Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.DucksRabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.DNA Virus InfectionsHost-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.RNA Virus InfectionsVirus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mice, Inbred BALB CRespiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Paramyxoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Mice, Inbred C57BLJC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.PyransCD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
... viral entry and the infection of individual influenza viruses and lentiviral viruses, etc. ... "Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Macro-scale biological processes, such as the spread of virus infections, can be followed using GFP labeling. In the past, ...
Influenza A virus was found to survive in large numbers on stainless steel. Once surfaces are contaminated with virus particles ... Adenoviruses account for about 10% of acute respiratory infections in children. These viruses are a frequent cause of diarrhea ... Viruses Influenza A Barker, J; Vipond, IB; Bloomfield, SF (2004). "Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread ... After incubation for one hour on copper, active influenza A virus particles were reduced by 75%. After six hours, the particles ...
"Sublingual vaccination with influenza virus protects mice against lethal viral infection". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Thus, preclinical studies have found that sublingual vaccines can be highly immunogenic and may protect against influenza virus ... "Infection and Immunity. 78 (10): 4251-60. doi:10.1128/IAI.00536-10. PMC 2950356 . PMID 20696831.. ... "Evaluation of the Sublingual Route for Administration of Influenza H5N1 Virosomes in Combination with the Bacterial Second ...
"Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... Through the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP), virus entry and infection can be visualized in real-time. Once a virus ... Viruses that exhibit this behavior include many enveloped viruses such as HIV and Herpes simplex virus This basic idea extends ... Examples include the poliovirus, Hepatitis C virus and Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Many enveloped viruses also enter the cell ...
... herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, respiratory virus infections, influenza infection, T cell immunity, and commensal ... Iwasaki, A; Pillai, P (2014). "Innate immunity to influenza virus infection". Nature Reviews Immunology. 14 (5): 315-328. doi: ... Iwasaki and her team study immune responses to influenza in the lungs and herpes simplex virus in the genital tract. Overall, ... The study, Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in ...
"Visualizing infection of individual influenza viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100: 9280-9285. ... "Assembly of endocytic machinery around individual influenza viruses during viral entry". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology ... "Virus trafficking - learning from single-virus tracking". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 5: 197-208. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1615. ... Zhuang and colleagues used single-molecule FRET to study biomolecules and molecular complexes and developed single-virus ...
"Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies". Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 23 (4): 222-228. doi: ... A universal flu vaccine is flu vaccine that is effective against all influenza virus strains regardless of the virus subtype or ... "Broadly cross-reactive antibodies dominate the human B cell response against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection". The ... "Universal influenza virus vaccines: what can we learn from the human immune response following exposure to H7 subtype viruses ...
Sládková T, Kostolanský F (2006). "The role of cytokines in the immune response to influenza A virus infection". Acta ... Human herpes viruses are a candidate group of viruses. Individuals having never been infected by the Epstein-Barr virus are at ... It may become permeable to these types of cells secondary to an infection by a virus or bacteria. After it repairs itself, ... viral infections such as the common cold, influenza, or gastroenteritis increase their risk. Stress may also trigger an ...
Liao, Q; Qian, Z; Liu, R; An, L; Chen, X (2013). "Germacrone inhibits early stages of influenza virus infection". Antiviral ...
"Effects of orally administered bovine lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase on influenza virus infection in mice". J. Med. Microbiol ... Herpes simplex virus, HSV • Immunodeficient virus, HIV • Respiratory Syncytial virus, RSV • Echovirus 11 • Influenza virus ... Mikola H, Waris M, Tenovuo J. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by ... inflammation and bacterial infection in the respiratory tract. Lactoferrin with hypothiocyanite has been granted orphan drug ...
Molecular targets and potential antiviral treatments against influenza virus infection Teran, C. G.; Teran-Escalera, C. N.; ... influenza due to its inhibitory effect on a broad range of influenza virus subtypes and efficacy against influenza viruses that ... Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as ... It has also been shown to have activity against influenza A virus in vitro. The mechanism appears to be by selectively blocking ...
GSH is capable of preventing infection from the influenza virus. Patients with mutations in the GSS gene develop glutathione ... Cai J, Chen Y, Seth S, Furukawa S, Compans RW, Jones DP (Apr 2003). "Inhibition of influenza infection by glutathione". Free ... and increased susceptibility to pathogenic infections. Treatment of individuals with glutathione synthetase deficiency ...
"Enhanced recognition of human NK receptors after influenza virus infection". Journal of Immunology. 171 (2): 915-23. doi: ...
For severe illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in critically ill hospitalized patients ... Medicines for ectoparasitic infections. *Ivermectin. Antimigraine medicines. For treatment of acute attack. * ... To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection *^ To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of ... To be used for the treatment of T. b. gambiense infection *^ Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the ...
2001). "Selenium deficiency increases the pathology of an influenza virus infection". FASEB J. 15: 1481-1483. doi:10.1096/fj.00 ... and the influenza virus. High selenium yeast supplementation (200 μg/d) was evaluated in a 9-month double-blind, randomized, ... Viral infection. Findings of increased viral virulence in selenium-deficient hosts support the need for further investigation ... Beck M. Selenium and viral infections. In: Hatfield D, Berry MJ, Gladyshev VN, eds. Selenium: Its molecular biology and role in ...
"Transcriptional derepression of the ERVWE1 locus following influenza A virus infection". J. Virol. 88: 4328-37. Rolland, A; ... Another study also infected cells with influenza to show that this virus can transactivate HERV-W elements. Influenza produces ... Through qPCR methods and infection of cells with influenza and human herpes simplex 1 it was found that HERV-W has a heighted ... It is common for viruses to take pieces of their host's genome with them if it aids their success. On the other hand, hosts can ...
Mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza, and other common viruses have also been noted. Influenza has often been well-documented ... A number of additional infections, including gastrointestinal infections, dental infection, herpes simplex, varicella, Epstein- ... A variety of inciting infections have been observed. The most common infection sites are in the upper respiratory tract: ... Part III-Treatment and Prevention of Infections". PANS PANDAS Management If Infection. 27: 1-33. Thienemann, M. "Consensus ...
"Liver involvement during influenza infection: perspective on the 2009 influenza pandemic". Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 6 (3 ... Arenavirus: Guanarito virus, Junín virus, Lassa fever virus, Lujo virus, Machupo virus ve Sabiá virus ... Hantaan virus, Puumala virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Seoul virus ve SFTS virus ... Flavivirus: Akhurma virus,Dengue, Hepatit C, Kyasanur Forest disease virus, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, Sarı ...
"Entrez Gene: MAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 3". Buggele WA, Johnson KE, Horvath CM (2012). "Influenza A virus infection ... is turned off by two microRNAs that were activated after the influenza A virus had been made to infect human lung cells. ...
Tang JW, Shetty N, Lam TT, Hon KL (September 2010). "Emerging, novel, and known influenza virus infections in humans". ... Many viruses (for example, influenza A virus) can "shuffle" their genes with other viruses when two similar strains infect the ... One way that viruses have been able to spread is with the evolution of virus transmission. The virus can find a new host ... Viral evolution is an important aspect of the epidemiology of viral diseases such as influenza (influenza virus), AIDS (HIV), ...
"Considerations on possible cerulloplasmin functions in the infection with influenza and para-influenza viruses" won second ... "Considerations about the possible function of ceruloplasmin in influenza and parainfluenza virus infection". www. ... Florica Topârceanu is an Antarctic researcher, best known for her work on Antarctic aquatic viruses and for developing the ... Topârceanu's research interests are Antarctic aquatic viruses and her research expertise focuses on the life sciences, people ...
"Nanobodies with in vitro neutralizing activity protect mice against H5N1 influenza virus infection". The Journal of Infectious ... In mice infected with influenza A virus subtype H5N1, Nanobodies directed against hemaglutinin suppressed replication of the ... Ghannam A, Kumari S, Muyldermans S, Abbady AQ (2015). "Camelid nanobodies with high affinity for broad bean mottle virus: a ... H5N1 virus in vivo and reduced morbidity and mortality. Nanobodies targeting the cell receptor binding domain of the virulence ...
Memory B cells are lymphocytes known to be produced to fight off secondary infection, yet the influenza virus is able to avoid ... This method was used to tag the influenza virus, so that it could be observed, and it was found that the interaction of virus ... "Antigen-specific B cell receptor sensitizes B cells to infection by influenza virus". Nature. 503 (7476): 406-409. doi:10.1038/ ... Berman, Jessica (October 21, 2013). "Flu Virus Disarms Immune System's First Responders". Voice of America. Retrieved December ...
"Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection". J. Gen. Virol. 89 (Pt 1): 60- ... It is more effective as a disinfectant than chlorine in most circumstances against waterborne pathogenic agents such as viruses ... Journal of Hospital Infection. 48 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1053/jhin.2001.0956. PMID 11358471. Tristel Wipes System Product ... Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 28 (8): 1009-12. doi:10.1086/518847. PMID 17620253. Retrieved 2009-11-27. Ogata N ...
At Johns Hopkins, Ed worked primarily on the influenza virus and salmonella infection. In 1964, he became a professor of ...
Following infection, immune cells carry the virus to nearby lymph nodes where further reproduction of the virus takes place.[54 ... Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza-like stage characterised by feeling tired, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Avian Influenza Virus. *CDC: Testing Recommendations for Persons with possible infection with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) virus in ... Infection of poultry with influenza A subtype H7 viruses occurs worldwide, but the introduction of this subtype to humans in ... NEJM: Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus ... WHO recommendation on influenza A(H7N9) vaccine virus -- 26 Sept. 2013. *WHO: Laboratory bio risk management for laboratories ...
Influenza virus infection is detected by multiple host sensors that recognize unique features that are associated with the ... Innate immunity to influenza virus infection.. Iwasaki A1, Pillai PS1. ... and propose rational treatment strategies for the acute respiratory disease that is caused by influenza virus infection. ... acts on epithelial cells to block virus replication. DCs and macrophages that are infected with influenza virus release ...
... notified WHO of a case of laboratory-confirmed human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ... Human infections with the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus are unusual and need to be monitored closely in order to identify ... Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China. Disease outbreak news 23 December 2016 ... To date, a total of 808 laboratory-confirmed human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been reported through IHR ...
China notified WHO of two new laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ... Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - update. Disease outbreak news ... More on human infection caused by the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ... China notified WHO of two new laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus. ...
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus - China. Disease outbreak news 15 April 2015 ... As always, a diagnosis of infection with an avian influenza virus should be considered in individuals who develop severe acute ... WHO risk assessment of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus ... of China notified WHO of 20 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, ...
... virus.. Of the 5,337 laboratory-confirmed cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, 41.9% of patients were aged ,15 ... virus infection in Mexico, a case definition was developed. The initial definition of suspected novel influenza A (H1N1) virus ... Update: Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection --- Mexico, March--May, 2009. On April 12, 2009, Mexico responded to a request ... Human infection with new influenza A (H1N1) virus: clinical observations from Mexico and other affected countries, May 2009. ...
Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2014 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2013 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2010 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2007 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ...
BACKGROUND: Influenza outbreaks have been reported among travelers, but attack rates and incidence are unknown.\n\nMETHODS: A ... Seroconversion for influenza virus infection was demonstrated in 40 (2.8%) of all travelers; 18 participants (1.2%) had a , or ... Influenza virus infection in travelers to tropical and subtropical countries.. *Mutsch M ... CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates that influenza is the most frequent vaccine-preventable infection among travelers to ...
Articles on viral structure, function, and genetics will be considered, as well as articles focusing on virus-host interactions ... and clinical studies on viruses and viral diseases. ... Detection of Influenza Virus Infection Using Two PCR Methods. ... influenza A virus was detected in 260 specimens and influenza B virus was detected in 76 specimens using SRT-PCR, and influenza ... The sensitivity (96% for influenza A and 91% for influenza B) and specificity (100% for influenza A and 100% for influenza B) ...
A case of human infection with a novel influenza A virus confirmed by CDCs influenza laboratory. Once a novel virus has been ... Any case of human infection with an influenza A virus that is different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and H3 ... A human case of infection with an influenza A virus subtype that is different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and ... Novel Influenza a Virus Infections , 2014 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/novel-influenza-a-virus- ...
A question of self-preservation: immunopathology in influenza virus infection.. La Gruta NL1, Kedzierska K, Stambas J, Doherty ... Influenza A viruses that circulate normally in the human population cause a debilitating, though generally transient, illness ... Severe complications arising from pandemic influenza or the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses are often associated with ... factors mediating tissue damage during the anti-influenza immune response are also critical for efficient elimination of virus ...
... antagonism of influenza A viral infection. We found that interferon prevents influenza A virus from entering our cells by ... Thus research to identify new anti-influenza virus strategies would be useful. Each of our cells contains antiviral factors ... blocking the virus fusion with the cellular membrane. Furthermore, we learned that IFITM3 is required for this antiviral ... results improve our understanding of how IFITM3 serves to defend us against viral invasion at a very early stage of infection. ...
... equine and avian influenza A viruses. The viruses were recovered until the 7th post inoculation (p.i.) day from the... ... Antigenic variation of influenza viruses. In:Kilbourne, E. D. (ed.), The Influenza Viruses and Influenza, 269-314. New York: ... Lang, G., Narayan, O., Rouse, B. T., Ferguson, A. E., Connell, M. C.: A new influenza A virus infection in turkeys. II. A ... A new influenza infection in turkeys. I. Isolation and characterization of virus 6213. Canad. vet. J.9, 22-29 (1968).Google ...
Anti-virals for influenza virus infection were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. ... Anti-virals for influenza virus infection].. Uirusu 2005; 55(1):111-4U ... Anti-virals for Influenza Virus Infection]." Uirusu, vol. 55, no. 1, 2005, pp. 111-4. ... TY - JOUR T1 - [Anti-virals for influenza virus infection]. A1 - Sugaya,Norio, PY - 2005/11/26/pubmed PY - 2006/1/28/medline PY ...
Impact of influenza virus infection as a cause of pediatric hospitalization. J Infect Dis.1992;165 :373- 375. ... all influenza infections were influenza A, and PCR increased the detection of influenzavirus by 60%, from 5% detected by ... Frank AL, Taber LH, Glezen WP, Geyer EA, McIlwain S, Paredes A. Influenza B virus infections in the community and the family. ... Randomised trial of efficacy and safety of inhaled zanamivir in treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. Lancet.1998; ...
In addition, it recapitulates current knowledge of the influences of influenza virus infection on the process. ... In addition, it recapitulates current knowledge of the influences of influenza virus infection on the process. ... Silencing M2 expression during influenza A virus infection, or infecting cells with a M2 knockout influenza A virus, reverted ... High-throughput screening for anti-influenza a virus drugs and study of the mechanism of procyanidin on influenza a virus ...
Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock. Rachel S. Edgar, Alessandra ... Cell autonomous regulation of herpes and influenza virus infection by the circadian clock ... Circadian clocks and virus infection. Rachel S. Edgar, Alessandra Stangherlin, Andras D. Nagy, Michael P. Nicoll, Stacey ... Circadian clocks and virus infection. Rachel S. Edgar, Alessandra Stangherlin, Andras D. Nagy, Michael P. Nicoll, Stacey ...
T cells during influenza virus infection (4) or Sendai virus infection (5). However similar to lymphoid tissue CD8+ DCs, CD103+ ... DCs upon lung exposure to influenza virus contributed to lung CD103+ DC protection from influenza virus infection. ... Tracking virus antigen uptake by lung cells during influenza virus infection in vivo. Lung phagocytes consist of alveolar ... To assess the response of lung phagocytes to influenza virus infection, WT mice were infected with 106 PFUs of NS1-GFP virus ...
... which is why the discovery will play an important role in assessing the risk of spill-over infections to other species than ... How simple can influenza viruses switch their receptors, and is it even possible that influenza viruses emerge, which can ... Scientists discover new infection route for influenza A viruses. *Download PDF Copy ... Influenza viruses from bats use an entirely different portal to enter the cell than all previously known types of influenza/ ...
TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells are the necessary evil of lethal influenza virus infection. Jerry R. Aldridge Jr., Carson E ... Respiratory infection with highly pathogenic influenza A viruses is characterized by the exuberant production of cytokines and ... 2007) Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus. Nature 445:319-323. ... Viruses.. The PR8 and x-31 influenza A viruses were obtained from the St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital repository. The x- ...
Kasel, J. A. & Couch, R. B. (1969). Experimental infections in man and horses with influenza A viruses*. Bulletin of the ...
Influenza viruses have eight genes, two of which code for virus surface proteins - hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) - ... Other combinations, such as avian influenza H5N1, occasionally infect people, but they are bird viruses, not human viruses. ... Scientists have shown that the founding virus was an avian-like virus. The virus had a novel set of eight genes and - through ... The influenza virus that wreaked worldwide havoc in 1918-1919 founded a viral dynasty that persists to this day, according to ...
Zika virus infection. Action requested: Consider Zika virus infection in patients with acute fever, rash, arthralgia, or ... Influenza & Zika Virus Infection. Author: David Bayless/Wednesday, January 20, 2016/Categories: Health Alerts ... Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating. ... Consider Zika virus infection in patients with acute fever, rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis and who have traveled to areas ...
H1N1AntiviralHighly pathogeniPositive for influenzaAvian influenza virusesMiceImmunityOseltamivirViral infectionsHPAIPathogenic avianDiagnosisNeuraminidaseSevere influenzaSeasonal influenza virusEpidemiologyInfectClinicalEpidemicsAnti-influenza virusAntibodiesMorbidityDetection of influenzaRespiratory infectionsSpread of influenzaHuman infectionsInnate immune rLethalDetect influenzaSwine2016Characterization of influenza A virusesHaemagglutininImmune responseLaboratory-confirmedHong Kong
- During April 22--24, novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, previously identified in two children in the United States ( 1 ), was confirmed in several patients. (cdc.gov)
- specimens from 25,127 (59.8%) patients were tested, of which 5,337 (21.2%) were positive for novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection by real-time reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). (cdc.gov)
- later testing of respiratory specimens collected during this period identified two patients as positive for seasonal influenza A (H3N2), one for seasonal influenza B, and one patient for novel influenza A (H1N1) virus with an adenovirus coinfection. (cdc.gov)
- in four of the deaths, specimens were positive for novel influenza A (H1N1) infection. (cdc.gov)
- During April 22--24, both laboratories identified novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in specimens from Mexican patients. (cdc.gov)
- After identification of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Mexico, a case definition was developed. (cdc.gov)
- The initial definition of suspected novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection included any hospitalized patient with severe acute respiratory illness. (cdc.gov)
- The 2009 H1N1 pandemic provided a strong reminder of the threat that influenza A virus poses to world health ( http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm ). (plos.org)
- Unlike the situation for seasonal influenza where the immunocompromised (very young or elderly individuals) are most at risk, infection with the highly pathogenic (HP) 1918 H1N1 pandemic strain and recent H5N1 isolates is associated with high death rates in otherwise healthy, fully immunocompetent adults ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
- We thus measured lung recruitment kinetics for natural killer cells (NKs), conventional DCs (cDCs), neutrophils, macrophages, and tipDCs in C57BL/6J (B6) mice infected with either H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), a mouse-adapted virus, or H3N2 A/Aichi/68 (x-31), a reassortant that contains the 6 internal genes of PR8 and the surface HA and neuraminidase (NA) from a prototypical H3N2 virus. (pnas.org)
- In an article published online yesterday by the New England Journal of Medicine , authors Anthony S. Fauci, MD, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, MD, PhD, and David M. Morens, MD, argue that we have lived in an influenza pandemic era since 1918, and they describe how the novel 2009 H1N1 virus now circling the globe is yet another manifestation of this enduring viral family. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- However, only three (H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2) have ever been found in influenza viruses that are fully adapted to infect humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Not only did the 1918 H1N1 virus set off an explosive pandemic in which tens of millions died, during the pandemic the virus was transmitted from humans to pigs, where - as it does in people - it continues to evolve to this day. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Public health laboratories have most frequently reported influenza A, with influenza A (H1N1) viruses predominating. (snohd.org)
- We report the first case of a pregnant renal transplant patient with H1N1/09 infection. (hindawi.com)
- In conclusion, rapid diagnosis of H1N1/09 and dose-adapted therapy with oseltamivir resulted in successful delivery of a healthy infant in our renal transplanted patient but emphasized the need for consequent vaccination strategies in pregnant transplant recipients for new influenza A pandemics in the future. (hindawi.com)
- Both the emergence of H5N1 virus ( 34 ) and the current H1N1 virus pandemic ( 43 ) underline the importance of understanding the dynamics of infection and disease. (asm.org)
- In response to the ongoing influenza A(H1N1)v pandemic, first detected in North America in April 2009, Belgium has set up an active surveillance system for influenza-like illness among travellers returning from affected areas. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Between June 20 and July 23, 2010, CDC also received additional influenza A (H3) positive specimens from 11 other states along with a smaller number of sporadic samples positive for 2009 H1N1 influenza A and B viruses. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Members of the Novel Influenza A(H1N1) Study Group are listed in the Appendix . (wiley.com)
- The impact of respiratory co-infection in SOTR with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) is unknown. (wiley.com)
- A multicentre prospective study of consecutive cases of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in SOTR was carried out to assess the clinical characteristics and outcome and the risk factors for co-infection. (wiley.com)
- Modelling influenza A(H1N1) 2009 epidemics using a random network in a distributed computing environment. (cambridge.org)
- A fractional order epidemic model for the simulation of outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1). (cambridge.org)
- The transported pIgA was functional, as evidenced by its ability to bind to virus in an ELISA assay and to protect nonimmune mice against intranasal infection with H1N1 but not H3N2 influenza virus. (jimmunol.org)
- Obese individuals are at greater risk for hospitalization and death from infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1). (rti.org)
- Early epidemiologic and serologic studies have suggested pre-existing immunity to the pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus (H1N1pdm) may be altering its morbidity and mortality in humans. (nih.gov)
- To determine the role that contemporary seasonal H1N1 virus infection or trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) might be playing in this immunity we conducted a vaccination-challenge study in ferrets. (nih.gov)
- Conversely, prior infection with the contemporary seasonal H1N1 strain altered morbidity, but not transmission, of H1N1pdm despite the detection of only minimal levels of cross reactive antibodies. (nih.gov)
- On April 24, 2009, CDC reported eight confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection in Texas and California. (thebody.com)
- Induction of microglia activation after infection with the non-neurotropic A/CA/04/2009 H1N1 influenza virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Although influenza is primarily a respiratory disease, it has been shown, in some cases, to induce encephalitis, including people acutely infected with the pandemic A/California/04/2009 (CA/09) H1N1 virus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Based on previous studies showing that the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1 virus was neurotropic, induced CNS inflammation and a transient parkinsonism, we examined the neurotropic and inflammatory potential of the CA/09 H1N1 virus in mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Following intranasal inoculation, we found no evidence for CA/09 H1N1 virus neurotropism in the enteric, peripheral or central nervous systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Afluria Quadrivalent is an inactivated influenza split virus vaccine consisting of Heamagglutinins (HA) of four strains, two of influenza A subtype (H1N1, H3N2) and two of influenza type B ( Yamagata and Victoria lineage). (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
- Recent studies have indicated that poor performance in the detection of the novel influenza A virus 2009 H1N1 should preclude their use. (asm.org)
- Our two experts have been asked to consider the following question: what is the role of rapid immunochromatographic antigen testing in the laboratory diagnosis of influenza A virus infection during the current 2009 H1N1 pandemic? (asm.org)
- Continuation of testing for influenza virus in the wake of the 2009 H1N1 outbreak by using rapid influenza antigen detection tests (RIDT) is the practice of 84% of community hospital laboratories and of hospitals in several other categories, according to a survey by Selvarangan et al. (asm.org)
- 6 ) recently reported their experience with direct immunofluorescence (DFA) versus PCR for diagnosing 2009 H1N1 infections in a symptomatic group (mean age, 44 years) of individuals whose nasopharyngeal specimens had been collected by trained respiratory therapists. (asm.org)
- Sensitivity may vary according to influenza subtype among kits from different manufacturers ( 4 , 5 ), and much of the reported experience points to lower sensitivity for 2009 H1N1 than for seasonal H1 and H3 influenza virus. (asm.org)
- At least one report, however, suggests test sensitivity for 2009 H1N1 similar to that seen with seasonal influenza A virus ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- With respect to detection of influenza A virus, subsequently subtyped as 2009 H1N1, the sensitivity and specificity of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B test in our hands compared to Luminex xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel (RVP) and CDC PCR assays were 76.6% and 98.7% during the first wave of H1N1 infections in the spring of 2009 (Table 1 ). (asm.org)
- HeLa cells were refractory to growth of human H1N1 and H3N2, and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAIs) viruses. (flu.org.cn)
- Using reassortant H1N1:H5N1 viruses, we found that the combined introduction of nucleoprotein (NP) and hemagglutinin (HA) from H5N1 was necessary and sufficient to enable H1N1 growth. (flu.org.cn)
- Overall, this study suggests the absence of one or more cellular factors in HeLa cells that results in abortive replication of H1N1, H3N2, and LPAI viruses, but can be circumvented upon introduction of H5N1 NP and HA. (flu.org.cn)
- Here, we tested growth of influenza A virus in a subset of human cell lines and found that abortive replication of H1N1 viruses in HeLa cells can be circumvented upon introduction of H5N1 HA and NP proteins. (flu.org.cn)
- The article presents a retrospective analyses of all notified fatal cases associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus infection occurred in Netherlands. (ebscohost.com)
- Seroepidemiological studies of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus. (ebscohost.com)
- The article discusses various international seroepidemiological studies regarding the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. (ebscohost.com)
- As stated, there were 434 pandemic H1N1, 58 seasonal H3N2, and 269 influenza B cases in 2009 in the tropics. (ebscohost.com)
- Sex- and Age-Related Differences in Morbidity Rates of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus of Swine Origin in Japan. (ebscohost.com)
- Background: The objective of the present study was to determine whether the morbidity rates of the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus (pdmH1N1) varied by age and/or sex. (ebscohost.com)
- Two cases of H1N1 influenza infection as the initial presentation of acute leukemia. (ebscohost.com)
- Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Induced by Severe Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infection: A Case Report. (ebscohost.com)
- After early outbreaks in North America in April 2009, the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus spread rapidly around the world, and even some patients developed certain severe complications. (ebscohost.com)
- The article presents the author's comments on what to do in case of the outbreak of H1N1 influenza. (ebscohost.com)
- Planning for the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic -- Are Our Hospitals Ready? (ebscohost.com)
- Data from Australia and New Zealand show that the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic may pose a substantial burden on our health care systems, one we may have never endured in recent history. (ebscohost.com)
- The influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus remains a critical global health concern and causes high levels of morbidity and mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Our previous study found that interleukin (IL)-17A production by humans or mice infected with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 substantially contributes to ALI and subsequent morbidity and mortality. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, the cell types responsible for IL-17A production during the early stage of severe influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection remained unknown. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this study, a mouse model of severe influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection was established. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This study demonstrated that, by secreting IL-17A, lung Vγ4 + γδT cells, at least, in part mediated influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-induced immunopathological injury. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This mechanism might serve as a promising new target for the prevention and treatment of ALI induced by influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus originated in Mexico and the southwest of the United States, and it remains a critical global health concern and causes high levels of mortality ( 1 - 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- GlobalData's clinical trial report, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017" provides an overview of Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections clinical trials scenario. (reportsnreports.com)
- This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections. (reportsnreports.com)
- In this study, we developed a mouse model of primary and secondary influenza infection by using a widely circulating seasonal H1N1 virus and the pandemic strain of H1N1 that emerged in Mexico in 2009, and we evaluated several key issues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- First, using overlapping peptide libraries encompassing the entire translated sequences of 5 major influenza virus proteins, we assessed the specificity of CD4 T cell reactivity toward epitopes conserved among H1N1 viruses or unique to the seasonal or pandemic strain by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Populations of cross-reactive CD4 T cells generated from seasonal influenza infection were found to expand earlier after secondary infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus than CD4 T cell populations specific for new epitopes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the past year, as in previous years when a pandemic strain of influenza virus has emerged ( 19 , 26 , 31 , 43 , 45 , 56 ), the outbreak of the influenza H1N1 virus of swine origin ( 14 ) was a major concern worldwide (reviewed in references 42 , 44 , and 67 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- For example, clinical and epidemiological studies of the pandemic H1N1 virus infections worldwide suggested that rates of infection with the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus differed significantly in different age groups, with children and young adults disproportionately susceptible to infection ( 4 , 24 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Depending on the study and region analyzed, individuals under the age of 25 years represented 45% to 60% of infected subjects, though the pathogenic effects of H1N1 virus infection were most pronounced in individuals more than 60 years old ( 4 , 36 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Although recent experimental work with ferrets and mice indicates that preexposure to a seasonal H1N1 virus can provide protective immunity to a later challenge with the 2009 H1N1 virus ( 27 , 62 ), few studies have directly examined the scope or specificity of CD4 T cells that are cross-reactive for seasonal and pandemic H1N1 viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- ABSTRACT This study evaluated the epidemiology of suspected cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009-2010 in Kurdistan province, a frontier province of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
- In multivariate analysis, previous contact with symptomatic influenza patients (OR = 2.17) and hospitalization (OR = 3.88) were the only significant risk factors for confirmed H1N1 infection. (who.int)
- RÉSUMÉ La présente étude visait à évaluer l'épidémiologie des cas suspectés d'infection par le virus de la grippe pandémique A(H1N1) en 2009-2010 dans la province du Kurdistan, une province frontalière de la République islamique d'Iran. (who.int)
- Our aims were to evaluate the antiviral activity of two neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) as combination therapy against H1N1 influenza A viruses, as these agents bind to the neuraminidase active site differently: oseltamivir requires a conformational change for binding whereas zanamivir does not. (ovid.com)
- The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics, development of VAHS, related treatments and associated mortality rate of consecutive critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and respiratory failure. (biomedcentral.com)
- We conducted a prospective observational study of 25 critically ill patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection at a single-center intensive care unit in Germany between 5 October 2009 and 4 January 2010. (biomedcentral.com)
- VAHS developed in 9 (36%) of 25 critically ill patients with confirmed 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection, and 8 (89%) of them died. (biomedcentral.com)
- The findings of this study raise the possibility that VAHS may be a frequent complication of severe 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection and represents an important contributor to multiorgan failure and death. (biomedcentral.com)
- In Germany, peak infection rates for A/H1N1/2009 occurred between October 2009 and December 2009, that is, in the first winter season after the initial outbreak in Mexico. (biomedcentral.com)
- In our tertiary care center, the first critically ill patient with A/H1N1/2009 infection and respiratory failure was admitted on 5 October 2009. (biomedcentral.com)
- Both chicken and duck myotubes expressed avian and human sialic acid receptors and were readily susceptible to low-pathogenicity (H2N3 A/mallard duck/England/7277/06) and high-pathogenicity (H5N1 A/turkey/England/50-92/91 and H5N1 A/turkey/Turkey/1/05) avian and human H1N1 (A/USSR/77) influenza viruses. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu. (wikipedia.org)
- Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. (wikipedia.org)
- H1N1 strains caused a small percentage of all human flu infections in 2004-2005. (wikipedia.org)
- Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). (wikipedia.org)
- On August 10, 2010, the World Health Organization declared the H1N1 influenza pandemic over, saying worldwide flu activity had returned to typical seasonal patterns. (wikipedia.org)
- The known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1976, a novel swine influenza A (H1N1) caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at Fort Dix, New Jersey. (wikipedia.org)
- Retrospective serologic testing subsequently demonstrated that up to 230 soldiers had been infected with the novel virus, which was an H1N1 strain. (wikipedia.org)
- The 1977-1978 Russian flu epidemic was caused by strain Influenza A/USSR/90/77 (H1N1). (wikipedia.org)
- We consider whether the outcome of innate sensor stimulation promotes antiviral resistance or disease tolerance, and propose rational treatment strategies for the acute respiratory disease that is caused by influenza virus infection. (nih.gov)
- Eligibility criteria included patients aged ≥6 months as of 9/1/2012, seeking outpatient medical care for an upper respiratory illness of ≤7 days' duration with cough, and not taking an influenza antiviral before the visit. (hindawi.com)
- Early detection of an influenza virus with pandemic potential will permit identification of viral characteristics (e.g., genetic sequence, antiviral susceptibility, and virulence) that will affect clinical management and public health response measures. (cdc.gov)
- Each of our cells contains antiviral factors that work to inhibit infection. (plos.org)
- Here, we seek to better understand how one of these antiviral factors, IFITM3, contributes to both baseline, as well as interferon-induced, antagonism of influenza A viral infection. (plos.org)
- For preventing nosocomial influenza infections and to facilitate prompt antiviral therapy, an accessible, rapid diagnostic method for influenzavirus is needed. (aappublications.org)
- Rapid influenza tests not only would help to minimize nosocomial influenzavirus infections during the winter 16 but also would provide physicians the opportunity to use targeted antiviral therapy, which is reported to be effective if initiated within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. (aappublications.org)
- In the current review, we present a general description on recent work regarding different host cells and molecules facilitating antiviral defenses against IAV infection and how IAVs antagonize host immune responses. (mdpi.com)
- Clinicians should use empirical treatment with influenza antiviral medications for persons hospitalized with suspected influenza, and for suspected influenza infection of any severity in high-risk individuals, regardless of influenza immunization status. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Our own data indicate that chronic exposure to CS suppresses the ability of epithelial cells to enhance antiviral gene expression in response to influenza infection and activate host defense responses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Antiviral therapy is recommended as soon as possible in unwell patients with suspected or confirmed infection. (bmj.com)
- It is increasingly true that specific diagnosis of acute viral diseases impacts on individual patient care decisions, including infection control, use of antiviral therapy, and other aspects of clinical management. (asm.org)
- He had a high-grade fever with upper respiratory symptoms 9 days prior, and was diagnosed with influenza B infection by rapid antigen test, for which he was prescribed antipyretics without antiviral medication. (bmj.com)
- These studies highlight the potential use of DPJY01 MAb as an intranasal antiviral treatment for H5N1 influenza virus infections. (asm.org)
- Pneumonia remains the main complication of acute viral respiratory infections, and antimicrobial treatment should include both antiviral as well as antibacterial agents. (flutrackers.com)
- Until new antiviral agents with novel mechanisms of action become available, there is a pressing need for alternative treatment strategies with available influenza antivirals. (ovid.com)
- Each antiviral suppressed the replication of influenza strains which were resistant to the other neuraminidase inhibitor, showing each drug does not engender cross-resistance to the other compound. (ovid.com)
- Since December 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infections in birds have been reported in Asia, Africa, and Europe. (cdc.gov)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses can cause asymptomatic infection to fatal disease in wild birds and domestic poultry. (bmj.com)
- Update on human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection, 2010. (bmj.com)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5N1 virus originating in poultry and wild birds can be transmitted to humans, with rare cases of infection transmitted between humans. (bmj.com)
- Probable limited person-to-person transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in China. (bmj.com)
- In addition the Ministry of Agriculture China reported to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on 21 February 2017 that genetic sequences of virus samples from live poultry markets in Guangdong also showed changes consistent with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. (flu.org.cn)
- Interestingly, a human isolate of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 successfully propagated in HeLa cells to levels comparable to a human lung cell line. (flu.org.cn)
- Among 935 patients, 335 (36%) tested positive for influenza A and influenza B using SRT-PCR. (hindawi.com)
- Using MRT-PCR, 320 (34.2%) tested positive for influenza A and influenza B. This study supports MRT-PCR as a comparable method for detecting influenza among patients seeking outpatient care for acute respiratory illnesses. (hindawi.com)
- Of those, funding was available to analyze with MRT-PCR all specimens SRT-PCR-positive for influenza and a random sample of specimens SRT-PCR-negative for influenza, for a total of 935 specimens that were doubly assayed. (hindawi.com)
- 3 of illness was tested by reverse transcription PCR, and Human, Vietnam results were positive for influenza A(H5N1) virus. (cdc.gov)
- The controversy rests, patient's daughter, collected 6 days after the woman had to a large extent, on interpretation of serologic tests used to slaughtered a chicken, was positive for influenza A/H5 by detect prior H5 infection and the paucity of virologically real-time RT-PCR, and virus was recovered on day 10 of confirmed subclinical or mild cases. (cdc.gov)
- The subclinical case was detected in 2011 during a con- Chickens were also tested, and 4 chickens in the commune tact investigation of a 40-year-old man suspected of having tested positive for influenza A(H5N1) virus by RT-PCR of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- Three of the four tested positive for influenza A by rapid tests and two of the three were further tested and found to be positive for influenza A (H3) by RT-PCR. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- two were rapid test positive for influenza A and one was PCR positive for influenza A (H3). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Identification of the isolates showed that 19(14.8%) were positive for influenza virus out of which 11(8.6%) and 8(6.2%) were influenza A and B viruses respectively. (ajol.info)
- Response of ferrets and monkeys to intranasal infection with human, equine and avian influenza viruses. (springer.com)
- Alexander DJ, Allan WH, Parsons DG, Parsons G (1978) The pathogenicity of four avian influenza viruses for fowls, turkeys and ducks. (springer.com)
- Berg M, Englund L, Abusugra IA et al (1990) Close relationship between mink influenza (H10N4) and concomitantly circulating avian influenza viruses. (springer.com)
- Our study serologically confirms the infection with H7 avian influenza viruses, and shows that H7 infection triggers a mixture of strain -specific and cross-reactive antibodies. (eur.nl)
- Recent studies using gene-knockout mice have led to an in-depth understanding of the innate sensors that detect influenza virus infection in a variety of cell types. (nih.gov)
- Herpesvirus infection in mice is regulated by the circadian clock. (pnas.org)
- luc MuHV-4 infection in WT and Bmal1 −/− mice infected at ZT0 vs. ZT10. (pnas.org)
- Here, we show that challenging mice with virulent influenza A viruses, including currently circulating H5N1 strains, causes the increased selective accumulation of a particular dendritic cell subset, the tipDCs, in the pneumonic airways. (pnas.org)
- These tipDCs are required for the further proliferation of influenza-specific CD8 + T cells in the infected lung, because blocking their recruitment in CCR2 −/− mice decreases the numbers of CD8 + effectors and ultimately compromises virus clearance. (pnas.org)
- Giving mice the type II diabetes drug pioglitazone diminishes but does not prevent tipDC recruitment, while allowing for sufficient CD8 + T cell expansion to protect against an otherwise lethal HP influenza virus challenge. (pnas.org)
- Mice were challenged 24 h after initiation of treatment with 10 mouse 50% lethal doses of either amantadine-sensitive (having S31 in the M2 protein) or amantadine-resistant (having N31 in the M2 protein) recombinant A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) virus. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Combination chemotherapy provided a survival advantage over single-agent treatment of mice inoculated with neurotropic H5N1 influenza virus. (unboundmedicine.com)
- TY - JOUR T1 - Amantadine-oseltamivir combination therapy for H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Contradictorily, iBALT formation following clearance of the virus was heavily compromised in Il1r1 −/− mice. (frontiersin.org)
- Administration of recombinant IL-1α to the lungs of wild-type mice, early but not late, after IAV infection led to more pronounced iBALT formation and an increased amount of GC B cells in the lungs. (frontiersin.org)
- Mechanistically, Q-PCR analysis of lung homogenates revealed a strongly diminished production of CXCL13, a B cell-attracting chemokine, in Il1r −/− mice during the early innate phase of IAV infection. (frontiersin.org)
- To elucidate the role of class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in virus infection, we have investigated the influence of the primary and secondary infections of influenza virus on mice deficient of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is absolutely required for CSR and SHM. (rupress.org)
- In the secondary infection with a lethal dose of influenza virus, both AID −/− and AID +/− mice survived completely. (rupress.org)
- Depletion of CD8 + T cells by administration of an anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody caused slightly severer body weight loss but did not alter the survival rate of AID −/− mice in secondary infection. (rupress.org)
- These results indicate that unmutated immunoglobulin (Ig)M alone is capable of protecting mice from death upon primary and secondary infections. (rupress.org)
- Because the titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies were comparable between AID −/− and AID +/− mice at the time of the secondary infection, a defect of AID −/− mice in protection of morbidity might be due to the absence of either other Ig classes such as IgG, high affinity antibodies with SHM, or both. (rupress.org)
- The protective role of Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in influenza virus infection also suggests the importance of CSR ( 14 ) because the affinity to the Fc receptor is different among antibody classes, particularly mice IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b, which are able to bind to Fcγ receptors with higher affinity than IgG3 ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
- In this study mice were injected intravenously with polymeric IgA (pIgA), monomeric IgA (mIgA), or IgG1 mAb specific for the H1 hemaglutinin of PR8 influenza virus. (jimmunol.org)
- When infected with influenza B virus, these mice cleared the virus in a process dependent upon CD8 + T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- Cytotoxic activity was detected in lung lymphocytes of DI mice after primary or secondary infection, and was abrogated by depletion of CD8 + cells in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
- Challenge experiments showed that DI mice could be protected by immunization against reinfection 1 mo later, and protection was virus specific. (jimmunol.org)
- Protective effect of homonojirimycin from Commelina communis (dayflower) on influenza virus infection in mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The effects of homonojirimycin (HNJ), one of alkaloids from Commelina communis L., on protection against influenza virus infection in mice were investigated. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- HNJ was found to improve the survival rate, prolong the mean survival time and reduce virus yields in lungs on days 4 and 6 post-infection (p.i.), after the agent had been orally administered to the mice from 2 days before infection to 6 days p.i. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Administration of HNJ (1 mg/kg) significantly increased interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 levels but decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 levels in serum and lungs of influenza-infected mice on days 2, 4 or 6 p.i. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Furthermore, obese mice had fewer bronchoalveolar macrophages and regulatory T cells during infection. (rti.org)
- Mice fed a ketogenic diet were better able to combat the flu virus than mice fed food high in carbohydrates, according to a new Yale University study published Nov. 15 in the journal Science Immunology . (nutritionreview.org)
- They showed that mice fed a ketogenic diet and infected with the influenza virus had a higher survival rate than mice on a high-carb normal diet. (nutritionreview.org)
- When mice were bred without the gene that codes for gamma delta T cells, the ketogenic diet provided no protection against the influenza virus. (nutritionreview.org)
- Absence of AM in GM-CSF-deficient ( Csf2 −/− ) mice or selective AM depletion in wild-type mice resulted in impaired gas exchange and fatal hypoxia associated with severe morbidity to influenza virus infection, while viral clearance was affected moderately. (plos.org)
- Virus-induced morbidity was far more severe in Csf2 −/− mice lacking AM, as compared to Batf3 -deficient mice lacking CD8α + and CD103 + DCs. (plos.org)
- In addition, CD11c-Cre/ Pparg fl/fl mice with a defect in AM but normal adaptive immunity showed increased morbidity and lung failure to influenza virus. (plos.org)
- In this report, we demonstrate that mice lacking alveolar macrophages succumb to infection with low dose influenza virus and vaccinia virus infection due to respiratory failure. (plos.org)
- These clinical observations were confirmed by animal model studies, in which mice genetically lacking MBL were susceptible to certain pathogens, including herpes simplex virus 2. (harvard.edu)
- Results: We demonstrate that MBL is present in the lung of naïve healthy wild type (WT) mice and that MBL null mice are more susceptible to IAV infection. (harvard.edu)
- White blood cells (WBCs) in the lung increase in WT mice compared with MBL null mice on day 1 post-infection. (harvard.edu)
- Lastly, soluble factors, which are associated with lung injury, are increased in the lungs of MBL null mice during IAV infection. (harvard.edu)
- report that feeding mice a high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet confers protection in the context of lethal influenza infection. (sciencemag.org)
- In this study, we show that the consumption of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) protects mice from lethal IAV infection and disease. (sciencemag.org)
- Expansion of these protective γδ T cells required metabolic adaptation to a ketogenic diet because neither feeding mice a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet nor providing chemical ketone body substrate that bypasses hepatic ketogenesis protected against infection. (sciencemag.org)
- In mice, DPJY01 MAb provided protection via a single dose administered intranasally before or after inoculation with a sublethal dose of H5N1 viruses of clades 1.0 and 2.2. (asm.org)
- To determine whether oxidant exposure exacerbates the virus-induced alveolitis and residual lung damage, mice were infected by aerosol inhalation with influenza A virus and continuously exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone or ambient air. (elsevier.com)
- On various days during the first month after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed and their lungs assessed for acute injury (lung lavage albumin, total and differential cell counts, wet/dry ratios, and morphometry). (elsevier.com)
- At 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after infection, groups of mice were sacrificed for total and differential lavage cell counts, lung hydroxyproline content, and morphometric analysis. (elsevier.com)
- Innate immunity to influenza virus infection. (nih.gov)
- But as population-wide immunity to any new variant of flu arises, the virus reacts by changing in large and small ways that make it more difficult for antibodies to recognize it. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Subsequently, host adaptive immunity is involved in specific virus clearance. (mdpi.com)
- On the other hand, to achieve a successful infection, IAVs also apply multiple strategies to avoid be detected and eliminated by the host immunity. (mdpi.com)
- A key question in pandemic influenza is the relative roles of innate immunity and target cell depletion in limiting primary infection and modulating pathology. (asm.org)
- The resulting dynamics indicate a powerful role for innate immunity in controlling the rapid peak in virus shedding. (asm.org)
- Influenza pandemics may occur when an influenza virus with new surface proteins emerges, against which the majority of the population has no preexisting immunity. (asm.org)
- The slower adaptive response, including both humoral and cell-mediated components, takes several days to consolidate but is important for complete virus clearance and establishment of protective immunity. (asm.org)
- Passive transfer of local immunity to influenza virus infection by IgA antibody. (jimmunol.org)
- These data demonstrate the passive transfer of local immunity by the i.v. administration of pIgA antibody and show that the IgA in secretions can protect against influenza virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
- Shedding time decreased during the season, suggesting that mallards acquire transient immunity for LPAI infection. (diva-portal.org)
- Alveolar macrophages and various subsets of dendritic cells have been implicated in innate immunity and induction of anti-viral T cell responses that contribute to host defense against influenza virus infection. (plos.org)
- Growth is therefore prevented and natural infection is prevented by developing immunity. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
- Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10), a putative member of helicase superfamily (SF)1, is a multifunctional protein involved in a diverse range of cellular functions, including RNA silencing, mRNA translation and innate immunity. (biochemj.org)
- 3 World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, at Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia. (sciencemag.org)
- Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article. (asm.org)
- Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Infection and Immunity. (asm.org)
- First, cross-protective immunity requires that some fraction of the CD4 T cells elicited by seasonal viruses be specific for peptide epitopes that are shared by seasonal and pandemic strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Despite intensive care and Influenza A(H5N1) treatment with oseltamivir and antibiotics, the disease pro- gressed, and he died 2 days later. (cdc.gov)
- Among small molecules, only two approved influenza drugs remain effective, zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu). (plos.org)
- Both zanamivir and oseltamivir have been approved for the treatment of influenza since 2001, in addition to amantadine. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Combination treatment with amantadine (15 or 30 mg/kg/day) and oseltamivir (10 mg/kg/day) provided greater protection (60% and 90%, respectively) against lethal infection with amantadine-sensitive H5N1 virus than did monotherapy. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The efficacy of the drug combinations against amantadine-resistant H5N1 virus was comparable to that of oseltamivir alone. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. (cambridge.org)
- We performed pharmacodynamic studies in the hollow fiber infection model (HFIM) system with oseltamivir (75 mg Q12h, t1/2: 8 h) and zanamivir (600 mg Q12h, t1/2: 2.5 h), given as mono- or combination therapy, against viruses with varying susceptibilities to oseltamivir and zanamivir. (ovid.com)
- Yet, how this variability affects viral infections, which themselves involve noisy reactions, remains largely elusive. (nih.gov)
- These results challenge current beliefs that cell population measurements and deterministic simulations are an accurate representation of viral infections. (nih.gov)
- Both Abs and T lymphocytes are produced in response to viral infections, and their relative importance differs with the biologic and cytopathologic properties of the viral system ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
- However, a definitive role of AM in viral infections remains unclear. (plos.org)
- Acute respiratory viral infections can cause severe morbidity and pneumonia in infected individuals. (plos.org)
- With the emergence of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT), diagnosis of specific viral infections has become easier and faster, making it possible to gain more precise information on epidemiology and outcome. (springer.com)
- Interestingly, modulation of particular viral infections appears to be dependent on different domains and/or functional properties of MOV10, such as helicase activity or association with cytoplasmic processing (P)-bodies. (biochemj.org)
- For hospitalized children ( 19 ) and adults ( 1 ), rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections reduced hospital stay and antibiotic use and was cost-effective. (asm.org)
- 2 MERS may follow viral infections such as influenza, mumps or rotavirus, and also bacterial infections such as Legionella pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumonia or Salmonella enteritidis. (bmj.com)
- Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) is a severe complication of various viral infections often resulting in multiorgan failure and death. (biomedcentral.com)
- The sources of most HPAI virus (H5N1) infections in carnivores were traced to infected birds eaten by the animals (12-15,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Until 2005, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) were either wild carnivores kept in captivity or domestic carnivores that ate infected domestic or peridomestic birds (12-14,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
- Since 2005, and after the spread of HPAI virus (H5N1) of the Qinghai sublineage (clade 2.2) outside Southeast Asia in poultry and wild bird populations, carnivores infected with HPAI virus (H5N1) included for the first time free-living wild carnivores, which presumably ate infected wild birds (20,21). (thefreelibrary.com)
- The occurrence of HPAI viruses (H5N1) in wild bird populations is likely to result in the exposure and infection of free-living wild carnivore species. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Therefore, it may likely hunt or scavenge wild birds infected with HPAI viruses (H5N1). (thefreelibrary.com)
- In this study, we asked 2 questions: 1) Are red foxes susceptible to infection with a wild bird isolate of HPAI virus (H5N1) from clade 2.2? (thefreelibrary.com)
- To answer these questions, we experimentally assessed the excretion pattern (based on route, duration, and concentration of virus excretion) and pathogenicity (based on clinical signs, death rates, and distribution of lesions and virus) of a wild bird isolate of clade 2.2 HPAI virus (H5N1) in red foxes infected intratracheally and in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
- HPAI H5N1 virus was first identified in Scotland in 1959. (bmj.com)
- However, the progenitor HPAI H5N1 virus to all Asian lineage HPAI H5N1 viruses circulating among birds was identified in 1996 from an infected goose in southern China. (bmj.com)
- Although it has long been assumed that waterfowl are asymptomatic carriers of the virus, a recent study found that low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) infection in Bewick's swans (Cygnus columbianus bewickii) negatively affected stopover time, body mass and feeding behaviour. (diva-portal.org)
- Among these subtypes, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses have been intensively studied since the first report of lethal human infections in 1997 ( 36 ). (asm.org)
- Manual for the laboratory diagnosis and virological surveillance of influenza. (cdc.gov)
- Dramatic advances in the diagnosis and treatment of influenza in Japan has been made in recent years. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Rapid diagnosis tests for influenza are routinely performed in Japanese hospitals. (unboundmedicine.com)
- A1 - Sugaya,Norio, PY - 2005/11/26/pubmed PY - 2006/1/28/medline PY - 2005/11/26/entrez SP - 111 EP - 4 JF - Uirusu JO - Uirusu VL - 55 IS - 1 N2 - Dramatic advances in the diagnosis and treatment of influenza in Japan has been made in recent years. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Rimmelzwaan and colleagues caution that because of the systemic nature of avian influenza, "H5N1 virus infection needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of a broader range of clinical presentations than is currently done. (bio-medicine.org)
- The potential place of RIDT in laboratory diagnosis of influenza A virus infections ranges from a nonexistent role to its use as a frontline, stand-alone method, with variations between those extremes, including its use as a screening test supplemented with methods of greater sensitivity, such as culture or PCR, for implementation when the RIDT result is negative. (asm.org)
- Taking the position that the use of RIDT for influenza virus infection diagnosis should not be abandoned is based largely on the following three considerations. (asm.org)
- Of the 32 patients with an etiologic diagnosis, seven had respiratory syncytial virus, 24 had influenza, and one had dual infections with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. (annals.org)
- Storage of nasopharyngeal aspirates in virus transport medium at 2 to 8°C for 48 h had little adverse effect on the detection of influenza virus type A, but diagnosis of influenza virus type B is best carried out with fresh specimens. (asm.org)
- While rapid diagnosis of the individual patient may not always be possible, real-time knowledge of virus activity in the community is also useful for patient management. (asm.org)
- A clinical diagnosis of influenza has reasonable positive predictive value in healthy adults during periods of influenza activity in the community ( 12 ), but at other times and in other age groups, clinical diagnosis is unreliable. (asm.org)
- Directigen Flu-A (Becton Dickinson) has been widely used for the rapid diagnosis of influenza virus type A and has been shown to be sensitive and specific ( 16 , 18 ). (asm.org)
- A follow-up MRI showed complete resolution of the high-intensity signal from the SCC ( figure 2 ), establishing the diagnosis of MERS following influenza infection. (bmj.com)
- Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of real time PCR over virus culture in diagnosis of Influenza virus infections, the biggest viral challenge of present India, a developing country, so that prompt and correct diagnosis can help physicians as well as the policy makers to control the virus spread. (nepjol.info)
- To study the feasibility of real time PCR vis a vis viral culture technique and evaluate the utility of these methods for laboratory diagnosis of Influenza virus infections. (nepjol.info)
- Therefore for epidemiological diagnosis purposes real time PCR detection of Influenza virus is advised. (nepjol.info)
- Japan has the highest figure of neuraminidase inhibitor-use in the world because the treatment of influenza with neuraminidase inhibitors is covered by Japan's National Health Insurance program. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Influenza viruses have eight genes, two of which code for virus surface proteins - hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) - that allow the virus to enter a host cell and spread from cell to cell. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- We have recently demonstrated that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) 3 protein of influenza virus and the HA-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Sendai virus (SV) can interact with both the NKp44 and NKp46 receptors and that this interaction leads to increased killing that can overcome the class I MHC-mediated inhibition ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Of the 18 haemagglutinin and 11 neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A viruses identified to date, nearly all (except for H17N10, H18N11 identified in bats) have been identified among birds. (bmj.com)
- Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which help to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (wikipedia.org)
- Although we must be prepared to deal with the possibility of a new and clinically severe influenza pandemic caused by an entirely new virus, we must also understand in greater depth, and continue to explore, the determinants and dynamics of the pandemic era in which we live,' conclude the authors. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Severe Influenza Treatment Guideline. (cambridge.org)
- DOHMH will continue monitoring for changes in the epidemiology and/or clinical severity of S-OIV infection. (thebody.com)
- Influenza virus infections (IVI) may pose a vital threat to immunocompromised patients such as those suffering from malignancies, but specific data on epidemiology and outcome in these patients are scarce. (springer.com)
- The aim of our study was to understand the clinical epidemiology and outcome of IVI in cancer patients during the 2014/15 influenza season, in order to identify patients at risk of a severe course of infection and mortality. (springer.com)
- The circulation of influenza virus A and B in this study is important to contributing knowledge and data to influenza epidemiology and surveillance in Nigeria. (ajol.info)
- This was the first ever description of the epidemiology of seasonal influenza in Egypt. (who.int)
- While all previously known influenza A viruses bind sialic acid moieties on the host cell surface, the recently discovered bat-derived influenza A virus subtypes infect human and animal cells by utilizing MHC class II proteins. (news-medical.net)
- How simple can influenza viruses switch their receptors, and is it even possible that influenza viruses emerge, which can infect target cells by both receptors? (news-medical.net)
- Other combinations, such as avian influenza H5N1, occasionally infect people, but they are bird viruses, not human viruses. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The eight influenza genes can be thought of as players on a team: certain combinations of players may arise through chance and endow the virus with new abilities, such as the ability to infect a new type of host,' says Morens, senior advisor to the NIAID director. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Influenza A viruses rarely infect species of the order Carnivora. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Many viruses, including influenza virus, infect through mucosal surfaces that are colonized with resident microorganisms. (jcvi.org)
- A contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that infect birds and, less commonly, pigs. (bmj.com)
- Rapid, accurate, and cost-effective methods to identify the cause of respiratory tract infections are needed to maximize clinical benefit. (hindawi.com)
- 8 - 14 Although distinct clinical syndromes are attributed to influenzavirus and RSV, there can be considerable overlap in their manifestations. (aappublications.org)
- As expected, all cats were infected with H5N1 virus and exhibited clinical signs of disease (fever, lethargy, labored breathing, etc.), and virus was detected in throat, nasal, and rectal swabs, regardless of the original site of infection. (bio-medicine.org)
- Differing clinical characteristics between influenza strains among young healthy adults in the tropics. (ebscohost.com)
- All cats were transferred to a quarantine station and monitored for clinical signs, virus shedding, and antibody production until day 50. (cdc.gov)
- Pigs experimentally infected with the strain of swine flu that caused the human pandemic of 2009-10 showed clinical signs of flu within four days, and the virus spread to other uninfected pigs housed with the infected ones. (wikipedia.org)
- Influenza epidemics exact a great toll on world health. (plos.org)
- Influenza epidemics and pandemics vary greatly in pathogenicity. (pnas.org)
- Human influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause global pandemics and epidemics, which remain serious threats to public health because of the shortage of effective means of control. (mdpi.com)
- Modeling the influence of Twitter in reducing and increasing the spread of influenza epidemics. (cambridge.org)
- Modeling the impact of twitter on influenza epidemics. (cambridge.org)
- Influenza causes frequent human epidemics associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly and in those with underlying risk factors, e.g., cardiorespiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases and the immunocompromised ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- Influenza A virus (IAV) is a human respiratory pathogen that causes yearly global epidemics, and sporadic pandemics due to human adaptation of pathogenic strains. (flu.org.cn)
- Distribution of antibodies against various influenza A viruses in animals. (springer.com)
- Prevention of viral infection by antibodies depends on diverse mechanisms such as prevention of viral attachment to the host cell ( 1 , 2 ), activation of the complement system ( 3 , 4 ), opsonization ( 5 ), antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ( 6 , 7 ), and inhibition of the release of daughter viruses from infected cells ( 8 - 10 ). (rupress.org)
- Sequence analysis of several antibodies against influenza virus has revealed the accumulation of mutations in secondary, but rarely in primary, antibodies ( 16 ). (rupress.org)
- We recovered at least four different epitopal reactivities, though none of the H7 reactive antibodies were able to neutralize H7 infections in vitro. (eur.nl)
- In the primary infection, AID deficiency caused no significant difference in mortality but did cause difference in morbidity. (rupress.org)
- Taken together, our results suggest a superior role of AM compared to CD103 + DCs in protection from acute influenza and vaccinia virus infection-induced morbidity and mortality. (plos.org)
- Even in healthy subjects, influenza can lead to significant morbidity and economic loss through medical costs and time off work. (asm.org)
- Influenza A virus (IAV) infection-associated morbidity and mortality are a key global health care concern, necessitating the identification of new therapies capable of reducing the severity of IAV infections. (sciencemag.org)
- We studied the incidence, morbidity and mortality of all patients presenting in our teaching hospital with proven influenza virus and/or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during the influenza epidemic season 2018 which was characterized by a predominant incidence of influenza virus B type B of the Yamagata line. (flutrackers.com)
- RSV was associated with morbidity and mortality comparable to influenza. (flutrackers.com)
- The specimens were stored in a lysis buffer and aliquoted for nucleic acid isolation and detection of influenza virus using CDC's singleplex RT-PCR (SRT-PCR) test and a MRT-PCR test using the eSensor XT-8 instrument and respiratory viral panel from GenMark Diagnostics, Inc. In toto , 1171 specimens were collected and tested for presence of influenza using SRT-PCR. (hindawi.com)
- Rapid antigen testing using immunochromatographic devices has become a diagnostic mainstay for detection of influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus, the two major viruses infecting the respiratory tract. (asm.org)
- Directigen FluA+B (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.), a new rapid test for the detection of influenza virus types A and B, was evaluated with nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens collected from 250 patients in comparison with culture and direct fluorescent antigen (DFA) detection tests. (asm.org)
- We used both real time RT-PCR and viral culture methods (on MDCK cell lines) for detection of Influenza virus infection and compared the effect of transport time, cost per sample and turnaround time on both the techniques. (nepjol.info)
- The revised regulations add human infections with new influenza strains to the list of conditions that Member States must immediately report to WHO. (cdc.gov)
- Clade 2.1 is predominant in Indonesia, the country in which H5N1 has become endemic and in which the highest number of human infections and associated fatalities have been reported. (asm.org)
- The main contenders in primary influenza virus infection are depletion of susceptible target cells and the impact of the host's innate immune response ( 2 , 20 ). (asm.org)
- During infection of an immunologically naïve host, the innate immune response is particularly important as the first line of defense against infection. (asm.org)
- The innate immune response is regulated by chemokines and cytokines, chemical messengers produced by virus-infected epithelial cells and leukocytes ( 23 ), and natural interferon-producing cells, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells ( 13 ). (asm.org)
- However, diminution rather than total elimination of tipDC trafficking by treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist pioglitazone moderates the potentially lethal consequences of excessive tipDC recruitment without abrogating CD8 + T cell expansion or compromising virus control. (pnas.org)
- Here, we show that a subset of dendritic cells (DCs), described as TNF-α/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-producing DCs (tipDCs) ( 15 ), accumulate in significantly greater numbers during the course of lethal (versus sublethal) influenza infections ( Fig. S1 ). (pnas.org)
- 0.05) but did not provide complete protection against lethal infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Mink were found to be susceptible to the intranasal inoculation of human, swine, equine and avian influenza A viruses. (springer.com)
- Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States" by Lucas Ferguson, Kaijian Luo et al. (unl.edu)
- Among 96 archived influenza A virus-seropositive feral swine samples collected from 16 US states during 2010-2013, 41 (42.7%) were IDV seropositive. (unl.edu)
- 50% of in-contact naive feral swine shed virus, seroconverted, or both. (unl.edu)
- Amongst respiratory viruses, swine influenza type A virus (swIAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are frequently associated. (umontreal.ca)
- Swine influenza (swine flu or pig flu) is a respiratory disease that occurs in pigs that is caused by the Influenza A virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Influenza viruses that are normally found in swine are known as swine influenza viruses (SIVs). (wikipedia.org)
- Swine influenza virus is common throughout pig populations worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
- If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu or a variant virus. (wikipedia.org)
- People with regular exposure to pigs are at increased risk of swine flu infection. (wikipedia.org)
- The Spanish flu, also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española, or La Pesadilla, was an unusually severe and deadly strain of swine influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (wikipedia.org)
- A host becomes susceptible if they are unable to reduce pathogen burden or unable to tolerate the negative consequences of the immune response to infection. (nih.gov)
- Generally, the same immunological factors mediating tissue damage during the anti-influenza immune response are also critical for efficient elimination of virus, thereby posing a significant challenge in the design of harmless yet effective therapeutic strategies for tackling influenza virus. (nih.gov)
- Previous studies have shown that iBALT structures containing germinal center (GC) B cells protect against repeated infection by contributing locally to the cellular and humoral immune response. (frontiersin.org)
- On infection, the influenza virus elicits an immune response, including a rapid innate response that is correlated with the observed decline in the virus load after the first 2 days of infection ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- CRTH2+ cells accumulated non-significantly in the lungs of infected animals in response to influenza virus, suggesting that they are stimulated and recruited by infection, and likely have a protective immune response. (pitt.edu)
- PRiME is pleased to announce that we have been awarded by NIAID U19 grant through April 2020 to advance our experiment based modeling of the immune response to Influenza infection. (mssm.edu)
- As of May 29, 97 patients with laboratory-confirmed infection had died. (cdc.gov)
- Infection control the identification of a laboratory-confirmed subclinical case in a woman during an influenza A(H5N1) contact investiga- measures were initiated, and all household members were tion in northern Vietnam. (cdc.gov)
- High case-fatality rate of approximately 53% among patients with laboratory-confirmed infection. (bmj.com)
- Case-control study of risk factors for avian influenza A (H5N1) disease, Hong Kong, 1997. (bmj.com)
- Butt KM, Smith GJ, Chen H et al (2005) Human infection with an avian H9N2 influenza A virus in Hong Kong in 2003. (springer.com)
- The test detected a range of human and animal influenza virus A subtypes, including the H5N1 and H9N2 viruses that recently caused human disease in Hong Kong. (asm.org)