Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.SqualeneVaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.PyransViral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Influenzavirus B: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRUS causing HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. In contrast to INFLUENZAVIRUS A, no distinct antigenic subtypes of hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE are recognized.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Mice, Inbred BALB CRNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.United StatesBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.DucksSialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human: A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).JapanDNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Product Surveillance, Postmarketing: Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
"The biology of influenza viruses". Vaccine. 26 Suppl 4 (Suppl 4): D49-53. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.039. PMC 3074182 . PMID ... or in vaccine mismatch. Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza ... Influenza viruses which have undergone antigenic shift have caused the Asian Flu pandemic of 1957, the Hong Kong Flu pandemic ... Influenza B viruses circulate widely principally among humans, though it has recently been found in seals. Flu strains are ...
"Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines by computer-aided rational design". Nat. Biotechnol. 28: 723-727. doi:10.1038/nbt.1636 ... the first sequence of a eukaryotic RNA virus. The primary structure of the genome was unique at the time amongst RNA viruses as ... After working on the structure of tRNAs and the structure of a plant RNA virus (satellite tobacco necrosis virus), Wimmer chose ... Meanwhile, synthetic biology has led to a new kind of RNA virus genetics and has been used to develop rapid methods for ...
2010). "Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines by computer-aided rational design". Nature Biotechnology. 28 (7): 723-6. doi: ... he has worked to computationally design synthetic viruses for use as attenuated vaccines. Their Synthetic Attenuated Virus ... 2008). "Virus attenuation by genome-scale changes in codon pair bias". Science. 320 (5884): 1784-7. doi:10.1126/science.1155761 ... Engineering (SAVE) approach has been validated in flu and experiments with other viruses are ongoing. A popular account of this ...
"Eight-plasmid system for rapid generation of influenza virus vaccines" (PDF). Vaccine. 20: 3165-3170 - via Elsevier. Badgett MR ... This synthesized vaccine strain can then be used as a seed virus to create further vaccines. Vaccines engineered from reverse ... Attenuated vaccines are created by combining genes from a novel or current virus strain with previously attenuated viruses of ... Stobart CC, Moore ML (June 2014). "RNA virus reverse genetics and vaccine design". Viruses. 6 (7): 2531-50. doi:10.3390/ ...
"Attenuated Influenza Virus Vaccines with Modified NS1 Proteins". Vaccines for Pandemic Influenza. Current Topics in ... "Vaccination of Pigs against Swine Influenza Viruses by Using an NS1-Truncated Modified Live-Virus Vaccine". Journal of Virology ... "Hemagglutinin-Pseudotyped Green Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Influenza Viruses for the Detection of Influenza Virus ... His contributions to his field have included the generation and evaluation of influenza virus vectors as potential vaccine ...
Influenza vaccines are created by injecting a live virus into fertilized chicken eggs. The viruses are harvested, killed and ... "Recommendations for administering the triple viral vaccine and anti-influenza vaccine in patients with egg allergy". Allergol ... Each year, vaccines are created to provide protection against the flu viruses expected to be prevalent in the upcoming cold ... The amount of egg protein is lower than in influenza vaccines and the risk of an allergic reaction is much lower. One guideline ...
Dec 2012). "Protective efficacy of in vitro synthesized, specific mRNA vaccines against influenza A virus infection". Nat ... Vaccine Prize". "CureVac, Sanofi Paster in 150m-euro-plus vaccines deal". "Boehringer pairs its lung cancer drug with a vaccine ... technology platform in the development of a prophylactic vaccine to protect against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adding ... On March 10, 2014, CureVac won a €2 million prize awarded by the European Commission to stimulate new vaccine technologies that ...
Industrial Platform for Virus Purification Influenza Virus Purification Platform Urbas, Lidija; Košir, Boštjan; Peterka, Matjaž ... Vaccine. 28 (8): 2039-2045. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.061. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 20188261. Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, ... influenza A and B, rabies virus, rotavirus, tomato and pepino mosaic virus. Since 2004, BIA Separations has organized and ... "Reversed phase monolithic analytical columns for the determination of HA1 subunit of influenza virus haemagglutinin". Journal ...
"Influenza Virus Vaccine Based on the Conserved Hemagglutinin Stalk Domain". MBio. 1 (1): e00018-e00010. doi:10.1128/mBio.00018- ... "Influenza a and B viruses expressing altered NS1 proteins: A vaccine approach". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... and an expert in the field of RNA viruses. Palese built "the first genetic maps for influenza A, B and C viruses, identified ... "the study of RNA viruses, including influenza, paramyxo and corona (SARS) viruses". Recent achievements include the development ...
Prior to becoming an administrator, her research focused mainly on influenza viruses and approaches to vaccines. Her work has ... Hinshaw, VS; Webster, RG; Turner, B (1979). "Water-bone transmission of influenza a viruses?". Intervirology. 11 (1): 66-8. doi ... A mechanism of cell killing by influenza a and B viruses". Journal of Virology. 68 (6): 3667-73. PMC 236871 . PMID 8189504. ... Replication and characterization of influenza viruses in ducks". Virology. 84 (2): 268-78. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(78)90247-7. ...
Arnon, R; Ben-Yedidia, T (2009). "Preclinical efficacy of a virus-like particle-based vaccine against avian influenza H5N1". ... Arnon and Ben-Yedidia hypothesize that these vaccines would be effective against H5N1, a pandemic virus more commonly known as ... Arnon is currently performing research on a universal, recombinant influenza vaccination, as well as cancer vaccine research. ... but possess the specific antigen presenting proteins that immune cells use to identify viruses. Therefore, a vaccine could ...
Neural mechanisms of mindfulness meditation
Influenza (flu) is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this ... Pleschka, S (2013). "Overview of Influenza Viruses". Swine Influenza. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 370. pp. 1 ... Kim, T. H. (2014). "Seasonal influenza and vaccine herd effect". Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 3 (2): 128-32. doi ... Han, T; Marasco, W. A. (2011). "Structural basis of influenza virus neutralization". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences ...
... virus and 2 fundamental questions. Briand S, Fukuda K. J Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15;199(12):1717-9. The pandemic influenza vaccine ... An economic analysis of annual influenza vaccination of children. Meltzer MI, Neuzil KM, Griffin MR, Fukuda K. Vaccine. 2005 ... 2005 Aug 5;54(30):750.. Values for preventing influenza-related morbidity and vaccine adverse events in children. Prosser LA, ... Different approaches to influenza vaccination. Fukuda K, Kieny MP.N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 14;355(24):2586-7. Influenza- ...
Infectious agents for which droplet precautions are indicated are found in Appendix A and include B. pertussis, influenza virus ... Secondary measles vaccine failure in healthcare workers exposed to infected patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1993;14(2): ... Weinstock DM, Gubareva LV, Zuccotti G. Prolonged shedding of multidrug-resistant influenza A virus in an immunocompromised ... Update: universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other ...
... lower doses of whole virus vaccines are able to induce sufficient immune responses even against newly emerged influenza virus ... Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, Jankovics M, Jankovics I (May 2007). "Inactivated whole virus influenza A (H5N1) vaccine". Emerg ... Vajo Z, Kosa L, Visontay I, Jankovics M, Jankovics I (May 2007). "Inactivated whole virus influenza A (H5N1) vaccine". Emerg ... developed novel influenza vaccines based on reverse genetics technology, including vaccines against the H5N1 bird flu and the ...
Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Modern methods for producing influenza vaccines are still based on Burnet's work improving virus growing processes in hen's ... He worked on a live vaccine against influenza, but the vaccine was unsuccessful when tested during World War II. His interest ... culture and detection of influenza virus; describing the recombination of influenza strains; demonstrating that the myxomatosis ... Burnet made significant contributions to influenza research; he developed techniques to grow and study the virus, including ...
Nancy Cox (virologist)
... interpretation and policy development for selecting vaccine viruses for use in annual influenza vaccine production. Cox has ... Over the course of her career, Cox helped transform the surveillance and science of influenza viruses and vaccines worldwide. ... "CDCNCIRS - Influenza Division". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-09-07. "CDCNCIRS - Influenza Division". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017 ... Nancy J. Cox (born 1949) is an American virologist and served as the Director of the Influenza Division at the Centers for ...
... respiratory syncytial virus; influenza; and Helicobacter pylori. Since 2012 she has served as a member of the World Health ... She has also worked on rotavirus disease, conducting a large phase III trial of rotavirus vaccine among American Indian ... This research is critical to understanding pneumococcal vaccine needs and potential efficacy in different regions. The Hib/SP ... Katherine L. O'Brien is a recognized international expert in the areas of pneumococcal epidemiology, pneumococcal vaccine ...
1968 flu pandemic
Influenza vaccine Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 Paul, William E. Fundamental Immunology. p. 1273. "World health group issues ... The virus was isolated in Queen Mary Hospital. In the 1968 pandemic vaccine became available one month after the outbreaks ... It was caused by an H3N2 strain of the influenza A virus, descended from H2N2 through antigenic shift, a genetic process in ... "Three strains of Hong Kong influenza virus isolated from humans were compared with a strain isolated from a calf for their ...
... is a brand of influenza vaccine, distributed by Sanofi Pasteur. It is a split-virus vaccine that is produced by ... "Feds Check Post-Vaccine Seizures In Young Kids" WTAE Pittsburgh "FDA Approves A High Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine ... "Efficacy of High-Dose versus Standard-Dose Influenza Vaccine in Older Adults" Fluzone web site Fluzone Trivalent Vaccine. RxMed ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (April 2010). "Licensure of a high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine for ...
Flor Muñoz Rivas
Safety of the Trivalent, Cold-Adapted Influenza Vaccine (CAIV-T) in Pre-school Aged Children. Pediatrics 2002, 110:662-672. ... Epidemiology and molecular characterization of co-circulating influenza A/H3N2 virus variants in children: Houston, Texas, 1997 ... Maternal Immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in the third trimester of gestation. Vaccine 20 (2002): 826-837 ...
... herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, respiratory virus infections, influenza infection, T cell immunity, and commensal ... coded for by the vaccines because the DNA vaccines work best when injected into the muscle. Iwasaki's research continues to ... Iwasaki and her team study immune responses to influenza in the lungs and herpes simplex virus in the genital tract. Overall, ... Iwasaki, A; Pillai, P (2014). "Innate immunity to influenza virus infection". Nature Reviews Immunology. 14 (5): 315-328. doi: ...
Fiers W, De Filette M, Birkett A, Neirynck S, Min Jou W, A universal human influenza A vaccine, Virus Res. 2004 Jul;103(1-2): ... Protection of mice against a lethal influenza virus challenge after immunization with yeast-derived secreted influenza virus ... Vaccine. 2006 Jan 30;24(5):544-51 Fiers W, Neirynck S, Deroo T, Saelens X, Jou WM, Soluble recombinant influenza vaccines, ... His current research focuses on the development and characterisation of novel influenza A and B vaccines. Together with Walter ...
Stephen C. Redd
"Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009-2010". Emerging Infectious Diseases. ... When the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus was first identified in April 2009, Redd was named Incident Commander where he led CDC's ... has been activated for global and local health emergencies including the West Africa Ebola virus epidemic, Zika virus, the ... the CDC created the Influenza Coordination Unit to prepare for and respond to severe influenza pandemics. From 2006 through ...
A new vaccine is required every year because influenza virus has the ability to undergo antigenic drift. Antigenic shift occurs ... Flaviviridae is a family of viruses that encompasses well known viruses such as West Nile virus and Dengue virus. The genus ... This occurs in influenza every couple of decades. Antigenic sift: direct transmission with a zoonotic strain of a virus. This ... The influenza-specific memory B-cells reach their maxima at day 14-21. The secreted antibodies are specific to the vaccine ...
Youngner is responsible for the first equine influenza vaccine, based upon cold-adapted influenza virus. Previous methods of ... Method of using cold-adapted live influenza virus vaccine as an antiviral agent against influenza, retrieved 2016-01-26 Dowling ... "University of Pittsburgh Researchers Develop Virus for First Intranasal Equine Influenza Vaccine". www.upmc.com. Retrieved 2016 ... "A new modified live equine influenza virus vaccine: phenotypic stability, restricted spread and efficacy against heterologous ...
... namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National ... A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. DNA vaccines elicit the best immune response ... Second generation vaccines were developed to reduce the risks from live vaccines. These are subunit vaccines, consisting of ... First generation vaccines are whole-organism vaccines - either live and weakened, or killed forms. Live, attenuated vaccines, ...
Effects of Vaccine Program against Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus, United States, 2009-2010 - Volume 19, Number 3-March 2013 ...
We found that the national health effects were greatly influenced by the timing of vaccine administration and the effectiveness ... These results emphasize the need for relevant surveillance data to facilitate a rapid evaluation of vaccine recommendations and ... By using US surveillance data (April 12, 2009-April 10, 2010) and vaccine coverage estimates (October 3, 2009-April 18, 2010), ... we estimated that the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus vaccination program prevented 700,000-1,500,000 clinical cases, 4,000-10,000 ...
Influenza-a-virus-vaccine-h1n1 | SpringerLink
Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine | CDC
Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine - CDC ... Vaccine viruses must be similar to the influenza viruses ... This can make vaccine virus selection very challenging.. What is CDCs Influenza Divisions role in vaccine virus selection?. ... Today, the majority influenza vaccines are still grown in chicken eggs. Some influenza viruses, like H3N2 viruses, grow poorly ... makes the final decision about vaccine viruses for domestic influenza vaccines. Information about the circulation of influenza ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1 (for National Stockpile) | FDA
... persons 18 through 64 years of age at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine. ... Supporting Documents older than three years - Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1. Related Information. *Influenza Virus Vaccine, ... Package Insert - Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1. Supporting Documents. * ... persons 18 through 64 years of age at increased risk of exposure to the H5N1 influenza virus subtype contained in the vaccine ...
Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1 | SpringerLink
Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1. First report of complex regional pain syndrome: case report ... Influenza A virus vaccine-H1N1. React. Wkly. 1414, 30 (2012). https://doi.org/10.2165/00128415-201214140-00098 ... A case of complex regional pain syndrome after vaccination of influenza A(H1N1). Pediatrics International 54: e4-e6, No. 3, Jun ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) Information - Drugs.com
Easy to read patient leaflet for Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant). Includes indications, proper use, special instructions ... Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant). Generic Name: Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) (in floo EN za VYE rus vak SEEN ree ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Influenza Virus Vaccine?. *If you have an allergy to influenza virus vaccine ( ... Influenza virus vaccine Intramuscular (Advanced Reading). *Influenza virus vaccine recombinant Intramuscular (Advanced Reading) ...
Cold-adapted recombinant influenza A virus vaccines in seronegative young children. - PubMed - NCBI
Cold-adapted recombinant influenza A virus vaccines in seronegative young children.. Wright PF, Okabe N, McKee KT Jr, Maassab ... Two live, attenuated, intranasally administered influenza virus vaccines were evaluated in 21 seronegative young children at ... influenza A/Hong Kong/123/77 (H1N1) or A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) virus. Both vaccine strains replicated in seronegative young ... virus, children previously vaccinated with the related strain, influenza A/Alaska (H3N2) virus, were significantly protected as ...
influenza virus vaccine (injection)
... is a serious disease caused by a virus. Influenza virus can spread from one person to another through small droplets of saliva ... The virus can also be passed through contact with objects the infected... ... The injectable influenza virus vaccine (flu shot) is a "killed virus" vaccine. Influenza virus vaccine is also available in a ... The injectable influenza virus vaccine (flu shot) is a "killed virus" vaccine. Influenza virus vaccine is also available in a ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Este medicamento no cura la influenza. Debe administrarse antes de que se exponga a la influenza para que funcione. La mayoría ... Este medicamento solo lo protegerá durante 1 temporada de influenza. Deberá vacunarse contra la influenza cada año. ... Este medicamento se utiliza para prevenir la influenza.. ¿Qué debo informar al médico ANTES de tomar este medicamento?. *Si es ... Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant) Adult Medication. *. ... Influenza Virus Vaccine (Recombinant). ©2018 Memorial Sloan ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine Inactivated Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Influenza Virus Vaccine Inactivated reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System ... Detailed Influenza virus vaccine, inactivated dosage information. Cautions for Influenza Virus Vaccine Inactivated. ... inactivated influenza vaccine (i.e., influenza vaccine inactivated or influenza vaccine recombinant) can be used.100 112 These ... 65 years of age should be vaccinated against influenza using influenza virus vaccine inactivated or influenza vaccine ...
What are the recommendations for administration of vaccines that contain live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV)?
Effectiveness of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine for preventing influenza virus illness among pregnant women: a population ... FDA Approves First U.S. Vaccine for Humans Against the Avian Influenza Virus H5N1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. ... What are the recommendations for administration of vaccines that contain live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV)?. Updated: Apr ... Effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in elderly persons in years of low influenza activity. Virol J. 2008 Apr 28. 5:52 ...
Influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain. - PubMed - NCBI
Influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain.. Steel J1, Lowen AC, Wang TT, Yondola M, Gao Q, Haye ... by headless HA vaccines is sufficiently potent to warrant their further development toward a universal influenza virus vaccine. ... Although highly effective in the general population when well matched to circulating influenza virus strains, current influenza ... A) Schematic of the linear structure of the full-length influenza virus HA protein (top) and a generalized headless HA protein ...
Fluzone (Influenza Virus Vaccine): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
Influenza Virus Vaccine) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... What are the possible side effects of influenza virus injectable vaccine?. Influenza virus injectable (killed virus) vaccine ... Influenza Vaccine) for intramuscular injection is an inactivated influenza vaccine, prepared from influenza viruses propagated ... influenza vaccines are standardized to contain the hemagglutinins of influenza virus strains representing the influenza viruses ...
Afluria (Influenza Virus Vaccine): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
Influenza Virus Vaccine) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... AFLURIA® (Influenza Vaccine) is an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease ... Vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza infection due to influenza A or B virus strains contained in the ... Evidence for a causal relation of GBS with subsequent vaccines prepared from other influenza viruses is unclear. If influenza ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine Recombinant (Intramuscular Route) Proper Use - Mayo Clinic
Influenza virus vaccine, recombinant is used to prevent infection caused by the influenza viruses in adults 18 years of age and ... Influenza virus vaccine may not protect everyone who receives the vaccine. Also, this vaccine will not treat flu symptoms if ... It is necessary to receive an influenza vaccine injection each year, since influenza infections are usually caused by different ... www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/influenza-virus-vaccine-recombinant-intramuscular-route/proper-use/drg-20060832 ...
Advances in influenza virus vaccine research
Vaccines that can prevent infection must stimulate anti-he … ... Influenza epidemics occur annually in the United States and are ... Advances in influenza virus vaccine research Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Jun 23;685:803-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb35946.x ... The cold-adapted live attenuated influenza virus vaccines for nasal administration are nearing availability. They are safe, ... Advances in vaccine research are permitting evaluation of pure subunit vaccines, new adjuvants, topical immunization, and the ...
A Study of Influenza Virus Vaccines in Children and Adults - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Biological: 2009-2010 Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine. Biological: 2008-2009 Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine. Biological: ... Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine or Trivalent Influenza Vaccines Description Seroconversion to vaccine antigens was defined as a ... Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine or Trivalent Influenza Vaccines Description Seroconversion to vaccine antigens were defined as a ... Study Group 1 (2009-2010 Trivalent Influenza Vaccine) Study Group 2 (2008-2009 Trivalent Influenza Vaccine) Study Group 3 ( ...
Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus (CVV) for a HPAI (Bird Flu) Virus | Avian Influenza (Flu)
This factsheet describes how candidate vaccine viruses are made for use in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) bird flu ... A candidate vaccine virus (CVV) is an influenza (flu) virus that has been prepared by CDC or another public health partner that ... Production of the candidate vaccine virus (CVV). Flu vaccines protect against specific flu viruses, so the first step in ... Spread of Bird Flu Viruses Between Animals and People. *Examples of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A Viruses with ...
DailyMed - FLULAVAL QUADRIVALENT 2017/2018- influenza virus vaccine suspension
... viruses and influenza B viruses have been in global circulation.. Public health authorities recommend influenza vaccine strains ... Influenza Vaccine, for intramuscular injection, is a quadrivalent, split-virion, inactivated influenza virus vaccine prepared ... Inactivated influenza vaccines are standardized to contain the hemagglutinins of strains representing the influenza viruses ... 0.5 ML influenza A virus A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2) antigen 0.03 MG/ML / influenza A virus A/Singapore/GP1908/2015 (H1N1) ...
A Study of Influenza Virus Vaccines in Children and Adults - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Influenza Biological: 2009-2010 Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine Biological: 2008-2009 Trivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine ... Participants will receive the Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine (QIV). Biological: Quadrivalent Influenza Virus Vaccine 0.5 mL, ... Participants will receive the 2008-2009 Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (TIV). Biological: 2008-2009 Trivalent Influenza Virus ... Geometric Mean Titers Against the Influenza Vaccine Antigens After Vaccination With Fluzone® Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine or ...
Intranasal immunization with synthetic recombinant vaccine containing multiple epitopes of influenza virus
... of influenza virus, stimulating B-cells, T-helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), respectively, were previously ... Intranasal immunization with synthetic recombinant vaccine containing multiple epitopes of influenza virus Vaccine. 2002 Jun 21 ... The oligonucleotides coding for three epitopes (HA91-108, NP55-69, and NP 147-158) of influenza virus, stimulating B-cells, T- ... Immunization of BALB/c mice with either constructs induced significant humoral immune response against influenza virus. The ...
Influenza - Virus, Flu, Vaccine, and People - JRank Articles
Influenza. Influenza ("the flu") is a disease caused by the influenza virus. The disease is easily spread from person to person ... The virus can also be spread by touch. For example, if someone touches a doorknob that has influenza viruses clinging to it and ... Recovery from influenza does not protect someone from future bouts of the disease. This is because the influenza virus readily ... The protein spikes function to help the virus invade host cells.. Influenza viruses are resident in animals and birds including ...
Making Better Influenza Virus Vaccines? - Volume 12, Number 1-January 2006 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Finally, universal influenza virus vaccines seem to be within reach. These new strategies will be successful if they are ... and require less virus per dose than conventional vaccines. Furthermore, pandemic vaccines against highly virulent strains such ... supported by regulatory agencies and if a robust market for influenza virus vaccines against interpandemic and pandemic threats ... such as reverse genetics could be used to improve them and to shorten the lengthy process of preparing vaccine seed viruses. By ...
Influenza Virus Vaccine Types A & B | National Museum of American History
Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development | EurekAlert! Science News
... a protein produced by influenza A viruses, suppresses the bodys immune responses to viral infection. ... virulence-factor-made-by-influenza-a-viruses-is-potential-new-target-for-vaccine-and-anti-viral-drug-development/. 2230/. ... Virulence factor made by influenza virus is potential target for vaccine drug development. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic ... Researchers present the potential to develop a live attenuated vaccine based on an engineered influenza A virus lacking NS1 and ...
Vaccine Virus Selection 2012-2013 Influenza Season
Vaccine viruses are chosen to maximize the likelihood that the influenza vaccine will protect against the viruses most likely ... Who participates in vaccine virus selection for the flu vaccine used in the United States?. The WHO vaccine virus decision ... the recommended influenza H3N2 and B vaccine viruses are different from those in the 2011-2012 influenza vaccine for the ... How are the viruses selected to make flu vaccine?. The influenza (flu) viruses selected for inclusion in the seasonal flu ...
H5N1 influenza virus vaccine - WellSpan Health Library
... and this virus affects mainly birds in Asia and Africa. Human infection with H5N1 influenza is rare, but you can become ... infected by having direct contact with sick or dead birds that have been infected with H5N1 influenza virus. You may also come ... Influenza A subtype H5N1 is caused by a virus, ... The H5N1 influenza virus vaccine is a "killed virus" vaccine ... What is H5N1 influenza virus vaccine?. Influenza A subtype H5N1 is caused by a virus, and this virus affects mainly birds in ...
Influenza A virus vaccine, h1n1, inactivated (Injection) | University of Maryland Medical Center
Influenza A virus vaccine, h1n1, inactivated (Injection). Introduction. Influenza A Virus Vaccine, H1N1, Inactivated (in-floo- ... Keeps you from getting sick with an influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus ("catching the flu").. ... This vaccine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires ... This medicine will not treat flu symptoms if you already have the virus. ...
Antibody That Binds to All Influenza A Viruses Could Lead to a Universal Flu Vaccine - Scientific American
An antibody that recognizes all strains of influenza A could be a universal vaccine blueprint. ... The influenza virus constantly mutates, forcing scientists to play catch-up and produce a new seasonal vaccine each year. But ... Antibody That Binds to All Influenza A Viruses Could Lead to a Universal Flu Vaccine. An antibody that recognizes all strains ... The antibody binding site, tucked away in a stable region of the virus, might form the first lasting vaccine against flu. ...
An improved reverse genetics system for influenza A virus generation and its implications for vaccine production | PNAS
... an inactivated vaccine and a live-attenuated vaccine virus. The production of influenza virus vaccines relies on reassortment ( ... A One-Plasmid System To Generate Influenza Virus in Cultured Chicken Cells for Potential Use in Influenza Vaccine ... The Influenza B Virus Hemagglutinin Head Domain Is Less Tolerant to Transposon Mutagenesis than That of the Influenza A Virus ... make the development of vaccines to these viruses essential.. In the United States, two influenza vaccines are licensed for ...
VaccinationH3N2HemagglutininEfficacyStrains of influenza virusAntibody2018LethalMorbidityLAIVImmunizationPreventionMicePathogenicHuman influenzaPandemic H1N1 influenza virusAllergic reactionImmuneHumansFormulationAvian fluAntigenHong KongComposition of the influenzaNasalAdultsSeasonal influenza virusProteinInduceDosesTrivalent inactivated influenza vaccineInjectableIllnessProteinsDoseEfficaciousCurrent influenza
- Most people receive the influenza vaccination to reduce the risks associated with the flu. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- The first known association between GBS and the flu shot became apparent during a mass vaccination program in the United States with a swine influenza vaccine in 1976-1977. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- In reaction to the outbreak and the danger from an epidemic from swine influenza, the United States Department of Health and Human Services instituted a mass vaccination of the US population. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- According to the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) , there was an increase in GBS reports in 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 associated with the influenza vaccine, with data suggesting an increased risk within six (6) weeks following influenza vaccination. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- If you have incurred GBS following influenza or hepatitis vaccination, immediately contact a GBS injury attorney , who can handle cases nationwide and is qualified to files cases in the Court of Claims. (sanantonioinjuryattorneyblog.com)
- The vaccines were derivatives of a cold-adapted master strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 virus, containing the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of one of two contemporary strains, influenza A/Hong Kong/123/77 (H1N1) or A/Alaska/6/77 (H3N2) virus. (nih.gov)
- Influenza virus vaccine based on the conserved hemagglutinin stalk domain. (nih.gov)
- The strain specificity of vaccines presently in use mirrors the exquisite specificity of the neutralizing antibodies that they induce, that is, antibodies which bind to the highly variable globular head domain of hemagglutinin (HA). (nih.gov)
- Using reverse genetics, CDC scientists take two genes from the bird flu virus - the neuraminidase (NA) and a modified form of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene - and they combine those two genes with six genes of a commonly used human flu virus that grows well in chicken eggs. (cdc.gov)
- Influenza A is further divided into two subtypes called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). H and N are two proteins that are found on the surface of the filament-like virus particles. (jrank.org)
- The production of influenza virus vaccines relies on reassortment ( 9 ), which requires coinfection of cells with a circulating wild-type strain that provides the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) segments and either A/PR/8/34 (PR8) virus (an attenuated human virus that provides high-growth properties in eggs) or a live attenuated virus that provides the attenuated phenotype. (pnas.org)
- However, high mutation rates of influenza virus hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) glycoproteins give rise to vaccine escape mutants. (dovepress.com)
- Novel influenza virus vaccines that aim to elicit antibodies against conserved epitopes like the hemagglutinin stalk could not only reduce the burden of drifted seasonal viruses but potentially also protect humans from infection with zoonotic and emerging pandemic influenza viruses. (mdpi.com)
- Flumist" vaccine [ 9 ]) with ready production capability, (iii) have robust respiratory mucosal replication that should facilitate genital mucosal immunity, and (iv) can be generated with a variety of hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) glycoproteins, potentially enabling these viruses to be administered sequentially in prime-boost combinations to limit the effect of antivector humoral immunity ( 34 ). (asm.org)
- To overcome the antigenic diversity of H3N2 viruses, Weiner and colleagues used H3N2 strains from 1968 to the present retrieved from the Influenza Research Database to generate four synthetic common sequences of the hemagglutinin antigen (HA), a protein present on the viral surface. (medicalxpress.com)
- The purified whole-virus proteins derived from A/swine/Shanghai/1/2014 (H1N1) (SH1) were chosen to immunize BALB/c mice to prepare the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against hemagglutinin (HA) protein of a. (bioportfolio.com)
- A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. (bioportfolio.com)
- We compared the immunogenicity of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere trivalent IIV and LAIV against influenza A virus in Canadian Hutterite children aged 2 to 17 using hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure hemagglutinin-specific serum IgA and mucosal IgA. (mdpi.com)
- Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus mediates both receptor binding and membrane fusion [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- 1. A recombinant influenza virus comprising a chimeric hemagglutinin (HA) fusion protein, wherein the HA fusion protein comprises a HA protein or fragment thereof, and one or more tandem repeats of three or more heterologous influenza virus matrix protein 2 extracellular (M2e) domains, or a neutralizing polypeptide domain of attachment (G) or fusion (F) proteins derived from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (patents.com)
- For example, neutralizing antibodies against the H1N1 hemagglutinin protein (HA) of influenza are sufficient to attenuate pathogenicity, and improve survival after virus exposure. (omicsonline.org)
- Today's influenza vaccines are designed to induce so-called neutralizing antibodies that target the glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), which carries many epitopes on the surface of the virus. (brightsurf.com)
- Pandemic strain-neutralizing antibodies were directed against a subregion of the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding domain that is highly conserved between the 1918 and the 2009 viruses. (sciencemag.org)
- We found that mice vaccinated via MN delivery with a stabilized recombinant trimeric soluble hemagglutinin (sHA) derived from A/Aichi/2/68 (H3) virus had significantly higher immune responses than did mice vaccinated with unmodified sHA. (asm.org)
- These strategies have used diverse antigens including virus-like particles (VLP) ( 25 ), inactivated influenza virus ( 24 ), and hemagglutinin (HA) DNA vaccines ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- Influenza Virus Vaccine has a composition of such strains and a content of virus antigen of each, designated for the particular season, of not less than the specified weight (in micrograms) of influenza virus hemagglutinin determined in specific radial-immunodiffusion tests relative to the U. S. Reference Influenza Virus Vaccine. (drugfuture.com)
- To develop it for influenza infection, we established influenza hemagglutinin-carrying aAVC (aAVC-HA) and found that all the mice vaccinated with aAVC-HA were protected from life-threatening influenza infection. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The (6+2) reassortant virus possessed hemagglutinin(HA) with multiple basic amino acids removed and the neuraminidase from A/Guangdong/SF003/2016 in a high-yield A/Puerto Rico/8/34 virus backbone. (flu.org.cn)
- Writing in Science Express, the online ahead-of-print arm of the journal Science, Ian Wilson and Rui Xu of the Scripps Research Institute and colleagues from Vanderbilt University and Mount Sinai School of Medicine say that the 1918 and 2009 pandemic viruses are antigenically close, with hemagglutinin proteins that share similar crystalline structures. (blogspot.com)
- Through a combination of computer modeling and experimental work, scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) determined that seasonal viruses possess, and the pandemic viruses lacked, a cap or covering of sugar molecules on the head of each organism's hemagglutinin. (blogspot.com)
- A candidate recombinant A(H7N9) vaccine consisting of full length, unmodified hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) from the A/Anhui/1/2013 and the matrix 1 (M1) protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) were cloned into a baculovirus vector. (elsevier.com)
- Adjuvant-free immunization with hemagglutinin-Fc fusion proteins as an approach to influenza vaccines. (semanticscholar.org)
- Serious influenza in humans is caused by strains of several A subtypes (which are designated by the specific combination of the 19 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase proteins, or antigens, found on the virus's surface, e.g. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We show that pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in which the hemagglutinin signal sequence has been suppressed (S-FLU), when administered to pigs by aerosol can induce CD4 and CD8 T cell immune responses in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. (ox.ac.uk)
- Specifically, neuraminidase-a glycoprotein located on the surface of the influenza virus-cleaves the attachment between hemagglutinin on the viral surface and the sialic acid receptor on the host cell membrane, thereby facilitating the release of the virion from the cell. (medscape.com)
- Currently there are two co-circulating lineages of the Influenza B virus based on the antigenic properties of the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
- A 'vaccine'/antigen based on the hemagglutinin (HA) stem was the first to induce 'broadly neutralizing' antibodies to both HA-group 1 and HA-group 2 influenza in mice. (wikipedia.org)
- F16 is the only known antibody that binds (its neutralizing activity is controversial) to all 16 subtypes of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin and might be the lynchpin for a universal influenza vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
- The subdomain of the hemagglutinin that is targeted by FI6, namely the stalk domain, was actually successfully used earlier as universal influenza virus vaccine by Peter Palese's research group at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
- Because of substantial contamination by egg-derived components, these killed (formaldehyde-treated) vaccines were highly pyrogenic and lacking in efficacy. (cdc.gov)
- However, due to constant changes of the virus surface glycoproteins, the vaccine efficacy can drop substantially in some seasons. (mdpi.com)
- The vaccine efficacy was 93 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 88 to 96 percent) against culture-confirmed influenza. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Protective efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the European Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus in mice and pigs. (bioportfolio.com)
- However, efficacy and immunogenicity of these vaccines are known to vary by season and geographic location. (mdpi.com)
- In response to the outbreak, he and his colleagues at the USDA ARS South Eastern Poultry Research Lab in Athens, Georgia - with support from SENASICA, Mexico's National Health Service, Food Safety and Food Quality in Cuajimalpa - conducted vaccine efficacy trials to determine if US- and Mexican-origin inactivated H7 vaccine would protect birds from clinical disease and shedding of virus. (thepoultrysite.com)
- To improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers h. (bioportfolio.com)
- Nonetheless, whole virus vaccine is the most immunogenic of the three formulations and may be needed in a pandemic situation to ensure a good vaccine efficacy. (uib.no)
- A true universal influenza vaccine would defeat antigenic drift, improve vaccine efficacy, and eliminate the constant need to reformulate vaccines and revaccinate populations at risk. (brightsurf.com)
- Our results suggest that non-neutralizing antibodies, a class of antibodies typically not examined in assessments of vaccine efficacy, may contribute to protection," said Dr. Wilson of the University of Chicago. (brightsurf.com)
- These results show us that we see only a small part of a bigger picture when we assess vaccine efficacy using today's most widely accepted assays. (brightsurf.com)
- According to the American Public Health Association, 2015, Influenza vaccines confer protection with 60-90% efficacy among the recipients, thus increasing the adoption rate of the vaccines. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
- We assessed the efficacy of TIV against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B. Methods. (ebscohost.com)
- Relative Efficacy of AS03-Adjuvanted Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine in Children: Results of a Controlled, Randomized Efficacy Trial. (ebscohost.com)
- Understanding the evolution of H1N1pdm strains within the South American region is essential for studying global diversification, emergence and resistance, as well as determining vaccine efficacy. (deepdyve.com)
- The immunogenicity and efficacy of A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) VLP vaccine administered on days 0 and 14 were evaluated in a lethal wild-type challenge Balb/c mouse model. (elsevier.com)
- Moreover, vaccine efficacy is often poor in high-risk populations that include young children and the elderly. (semanticscholar.org)
- The efficacy of oseltamivir against avian influenza is not well established. (medscape.com)
- M-001 is aimed at all types of seasonal and pandemic influenza and as of January 2018 has completed 6 Phase 1/2 and 2 trials, with plans to begin an NIAID-sponsored Phase 2 trial and a pivotal clinical efficacy Phase 3 trial in 2018. (wikipedia.org)
Strains of influenza virus7
- However, you may have flu-like symptoms at any time during flu season that may be caused by other strains of influenza virus. (rxlist.com)
- Thus, an effective vaccine providing protection against all strains of influenza virus would be a valuable asset. (dovepress.com)
- A comparison of the frequency and magnitude of heterologous antibody increase to monovalent vaccines in three age groups demonstrates that people over 30 yeras of age have had maximal experience with swine-like strains of influenza virus, less with Type A strains and at least with A prime viruses. (jimmunol.org)
- The research, published today in the journal Cell Host & Microbe , suggests new pathways toward the long-cherished goal of a "universal vaccine" that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus. (brightsurf.com)
- While generally effective, vaccines against seasonal influenza must be reformulated every year at great cost based on educated guesses as to which strains of influenza virus will dominate. (brightsurf.com)
- The strains of influenza virus used in the preparation of this Vaccine are those designated by the U. S. Government's Expert Committee on Influenza and recommended by the Surgeon General of the U. S. Public Health Service. (drugfuture.com)
- Some strains of influenza virus have spread between dogs and other species, raising the possibility that reassortment of canine and human influenza virus strains could create a public health concern. (dvm360.com)
- Nutritional support improves antibody response to influenza virus vaccine in the elderly. (bmj.com)
- An antibody that recognizes all strains of influenza A could be a universal vaccine blueprint. (scientificamerican.com)
- Scientists have found an antibody that inactivates all influenza A subtypes. (scientificamerican.com)
- The antibody binding site, tucked away in a stable region of the virus, might form the first lasting vaccine against flu. (scientificamerican.com)
- Our FI6 antibody is the first one ever found that reacts to all 16 of the influenza A subtypes,' says Lanzavecchia. (scientificamerican.com)
- The antibody itself is not a vaccine, but it could be an instruction manual for making one. (scientificamerican.com)
- Their structure shows that the FI6 antibody binds to the stem region of influenza's haemagglutinin protein. (scientificamerican.com)
- Although Lanzavecchia admits that developing the FI6 binding site into a new vaccine may take years, he hopes that the antibody itself might be used as a treatment in the meantime. (scientificamerican.com)
- When the antibody binds to the virus, it stops it from infecting mammalian cells, and the researchers say that treating influenza with the antibody works in mice and ferrets. (scientificamerican.com)
- All mice immunized with the synthetic DNA vaccine developed broad, robust antibody responses against HA and effective cellular immune responses including CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. (medicalxpress.com)
- Monoclonal Antibody Against HA Protein of the European Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus. (bioportfolio.com)
- Intra-seasonal antibody repertoire analysis of a subject immunized with an MF59®-adjuvanted pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine. (bioportfolio.com)
- Interestingly, whole virus vaccine also induced higher concentrations of cytokines that stimulates an IgA response, which is a more cross-reactive antibody. (uib.no)
- One important result was the identification of unique epitopes on the head and stalk of the virus, which could be important antibody binding sites for future vaccines. (brightsurf.com)
- Assays used to test the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines--a step required by regulatory bodies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration before the vaccines can be licensed -- only measure antibody activity targeting the highly variable head region of the virus. (brightsurf.com)
- Pandemic viruses typically evolve into seasonal forms that develop resistance to antibody neutralization, and cross-protection between strains separated by more than 3 years is uncommon. (sciencemag.org)
- Here, to better understand how such pandemics evolve, we have examined in mice the structural basis for differences in sensitivity to antibody neutralization among pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. (sciencemag.org)
- In vivo dendritic cell targeting cellular vaccine induces CD4(+) Tfh cell-dependent antibody against influenza virus. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Here, we show, using a cellular vaccine carrying foreign protein antigen plus iNKT cell glycolipid antigen, designated as artificial adjuvant vector cells (aAVCs), that mature XCR1(-) DCs in situ elicit not only ordinal antigen-specific CD4(+)T cells, but also CD4(+) Tfh and germinal center, resulted in inducing long-term antibody production. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Both vaccines induced antibody formation. (dvm360.com)
- A(H7N9) VLP elicited hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) antibody titers of ≥1:64 against the homologous virus, cross-reactive HAI against the heterologous A(H7N3), and 3- to 4-fold higher HAI responses in corresponding ISCOMATRIX subgroups. (elsevier.com)
- Collaborative serological studies have been conducted by WHO CCs and Essential Regulatory Laboratories (ERLs) using sera from vaccinees, to determine whether the antibody levels produced by current vaccines are able to react sufficiently against circulating influenza viruses. (who.int)
- In July 2011, researchers created an antibody, which targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called haemagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
- FDA's Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) met in Silver Spring, Maryland, on March 1, 2018, to select the influenza viruses for the composition of the influenza vaccine for the 2018-2019 U.S. influenza season. (fda.gov)
- The same component was retained for the quadrivalent 2018-2019 vaccine. (europa.eu)
- WHO recommended now the inclusion of the B/Victoria lineage into the trivalent vaccine for the northern hemisphere 2018-2019 influenza season. (europa.eu)
- Furthermore, this vaccine fully protected mice from lethal challenge and enhanced their recovery process. (nih.gov)
- Avian influenza viruses were long thought not to be directly transmissible to humans and cause lethal outcomes. (pnas.org)
- Although all mAbs showed little antiviral activity in vitro, adoptive transfer of 2 of 4 mAbs could confer protection against lethal flu A virus challenge in naïve mice. (jimmunol.org)
- Most of the H7 vaccines protected agianst a lethal challenge and the US master seed isolates were fully protective, Dr Kapczynski added. (thepoultrysite.com)
- Nine-month-old naive mice were used as a negative-control group challenged with the same virus lethal dose. (asm.org)
- A significant decrease in virus replication was also observed in the lungs of immunized mice and 83% of the mice were protected against the lethal challenge of influenza A viruses. (ovid.com)
- These mice were fully protected against a lethal challenge with influenza virus. (asm.org)
- Influenza viruses remain a major cause of human morbidity and mortality. (eurekalert.org)
- We demonstrated that CTA1-DD-adjuvant vaccine provided 100% protection against mortality and greatly reduced morbidity in a mouse model. (flutrackers.com)
- Cohorts of infected or vaccinated mice were challenged 20 months after influenza exposure with 50× LD 50 mouse-adapted homologous virus and were monitored for survival (a) and morbidity (b), reflected in the body weight (BW) changes for 14 days postchallenge. (asm.org)
- The influenza virus causes significant morbidity and mortality annually. (semanticscholar.org)
- Influenza A viruses are a major health threat to livestock and humans, causing considerable mortality, morbidity, and economic loss. (ox.ac.uk)
- Influenzavirus B mutates at a rate 2 to 3 times slower than type A. It is currently accepted that influenza B viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and significantly impacts adolescents and schoolchildren. (wikipedia.org)
- What are the recommendations for administration of vaccines that contain live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV)? (medscape.com)
- In late May 2016, preliminary data on the effectiveness of LAIV among children aged 2-17 years during the 2015-2016 season became available from the US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) Network. (medscape.com)
- Both inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) and live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) have been recommended for administration to children. (mdpi.com)
- Disclosed are recombinant chimeric influenza virus vaccines and live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines expressing foreign (RSV) neutralizing epitopes or conserved M2e epitopes that are capable of providing broader cross-protection against influenza virus and/or protecting against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) without vaccine-enhanced RSV disease (ERD). (patents.com)
- Background: The safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of a monovalent intranasal 2009 A/H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) were evaluated in children and adults. (ebscohost.com)
- Two H5N2/NS1-LAIV viruses (H5N2/NS1-86 and H5N2/NS1-101) were highly attenuated compared with the full-length and remaining H5N2/NS-LAIV viruses in a mouse model. (deepdyve.com)
- This study clearly demonstrates that the modified H5N2/NS1-LAIV viruses attenuated through the introduction of mutations in the NS1 coding region display characteristics that are desirable for live attenuated vaccines and hold potential as vaccine candidates for mammalian hosts. (deepdyve.com)
- AFLURIA® (Influenza Vaccine) is an inactivated influenza vaccine indicated for active immunization against influenza disease caused by influenza virus subtypes A and type B present in the vaccine. (rxlist.com)
- Advances in vaccine research are permitting evaluation of pure subunit vaccines, new adjuvants, topical immunization, and the use of immunomodulators for enhancing immune responses. (nih.gov)
- Immunization of BALB/c mice with either constructs induced significant humoral immune response against influenza virus. (nih.gov)
- Fluzone vaccine also will be available in a 5 mL multi-dose vial for immunization of children and adults 6 months of age and older. (biospace.com)
- Fluzone High-Dose vaccine is specifically formulated to elicit a stronger immune response in adults 65 years of age and older following immunization with the vaccine. (biospace.com)
- Fluzone Intradermal vaccine is anticipated to be an attractive immunization option for adults 18 through 64 years of age, an age group that has among the lowest rates of immunization. (biospace.com)
- There are influenza immunization options to meet the needs of everyone 6 months of age and older. (biospace.com)
- Using such viruses in a sequential immunization regimen can redirect the immune response towards conserved epitopes. (mdpi.com)
- Skin-based influenza vaccines have utilized approaches including tape stripping ( 32 ), epidermal powder immunization ( 4 ), and microneedles (MNs) ( 9 ). (asm.org)
- Immunization (getting a vaccine) against influenza is approved for infants 6 months of age and older, all children, and all adults (including 65 years of age and older). (adam.com)
- Immunization with inactivated vaccines has been the main technique used to prevent avian influenza for a long time. (biomedcentral.com)
- Immunization with DNA vaccines is also one of the strategies for preventing avian influenza. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that in the United States during April 12, 2009-April 10, 2010, there were 61 million clinical cases of influenza and that 274,000 persons were hospitalized and 12,500 died ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- however, in vaccine trials the vaccine has not been shown to be effective in flu prevention in this age group. (jrank.org)
- Each year, experts from Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO), U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other institutions study virus samples collected from around the world. (geosalud.com)
- Due to extended shipping time and earlier incidence of disease, the first doses of Fluzone vaccine were shipped to Alaska and Hawaii and to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for use in the Vaccines for Children program. (biospace.com)
- To submit sera from subjects to the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) for further analysis by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to support formulation recommendations for subsequent influenza vaccines. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The quadrivalent influenza vaccine licensed by the CDC is currently designed to protect against both co-circulating lineages and has been shown to have greater effectiveness in prevention of influenza caused by influenza B virus than the previous trivalent vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
- Previous work has shown that mice immunized with a small stem protein were protected against multiple influenza strains. (scientificamerican.com)
- The scientists administered the vaccine or placebo to mice and a booster vaccine two weeks later. (medicalxpress.com)
- Pasteurella multocida inactivated with ferric chloride and adjuvanted with bacterial DNA is a potent and efficacious vaccine in Balb/c mice. (bioportfolio.com)
- Here, we showed that the non-toxic CTA1-DD adjuvant, which combined the full enzymatic activity of the A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT) with two immunoglobulin-binding domains of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA), promoted mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following intranasal administration with H1N1 split vaccine in mice. (flutrackers.com)
- We used a whole virus vaccine produced at modern production facilities that was more immunogenic in immunological naïve mice than split virus vaccine. (uib.no)
- The thesis is based on the following papers, which are referred to in the text by Roman numerals: Paper I: Hovden, A.-O., Cox, R. J., Haaheim, L. R. (2005) Whole influenza virus vaccine is more immunogenic than split influenza virus vaccine and induces primarily an IgG2a response in BALB/c mice. (uib.no)
- The numbers of IFN-γ-producing memory T cells are significantly higher upon activation with influenza-specific peptides, and cells are longer lasting in infected than in vaccinated mice. (asm.org)
- Splenocytes collected from both infected and immunized groups of BALB/c mice at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after influenza virus exposure were stimulated with CD4 and CD8 peptide epitopes and assessed for induction of IFN-γ secretion with ELISPOT assays. (asm.org)
- The cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the spleen of immunized mice significantly lysed the virus-infected MDCK cells. (ovid.com)
- Mice were immunized with DNA vaccines encoding A/California/04/2009 (2009 CA) or A/South Carolina/1/1918 (1918 SC) as described ( 5 ), and the specificity of the resulting immune response was initially assessed with a previously described H1N1-pseudotyped lentiviral reporter assay ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Antisera from 2009 CA immune mice likewise neutralized both viruses with a high titer, in contrast to nonimmune sera or to antisera to a seasonal influenza virus, A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (1999 NC) ( Fig. 1A , 2009 versus control and 1999 NC, left and middle panels). (sciencemag.org)
- Analysis of postchallenge lung titers showed that MN-immunized mice had completely cleared the virus from their lungs, in contrast to mice given the same vaccine by a standard subcutaneous route. (asm.org)
- Furthermore, viruses containing NS1 modifications were found to induce more IFN-β activation than viruses with full-length NS1 proteins and were correspondingly attenuated in mice. (deepdyve.com)
- Although it replicated in the lungs of experimentally infected mice, it produced much lower virus titers than did the wild-type virus. (dvm360.com)
- The investigators inoculated mice with one dose of the modified virus (intranasally) or the commercially available inactivated canine H3N8 vaccine (intramuscularly) and then experimentally infected the mice with canine H3N8 influenza virus. (dvm360.com)
- The researchers found no virus replication in the lungs of mice inoculated with the NS1-truncated virus. (dvm360.com)
- Some novel bird flu viruses with pandemic potential are "highly pathogenic avian influenza" (HPAI) viruses, which means they are deadly to domestic poultry, including chickens. (cdc.gov)
- Highly pathogenic bird flu viruses cause severe illness and death in birds and destroy chicken eggs, and are therefore very difficult to grow in eggs. (cdc.gov)
- We established two Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines stably expressing human airway transmembrane protease: transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and mosaic serine protease large form (MSPL) which support multicycle growth of two H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) recombinant vaccines (Re-5 and Re-6) and an H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) recombinant vaccine (Re-9) in the absence of trypsin. (hindawi.com)
- HA proteins of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have multibasic cleavage sites (R-X-R/K-R) which can be cleaved by ubiquitously expressed furin or PC5/6 protease to cause fatal systemic infections [ 15 - 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
- At the International Poultry Scientific Forum 2012 in Atlanta, Dr Darrell Kapczynski reminded the audience about a recent outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N3 in Jalisco, Mexico, beginning in June 2012. (thepoultrysite.com)
- In the first set of experiments, four phylogenetically-related US low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) isolates - either H7N2 or H7N3 - were formulated into inactivated emulsion vaccines and injected into seven-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) birds. (thepoultrysite.com)
- The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. (flu.org.cn)
- reverse genetics, a patented technology, available to attenuate highly pathogenic viruses and reassort the attenuated HA and NA with backbone virus. (who.int)
- Provided it has an acceptable reactogenicity profile in man, whole virus vaccine may become the preferred human influenza vaccine formulation, both for the next pandemic and possibly also for the annual influenza outbreaks. (uib.no)
- On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro , the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (wikipedia.org)
Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus1
- You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot. (rxlist.com)
- This vaccine may cause a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. (mayoclinic.org)
- you have had a life-threatening allergic reaction to influenza vaccine or "flu shot. (wellspan.org)
- Do not receive this vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to a flu vaccine, if you are under 18 years old and have recently taken aspirin, or if you are allergic to eggs, arginine, or gelatin. (everydayhealth.com)
- You should not receive it if you had an allergic reaction to an influenza vaccine (flu shot). (limamemorial.org)
- Two qualities are required of a CVV: First, the CVV must be capable of stimulating a protective immune response against that wild type bird flu virus. (cdc.gov)
- This virus should stimulate the desired immune response and grow well in chicken eggs. (cdc.gov)
- The oligonucleotides coding for three epitopes (HA91-108, NP55-69, and NP 147-158) of influenza virus, stimulating B-cells, T-helper cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), respectively, were previously employed for expressing each epitope in flagella that induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses. (nih.gov)
- Our results indicate that a single construct expressing multiple epitopes, which stimulate different arms of the immune system, might be an appropriate candidate when the synthetic recombinant vaccine approach is considered. (nih.gov)
- Thus, the influenza virus that the body's immune system responds to one season may be different from the virus that infects the body some months later. (jrank.org)
- But Antonio Lanzavecchia, an immunologist at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Bellinzona, Switzerland, and an author on the new study, says that observing the human immune response to influenza convinced him that it would be possible to design a vaccine that prevails over mutation. (scientificamerican.com)
- Before you receive H1N1 influenza virus nasal vaccine, tell your doctor if you have asthma, a weak immune system, or a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome or neurologic disorder affecting the brain (especially if these were caused by a vaccine). (everydayhealth.com)
- Adults 65 years of age and older are at greater risk for influenza and its complications because the immune system weakens with age. (biospace.com)
- SIV challenge of macaques vaccinated with an influenza virus expressing a single SIV CD8 T cell resulted in a large anamnestic recall CD8 T-cell response, but immune escape rapidly ensued and there was no impact on chronic SIV viremia. (asm.org)
- Thus, to better understand immune protection mechanisms by M2 vaccines, we generated 4 mAbs. (jimmunol.org)
- Split virus vaccine induced a low IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and a cytokine profile associated by a Thelper 2 response, which is characterised by a humoral immune response. (uib.no)
- Whole virus vaccine on the other hand, resulted in a T-helper 1 response as demonstrated by a predominance of the IgG2a subclass and type 1 cytokines, indicative of a more cell-mediated immune response. (uib.no)
- The research in this study provides insights into how we can generate broadly protective immune responses against influenza viruses," Dr. Krammer said. (brightsurf.com)
- The genes from flu viruses produce proteins called HA and NA, which are on the surface of the virus, in full 'view' of the immune system. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The vaccine looks deadly enough for its HA and NA proteins to alert the immune system. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The influenza vaccine is designed to generate an immune response against the protein, Haemagglutinin, which is specific to the influenza virus. (malaghan.org.nz)
- The researchers said the unexpected similarity would have allowed the immune systems of those exposed to the 20th century virus to mount a defense against the 21st century one. (blogspot.com)
- Companies pursuing the vaccine as of 2009 and 2010 include BiondVax, Theraclone, Dynavax Technologies Corporation, VaxInnate, Crucell NV, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Immune Targeting Systems (ITS) and iQur. (wikipedia.org)
- The virus can spread from this reservoir to humans. (jrank.org)
- Since the early 1980s, the seasonal flu vaccine has been trivalent (a three-component vaccine) with each component selected to protect against one of the three main groups of influenza viruses circulating in humans. (geosalud.com)
- He says there is a real chance a vaccine based on the haemagglutinin stem could work in humans. (scientificamerican.com)
- Influenza viruses cause severe diseases and mortality in humans on an annual basis. (mdpi.com)
- It is the only WHO laboratory that focuses on the transmission of animal viruses to humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has spread widely after its adaptation to humans. (sciencemag.org)
- The similarity between the two pandemic viruses is unusual, not only because they are separated by so many years, but also because genetic evidence has shown that the 2009 pandemic virus was not brand-new, but had already been circulating in humans-two circumstances that would have been expected to cause the viruses to diversify as they adapted. (blogspot.com)
- Avian and swine influenza occasionally infect humans, but such cases rarely result in human-to-human transmission. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
- Influenza B viruses are only known to infect humans and seals, giving them influenza. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, because the cumbersome classical reassortment technique used for preparing the appropriate seed strains makes the yearly process of manufacturing influenza virus vaccines unnecessarily lengthy, new variants first appearing early in the season are rarely considered for the vaccine formulation of the following winter. (cdc.gov)
- Our strategy represents a significant advance in subunit vaccine formulation, and has the potential to expand the development of other subunit vaccines that currently lack single dose potency. (omicsonline.org)
- We found that the vaccine formulation also influences which T-helper response elicited. (uib.no)
- In adult and elderly participants, the full-dose aH5N1c vaccine formulation was well tolerated and met US and European licensure criteria for pandemic vaccines. (flutrackers.com)
- Some H5 and H7 strains of avian influenza (also called avian flu or bird flu) are especially virulent and can result in financially devastating losses in the poultry industry. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Experts have identified key events (creating new clades , infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (wikipedia.org)
- This study is to identify the preferred vaccine dosage (of antigen and adjuvant) and schedule (one or two administrations) of the cell-derived H1N1sw monovalent vaccine in healthy adults b. (bioportfolio.com)
- Our group has used conjugation of HA protein to plant-derived Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) as a novel method of antigen delivery that profoundly improves subunit vaccine potency. (omicsonline.org)
- Influenza antigen preparation varies between manufacturers. (europa.eu)
- Microneedles (MNs) can deliver vaccine to the epidermis and dermis, which are rich in antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. (asm.org)
- MF59 adjuvant reduces the antigen required per dose, allowing for dose sparing and more rapid vaccine availability. (flutrackers.com)
- Reference antigen and sheep antisera are developed by ERLs in collaboration with vaccine manufacturers, standardized by ERLs, and made available to manufacturers worldwide on request. (who.int)
- The virus appeared in birds in Hong Kong late last year and subsequently killed one of two infected people with rapidly progressive pneumonia in the past month. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- It's likely there were two things that prevented the 1997 poultry influenza outbreak in Hong Kong from becoming more deadly -- its inability to spread from human-to-human and the slaughter of more than 1.5 million chickens and other birds in the open-air markets of Hong Kong, which eliminated the source of the virus,' Webster said. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
Composition of the influenza1
- Influenza virus vaccine is also available in a nasal spray form, which is a "live virus" vaccine. (rexhealth.com)
- The nasal spray form of influenza vaccine is not recommended for use in pregnant women. (rexhealth.com)
- The cold-adapted live attenuated influenza virus vaccines for nasal administration are nearing availability. (nih.gov)
- The nasal H1N1 influenza virus vaccine is a "live virus" vaccine. (everydayhealth.com)
- H1N1 influenza virus nasal vaccine is for use in people between the ages of 2 years and 49 years. (everydayhealth.com)
- Vesicular stomatitis virus vectors that replicate in the nasal mucosa show promise in SIV-macaque trials but are potentially neurotoxic ( 55 ). (asm.org)
- Canine influenza is highly contagious among dogs, causing illness ranging from a mild cough and nasal discharge to severe pneumonia. (dvm360.com)
- Influenza virus vaccine is for use in adults and children who are at least 6 months old. (rexhealth.com)
- [ 6 ] In December 2012, the FDA approved an intramuscular quadrivalent influenza vaccine (Fluarix Quadrivalent) for use in adults and children aged 3 years or older. (medscape.com)
- Influenza epidemics occur annually in the United States and are characterized by high frequencies of illness among children and young adults, high hospitalization rates among infants and older persons, and high death rates among the elderly. (nih.gov)
- CRV also provide an alternative to inactivated vaccines among young adults, in whom they can be equally protective. (nih.gov)
- Since 2007, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has been provided free-of-charge to older adults aged ≥60 years in Beijing, China, but the data regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) am. (bioportfolio.com)
- Seasonal influenza immunisation: Strategies for older adults. (bioportfolio.com)
- Adults over the age of 60-65 years suffer disproportionally from seasonal influenza, experiencing high rates of complications, exacerbation of underlying medical comorbidities, and excess mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
- There are three influenza immunisation strategies used in Europe: to protect the vulnerable, to protect healthy children, adolescents and adults and to reduce overall influenza transmission. (europa.eu)
- Influenza vaccines are available with a wide range of options for different age groups i.e. children aged 6 months and above and adults aged 65 and above. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
- TIV is efficacious against culture-confirmed influenza in healthy adults. (ebscohost.com)
- It is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in adults who have been symptomatic for no more than 2 days. (medscape.com)
- It is indicated as a single, oral, weight-based dose for treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza in adults and adolescents aged 12 years or older who have been symptomatic for less than 48 hours. (medscape.com)
Seasonal influenza virus2
- In addition, the current seasonal influenza virus vaccines do not protect from avian influenza viruses of human pandemic potential. (mdpi.com)
- Also, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) provides reimbursement covering 100% of the costs of one seasonal influenza virus vaccinations per influenza season, and it also covers additional seasonal influenza virus vaccinations. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
- A) Schematic of the linear structure of the full-length influenza virus HA protein (top) and a generalized headless HA protein (bottom). (nih.gov)
- The protein spikes function to help the virus invade host cells. (jrank.org)
- Because of the high level expression of M2 protein on the cell surface of flu virus infected cells and minimal neutralizing activities of M2 Abs in vitro, Ab-mediated cytotoxicity by NK cells has been implicated as a protection mechanism by M2 peptide vaccines. (jimmunol.org)
- TTSPs are expressed in the airways and can cleave multiple strains of influenza HA protein. (hindawi.com)
- 5. The recombinant influenza virus of claim 1, wherein the chimeric HA fusion protein further comprises a signal peptide at the N-terminus or in the middle HA head domain of HA protein. (patents.com)
- Many HA protein vaccines have been successfully tested as candidate vaccine alternatives to attenuated or killed virus made in eggs. (omicsonline.org)
- What protein of the influenza virus is the NZ influenza vaccine (influvac) targeted against? (malaghan.org.nz)
- The NZ influenza vaccine contains haemagglutinin protein from the 3 most common strains of influenza that flu season. (malaghan.org.nz)
- The authors of the study published in Virology used reverse genetics to truncate or delete the NS1 protein of the canine H3N8 virus. (dvm360.com)
- NS1 counteracts the host interferon response, and live attenuated vaccines against other influenza virus strains have been created by modifying this protein. (dvm360.com)
- According to the authors, this is the first report of a live attenuated canine H3N8 virus generated by targeting the NS1 protein. (dvm360.com)
- The Influenza B virus capsid is enveloped while its virion consists of an envelope, a matrix protein, a nucleoprotein complex, a nucleocapsid, and a polymerase complex. (wikipedia.org)
- In 2008, Acambis announced work on a universal flu vaccine (ACAM-FLU-ATM) based on the less variable M2 protein component of the flu virus shell. (wikipedia.org)
- BiondVax identified 9 conserved epitopes of the influenza virus and combined them into a recombinant protein called Multimeric-001 (M-001). (wikipedia.org)
- Other technologic breakthroughs should result in effective adjuvants for use with killed and live vaccines, increasing the number of available doses. (cdc.gov)
- Be sure to receive all recommended doses of this vaccine or you may not be fully protected against disease. (wellspan.org)
- This initial shipment represents the first of more than 60 million doses of seasonal influenza vaccine the company plans to deliver to health care providers in the U.S. this influenza season. (biospace.com)
- Two hundred eighty-eight children were assigned to receive one dose of vaccine or placebo given by intranasal spray, and 1314 were assigned to receive two doses approximately 60 days apart. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This year more vaccines that ever before were commissioned, for a total number of 1.7 million doses. (yle.fi)
- You will not be given vaccine doses to store at home. (rrmc.org)
Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine1
- The injectable influenza virus vaccine (flu shot) is a "killed virus" vaccine. (rexhealth.com)
- This medication guide addresses only the injectable form of this vaccine. (rexhealth.com)
- What are the possible side effects of influenza virus injectable vaccine? (rxlist.com)
- Influenza virus injectable (killed virus) vaccine will not cause you to become ill with the flu virus that it contains. (rxlist.com)
- Syncope (fainting) can occur in association with administration of injectable vaccines, including FLULAVAL QUADRIVALENT. (nih.gov)
- H1N1 influenza virus vaccine is also available in an injectable form, which is a "killed virus" vaccine. (everydayhealth.com)
- For the purpose of this study, we considered clinical cases as influenza-like illness in persons who did or did not seek medical care ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- The seasonal influenza (flu) vaccine is designed to protect against the three or four influenza viruses that research indicates are most likely to spread and cause illness among people during the upcoming flu season. (cdc.gov)
- Use among children should moderate the high frequencies of illness and hospitalization in this group and reduce spread of influenza in the community. (nih.gov)
- In addition, HPAI viruses cause severe illness and death in animal models of human disease. (cdc.gov)
- Scientists at CDC use "reverse genetics" to create an attenuated (i.e., weakened or milder) form of the bird flu virus that will not cause severe illness in birds (so as to not pose a threat to agricultural interests) and that also will grow well in chicken eggs (so that vaccine manufacturers can use it to produce vaccine). (cdc.gov)
- Influenza is a common illness. (jrank.org)
- Vaccine viruses are chosen to maximize the likelihood that the influenza vaccine will protect against the viruses most likely to spread and cause illness among people during the upcoming flu season. (geosalud.com)
- This is an observational study of safety and occurrence of influenza-like illness following administration of flu cell culture derived adjuvanted swine origin A (H1N1) pandemic subunit vac. (bioportfolio.com)
- Everyone over 65 or under 3 years of age, pregnant or suffering from a long-term illness is entitled to a free flu vaccine to help protect against contagion. (yle.fi)
- The virus can cause mild to severe illness, resulting in serious outcomes such as hospitalization or death. (coherentmarketinsights.com)
- The recent emergence of severe human illness caused by avian-origin influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China has precipitated a global effort to rapidly develop and test vaccine candidates. (elsevier.com)
- This medicine is a vaccine made with proteins that cannot cause the flu. (drugs.com)
- The chimeric proteins harboring up to five copies of M2e formed nanosized virus-like particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, which could be purified easily by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. (dovepress.com)
- Animals seroconverted to influenza virus and generated CD8 and CD4 T-cell responses to influenza virus proteins. (asm.org)
- The amounts of HA and other ingredients per dose of vaccine are listed in Table 2. (rxlist.com)
- Before administering a dose of vaccine, shake the prefilled syringe. (rxlist.com)
- A 0.25 mL dose contains 7.5 mcg HA of each of the same three influenza strains. (rxlist.com)
- By taking advantage of these new technologies, we could develop live vaccines that would be safe, cross-protective against variant strains, and require less virus per dose than conventional vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- However, most require two dose vaccine administration for full protection in influenza challenge studies. (omicsonline.org)
- Influenza virus Measles virus GENETICALLY ENGINEERED virus, administered at high dose, the virus set about destroying the cancer cells, leading to complete remission and no tumors for 9 months. (vaccineliberationarmy.com)
- Although highly effective in the general population when well matched to circulating influenza virus strains, current influenza vaccines are limited in their utility due to the narrow breadth of protection they provide. (nih.gov)
- The current influenza virus vaccines can confer protection when they are well-matched with the circulating strains. (mdpi.com)