirus: Guanarito virus,[2] Junín virus,[2] Lassa fever virus,[2] Lujo virus,[3] Machupo virus[2] ve Sabiá virus[2] ... Hantaan virus,[6] Puumala virus,[7] Rift Valley fever virus,[8] Seoul virus[9] ve SFTS virus[10] ... Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,[13]Dengue,[14] Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus,[15] Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus,[15] Sarı ...
"Entrez Gene: MAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 3". Buggele WA, Johnson KE, Horvath CM (2012). "Influenza A virus infection ... is turned off by two microRNAs that were activated after the influenza A virus had been made to infect human lung cells. ...
Tang JW, Shetty N, Lam TT, Hon KL (September 2010). "Emerging, novel, and known influenza virus infections in humans". ... Many viruses (for example, influenza A virus) can "shuffle" their genes with other viruses when two similar strains infect the ... One way that viruses have been able to spread is with the evolution of virus transmission. The virus can find a new host ... Viral evolution is an important aspect of the epidemiology of viral diseases such as influenza (influenza virus), AIDS (HIV), ...
"Considerations on possible cerulloplasmin functions in the infection with influenza and para-influenza viruses" won second ... "Considerations about the possible function of ceruloplasmin in influenza and parainfluenza virus infection". www. ... Florica Topârceanu is an Antarctic researcher, best known for her work on Antarctic aquatic viruses and for developing the ... Topârceanu's research interests are Antarctic aquatic viruses and her research expertise focuses on the life sciences, people ...
"Nanobodies with in vitro neutralizing activity protect mice against H5N1 influenza virus infection". The Journal of Infectious ... In mice infected with influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Nanobodies directed against hemaglutinin suppressed replication of the ... Ghannam A, Kumari S, Muyldermans S, Abbady AQ (2015). "Camelid nanobodies with high affinity for broad bean mottle virus: a ... H5N1 virus in vivo and reduced morbidity and mortality. Nanobodies targeting the cell receptor binding domain of the virulence ...
Memory B cells are lymphocytes known to be produced to fight off secondary infection, yet the influenza virus is able to avoid ... This method was used to tag the influenza virus, so that it could be observed, and it was found that the interaction of virus ... "Antigen-specific B cell receptor sensitizes B cells to infection by influenza virus". Nature. 503 (7476): 406-409. doi:10.1038/ ... Berman, Jessica (October 21, 2013). "Flu Virus Disarms Immune System's First Responders". Voice of America. Retrieved December ...
"Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection". J. Gen. Virol. 89 (Pt 1): 60- ... It is more effective as a disinfectant than chlorine in most circumstances against waterborne pathogenic agents such as viruses ... Journal of Hospital Infection. 48 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1053/jhin.2001.0956. PMID 11358471. Tristel Wipes System Product ... Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 28 (8): 1009-12. doi:10.1086/518847. PMID 17620253. Retrieved 2009-11-27. Ogata N ...
At Johns Hopkins, Ed worked primarily on the influenza virus and salmonella infection. In 1964, he became a professor of ...
Following infection, immune cells carry the virus to nearby lymph nodes where further reproduction of the virus takes place.[54 ... Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Avian Influenza Virus. *CDC: Testing Recommendations for Persons with possible infection with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) virus in ... Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in ... NEJM: Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus ... WHO recommendation on influenza A(H7N9) vaccine virus -- 26 Sept. 2013. *WHO: Laboratory bio risk management for laboratories ...
Influenza virus infection is detected by multiple host sensors that recognize unique features that are associated with the ... Innate immunity to influenza virus infection.. Iwasaki A1, Pillai PS1. ... and propose rational treatment strategies for the acute respiratory disease that is caused by influenza virus infection. ... acts on epithelial cells to block virus replication. DCs and macrophages that are infected with influenza virus release ...
... notified WHO of a case of laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ... Human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus are unusual and need to be monitored closely in order to identify ... Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China. Disease outbreak news 23 December 2016 ... To date, a total of 808 laboratory-confirmed human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported through IHR ...
China notified WHO of two new laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ... Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - update. Disease outbreak news ... More on human infection caused by the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ... China notified WHO of two new laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ...
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China. Disease outbreak news 15 April 2015 ... As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute ... WHO risk assessment of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ... of China notified WHO of 20 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, ...
... virus.. Of the 5,337 laboratory-confirmed cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, 41.9% of patients were aged ,15 ... virus infection in Mexico, a case definition was developed. The initial definition of suspected novel influenza A (H1N1) virus ... Update: Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection --- Mexico, March--May, 2009. On April 12, 2009, Mexico responded to a request ... Human infection with new influenza A (H1N1) virus: clinical observations from Mexico and other affected countries, May 2009. ...
Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2014 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2013 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2010 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2007 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ...
BACKGROUND: Influenza outbreaks have been reported among travelers, but attack rates and incidence are unknown.\n\nMETHODS: A ... Seroconversion for influenza virus infection was demonstrated in 40 (2.8%) of all travelers; 18 participants (1.2%) had a , or ... Influenza virus infection in travelers to tropical and subtropical countries.. *Mutsch M ... CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates that influenza is the most frequent vaccine-preventable infection among travelers to ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... Detection of Influenza Virus Infection Using Two PCR Methods. ... influenza A virus was detected in 260 specimens and influenza B virus was detected in 76 specimens using SRT-PCR, and influenza ... The sensitivity (96% for influenza A and 91% for influenza B) and specificity (100% for influenza A and 100% for influenza B) ...
A case of human infection with a novel influenza A virus confirmed by CDCs influenza laboratory. Once a novel virus has been ... Any case of human infection with an influenza A virus that is different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and H3 ... A human case of infection with an influenza A virus subtype that is different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2014 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ...
A question of self-preservation: immunopathology in influenza virus infection.. La Gruta NL1, Kedzierska K, Stambas J, Doherty ... Influenza A viruses that circulate normally in the human population cause a debilitating, though generally transient, illness ... Severe complications arising from pandemic influenza or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses are often associated with ... factors mediating tissue damage during the anti-influenza immune response are also critical for efficient elimination of virus ...
... antagonism of influenza A viral infection. We found that interferon prevents influenza A virus from entering our cells by ... Thus research to identify new anti-influenza virus strategies would be useful. Each of our cells contains antiviral factors ... blocking the virus fusion with the cellular membrane. Furthermore, we learned that IFITM3 is required for this antiviral ... results improve our understanding of how IFITM3 serves to defend us against viral invasion at a very early stage of infection. ...
... equine and avian influenza A viruses. The viruses were recovered until the 7th post inoculation (p.i.) day from the... ... Antigenic variation of influenza viruses. In:Kilbourne, E. D. (ed.), The Influenza Viruses and Influenza, 269-314. New York: ... Lang, G., Narayan, O., Rouse, B. T., Ferguson, A. E., Connell, M. C.: A new influenza A virus infection in turkeys. II. A ... A new influenza infection in turkeys. I. Isolation and characterization of virus 6213. Canad. vet. J.9, 22-29 (1968).Google ...
Anti-virals for influenza virus infection were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. ... Anti-virals for influenza virus infection].. Uirusu 2005; 55(1):111-4U ... Anti-virals for Influenza Virus Infection]." Uirusu, vol. 55, no. 1, 2005, pp. 111-4. ... TY - JOUR T1 - [Anti-virals for influenza virus infection]. A1 - Sugaya,Norio, PY - 2005/11/26/pubmed PY - 2006/1/28/medline PY ...
Impact of influenza virus infection as a cause of pediatric hospitalization. J Infect Dis.1992;165 :373- 375. ... all influenza infections were influenza A, and PCR increased the detection of influenzavirus by 60%, from 5% detected by ... Frank AL, Taber LH, Glezen WP, Geyer EA, McIlwain S, Paredes A. Influenza B virus infections in the community and the family. ... Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. Lancet.1998; ...
In addition, it recapitulates current knowledge of the influences of influenza virus infection on the process. ... In addition, it recapitulates current knowledge of the influences of influenza virus infection on the process. ... Silencing M2 expression during influenza A virus infection, or infecting cells with a M2 knockout influenza A virus, reverted ... High-throughput screening for anti-influenza a virus drugs and study of the mechanism of procyanidin on influenza a virus ...
Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock. Rachel S. Edgar, Alessandra ... Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock ... Circadian clocks and virus infection. Rachel S. Edgar, Alessandra Stangherlin, Andras D. Nagy, Michael P. Nicoll, Stacey ... Circadian clocks and virus infection. Rachel S. Edgar, Alessandra Stangherlin, Andras D. Nagy, Michael P. Nicoll, Stacey ...
T cells during influenza virus infection (4) or Sendai virus infection (5). However similar to lymphoid tissue CD8+ DCs, CD103+ ... DCs upon lung exposure to influenza virus contributed to lung CD103+ DC protection from influenza virus infection. ... Tracking virus antigen uptake by lung cells during influenza virus infection in vivo. Lung phagocytes consist of alveolar ... To assess the response of lung phagocytes to influenza virus infection, WT mice were infected with 106 PFUs of NS1-GFP virus ...
... which is why the discovery will play an important role in assessing the risk of spill-over infections to other species than ... How simple can influenza viruses switch their receptors, and is it even possible that influenza viruses emerge, which can ... Scientists discover new infection route for influenza A viruses. *Download PDF Copy ... Influenza viruses from bats use an entirely different portal to enter the cell than all previously known types of influenza/ ...
TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells are the necessary evil of lethal influenza virus infection. Jerry R. Aldridge Jr., Carson E ... Respiratory infection with highly pathogenic influenza A viruses is characterized by the exuberant production of cytokines and ... 2007) Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus. Nature 445:319-323. ... Viruses.. The PR8 and x-31 influenza A viruses were obtained from the St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital repository. The x- ...
Kasel, J. A. & Couch, R. B. (‎1969)‎. Experimental infections in man and horses with influenza A viruses*. Bulletin of the ...
Influenza viruses have eight genes, two of which code for virus surface proteins - hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) - ... Other combinations, such as avian influenza H5N1, occasionally infect people, but they are bird viruses, not human viruses. ... Scientists have shown that the founding virus was an avian-like virus. The virus had a novel set of eight genes and - through ... The influenza virus that wreaked worldwide havoc in 1918-1919 founded a viral dynasty that persists to this day, according to ...
Zika virus infection. Action requested: Consider Zika virus infection in patients with acute fever, rash, arthralgia, or ... Influenza & Zika Virus Infection. Author: David Bayless/Wednesday, January 20, 2016/Categories: Health Alerts ... Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating. ... Consider Zika virus infection in patients with acute fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis and who have traveled to areas ...
  • Recent studies using gene-knockout mice have led to an in-depth understanding of the innate sensors that detect influenza virus infection in a variety of cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Herpesvirus infection in mice is regulated by the circadian clock. (pnas.org)
  • luc MuHV-4 infection in WT and Bmal1 −/− mice infected at ZT0 vs. ZT10. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that challenging mice with virulent influenza A viruses, including currently circulating H5N1 strains, causes the increased selective accumulation of a particular dendritic cell subset, the tipDCs, in the pneumonic airways. (pnas.org)
  • These tipDCs are required for the further proliferation of influenza-specific CD8 + T cells in the infected lung, because blocking their recruitment in CCR2 −/− mice decreases the numbers of CD8 + effectors and ultimately compromises virus clearance. (pnas.org)
  • Giving mice the type II diabetes drug pioglitazone diminishes but does not prevent tipDC recruitment, while allowing for sufficient CD8 + T cell expansion to protect against an otherwise lethal HP influenza virus challenge. (pnas.org)
  • Mice were challenged 24 h after initiation of treatment with 10 mouse 50% lethal doses of either amantadine-sensitive (having S31 in the M2 protein) or amantadine-resistant (having N31 in the M2 protein) recombinant A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) virus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Combination chemotherapy provided a survival advantage over single-agent treatment of mice inoculated with neurotropic H5N1 influenza virus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Amantadine-oseltamivir combination therapy for H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Contradictorily, iBALT formation following clearance of the virus was heavily compromised in Il1r1 −/− mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Administration of recombinant IL-1α to the lungs of wild-type mice, early but not late, after IAV infection led to more pronounced iBALT formation and an increased amount of GC B cells in the lungs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanistically, Q-PCR analysis of lung homogenates revealed a strongly diminished production of CXCL13, a B cell-attracting chemokine, in Il1r −/− mice during the early innate phase of IAV infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • To elucidate the role of class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in virus infection, we have investigated the influence of the primary and secondary infections of influenza virus on mice deficient of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is absolutely required for CSR and SHM. (rupress.org)
  • In the secondary infection with a lethal dose of influenza virus, both AID −/− and AID +/− mice survived completely. (rupress.org)
  • Depletion of CD8 + T cells by administration of an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody caused slightly severer body weight loss but did not alter the survival rate of AID −/− mice in secondary infection. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that unmutated immunoglobulin (Ig)M alone is capable of protecting mice from death upon primary and secondary infections. (rupress.org)
  • Because the titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies were comparable between AID −/− and AID +/− mice at the time of the secondary infection, a defect of AID −/− mice in protection of morbidity might be due to the absence of either other Ig classes such as IgG, high affinity antibodies with SHM, or both. (rupress.org)
  • The protective role of Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in influenza virus infection also suggests the importance of CSR ( 14 ) because the affinity to the Fc receptor is different among antibody classes, particularly mice IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, which are able to bind to Fcγ receptors with higher affinity than IgG3 ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this study mice were injected intravenously with polymeric IgA (pIgA), monomeric IgA (mIgA), or IgG1 mAb specific for the H1 hemaglutinin of PR8 influenza virus. (jimmunol.org)
  • When infected with influenza B virus, these mice cleared the virus in a process dependent upon CD8 + T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cytotoxic activity was detected in lung lymphocytes of DI mice after primary or secondary infection, and was abrogated by depletion of CD8 + cells in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • Challenge experiments showed that DI mice could be protected by immunization against reinfection 1 mo later, and protection was virus specific. (jimmunol.org)
  • Protective effect of homonojirimycin from Commelina communis (dayflower) on influenza virus infection in mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The effects of homonojirimycin (HNJ), one of alkaloids from Commelina communis L., on protection against influenza virus infection in mice were investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • HNJ was found to improve the survival rate, prolong the mean survival time and reduce virus yields in lungs on days 4 and 6 post-infection (p.i.), after the agent had been orally administered to the mice from 2 days before infection to 6 days p.i. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Administration of HNJ (1 mg/kg) significantly increased interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 levels but decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 levels in serum and lungs of influenza-infected mice on days 2, 4 or 6 p.i. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, obese mice had fewer bronchoalveolar macrophages and regulatory T cells during infection. (rti.org)
  • Mice fed a ketogenic diet were better able to combat the flu virus than mice fed food high in carbohydrates, according to a new Yale University study published Nov. 15 in the journal Science Immunology . (nutritionreview.org)
  • They showed that mice fed a ketogenic diet and infected with the influenza virus had a higher survival rate than mice on a high-carb normal diet. (nutritionreview.org)
  • When mice were bred without the gene that codes for gamma delta T cells, the ketogenic diet provided no protection against the influenza virus. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Absence of AM in GM-CSF-deficient ( Csf2 −/− ) mice or selective AM depletion in wild-type mice resulted in impaired gas exchange and fatal hypoxia associated with severe morbidity to influenza virus infection, while viral clearance was affected moderately. (plos.org)
  • Virus-induced morbidity was far more severe in Csf2 −/− mice lacking AM, as compared to Batf3 -deficient mice lacking CD8α + and CD103 + DCs. (plos.org)
  • In addition, CD11c-Cre/ Pparg fl/fl mice with a defect in AM but normal adaptive immunity showed increased morbidity and lung failure to influenza virus. (plos.org)
  • In this report, we demonstrate that mice lacking alveolar macrophages succumb to infection with low dose influenza virus and vaccinia virus infection due to respiratory failure. (plos.org)
  • These clinical observations were confirmed by animal model studies, in which mice genetically lacking MBL were susceptible to certain pathogens, including herpes simplex virus 2. (harvard.edu)
  • Results: We demonstrate that MBL is present in the lung of naïve healthy wild type (WT) mice and that MBL null mice are more susceptible to IAV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • White blood cells (WBCs) in the lung increase in WT mice compared with MBL null mice on day 1 post-infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Lastly, soluble factors, which are associated with lung injury, are increased in the lungs of MBL null mice during IAV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • report that feeding mice a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet confers protection in the context of lethal influenza infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we show that the consumption of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) protects mice from lethal IAV infection and disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Expansion of these protective γδ T cells required metabolic adaptation to a ketogenic diet because neither feeding mice a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet nor providing chemical ketone body substrate that bypasses hepatic ketogenesis protected against infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • In mice, DPJY01 MAb provided protection via a single dose administered intranasally before or after inoculation with a sublethal dose of H5N1 viruses of clades 1.0 and 2.2. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether oxidant exposure exacerbates the virus-induced alveolitis and residual lung damage, mice were infected by aerosol inhalation with influenza A virus and continuously exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone or ambient air. (elsevier.com)
  • On various days during the first month after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed and their lungs assessed for acute injury (lung lavage albumin, total and differential cell counts, wet/dry ratios, and morphometry). (elsevier.com)
  • At 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed for total and differential lavage cell counts, lung hydroxyproline content, and morphometric analysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Yet, how this variability affects viral infections, which themselves involve noisy reactions, remains largely elusive. (nih.gov)
  • These results challenge current beliefs that cell population measurements and deterministic simulations are an accurate representation of viral infections. (nih.gov)
  • Both Abs and T lymphocytes are produced in response to viral infections, and their relative importance differs with the biologic and cytopathologic properties of the viral system ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • However, a definitive role of AM in viral infections remains unclear. (plos.org)
  • Acute respiratory viral infections can cause severe morbidity and pneumonia in infected individuals. (plos.org)
  • With the emergence of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), diagnosis of specific viral infections has become easier and faster, making it possible to gain more precise information on epidemiology and outcome. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, modulation of particular viral infections appears to be dependent on different domains and/or functional properties of MOV10, such as helicase activity or association with cytoplasmic processing (P)-bodies. (biochemj.org)
  • For hospitalized children ( 19 ) and adults ( 1 ), rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections reduced hospital stay and antibiotic use and was cost-effective. (asm.org)
  • 2 MERS may follow viral infections such as influenza, mumps or rotavirus, and also bacterial infections such as Legionella pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumonia or Salmonella enteritidis. (bmj.com)
  • Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a severe complication of various viral infections often resulting in multiorgan failure and death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The revised regulations add human infections with new influenza strains to the list of conditions that Member States must immediately report to WHO. (cdc.gov)
  • Clade 2.1 is predominant in Indonesia, the country in which H5N1 has become endemic and in which the highest number of human infections and associated fatalities have been reported. (asm.org)
  • The main contenders in primary influenza virus infection are depletion of susceptible target cells and the impact of the host's innate immune response ( 2 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • During infection of an immunologically naïve host, the innate immune response is particularly important as the first line of defense against infection. (asm.org)
  • The innate immune response is regulated by chemokines and cytokines, chemical messengers produced by virus-infected epithelial cells and leukocytes ( 23 ), and natural interferon-producing cells, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • However, diminution rather than total elimination of tipDC trafficking by treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone moderates the potentially lethal consequences of excessive tipDC recruitment without abrogating CD8 + T cell expansion or compromising virus control. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that a subset of dendritic cells (DCs), described as TNF-α/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-producing DCs (tipDCs) ( 15 ), accumulate in significantly greater numbers during the course of lethal (versus sublethal) influenza infections ( Fig. S1 ). (pnas.org)
  • 0.05) but did not provide complete protection against lethal infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • That study used singleplex RT-PCR (SRT-PCR) to detect influenza virus. (hindawi.com)
  • Virus was incubated with 2-fold serial dilutions of sera starting at 1:10 and then incubated with MDCK cells overnight before virus quantitation by ELISA to detect influenza nucleoprotein. (cdc.gov)
  • As of 15 JAN 2016, local transmission of Zika virus had been identified in at least 14 countries or territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico, other Caribbean islands, and Mexico. (snohd.org)
  • Haemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. (wikipedia.org)