An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of H5N1 influenza A virus isolates from humans in Hong Kong. (1/1550)

An H5N1 avian influenza A virus was transmitted to humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and PC6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. The clinical outcomes of infection in Hong Kong residents ranged widely, from mild respiratory disease to multiple organ failure leading to death. Therefore, to understand the pathogenesis of influenza due to these H5N1 isolates, we investigated their virulence in mice. The results identified two distinct groups of viruses: group 1, for which the dose lethal for 50% of mice (MLD50) was between 0.3 and 11 PFU, and group 2, for which the MLD50 was more than 10(3) PFU. One day after intranasal inoculation of mice with 100 PFU of group 1 viruses, the virus titer in lungs was 10(7) PFU/g or 3 log units higher than that for group 2 viruses. Both types of viruses had replicated to high titers (>10(6) PFU/g) in the lungs by day 3 and maintained these titers through day 6. More importantly, only the group 1 viruses caused systemic infection, replicating in nonrespiratory organs, including the brain. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the replication of a group 1 virus in brain neurons and glial cells and in cardiac myofibers. Phylogenetic analysis of all viral genes showed that both groups of Hong Kong H5N1 viruses had formed a lineage distinct from those of other viruses and that genetic reassortment between H5N1 and H1 or H3 human viruses had not occurred. Since mice and humans harbor both the furin and the PC6 proteases, we suggest that the virulence mechanism responsible for the lethality of influenza viruses in birds also operates in mammalian hosts. The failure of some H5N1 viruses to produce systemic infection in our model indicates that multiple, still-to-be-identified, factors contribute to the severity of H5N1 infection in mammals. In addition, the ability of these viruses to produce systemic infection in mice and the clear differences in pathogenicity among the isolates studied here indicate that this system provides a useful model for studying the pathogenesis of avian influenza virus infection in mammals.  (+info)

Rapid evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in chickens in Hong Kong. (2/1550)

The H5N1 avian influenza virus that killed 6 of 18 persons infected in Hong Kong in 1997 was transmitted directly from poultry to humans. Viral isolates from this outbreak may provide molecular clues to zoonotic transfer. Here we demonstrate that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that were in very rapid evolution. When introduced into new hosts, influenza viruses usually undergo rapid alteration of their surface glycoproteins, especially in the hemagglutinin (HA). Surprisingly, these H5N1 isolates had a large proportion of amino acid changes in all gene products except in the HA. These viruses maybe reassortants each of whose HA gene is well adapted to domestic poultry while the rest of the genome arises from a different source. The consensus amino acid sequences of "internal" virion proteins reveal amino acids previously found in human strains. These human-specific amino acids may be important factors in zoonotic transmission.  (+info)

Detection of antibody to avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in human serum by using a combination of serologic assays. (3/1550)

From May to December 1997, 18 cases of mild to severe respiratory illness caused by avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses were identified in Hong Kong. The emergence of an avian virus in the human population prompted an epidemiological investigation to determine the extent of human-to-human transmission of the virus and risk factors associated with infection. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay, the standard method for serologic detection of influenza virus infection in humans, has been shown to be less sensitive for the detection of antibodies induced by avian influenza viruses. Therefore, we developed a more sensitive microneutralization assay to detect antibodies to avian influenza in humans. Direct comparison of an HI assay and the microneutralization assay demonstrated that the latter was substantially more sensitive in detecting human antibodies to H5N1 virus in infected individuals. An H5-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was also established to test children's sera. The sensitivity and specificity of the microneutralization assay were compared with those of an H5-specific indirect ELISA. When combined with a confirmatory H5-specific Western blot test, the specificities of both assays were improved. Maximum sensitivity (80%) and specificity (96%) for the detection of anti-H5 antibody in adults aged 18 to 59 years were achieved by using the microneutralization assay combined with Western blotting. Maximum sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) in detecting anti-H5 antibody in sera obtained from children less than 15 years of age were achieved by using ELISA combined with Western blotting. This new test algorithm is being used for the seroepidemiologic investigations of the avian H5N1 influenza outbreak.  (+info)

Recombinant influenza A virus vaccines for the pathogenic human A/Hong Kong/97 (H5N1) viruses. (4/1550)

Recombinant reassortment technology was used to prepare H5N1 influenza vaccine strains containing a modified hemagglutinin (HA) gene and neuraminidase gene from the A/Hong Kong/156/97 and A/Hong Kong/483/97 isolates and the internal genes from the attenuated cold-adapted A/Ann Arbor/6/60 influenza virus strain. The HA cleavage site (HA1/HA2) of each H5N1 isolate was modified to resemble that of "low-pathogenic" avian strains. Five of 6 basic amino acids at the cleavage site were deleted, and a threonine was added upstream of the remaining arginine. The H5 HA cleavage site modification resulted in the expected trypsin-dependent phenotype without altering the antigenic character of the H5 HA molecule. The temperature-sensitive and cold-adapted phenotype of the attenuated parent virus was maintained in the recombinant strains, and they grew to 108.5-9.4 EID50/mL in eggs. Both H5N1 vaccine virus strains were safe and immunogenic in ferrets and protected chickens against wild-type H5N1 virus challenge.  (+info)

A mouse model for the evaluation of pathogenesis and immunity to influenza A (H5N1) viruses isolated from humans. (5/1550)

During 1997 in Hong Kong, 18 human cases of respiratory illness, including 6 fatalities, were caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Since H5 viruses had previously been isolated only from avian species, the outbreak raised questions about the ability of these viruses to cause severe disease and death in humans. To better understand the pathogenesis and immunity to these viruses, we have used the BALB/c mouse model. Four H5N1 viruses replicated equally well in the lungs of mice without prior adaptation but differed in lethality for mice. H5N1 viruses that were highly lethal for mice were detected in multiple organs, including the brain. This is the first demonstration of an influenza A virus that replicates systemically in a mammalian species and is neurotropic without prior adaptation. The mouse model was also used to evaluate a strategy of vaccination against the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, using an inactivated vaccine prepared from nonpathogenic A/Duck/Singapore-Q/F119-3/97 (H5N3) virus that was antigenically related to the human H5N1 viruses. Mice administered vaccine intramuscularly, with or without alum, were completely protected from lethal challenge with H5N1 virus. Protection from infection was also observed in 70% of animals administered vaccine alone and 100% of mice administered vaccine with alum. The protective effect of vaccination correlated with the level of virus-specific serum antibody. These results suggests a strategy of vaccine preparedness for rapid intervention in future influenza pandemics that uses antigenically related nonpathogenic viruses as vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Case-control study of risk factors for avian influenza A (H5N1) disease, Hong Kong, 1997. (6/1550)

In May 1997, a 3-year-old boy in Hong Kong died of a respiratory illness related to influenza A (H5N1) virus infection, the first known human case of disease from this virus. An additional 17 cases followed in November and December. A case-control study of 15 of these patients hospitalized for influenza A (H5N1) disease was conducted using controls matched by age, sex, and neighborhood to determine risk factors for disease. Exposure to live poultry (by visiting either a retail poultry stall or a market selling live poultry) in the week before illness began was significantly associated with H5N1 disease (64% of cases vs. 29% of controls, odds ratio, 4.5, P=.045). By contrast, travel, eating or preparing poultry products, recent exposure to persons with respiratory illness, including persons with known influenza A (H5N1) infection, were not associated with H5N1 disease.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of H9N2 influenza viruses: were they the donors of the "internal" genes of H5N1 viruses in Hong Kong? (7/1550)

The origin of the H5N1 influenza viruses that killed six of eighteen infected humans in 1997 and were highly pathogenic in chickens has not been resolved. These H5N1 viruses transmitted directly to humans from infected poultry. In the poultry markets in Hong Kong, both H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses were cocirculating, raising the possibility of genetic reassortment. Here we analyze the antigenic and genetic features of H9N2 influenza viruses with different epidemiological backgrounds. The results suggest that the H9N2 influenza viruses of domestic ducks have become established in the domestic poultry of Asia. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H9N2 viruses isolated from Hong Kong markets suggest three distinct sublineages. Among the chicken H9N2 viruses, six of the gene segments were apparently derived from an earlier chicken H9N2 virus isolated in China, whereas the PB1 and PB2 genes are closely related to those of the H5N1 viruses and a quail H9N2 virus-A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (Qa/HK/G1/97)-suggesting that many of the 1997 chicken H9 isolates in the markets were reassortants. The similarity of the internal genes of Qa/HK/G1/97 virus to those of the H5N1 influenza viruses suggests that the quail virus may have been the internal gene donor. Our findings indicate that the human and poultry H5N1 influenza viruses in Hong Kong in 1997 were reassortants that obtained internal gene segments from Qa/HK/G1/97. However, we cannot be certain whether the replicate complex of H5N1 originated from Qa/HK/G1/97 or whether the reverse transfer occurred; the available evidence supports the former proposal.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of the pathogenic influenza A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus: similarity of its hemagglutinin gene to those of H5N1 viruses from the 1997 outbreaks in Hong Kong. (8/1550)

Analysis of the sequences of all eight RNA segments of the influenza A/G oose/Guangdong/1/96 (H5N1) virus, isolated from a sick goose during an outbreak in Guangdong province, China, in 1996, revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus was genetically similar to those of the H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong in 1997. However, the remaining genes showed greater similarity to other avian influenza viruses. Notably, the neuraminidase gene did no have the 19-amino-acid deletion in the stalk region seen in the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses and the NS gene belonged to allele B, while that of the H5N1 Hong Kong viruses belonged to allele A. These data suggest that the H5N1 viruses isolated from the Hong Kong outbreaks derived their HA genes from a virus similar to the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 virus or shared a progenitor with this goose pathogen.  (+info)

Fluhunter: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1(Determination of virulence potential;PCR-typing of the pathogenicity) , FR304 real time PCR kit for detection in different samples: nasal swabs, plasma, serum, stool, nasopharnygeal swabs, respiratory tract samples.
Cause of high lethality and dissemination to human being, new development of rapid method for the detection of highly pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) is still necessary. For the detection of AIV subtype H5N1, typical pathogenic AIV, new method to confirm sub-typing of this virus is also needed. For the purpose of ultra-rapid detection and sub-typing of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of AIV, this study was planned. As the results we could demonstrate an ultra-rapid multiplex real-time PCR (URMRT PCR) for the detection of AIV In this study, the URMRT PCR were optimized with synthesized AIV H5- and AIV Nl-specific DNA templates and GenSpector TMC, which is a semiconductor process technology based real-time PCR system with high frequencies of temperature monitoring. Under eight minutes, the amplifications of two AIV subtype-specific PCR products were successfully and independently detected by 30 cycled ultra-rapid PCR, including melting point analysis, from |TEX|$1{\times}10^3$|/TEX| copies of
We performed a retrospective case-series study of patients with influenza A (H5N1) admitted to the National Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam, from January 2004 through July 2005 with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection, a history of high-risk exposure or chest radiographic findings such as pneumonia, and positive findings for A/H5 viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. We investigated data from 29 patients (mean age 35.1 years) of whom 7 (24.1%) had died. Mortality rates were 20% (5/25) and 50% (2/4) among patients treated with or without oseltamivir (p = 0.24), respectively, and were 33.3% (5/15) and 14.2% (2/14) among patients treated with and without methylprednisolone (p = 0.39), respectively. After exact logistic regression analysis was adjusted for variation in severity, no significant effectiveness for survival was observed among patients treated with oseltamivir or methylprednisolone ...
Polybasic cleavage sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are considered to be the most important determinants indicating virulence of the avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, evidence is accumulating that these sites alone are not sufficient to establish high pathogenicity. There need to exist other sites located on the HA protein outside the cleavage site or on the other proteins expressed by AIV that contribute to the pathogenicity. We employed rule-based computational modeling to construct a map, with high statistical significance, of amino acid (AA) residues associated to pathogenicity in 11 proteins of the H5 type viruses. We found potential markers of pathogenicity in all of the 11 proteins expressed by the H5 type of AIV. AA mutations S-43HA1-D, D-83HA1-A in HA; S-269-D, E-41-H in NA; S-48-N, K-212-N in NS1; V-166-A in M1; G-14-E in M2; K-77-R, S-377-N in NP; and Q-48-P in PB1-F2 were identified as having a potential to shift the pathogenicity from low to high. Our results suggest that the
A multidisciplinary research team, including scholars from the Institute of Medical Virology at Justus Liebig University Giessen, has recently developed a tool, which is suitable to identify candidate pandemic influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts.. On the basis of a combined application of a computational technique (ISM) and experimental molecular virological methods, the research team from Germany and Serbia was able to develop and validate a new tool to predict possible biological effects resulting from naturally occurring mutations as they are found for example in H5N1 viruses in Egypt. Thus, the ISM technique can help to identify those influenza viruses circulating in animal hosts that could efficiently transmit to humans and therewith possess a possible pandemic potential.. The research team involves the Institute of Medical Virology (JLU), the Georg-Speyer-Haus - Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy (Frankfurt am Main), the Robert-Koch-Institute, Division for HIV ...
In December, the United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed the presence of highly pathogenic (HPAI) H5 avian influenza in Whatcom County, Washington, in Winston, Oregon and in Butte County, California. This week, as a result of increased surveillance in the Pacific flyway, USDA has confirmed the presence of HPAI in a backyard flock in Benton County, Washington. On December 30, a backyard flock in Benton County, Washington, was reported to the State as experiencing high mortality in approximately 100 turkeys and some chickens. The flock was kept outdoors. Samples tested positive for H5 on a PCR test at the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, a NAHLN laboratory, on December 31; samples were sent January 2 to NVSL for confirmatory testing. On January 3, the National Veterinary Services Laboratories identified an avian influenza virus subtype H5N2, with 99% similarity to the recent H5N2 isolated from the duck at Wiser Lake, ...
Aartjan te Velthuis Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford.Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews.The Influenza A virus is an infectious agent that usually causes a mild respiratory disease and induces innate immune responses through the activation of RNA sensor RIG-I. However, infections with highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the H5N1 subtypes or the 1918 H1N1 virus, can lead to an innate immune dysregulation and severe disease. The genome of the virus is replicated and transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the context of viral RNA-nucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that consists of a central core composed of the viral proteins PB1, PB2 and PA, and at least three auxiliary domains involved in viral transcription. Various mutations in the RNA polymerase have been linked to host adaptation and viral virulence, but it is presently unclear what
Aartjan te Velthuis Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford.Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge.Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews.The Influenza A virus is an infectious agent that usually causes a mild respiratory disease and induces innate immune responses through the activation of RNA sensor RIG-I. However, infections with highly pathogenic influenza viruses such as the H5N1 subtypes or the 1918 H1N1 virus, can lead to an innate immune dysregulation and severe disease. The genome of the virus is replicated and transcribed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in the context of viral RNA-nucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. The RNA polymerase is a complex enzyme that consists of a central core composed of the viral proteins PB1, PB2 and PA, and at least three auxiliary domains involved in viral transcription. Various mutations in the RNA polymerase have been linked to host adaptation and viral virulence, but it is presently unclear what
Recent advances in sequencing technology and computing power mean that we are in an unprecedented position to analyse large viral sequence datasets using state-of-the-art methods, with the aim of better understanding pathogen evolution and epidemiology. This thesis concerns the evolutionary analysis of rapidly evolving RNA viruses, with a focus on avian influenza and the use of Bayesian methodologies which account for uncertainty in the evolutionary process. As avian influenza viruses present an epidemiological and economic threat on a global scale, knowledge of how they are circulating and evolving is of substantial public health importance. In the first part of this thesis I consider avian influenza viruses of haemagglutinin (HA) subtype H7 which, along with H5, is the only subtype for which highly pathogenic influenza has been found. I conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of available H7 HA sequences to reveal global evolutionary relationships, which can help to target influenza ...
Information received on 19/01/2021 from Dr Loic Evain, Directeur Général adjoint, CVO, Direction générale de l´alimentation, Ministère de l´Agriculture et de l´Alimentation, Paris, France ...
Influenza A virus is a collective name for a large number of different viruses that can infect birds and mammals. Humans are susceptible to a small subset of influenza A viruses; seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses cause yearly epidemics and are associated with mild disease in healthy adults, while highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, like H5N1, induce severe disease and mortality in 60% of the reported cases. Pathogenesis or the ability to cause severe disease is the result of a complex interplay between the virus and the infected host. We are interested in understanding the mechanisms and determinants involved in pathogenesis. One program in the laboratory focuses on the role of viral proteins in mediating severe disease. Reverse genetics technology is used to create chimera influenza A viruses containing gene segments of two parent viruses with low and high pathogenic potential. In vitro and in vivo characterization of these novel chimera viruses will identify the influenza genes responsible for ...
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Non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein and a crucial regulatory factor in the replication and pathogenesis of avian influenza virus (AIV). Studies have shown that NS1 can interact with a variety of host proteins to modulate the viral life cycle. We previously generated a monoclonal antibody against NS1 protein; In the current research study, using this antibody, we immunoprecipitated host proteins that interact with NS1 to better understand the roles played by NS1 in communications between virus and host. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified annexin A2 (ANXA2) as a target molecule interacting with NS1. Results from confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that NS1 co-localized with ANXA2 in the cell cytoplasm. Overexpression of ANXA2 significantly increased the titer of H5N1 subtype HPAIV, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ANXA2 markedly inhibited the expression of viral proteins and reduced the progeny virus titer. Our results indicate that ANXA2 interacts with NS1
Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis ...
One of United States top virologists has warned the health authorities to prepare themselves for a possible mutation of the H7N9 bird flu virus.
Humans infected with bird flu appear to have more of the virus in their throat and nose than people with standard human influenza strains a conference is due to hear today
Scientists in the Dutch city of Rotterdam know precisely what it takes for a bird flu to mutate into a potential human pandemic strain - because theyve created just such mutant viruses.
Dutch scientists who created probably one of the most dangerous viruses you can make have agreed to leave out details on how to construct the virus from published reports.
This page shows the record Loud And Nasty from the label Hardcore Intuitive Virus with its producers a description and mp3 including its country of origin. Listen to the record.
On April 21, 2008, four whooper swans were found dead at Lake Towada, Akita prefecture, Japan. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype was isolated from specimens of the affected birds. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of the isolate belongs to clade 2.3.2 in the HA phylogenetic tree ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, ... read more some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade group A from 2014 into four key waterbird species-Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope), common teal (Anas crecca), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and common pochard (Aythya ferina)-and compared virus excretion and disease severity with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Our results showed that excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was ...
Objective To discuss the imaging features of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2.Methods A descriptive study was carried out on a case of pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2 in Meizhou,Guangdong Province,on June 18,2016.Results The patient was a child with cough,and white phlegm was detected followed by yellow sticky sputum,accompanying with fever.Imaging features included exudative patchy ground glass opacity,and pulmonary fibrosis was visible during the recovery period.The patient was discharged from hospital after antiviral and symptomatic treatments.Conclusion For pneumonia caused by human-infected avian influenza virus H9N2,except for the symptoms of influenza,exudative focus was present in bilateral lung CT images.Clinicians should consider the possibility of viral infection in children who had contact history with poultry and got fever and pulmonary infection.Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are important to improve the prognosis.
In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. To clarify the role of wild birds, we tested 3,139 waterfowl fecal samples and 104 sick and dead birds during March 9-June 4, 2015. HPAIV was isolated from a Coopers hawk but not from waterfowl....
Free Online Library: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses.(RESEARCH) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Avian influenza Development and progression Encephalitis
Subclinical infection of vaccinated chickens with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N2) virus was identified through routine surveillance in China. Investigation suggested that the virus has evolved into multiple genotypes. To better control transmission of the virus, we recommend a strengthened program of education, biosecurity, rapid diagnostics, surveillance, and elimination of infected poultry.
NIAID CEIRS , Research Publication Commentary Smith, J. et al. A comparative analysis of host responses to avian influenza infection in ducks and chickens highlights a role for the interferon-induced transmembrane proteins in viral resistance. BMC Genomics (2015).. The recent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 outbreak continues to have significant economic impacts on the international and domestic poultry industries and presents a potential public health concern. Avian influenza infects numerous avian hosts, including chickens and ducks. Reducing the spread of avian influenza requires an understanding of how the virus interacts with its avian hosts. However, it remains unclear why some species are more susceptible than others to certain strains of influenza. For instance, although ducks are infected they show minimal signs of disease to most HPAI viruses, while chickens are highly susceptible and quickly succumb to HPAI infections. Determining which genes are activated in chickens and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Limited detection of antibodies to clade a/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage highly pathogenic h5 avian influenza virus in North American waterfowl. AU - Stallknecht, David E.. AU - Kienzle-Dean, Clara. AU - Davis-Fields, Nick. AU - Jennelle, Christopher S.. AU - Bowman, Andrew S.. AU - Nolting, Jacqueline M.. AU - Boyce, Walter M.. AU - Crum, James M.. AU - Santos, Jefferson J.S.. AU - Brown, Justin D.. AU - Prosser, Diann J.. AU - De La Cruz, Susan E.W.. AU - Ackerman, Joshua T.. AU - Casazza, Michael L.. AU - Krauss, Scott. AU - Perez, Daniel R.. AU - Ramey, Andrew M.. AU - Poulson, Rebecca L.. PY - 2020/1. Y1 - 2020/1. N2 - During 2014, highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) of the A/Goose/ Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGD-HP-H5), originating from Asia, were detected in domestic poultry and wild birds in Canada and the US. These clade GsGD-HP-H5 viruses included reassortants possessing North American lineage gene segments; were detected in wild birds in ...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Mexico Information received on 09/04/2015 from Dr Joaqu n Braulio Delgadillo lvarez, Director General de Salud Animal, Servicio
Highly pathogenic avian influenza, Austria Information received on 06/04/2017 from Mr Dr Ulrich Herzog, Chief Veterinary Officer, Verbrauchergesundheit,
Since December 2003, infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5 type) in poultry and humans has been identified in many countries, especially those in Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa, and has taken more than 100 human lives. Research into the avian influenza viruses has attracted a great deal of attention from around the world. The Tottori University research team, led by Professor Kouichi Otsuki of the Faculty of Agriculture, is one of the pioneers in research into avian influenza viruses in Japan ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of antibody response of turkeys to trivalent avian influenza vaccine by positively charged liposomal avridine adjuvant. AU - Fatunmbi, Olufemi O.. AU - Newman, John A.. AU - Sivanandan, V.. AU - Halvorson, David A. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Trivalent avian influenza (AIV) antigens (H4N8, H5N2 and H7N3), mixed with positively charged, negatively charged and neutral avridine-containing liposomes, and oil-emulsion were subcutaneously administered to 6-week-old turkeys. Charged liposomal avridine adjuvant, either positive or negative, produced a better antibody response than uncharged liposomal avridine or oil-emulsion adjuvants when used in a trivalent avian influenza vaccine. The antibody response to the different antigens was generally greater to the positively charged adjuvanted vaccine compared with the negatively or neutral charged or oil-emulsion adjuvanted vaccines and these differences were significant (p , 0.05) with the three antigens. The results suggest that ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
USDA has existing contracts in place with many vendors, but is seeking additional support due to the size and scope of the HPAI disease response.. Since December 2014, USDA has confirmed several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 in the Pacific, Central, and Mississippi flyways (or migratory bird paths). The disease has been found in wild birds, as well as in a few backyard and commercial poultry flocks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considers the risk to people from these HPAI H5 infections to be low. No human cases of these HPAI H5 viruses have been detected in the United States, Canada, or internationally.. Avian influenza is a viral disease that can infect wild birds (such as ducks, gulls, and shorebirds) and domestic poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese). There is a flu for birds just as there is for people-and, as with people, some forms of the flu are worse than others. HPAI can spread fast and quickly kill chickens and turkeys. ...
Genetic variation on internal protein matric (M1) and non structural protein (NS1) of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype
P2Y6 receptors are involved in mediating the effect of inactivated avian influenza virus H5N1 on IL-6 and CXCL8 mRNA expression in respiratory epithelium. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Samples from Changhua County, Yunlin County and Pingtung County were sent to the National Laboratory, Animal Health Research Institute (AHRI) for diagnosis. Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 subtype was confirmed by AHRI. The infected farms have been placed under movement restriction. All animals on the infected farms have been culled. Thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted after stamping out operation. Surrounding poultry farms within 3 km radius of the infected farms are under intensified surveillance for three months. Suspected signs were observed in poultry carcasses during post-mortem inspection in two abattoirs in Taipei City and Pingtung County. Samples were sent to the AHRI for diagnosis. H5N2 subtype HPAI was confirmed by the AHRI. The carcasses were destroyed and thorough cleaning and disinfection have been conducted in the abattoir. After tracing back to the farm of origin, any positive results will be included in follow-up reports ...
Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey, we sought to determine detailed information about the birds susceptibility and protection after vaccination. Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). All vaccinated birds survived; all unvaccinated birds died within 5 days. For the nonvaccinated birds, histopathologic examination showed tissue degeneration and necrosis, immunohistochemical techniques showed influenza virus antigen in affected tissues, and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian species and humans.
Background: In 2006, Nigeria reported Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in poultry. In 2007, the first human case was detected linked to poultry from a Live Bird Market (LBM). The West and Central African Regional Laboratory for Avian Influenza in Nigeria is responsible for investigating specimens from birds meeting the case definition of HPAI (passive surveillance) and for specimens collected routinely from LBMs and high risk areas (active HPAI surveillance). We evaluated the laboratory component of the surveillance systems to determine whether it meets their objectives of early detection and response.. Methods: We used CDCs updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems, conducted six key informant interviews, reviewed laboratory reports and analyzed HPAI surveillance data from 2006-2009.. Results: The active system employed a simple case definition with timely submission of specimens. Laboratory results were available within 48 hours for positive cases. The ...
The objectives of the present study were to observe the temporal pattern of avian influenza virus (AIV) introduction into Japan and to determine which migratory birds play an important role in introducing AIV. of Japan and entry through the Korean Peninsula. Species identification was successful in 221 of the 352 positive samples. Two major species sequences were identified: the Mallard/Eastern Spot-billed duck group (115 samples; 52.0%) and the Northern pintail (61 samples; 27.6%). To gain a better understanding of the ecology of AIV in Japan and the introduction pattern of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, information regarding AIV prevalence by species, the prevalence of hatch-year migratory birds, migration patterns and viral subtypes in fecal samples using egg inoculation and molecular-based methods in combination is required. of a 1/10 dilution of bacteria-free, infective allantoic fluid [18] is deemed a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). The primary subtypes of ...
Emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 was due to mutation of low pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 strain, which caused outbreaks in Italy between 1999 and 2000, and resulted in complete mortality of infected poultry. This outbreak places increased importance on the early detection of H7N1 AIV. Here we describe the development of a detection method for H7N1 virus from infected chickens using a specific antigen-capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA). A panel of mAbs was developed against the surface antigen HA of H7N1 AIV strain A/chicken/Singapore/94. The mAbs were screened by immunoflouorescence assays, ELISA and immunoblotting. Selected mAbs 5E5 and 8F10 were of isotypes IgM and IgG and were conformation- or linear epitope-specific, respectively. These mAbs were used as capture antibodies for AC-ELISA development. The detection limit was as little as 102-103 TCID50 units of virus derived from tissue culture supernatants. Virus from the tracheal swab samples of experimentally infected chickens ...
Currently, this region is battling against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 and the virus has been isolated in non-poultry birds in various countries in Middle East as well as in the European and African continents. These developments have ignited global fears of an imminent influenza pandemic. The adoption of a vaccination policy, targeted either to control or to prevent infection in poultry, is generally discouraged. Nevertheless, the need to boost eradication efforts in order to limit further spread of infection and avoid heavy economic losses, and advances in modern vaccine technologies, have prompted a re-evaluation of the potential use of vaccination in poultry as an additional tool in comprehensive disease control strategies. Hence, several types of vaccines are available and some of them have been tested experimentally and/or used in commercial farms. DNA vaccines have been shown to be an effective approach to induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity. ...
National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. In this study, we report on a nationwide surveillance study of AIV in domestic poultry and wild birds in South Korea between 2012 and 2014. During the surveillance programs between 2012 and 2014, 141,560 samples were collected. Of these, 102,199 were from poultry farms, 8215 were from LBMs, and 31,146 were from wild bird habitats. The virus isolation was performed by inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and AIV isolates were detected using hemagglutination assay. For subtying of AIV, the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes were confirmed by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the H5 subtypes was performed using 28 H5 AIV isolates. Between 2012 and 2014, a total of 819 AIV were isolated from 141,560 samples. Virus isolation rates for AIV were 0.6, 0.4, 0.1, and 2.7% in wild birds (n = 202),
...Genetic analyses of avian influenza in wild birds can help pinpoint li...Persistence of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) ...The new work by USGS has nationwide importance because it offers a met...In the study USGS scientists conducted the first-ever survey of avian...,New,research,findings,can,improve,avian,flu,surveillance,programs,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Hatta, M.; Kawaoka, Y., 2005: A clue to the molecular mechanism of virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses isolated in 2004
What is the meaning of H5N1 virus? How is H5N1 spread? Is Influenza A the same as bird flu? Bird flu known as Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. How does the bird flu spread? Who first discovered ...
To assess the impact of different routes of inoculation on experimental infection of avian influenza (AI) viruses in chickens, this study compared virus replication and cytokine gene expression in respiratory and gastrointestinal organ tissues of chickens, which were inoculated with four low pathogenic subtypes, H6N1, H10N7, H10N8, and H13N6 AI viruses via the aerosol, intranasal, and oral routes respectively. Aerosol inoculation with the H6N1, H10N7, and H10N8 viruses significantly increased viral titres and upregulated the interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β genes in the trachea and lung tissues compared to intranasal or oral inoculation. Furthermore, one or two out of six chickens died following exposure to aerosolized H6N1 or H10N8 virus respectively. The H13N6 virus reached the lung via aerosol inoculation although failed to establish infection. Collectively, chickens were more susceptible to aerosolized AI viruses compared to intranasal or oral inoculation, and virus ...
BIRD FLU Common Name Avian Influenza, influenza Virus A Flu. type AFlu, Genus A Flu (Eng.) Overview Avian influenza is an infection caused by flu viruses occurring na-turally among birds. Most cases of avian influenza in-fection in...
TOKYO: Japans western Kagawa prefecture has begun a cull of 91,000 chickens after the discovery of a highly contagious form of bird flu on a farm, the local government said.. The confirmation of the outbreak, which was reported earlier in the week, marked the countrys first cases of bird flu in poultry this winter.. The local government and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries said late Thursday that chickens at a farm in the area of Sanuki city in Kagawa had been confirmed testing positive for a highly pathogenic avian influenza.. Japans last outbreak of bird flu occurred in March. Between November 2016 and March 2017, a total of 1.67 million chickens were culled due to the H5N6 strain of bird flu, according to the ministry.. (Reporting by Osamu Tsukimori; editing by Richard Pullin) ...
BACKGROUND: The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006
Newsroom America) -- The avian H7N9 influenza virus that emerged earlier this year in China is poorly adapted for sustained transmission between humans, suggesting that the current form of the virus is unlikely to cause a pandemic, according to a new study led by Ian A. Wilson, Ph.D., and James C. Paulson, Ph.D., of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI). The study, published yesterday in Science, was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and other organizations.. As of November 6, 139 confirmed human cases of avian H7N9 influenza, including 45 deaths, have been reported by the World Health Organization. Most of these cases have been linked to exposure to infected poultry, but in some cases, limited human-to-human transmission may have occurred. In this study, the TSRI scientists examined the three-dimensional structures of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein on the surface of the virus and its interaction with the ...
Van Dam State Secretary for Economic Affairs just before the Netherlands set a ophok- and guard duty for all companies that keep birds intended for the production of meat, eggs or other products and for the release into the wild. This measure is taken as a precaution after it was found in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Switzerland in wild birds, highly pathogenic avian influenza of the type of Influenza A virus subtype H5N8. Also in the Netherlands are dead wildfowl found with suspected highly pathogenic avian influenza. The animals are further examined at this time. ...
Citation: Szretter, K.J., Gangappa, S., Zeng, H., Chen, H., Matsuoka, Y., Sambhara, S., Tumpey, T.M., Swayne, D.E., Katz, J.M. 2009. Early control of H5N1 influenza virus replication by the Type I interferon response in mice. Journal of Virology. 83(11):5825-5834. Interpretive Summary: H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) has caused infection in humans. This study examined the role of interferon, a naturally produced antiviral substance in animals, in preventing severe disease in a mouse model for human infection. When infected with the H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, mice that could not produce interferon lost weight, had multiple organs with lesions, and had more rapid time-to-death compared to mice that produced interferon. This suggests that correct interferon response in animals will reduce the severity of disease from H5N1 HPAI virus infections. Technical Abstract: Widespread distribution of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in domesticated ...
The reported signs and symptoms of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A virus infections in humans range from conjunctivitis to influenza-like illness (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches) to lower respiratory disease (pneumonia) requiring hospitalization.. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus infections in people have been associated with a wide range of illness from conjunctivitis only, to influenza-like illness, to severe respiratory illness (e.g. shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, respiratory failure) with multi-organ disease, sometimes accompanied by nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting and sometimes neurologic changes (altered mental status, seizures).. ...
See Influenza for details about the illnesses and Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 for details ... viruses, three influenza A (H1) viruses, one influenza A (H7N2) virus, and 71 influenza B viruses. Of the 949 influenza A (H3N2 ... strain of the H3N2 subtype of the Influenza A virus or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus. ... It has also been called "Asian lineage HPAI A(H5N1)". H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. Experts believe it might mutate ...
2007). "Susceptibility and transmissibility of pigeons to Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1". ... 2007). "Minute excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/chicken/Indonesia/2003 (H5N1) from experimentally ... "Neurotropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/chicken/Indonesia/2003 (H5N1) in experimentally infected pigeons ( ... One study has shown that adult pigeons are not clinically susceptible to the most dangerous strain of avian influenza, H5N1, ...
PREDICT was launched in 2009 in response to the influenza A virus subtype H5N1 "bird flu" outbreak in 2005. It was designed and ... Also, viruses mutate quickly, making some die out while others can mutate to new hosts. Efforts by PREDICT resulted in the ... The approach of virus hunting by PREDICT and other agencies has been criticized as an ineffective way to prevent pandemics. One ... The virus-hunting focused on "hot interfaces"-areas with high biodiversity, dense human populations, and environmental ...
Their early work considered the development of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and H5N1 virus-like particle pandemic influenza ... In 2018 phase 2 clinical trials began on the Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 vaccine. In 2019 Neuzil and the Center for Vaccine ... She has spoken about the need for the public to have an influenza vaccine (flu shot), ideally by the end of October. Alongside ... Virus-like particle vaccines offer immunogenic, strain-specific recombinant antigens that can be produced at scale. In 2008 ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, the highly pathogenic strain of influenza, was first detected in the goose population of ... It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype ... "The emergence and diversification of panzootic H5N1 influenza viruses". Virus Research. H5N1. 178 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1016/j. ... Yamamoto, Yu; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Yamada, Manabu; Mase, Masaji (2010-08-15). "Persistence of Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in ...
The infection was caused by the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus and occurred at one of Bernard Matthews' farms in Holton ... when the company's farm in Holton suffered an outbreak of the H5N1 strain of avian influenza. The same year, the company's ... The 2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1 outbreak was an occurrence of avian flu in England that began on 30 January 2007. ... and the H5N1 bird flu strains found in Hungary and Britain were effectively genetically identical. Consequences of the outbreak ...
... supported the preparation of a national response plan for the health sector in the event of an influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ... "Fin de la transmission de la maladie à virus Ebola en Guinée". "L'OMS déclare la fin de la transmission du virus ... "Enfermedad por el virus del Ébola - Declaration of Dr. Mohammed Belhocine, head of WHO country office, to mark the end of Ebola ... When an avian influenza epidemic broke out in poultry in Nigeria, he chaired the steering committee which coordinated United ...
... caused by the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus, was confirmed. A dead swan was found floating in Cellardyke harbour on 29 ... Cellardyke was the first place in the UK that an instance of avian influenza, ... Swan tests confirm deadly virus, BBC News, 6 April 2006 "Bird flu swan was from outside UK", BBC News, 11 April 2006 Cellardyke ... and the strain was identified as the highly pathogenic H5N1 variant on 6 April 2006. The incident brought unprecedented ...
In mice infected with influenza A virus subtype H5N1, nanobodies directed against hemaglutinin suppressed replication of the ... April 2011). "Nanobodies with in vitro neutralizing activity protect mice against H5N1 influenza virus infection". The Journal ... H5N1 virus in vivo and reduced morbidity and mortality. Nanobodies targeting the cell receptor binding domain of the virulence ... "Camelid nanobodies with high affinity for broad bean mottle virus: a possible promising tool to immunomodulate plant resistance ...
... found to bind all 16 subtypes of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin and is hoped to be useful for a universal influenza virus ... such as H5N1. But, because the replication of the influenza virus is somewhat error-prone, the virus evolves as a quasispecies ... FI6 is an antibody that targets a protein found on the surface of all influenza A viruses called hemagglutinin. FI6 is the only ... and Switzerland have previously found antibodies that work in Group 1 influenza A viruses or against most Group 2 viruses ( ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and Transmission and infection of H5N1. The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza, see Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys.[15]. HA ...
Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into a ... a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern ... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with 7 ... has suggested that the 1918 virus, like H5N1, could have arisen directly from an avian influenza virus. However, researchers at ...
... the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 from 2004, the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa and onwards. As infectious diseases have ... several strains of influenza and human papilloma virus. The long-known vaccine against Smallpox finally eradicated the disease ... 28-39, online Nancy K. Bristow, American Pandemic: The Lost Worlds of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic (Oxford University Press, ... The Great Influenza: The Story of the Deadliest Pandemic in History (2004) reviews, excerpt and text search Fred R. Van ...
... prompted by increasing international concern at the time over Influenza A virus subtype H5N1). It initially met on a quarterly ... activated public health emergency structures in response to the 2009 swine flu pandemic of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. ... The first NPHET was convened in October 2006, to aid with planning for a possible future human influenza pandemic ( ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease"). In the United States, hunting licenses ... "Avian Influenza: Questions & Answers". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. November 29, 2006. Retrieved ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1). Samples of the less harmful seasonal flu virus (subtype H3N2) were found to be mixed with the ... "Baxter Sent Bird Flu Virus to European Labs by Error". Bloomberg L.P. February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2009. "Baxter ... influenza as early as July of the same year. The company has been one of several working with the World Health Organization and ... of the lethal virus harming humans. On July 2, 2009, Kentucky Attorney General Jack Conway announced a settlement between the ...
... in the Influenza Branch, Immunology and Viral Pathogenesis Section, where he studied Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. From 2002 ... His dissertation was titled Studies on pathogenicity and control of H5N1 influenza A viruses in mice. Bright's doctoral advisor ... Bright, Rick Arthur (2002). Studies on pathogenicity and control of H5N1 influenza A viruses in mice (PhD thesis). Emory ... where he worked on their influenza antiviral drug program and focused on avian influenza. He held that position until 2006. ...
H5N1) virus infection. Batken virus (BKNV) is considered a subtype of DHOV. Serological cross-reactions between BKNV and DHOV ... infection of mice produces a disease and cytokine response pattern similar to that of highly virulent influenza A (H5N1) virus ... Batken virus is an orthomyxovirus closely related to Dhori virus". J. Gen. Virol. 78 ( Pt 10) (10): 2453-8. doi:10.1099/0022- ... Dhori virus (DHOV) is a species of the genus Thogotovirus and a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Its hosts are ticks, ...
VLP vaccines for influenza appeared to provide complete protection against both the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and the 1918 ... vaccination with 1918 influenza virus-like particles protects mice and ferrets from lethal 1918 and H5N1 influenza virus ... "Preclinical and clinical development of plant-made virus-like particle vaccine against avian H5N1 influenza". PLOS One. 5 (12 ... Virus-like particles (VLPs) are molecules that closely resemble viruses, but are non-infectious because they contain no viral ...
... like H5N1 HPAI viruses. It is a strain of the Influenzavirus A subtype H5N1 virus that was first detected in a goose in ... 2 article Molecular Evolution of H6 Influenza Viruses from Poultry in Southeastern China: Prevalence of H6N1 Influenza Viruses ... "Evolutionary characterization of the six internal genes of H5N1 human influenza A virus". Archived from the original on 2007-12 ... 2007 May 16; : 17507485 says "Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are now endemic in many Asian countries, ...
The exception are bat influenza-like viruses, which have an uncertain origin. These bat viruses have HA and NA subtypes H17, ... Notable HPAI viruses include HPAI H5N1 and HPAI H7N9. HPAI viruses have been a major disease burden in the 21st century, ... Influenza B virus (IBV) and Influenza C virus (ICV) primarily infect humans, and Influenza D virus (IDV) is found in cattle and ... Influenza A virus (IAV), genus Alphainfluenzavirus Influenza B virus (IBV), genus Betainfluenzavirus Influenza C virus (ICV), ...
The strain of the avian influenza virus is not of the H5N1 strain according to the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine ... In the latter part of August 2017, the samples tested positive for H5N6 subtype. H5N6 can be transmitted to humans although it ... Occurrence of avian influenza in Pampanga was first reported by farms in the last week of April 2017. The first farm to be ... By that time a total of 116,000 birds in farms has been identified to have the virus with 37,000 birds already dead due to the ...
... of flu viruses to H5N1 vaccination effectiveness to adjuvants to wild bird migration patterns to wild bird avian flu subtype ... study was on vaccine produced from the human isolate (A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1) of a virulent clade 1 influenza A (H5N1) virus ... has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino oligomers from the results ... February 2006). "Protection of mice and poultry from lethal H5N1 avian influenza virus through adenovirus-based immunization". ...
One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a glutamic acid at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses ...
A H5N1 vaccine is an influenza vaccine intended to provide immunization to influenza A virus subtype H5N1. Vaccines have been ... study was on vaccine produced from the human isolate (A/Vietnam/1203/2004 H5N1) of a virulent clade 1 influenza A (H5N1) virus ... is approved for use in persons six months of age and older at increased risk of exposure to the influenza A virus H5N1 subtype ... "H5N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Questions and Answers". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 17 April 2007. Retrieved 5 ...
... See : Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Influenza_vaccine#H5N1 H5N1 clinical trials Transmission and infection of H5N1 ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title H5N1 flu. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is an emerging avian influenza virus that is causing global concern as a ... H7N9 Global spread of H5N1 H5N1 Health crisis Influenza Influenzavirus A Influenza pandemic Influenza Genome Sequencing Project ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys. HA: ( ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first reported to have infected humans in 2013 in China. Most ...
These subtypes are named H1 through H18. H16 was discovered in 2004 on influenza A viruses isolated from black-headed gulls ... The hemagglutinin of the H5N1 virus has been associated with the high pathogenicity of this flu virus strain, apparently due to ... Neuraminidase (NA) has 11 known subtypes, hence influenza virus is named as H1N1, H5N2 etc., depending on the combinations of ... "Influenza Type A Viruses". Avian Influenza (Flu). CDC. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2018. Suzuki Y (March 2005). " ...
Numerous short DNA capture sequences were designed, and used to both type and subtype influenza A viruses by taking advantage ... 2007). "Identification of A/H5N1 Influenza Viruses sing a Single Gene Diagnostic Microarray". Analytical Chemistry. 79 (1): 378 ... The overall pattern of fluorescence intensities were utilized to type and subtype the influenza virus(es) present. various ... and avian influenza (H5N1) subtypes, and resulted in high clinical sensitivity and specificity as detailed in several published ...
A unique point mutation occurring in the strains of influenza A virus subtype H5N1 after 2001 has been suggested to result in ... Gultyaev AP, Heus HA, Olsthoorn RC (February 2007). "An RNA conformational shift in recent H5N1 influenza A viruses". ... of influenza virus genome. Pseudoknots are commonly found in viral genomes, especially RNA viruses, where they incorporate an ... The Influenza virus pseudoknot is an RNA pseudoknot structure formed in one of the non-structural coding segments (NS) ...
Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, ... Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus) pigs close ... Influenza Influenza A virus horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ...
... either a Fujian human flu strain of the H3N2 subtype or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus. ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ... of the influenza viruses that have been analyzed at CDC are like the viruses included in the 2012-2013 influenza vaccine. ...
H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian ... for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... Genesis of a Highly Pathogenic and Potentially Pandemic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Eastern Asia. The Threat of Pandemic Influenza ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic ... "Nuclear export protein - Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/156/1997 H5N1 genotype Gs/Gd)". 2006-01-24. ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens. close contact. ... Saint Louis encephalitis virus. birds. mosquito bite. Swine influenza. any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs ( ... Influenza. Influenza A virus. horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, ...
Influenza → 인플루엔자 (A) *Influenza A virus subtype H5N1H5N1 (B). *Leprosy → 나병 (C) ...
Spanish Influenza in North America, 1918-1919. *1918 Influenza Virus and memory B-cells - Exposure to virus generates lifelong ... Sir Mark Sykes was exhumed to study the RNA of the flu virus in efforts to understand the genetic structure of modern H5N1 bird ... An effort to recreate the 1918 flu strain (a subtype of avian strain H1N1) was a collaboration among the Armed Forces Institute ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
Eighteen H subtypes (or serotypes) and eleven N subtypes of influenza A virus have been identified. ... H5N1 is a pandemic threat in 2006-7 flu season.. *H7N7 has unusual zoonotic potential.[10] ... Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, and Influenza C virus, respectively. Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while ... Influenza C[change , change source]. Main article: Influenzavirus C. The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, and can ...
2007). "Susceptibility and transmissibility of pigeons to Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1". ... "Neurotropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/chicken/Indonesia/2003 (H5N1) in experimentally infected pigeons ( ... "Minute excretion of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/chicken/Indonesia/2003 (H5N1) from experimentally infected ... One study has shown that adult pigeons are not clinically susceptible to the most dangerous strain of avian influenza, H5N1, ...
The comparative pathology of severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza A subtype H5N1- a review. Hum Pathol. 2006; ... വൈറസുകൾ (Viruses). ഇൻഫ്ലുവെൻസ വൈറസ്, പാരാ ഇൻഫ്ലുവെൻസ വൈറസ്, അഡിനോവൈറസ്, ശ്വാസകോശ സിൻസീഷ്യൽ വൈറസ്, റൈനോവൈറസ്, മീസിൽ‌സ് വൈറസ്( ... Nichol KL, et al.Effectiveness of influenza vaccine in the community-dwelling elderly. N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4;357(14):1373-81 ... Assessing the burden of influenza and other respiratory infections in England and Wales.J Infect. 2007 Jun;54(6):530-8. PMID: ...
Role in transmission of influenza viruses from non-human animals to people[edit]. Influenza A viruses are found in many ... The host cell then forms new viruses that combine their antigens; for example, H3N2 and H5N1 can form H5N2 this way. Because ... or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two ... Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza C. Antigenic shift, ...
... , also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 ... Like all other influenza A subtypes, the H5N1 subtype is an RNA virus. It has a segmented genome of eight negative sense, ... Low pathogenic H5N1[edit]. Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (LPAI H5N1) also called "North American" H5N1 commonly occurs in ...
Influenza B and C viruses are almost exclusively isolated from man, although influenza C virus has also been isolated from pigs ... A/H5N1 subtype. *A/H1N1 subtype. *മഹാമാരി. ഓർത്തോമിക്സോ വൈറസ് കുടുംബത്തിൽ പെട്ട പന്നിപ്പനി വൈറസ് എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന ... Epidemic influenza B and C in navy recruits, 1953-1954. II. Antigenic studies on influenza virus, type C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol ... International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. "The Universal Virus Database, version 4: Influenza A".. ...
H5N1), singkatan dari "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") menimbulkan flu H5N1, yang umumnya ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ... Jenis-jenis virusSunting. Dalam klasifikasi virus, virus influenza termasuk virus RNA yang merupakan tiga dari lima genera ...
Serotypes or Subtypes Hosts Influenza virus A Influenza A virus* H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, ... For an in-depth example, see H5N1 genetic structure.. The following applies for Influenza A viruses, although other influenza ... Mammalian influenza viruses tend to be labile, but can survive several hours in mucus.[55] Avian influenza virus can survive ... Avian influenza viruses can survive indefinitely when frozen.[55] Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, ...
Influenza A virus. subtypes. *H1N1. *H1N2. *H2N2. *H2N3. *H3N1. *H3N2. *H3N8. *H5N1 ... Main article: Influenza. Three virus families, Influenzavirus A, B, and C are the main infective agents that cause influenza. ... surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses.[14] The dominant strain in January 2006 was ... Research done by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in 2008 found that the influenza virus has a ...
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses. UMN CIDRAP. ... A/H5N1 subtype. *A/H1N1 subtype. *മഹാമാരി. രോഗങ്ങളുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട ഈ ലേഖനം അപൂർണ്ണമാണ്‌. ഇതു വികസിപ്പിക്കുവാൻ സഹായിക്കുക. ... Suarez, D (2003). "The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR". Avian Dis. ... Suzuki E, Ichihara K, Johnson AM (2007). "Natural course of fever during influenza virus infection in children". Clin Pediatr ( ...
2015 outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2. Influenza (Flu). Types. *Avian *A/H5N1 subtype ... The H5N2 virus is highly infectious and deadly, meaning up to 3.8 million hens must be destroyed at Sunrise Farms near Harris ... In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and turkey farming operations in the ... The virus was first identified in Minnesota in early March. Prior to April 20, it affected commercial turkey farms almost ...
North American avian influenza, human influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and ... Pigs can carry human influenza viruses. These viruses can combine in new ways, and exchange certain genes with H5N1. Through ... Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs. This type of influenza virus can also infect humans and birds. Swine ... "The Universal Virus Database, version 4: Influenza A".. *↑ "Q & A: Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) - Symptoms". ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Wikinews bahasa Inggris memberitakan: Swine flu cases worldwide top 1,000. ... Virus influenza A H1N1 merupakan virus influenza A yang umumnya menyebabkan flu kepada manusia pada tahun 2009, dan virus ini ... Virus influenza A dikelompokkan menurut dua protein yang terdapat pada virus: hemaglutinin (H) dan neuraminidase (N). Semua ... Beberapa jenis virus influenza pada manusia. Bentuk segiempat menunjukkan munculnya jenis baru, menyebabkan perulangan pandemik ...
Ebola virus disease. *Hand, foot and mouth disease. *Influenza *Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ...
One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza ... Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a lysine.. HA: ( ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[16] A vaccine ... Other pandemic threat subtypes[edit]. "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans ...
The current H5N1 bird flu, also an Influenza A virus, has a similar effect.) After the Spanish flu infected lung cells it ... In virology, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. Well known outbreaks of H1N1 strains in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... The G4 virus, also known as the "G4 swine flu virus" (G4) and "G4 EA H1N1", is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in ...
The 2009 flu outbreak in Malaysia is part of a larger flu pandemic involving a new type of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A ( ... and the episode of the H5N1 (bird flu) outbreak in 2004. The Malaysian government has developed a National Influenza Pandemic ... The flu virus is officially designated by the WHO as "Influenza A (H1N1)", following a name change from "swine flu" to avoid ... "Influenza A (H1N1) Cases Rise To Five". Bernama. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009. "Malaysia confirms 7th case of Influenza A ...
2010). "A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus". Virol. J. ... of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes". J. ... Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 3 (4): 151-64. doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2009.00083.x. PMC 4634683. PMID 19627372. Mission summary ... "Validated RealTime reverse transcriptase PCR methods for the diagnosis and pathotyping of Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 ... H5N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus of the Influenzavirus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Like all other ... Low pathogenic H5N1[edit]. Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (LPAI H5N1) also called "North American" H5N1 commonly occurs in ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other ... A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is ... never previously susceptible to any influenza virus. H5N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus of the genus ... Like all other influenza A subtypes, the H5N1 subtype is an RNA virus. It has a segmented genome of eight negative sense, ...
H5N1 Subtype Infections Pipeline Review, H1 2017, latest research study provides in depth analysis on Cellular Tumor Antigen ... Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections is a type of influenza virus that causes a highly infectious, severe respiratory ... H5N1 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease).. - The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Influenza A Virus, H5N1 ... Scope Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections Pipeline Review Report-. - The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the ...
Associated PressAvian influenzaCenters for Disease Control and PreventionHuman fluInfluenzaInfluenza A virus subtype H5N1 ... bronchitisAdam SimonAdenoviridaeCenters for Disease Control and PreventionCommon coldDiseaseInfluenza A virus subtype H5N1 ... Sayer Ji, Founder - Why The Only Thing Influenza May Kill Is Germ Theory Why The Only Thing Influenza May Kill Is Germ Theory ... Groundbreaking research indicates that nearly everything we once believed about the purportedly deadly properties of flu virus ...
Generation of attenuated H5N1 and H5N2 subtypes of influenza virus recombinants by reverse genetics system]. Download Prime ... Influenza VirusInfluenza A Virus, H5N1 SubtypeInfluenza A Virus, H5N2 SubtypePlasmidsRecombination, GeneticSerial Passage ... Characterization of murine leukemia virus recombinants that express H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus hemagglutinin ... Generation of Attenuated H5N1 and H5N2 Subtypes of Influenza Virus Recombinants By Reverse Genetics System]." Wei Sheng Wu Xue ...
Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is highly conserved across influenza A subtypes. To evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine ... This vaccination induced antibodies that cross-reacted with divergent M2 peptide from an H5N1 subtype. A DNA vaccine expressing ... This M2 prime-boost vaccination conferred broad protection against challenge with lethal influenza A, including an H5N1 strain ... Vaccination with M2, with key sequences represented, may provide broad protection against influenza A. ...
Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1 Stephen Mark Tompkins*1. , Zi- ... Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1. ... Results of vaccination with matrix protein 2 (M2)-DNA plus M2-adenovirus (Ad) and challenge with heterologous H5N1 subtype. ... Seventeen days after Ad boost, mice were challenged with 10× 50% lethal dose (LD50) of SP-83 (H5N1). A random subset pf mice (4 ...
... influenza A virus H1N1 subtype, influenza A virus H3N2 subtype, influenza A virus H5N1 subtype, research ... Influenza viruses used were A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (3), A/FM/1/47-MA (H1N1) (16), and A/Thailand/SP-83/2004 (H5N1) (17). Some virus ... Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1. Stephen Mark Tompkins,. *,1 Zi- ... Matrix protein 2 vaccination and protection against influenza viruses, including subtype H5N1. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the ...
H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2019, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, ... H5N1 Subtype Infections - Drug Profiles. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - Dormant Projects. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 ... Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline by CEL-SCI Corp, H1 2019. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - ... Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline by New Amsterdam Sciences Inc, H1 2019. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype ...
Cross-Reactive Immunity to Clade 2 Strains of Influenza Virus A Subtype H5N1 Induced in Adults and Elderly Patients by Fluval, ... Cross-Reactive Immunity to Clade 2 Strains of Influenza Virus A Subtype H5N1 Induced in Adults and Elderly Patients by Fluval, ... Cross-Reactive Immunity to Clade 2 Strains of Influenza Virus A Subtype H5N1 Induced in Adults and Elderly Patients by Fluval, ... Cross-Reactive Immunity to Clade 2 Strains of Influenza Virus A Subtype H5N1 Induced in Adults and Elderly Patients by Fluval, ...
... highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Pakistan: highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. 21 ... Avian influenza H5N1 was confirmed in two poultry farm, in Nelore, Islamabad. The case was a mix infection with H9N2. ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as bird flu, A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which ... Influenza A Virus H5N1 Human Cells Protein Description Influenza (flu) is a respiratory infection in mammals and birds. This ... The secreted recombinant influenza A H5N1 HA (A/Hong kong/213/03 (H5N1)) comprises 524 amino acids and has a predicted ... Hemagglutinin (HA) is a single-pass type I integral membrane glycoprotein from the influenza virus, and comprises over 80% of ...
... and the co-circulation of high-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 and low-pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtypes in poultry has ... Results Overall, H5N1 was identified in 13.6% of birds from farms, while it was detected in 17% of birds in LBMs. Subtype H9N2 ... Discussion Our results indicated the circulation of the endemic H5N1 and H9N2 viruses among poultry in 2015 and 2016. Birds on ... and screened by real-time RT-PCR for H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes. Clinical and postmortem examination was carried out on birds from ...
These findings extend the host range of the H5N1 influenza virus, possess implications for influenza virus epidemiology and ... We demonstrated that H5N1 jumped from poultry to another mammalian host; donkeys. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus ... The virus was isolated from the pooled nasal swabs in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (SPF-ECE). Reverse ... It harboured few genetic changes compared to the closely related viruses from avian and humans. The neuraminidase lacks ...
Browsing by Subject "Influenza a Virus, H5N1 Subtype". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Avian and pandemic influenza, International Health Regulations (2005), and the Asia Pacific strategy for emerging diseases  ... Avian and pandemic influenza, International Health Regulations (2005), and the Asia Pacific strategy for emerging diseases ( ...
Browsing by Subject "Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Avian Influenza Weekly Update 2015  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional ...
Rapid detection of H5N1 subtype influenza viruses by antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using H5- And N1- ... Rapid detection of H5N1 subtype influenza viruses by antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using H5- And N1- ...
... influenza virus of the virus subtype H5N1 can be detected with high sensitivity while viruses other than the virus subtype H5N1 ... part when the virus subtype H5N1, the virus subtype H5N2, the virus subtype H5N3, and the virus subtype H1N1 are detected by ... a subtype H5N1 virus specifically. It is also found that only an avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 can be detected ... pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1. Because the virus subtype H5N1 has high pathogenicity and high mortality, there ...
Keywords: time course Overall design: Ferrets were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of either A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) ... A global genomics approach was used to identify patterns of immune dysregulation during H5N1 influenza virus infection as the ... H5N1) HALo virus. The Influenza A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) HALo mutant virus is an attenuated H5N1 virus generated from wild-type ... H5N1) HALo virus. The Influenza A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) HALo mutant virus is an attenuated H5N1 virus generated from wild-type ...
H5N1 Subtype Biological: Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine with AS03 adjuvant Biological: Influenza A (H5N1) Virus ... influenza A (H5N1) virus. H5N1 influenza. influenza A/H5/N1. monovalent H5N1 influenza vaccine. systems biology. AS03 adjuvant ... H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine with and without the AS03 adjuvant. The Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Monovalent Vaccine with AS03 ... Experimental: Influenza A Vaccine with AS03 adjuvant Subjects will receive 2 intramuscular doses of Influenza A (H5N1) Virus ...
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Influenza, Human. en_US. ... Review of latest available evidence on potential transmission of avian influenza (‎H5N1)‎ through water and sewage and ways to ... Review of latest available evidence on potential transmission of avian influenza (‎H5N1)‎ through water and sewage and ways to ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1*. Genetic structure*. Infection*. Human mortality*Global spread *. in 2006 *. Social impact*. ... and it is in this region that multiple clades of H5N1 influenza virus have already emerged. The Asian H5N1 virus was first ... The current H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It ... The precursor of the H5N1 influenza virus that spread to humans in 1997 was first detected in Guangdong, China, in 1996, when ...
Genus: Influenzavirus A. Species: Influenza A virus Subtype: Influenza A virus H5N1 (A/H5N1) ... Retrieved from "" ... Unranked): Virus. Group V: ssRNA(-) Ordo: - Familia: Orthomyxoviridae ...
H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections ( ... Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018. 13 Mar 2018 , Published by: Global Markets Direct ... H1N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections ( ... H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections ( ...
... of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype. Indi Dharmayanti, N.L.P. ... of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype. Login ... The result of this study showed that Indonesian AI H5N1 subtype ... determine virus subtype and genetic variation occured in those proteins. On the other site, the virus have the internal protein ... The mutation and genetic variation of avian influenza virus ussually associated with Hemmaglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. *"WHO confirms first bird flu case in Bangladesh" - Reuters, May 23, 2008 ... The Avian influenza has spread through 47 of Bangladeshs 64 districts. The H5N1 virus seldom infects humans, but according to ... Colorized transmission electron micrograph of Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses (seen in gold) grown in MDCK cells (seen in green ... The child contracted the H5N1 bird flu virus in January but we only got confirmation from the CDC on Wednesday it was a human ...
... and these viruses are usually nonpathogenic in these birds. However, since late 2002, H5N1 outbreaks in Asia have resulted in ... Wild waterfowl are the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses, ... Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype* * Influenza A virus* / pathogenicity * Influenza, Human / transmission ... we inoculated juvenile mallards with 23 different H5N1 influenza viruses isolated in Asia between 2003 and 2004. All virus ...
Subtype H5N1, (A/Vietnam/1203/2004), mIgG1-Fc.His Tag 5ug... ... of influenza A virus, subtype H5N1 (A/VietNam/1203/2004), HA1 ... Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ HA1 Subunit Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, Subtype H5N1, (A/Vietnam/1203/2004), ... Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ HA1 Subunit Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, Subtype H5N1, (A/Vietnam/1203/2004), ... H5N1, recombinant influenza A virus protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. It is suitable for use in studying protein- ...
Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1 Stephen Mark Tompkins*1. , Zi- ... Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1. ...
Keywords Antioxidant Aspergillus niger Avian Influenza Beef Cattle Cattle Chicken Digestibility Egg Quality Enzyme Fermentation ... Genetic Distance Goats H5N1 KUB Chicken Palm Kernel Cake Performance Quality Sheep Soybean Meal Surra Trypanosoma evansi ... of Indonesian avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype ...
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (
  • On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (
  • This H2N2 virus was composed of three different genes from an H2N2 virus that originated from an avian influenza A virus, including the H2 hemagglutinin and the N2 neuraminidase genes. (
  • Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. (
  • private contractor Meridian Bioscience in Cincinnati, U.S., chose the 1957 strain instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. (
  • Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner Archived 2017-08-09 at the Wayback Machine from free on-line Book called Influenza Report 2006 which is a medical textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of epidemic and pandemic influenza. (
  • Research has shown that a highly contagious strain of H5N1, one that might allow airborne transmission between mammals, can be reached in only a few mutations, raising concerns about a pandemic and bioterrorism. (
  • Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (
  • H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic, as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. (
  • The "Asian Flu" was a category 2 flu pandemic outbreak of influenzavirus A that originated in Singapore in early 1957 lasting until 1958. (
  • Asian Flu was of the H2N2 subtype (a notation that refers to the configuration of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins in the virus) of type A influenza, and an influenza vaccine was developed in 1957 to contain its outbreak. (
  • One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia. (
  • Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. (
  • Still, around 60% of humans known to have been infected with the Asian strain of HPAI A(H5N1) have died from it, and H5N1 may mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. (
  • Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. (
  • The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered deadly and the U.S. government called for the vials containing the strain to be destroyed. (
  • From October 2004 to February 2005, approximately 3,700 test kits of the 1957 H2N2 virus were accidentally spread around the world from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). (
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (
  • Some believe that the 1889-1890 Russian flu was caused by the influenzavirus A virus subtype H2N2, but the evidence is not conclusive. (
  • Numerous outbreaks of avian influenza virus infection (A/H5N1) have occurred recently, infecting domestic birds, chicken and ducks. (
  • However, they play a role in protection against influenza virus infection for a short period since variant viruses that have acquired resistance to these Abs become dominant. (
  • The human respiratory tract is a major site of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. (
  • WHO Rapid Advice Guidelines for pharmacological management of sporadic human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus. (
  • WHO assembled an international multidisciplinary panel to develop rapid advice for the pharmacological management of human H5N1 virus infection in the current pandemic alert period. (
  • Our development of specific recommendations for treatment and chemoprophylaxis of sporadic H5N1 infection resulted from the benefits, harms, burden, and cost of interventions in several patient and exposure groups. (
  • The limited host range of influenza B and a slower rate of mutation than influenza A appears to preclude development of influenza B pandemics, but influenza B is a significant human pathogen and on an individual basis, infection may result in death. (
  • As of December 17, 2020, a total of 239 cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H5N1) virus have been reported in four countries: Cambodia, China, Vietnam and the Lao People's Democratic Republic, since 2003. (
  • Avian influenza (H5N1), informally known as bird flu, is a viral infection that can infect not only birds, but also humans and other animals. (
  • Influenza A viruses have a wide host range for infection, from wild waterfowl to poultry to humans. (
  • It is likely that the H5N1 infection among birds has become endemic in certain areas, meaning the disease has become constantly present. (
  • However, compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza (flu) infection can cause a more severe illness with a mortality rate (death rate) of about 0.1% of people who are infected with the virus. (
  • Influenza H5N1 infection in humans is characterized by high pharyngeal virus loads and frequent detection of viral RNA in rectum and blood. (
  • During influenza infection and subsequent vaccination, neutralizing antibodies typically develop against epitopes in the globular mind of the HA, a protein that looks a bit like a lollipop with a stem and a head (Determine 1). (
  • The MAbs could actually prevent infection with several influenza subtypes in mice also. (
  • Friday, February 04, 2005, 17:52 EST (5:52 PM EST) CDCHAN-00221-2005-02-04-UPD-N This update reviews 1) the current epidemiologic situation in Asia and 2) the U.S. surveillance, laboratory diagnostic, and infection control recommendations for avian influenza A (H5N1), which were most recently stated in August 2004. (
  • Three cases of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza have been detected recently in Shanghai and Anhui Province, and two of them have died, the other being in a critical condition, the National Health and Family Planning Commission said Sunday. (
  • On Saturday, the three cases were confirmed to be human infection with H7N9 avian influenza by an expert team summoned by the health and family planning commission, based on clinical observation, laboratory tests and epidemiological surveys. (
  • The expert team is working to study the toxicity and human-infection capacity of the virus, according to the commission. (
  • Bénédicte Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases, Volume 26, Issue 8 (2020) Abstract: In 2019, an outbreak of avian influenza (H3N1) virus infection occurred among commercial poultry in Belgium. (
  • The still unidentified adult from Alberta, Canada died earlier this week from a fatal infection later identified as the H5N1 virus. (
  • Information is insufficient to make recommendation on the use of the antivirals in prevention and treatment of swine influenza virus infection. (
  • For the ongoing outbreak of the swine influenza infection in the United States and Mexico, the national and the local authorities are recommending to use oseltamivir* or zanamivir for treatment and prevention of the disease based on the virus's susceptibility profile. (
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy, nor the researchers estimate alcohol-attributable cheap paxil cr 100 canada fractions (AAFs) routinely. (
  • Between 2 and 10 out of 100 people who have paralysis from poliovirus infection die because the virus affects the muscles that help them breathe. (
  • We analyzed the total repertoire of antibodies (Abs) against influenza A group 1 viruses induced in such a flu-resistant person after vaccination with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. (
  • The second type, the products of long-lived memory B cells established before vaccination, utilizes the 1-69 VH gene, binds to the stem of HA, and neutralizes both H1N1 and H5N1 viruses with few exceptions. (
  • Historically, human influenza A virus infections have been associated with H1N1, N2N2, and H3N2 subtypes of influenza A, although a 1997 outbreak in Hong Kong was identified as an H5N1 subtype. (
  • In April 2009, a new flu virus termed novel H1N1 swine flu developed in Mexico, rapidly spread worldwide, and caused the WHO to declare a flu pandemic. (
  • however, the previous pandemic flu virus (H1N1) has been available in vaccines and is considered part of the conventional circulating flu viruses. (
  • It quickly spread throughout the world so fast that the WHO declared this new flu strain (first termed novel H1N1 influenza A swine flu, often later shortened to H1N1 or swine flu) as the cause of a pandemic on June 11, 2009. (
  • Fortunately, there was a worldwide response that included vaccine production, good hygiene practices (especially hand washing) were emphasized, and the virus (H1N1) caused far less morbidity and mortality than was expected and predicted. (
  • For more than a week now, people have been thronging the RGICD for fear of having contracted the H1N1 virus. (
  • When she did not respond to the medicine even after 48 hours, doctors suspected she may have the H1N1 virus. (
  • It was only after her death that the results came - she had contracted the H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • Dr Nitin Singh, a paeditrician at the Ulsoor-based Lakeside Medical Centre and Hospital, explains the case of Roopa who is said to have had Lobar pneumonia (caused not by a virus but a bacteria pneumococcus), a condition never before seen in any H1N1 flu case. (
  • After his swab sample tested positive for the H1N1 virus, he was admitted to RGICD and quarantined. (
  • Each subtype superseded the previous strain, but in 1977 the H1N1 virus was reintroduced in the human population and both H3N2 and H1N1 viruses co-circulate since. (
  • An astonishing 99.9 percent of nearly a thousand flu viruses collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2013, were found to be the precise strain of H1N1 being sprayed up people's noses, or injected into customers bloodstreams at places like COSTCO, SafeWay, CVS, Walgreens, and Longs Drugs! (
  • Genetic analysis of the new H1N1 virus shows that the hemagglutinin (the H in H1N1) and two other genes are from the 1918 Spanish flu virus and have been living in pigs ever since. (
  • Studies also show that the neuraminidase (the N in H1N1) segment is from the Eurasian swine flu virus that probably leaped from birds to pigs in about 1979. (
  • The new virus differs in 21 of 387 amino acids from the H5N1 virus and the 1918 Spanish flu (also an H1N1 virus). (
  • If you click through to the source article in Science News, you will see a great three dimensional model of the influenza A/H1N1 virus with the origin of each of the virus's pieces explained. (
  • The reaction to this year's 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic has highlighted the necessity for additional approaches for intervention which preclude the last option of the influenza strain. (
  • After transformation of cross-neutralising antibodies R1a-B6 and R1a-A5 right into a bivalent format, no significant improvement in neutralisation activity was noticed against A(H1N1) along with a(H5N1) viruses. (
  • Sir, Pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus (H1N1pdm) was reported for the first time in Mexico in March 2009. (
  • There are no reports of seroprevalence studies of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus in pigs from India after emergence of pandemic influenza virus. (
  • Three influenza viruses namely H1N1pdm (A/Jalna/NIV9436/2009) similar to A/California/04/2009, seasonal H1N1 similar to A/New Caledonia/20/99 and H3N2 similar to A/Perth/16/2009 were used as antigens for detection of antibodies in pig serum samples. (
  • A total of 37.8 (C.I. 34.71, 40.96), 29 (C.I. 26.05, 31.81) and 0.3 per cent (C.I. 0, 0.69) serum samples were positive for antibodies against H1N1pdm, H3N2 and seasonal H1N1 viruses, respectively. (
  • The ten students had tested positive for Influenza A, and their results would be sent to the World Health Organisation laboratory in Australia to ascertain whether it was the H1N1 swine influenza, Mr Ryall said. (
  • Replikins Ltd released a statement on 8 April 2008 stating that H1N1 was replicating rapidly and may succeed H5N1 as the leading candidate for the next expected pandemic. (
  • There has been one new confirmed case of avian influenza (H7N9) in China, according to the Centre for Health Protection in Hong Kong. (
  • On Friday, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Preservation separated the H7N9 bird flu virus from body samples of the patients. (
  • The subtype of H7N9 bird flu virus has not been contracted to human beings before. (
  • There are no vaccines against the H7N9 bird flu virus either at home or abroad. (
  • A 2015 study of such markets found that "poultry workers and the general population are constantly exposed to H7N9 virus at these markets. (
  • At Hiaure in the northerly province of Friesland in the Netherlands, a flock of 44,630 birds was destroyed last week after a low-pathogenic H7N9 avian flu virus was detected during routine surveillance. (
  • Two weeks ago, the authorities in Hong Kong confirmed the presence of a low-pathogenic avian flu virus of the H7N9 subtype in a sample of fecal droppings at a wet poultry market. (
  • China's largest cities are taking precautions to stop the spread of influenza A(H7N9) in their human populations, according to Asia One . (
  • It appears that the case may be the same with both H5N1 and H7N9 bird flu in humans. (
  • H5N1 first broke out in 1997, then unfold between 2003 and 2011, whereas H7N9 was first detected in 2013. (
  • Two strains of chook flu, H5N1 and H7N9, first present in 2013, led to human contamination in Asia by way of contaminated birds. (
  • NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: The recent emergence of avian H5N1, H7N7 and H9N2 influenza viruses in humans has highlighted the ability of at least some avian subtypes to cross the species barrier into humans. (
  • Reassortant H9N2 influenza viruses containing H5N1-like PB1 genes isolated from black-billed magpies in Southern China. (
  • 2020. Vaccine Efficacy on The Novel Reassirtrnant H9N2 Virus in Indonesia. (
  • However, many humans infected with H5N1 present with gastrointestinal tract symptoms, suggesting that this may also be a target for the virus. (
  • This outbreak was not only significant because it resulted in multiple human infections and deaths, but it also represented the first known demonstration of avian influenza virus transmission to humans. (
  • Asked if bird flu is dangerous and contagious to humans, he said so far there have been no transmissions of the virus to humans. (
  • This review discusses the epidemiology, host range, human disease, outcome, treatment, and prevention of cross-transmission of avian influenza A into humans. (
  • Although it is possible for humans to contract the avian influenza virus from birds, human-to-human contact is much more difficult without prolonged contact. (
  • Were such a virus to acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, control would almost certainly be hampered by limited vaccine supplies unless global spread could be substantially delayed. (
  • Influenza viruses are divided into three types, designated A, B, and C, with influenza A types usually causing the most problems in humans. (
  • Bird flu (H5N1) mainly infects birds but it also infects humans who have close contacts with birds. (
  • Influenza, commonly called 'the flu,' is an illness caused by RNA viruses that infect the respiratory tract of many animals, birds, and humans. (
  • In April 2009, a new influenza strain against which the world population has little or no immunity was isolated from humans in Mexico. (
  • Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses cause severe disease in humans, but the basis for their virulence remains unclear. (
  • Novel influenza virus strains emerge periodically to which humans have little or no immunity, resulting in devastating pandemics. (
  • In domestic poultry, certain subtypes become highly pathogenic and can be lethal for humans, but so far no highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus acquired the ability of sustained human-to-human transmission. (
  • The virus shows no signs of being highly contagious among humans, according to the clinical observation on the cases' close contacts. (
  • China had their own battle with the pathogenic H5N1 strain back in 1997 when 18 humans were infected and 6 died, none of them having worked with poultry. (
  • Official reports indicate the longer-lasting more-exhausting "Drugstore Flu" sources from "live" vaccines that contain viruses weakened for ferrets, but not necessarily humans. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA, reported swine originated variant of influenza H3N2 virus in humans which has been linked to pig exposure. (
  • The virus probably infected over one third of the humans alive at the time , with a case mortality rate of up to 5% . (
  • Despite the annual influenza vaccine campaigns, influenza accounts for up to 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 excess deaths within the United Declares5 each year,6 and 3 to 5 million situations of severe disease and 250 000 to 500 000 fatalities worldwide7. (
  • Twenty hens were devided to five group, one group as a control group were unvaccinated group and four other groups were vaccinated with H5N1 AI inactive vaccine produced by several Indonesia vaccine company. (
  • Honolulu, HI (Feb 6, 2014)-A world leading vaccine industry whistle-blower says this year's longer-lasting more-exhausting flu, striking one-out-of-five Americans so far this season, sourced from "live" viruses spread through supermarkets and drugstore pharmacies. (
  • Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics. (
  • Apr 11, 2006 (CIDRAP News) - A mathematical modeling study suggests that a modestly effective vaccine could keep an influenza pandemic from striking more than 10% of the US population, but only if large amounts of vaccine were distributed quickly and the virus was not too highly contagious. (
  • The modeling study seems to lend some support to the US strategy of stockpiling a vaccine based on recent strains of H5N1 avian flu, which won't precisely match an emerging pandemic strain. (
  • But the model incorporates many assumptions that may or may not prove accurate in the event of a pandemic, and experts note that very little H5N1 vaccine would be available if a pandemic occurred anytime soon. (
  • We believe that a large stockpile of avian-based vaccine with potential pandemic influenza antigens, coupled with the capacity to rapidly make a better-matched vaccine based on human strains, would be the best strategy to mitigate pandemic influenza," the authors write. (
  • Dr. Gregory Poland, a vaccine expert at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., said the situation with the H5N1 vaccine being made for the US government points up the problems with the predictions. (
  • Its goals, the NIH said in a news release, were to determine how to slow the spread of a pandemic virus long enough to permit development and distribution of a well-matched vaccine and also how to limit the number of cases to less than 10% of the population, the percentage in an average flu season. (
  • Is there a human vaccine to protect swine influenza? (
  • Brown A.L., Bihr J.G., Vitamvas J.A., Miers L., An alternative method for evaluating potency of modified live canine parainfluenza virus vaccine, J. Biol. (
  • An ongoing collaboration between the Emory Vaccine Center and the ICGEB (International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology) in New Delh, investigating immune responses to dengue virus, is getting some attention. (
  • The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contri. (
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 was later confirmed by virus isolation. (
  • they belonged to a single strain and were closely related to other HPAI (H5N1) strains isolated during this period in European, Asian, and African countries. (
  • Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has returned to the poultry sectors of China and Mexico, and new outbreaks of the disease have occurred in Bulgaria, India, Nepal, and Taiwan. (
  • After an absence of almost seven years, HPAI of the H5N1 subtype has returned to Liaoning province in China. (
  • The cause of the new HPAI outbreak linked to the H7N3 virus variant in Mexico is also unknown. (
  • The Odisha state in eastern India suffered a series of eight outbreaks of HPAI linked to the H5N1 virus at the end of last year. (
  • Since March, Nepal has reported a series of HPAI outbreaks caused by the same virus variant. (
  • Taiwan's ongoing battle to control outbreaks of HPAI linked to the H5N2 virus continues. (
  • For instance during the 2003 outbreak of HPAI H7N7 viruses in the Netherlands, 30 million birds were killed or culled. (
  • While this virus has successfully been controlled, the HPAI H5N1 virus which emerged in Asia spread worldwide, infecting more than 400 people with a 60% mortality rate. (
  • This chapter will focus on HPAI viruses, in particular H5N1, as it was, until recently, expected to cause the next pandemic. (
  • Veterinary authorities in Lebanon have reported a second outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by the H5N1 virus variant to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). (
  • Veterinary authorities in Nigeria have reported to OIE three new outbreaks of HPAI in poultry caused by the H5N1 virus variant. (
  • Vietnam has suffered from many sporadic HPAI outbreaks in recent years but the veterinary authority has declared the latest H5N6 and H5N1 events "resolved" to the OIE. (
  • CHINA - Wild birds found dead in Tibet in May were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). (
  • Of carrying on concern is extremely pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) which includes demonstrated mortality prices in excess of 50% in contaminated human beings [4]. (
  • What is avian influenza or bird flu? (
  • Meanwhile, the Public Authority for Food and Nutrition yesterday said that the ministry of commerce and industry has placed a ban on the import of all kinds of poultry meat (fresh and frozen) and their derivatives from India due to the outbreak of bird flu (H5N1). (
  • It is known informally as avian flu or bird flu - refers to "influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. (
  • Bird flu" is a phrase similar to "swine flu," "dog flu," "horse flu," or "human flu" in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. (
  • CDC's Web site is rich with information on bird flu, or avian influenza as the agency calls it, at . (
  • Gioia et al.10 examined antibodies from individuals immunized with inactivated seasonal influenza Mocetinostat computer virus vaccines and observed neutralizing antibodies and enhanced T-cell reactivity against H5N1 bird flu viruses. (
  • The deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu is essentially a problem of industrial poultry practices. (
  • The H5N1 variant of "Bird Flu" has officially arrived in North America claiming its first victim. (
  • Much has been made of the report that the Canadian H5N1 bird flu victim had little to no respiratory involvement, ie no coughing etc. (
  • this lineage is evolutionarily distinct from the influenza A(H3N8) viruses circulating among birds in Asia (online Technical Appendix Figures 1-7, Techapp1.pdf). (
  • Recent spread of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus to poultry and wild birds has increased the threat of human infections with H5N1 virus worldwide. (
  • Birds are normally the carriers of the virus, carrying it over great distances, affecting a large population of birds on all continents. (
  • Since birds excrete even while flying, they provide a pleasant aerosol of the influenza virus, a likely reason why crows contract the virus in India. (
  • The second strain found is H5N1 in ducks in Kerala and migratory birds in Himachal. (
  • However, most forms of the virus are restricted to birds. (
  • Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. (
  • The virus is found in secretions from the nostrils, mouth, and eyes of infected birds as well as their droppings. (
  • Bird, or avian, flu is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds, where it is highly contagious and can be deadly. (
  • Are wild birds carrying the virus along migratory pathways? (
  • however it is in birds that all subtypes can be found. (
  • The natural reservoirs are wild birds, which host all subtypes. (
  • As Beijing and the world keep an eye out for any new emerging diseases out of China, the country's agriculture ministry on Wednesday said it had confirmed an outbreak of H5N8 avian influenza in a flock of wild birds at a wetlands park in the city of Nagqu in Tibet. (
  • Avian influenza happens primarily in birds and poultry. (
  • Such events can cause pandemic outbreaks of influenza by the emergence of an avian-human reassortant virus with the ability to spread rapidly in a nave human and animal populations. (
  • An increased incidence has been seen in flocks after infectious bronchitis virus outbreaks. (
  • These severe outbreaks occur when a portion of the human population is exposed to a flu strain against which the population has little or no immunity because the virus has become altered in a significant way. (
  • Unusually severe worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) have occurred several times in the last hundred years since influenza virus was identified in 1933. (
  • The 2004 outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 disease in China led to a great poultry loss and society attention. (
  • While they were not recognised as such at the time, major or pandemic outbreaks of influenza disease have occurred throughout recorded history. (
  • Virusys has developed a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of influenza B nucleoprotein-specific antibodies in serum which may be used for the detection of influenza B NP antibodies in human serum as well as experimental animals. (
  • Intended Use: These polyclonal antibodies can be used for detection of H5N1 Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase proteins in bodily fluid or tissue by ELISA. (
  • These scholarly research examined neutralizing antibodies that prevent the infectivity from the malware, from people vaccinated or infected with influenza virus previously. (
  • The intensive study pinpoints a small number of neutralizing antibodies that, surprisingly, are aimed against a wide selection of influenza strains. (
  • Influenza viruses have succeeded as pathogens because of their ability to escape neutralization by antibodies elicited during previous disease or vaccination. (
  • Neutralizing antibodies are usually particular for related infections , nor cross-react with various other HA subtypes antigenically, though T cellular reactions cross-react across subtypes8,9. (
  • Latest studies determined antibodies that neutralize HAs of different subtypes broadly. (
  • Kinetics of neutralizing antibodies in patients naturally infected by H5N1 virus. (
  • Viruses isolated from patients during the first two weeks of the current outbreak already have changes on the outer surface on the neuraminidase protein that could interfere with antibodies against the virus or alter the effectiveness of future vaccines. (
  • The wide neutralising activity and favourable features, such as for example high stability, basic executive into bivalent substances and low priced creation make these solitary domain antibodies appealing applicants for diagnostics and immunotherapy of pandemic influenza. (
  • Antibodies stand for among the first classes of protecting agents as well as the unaggressive transfer of serum from convalescent individuals was used through the 1918 pandemic [12] and recently to take care of a severely sick H5N1 individual [13]. (
  • New research from Emory University indicates that nearly all people hospitalized with COVID-19 develop virus-neutralizing antibodies within six days of testing positive. (
  • Emory's study focused on those neutralizing antibodies, which can stop the virus from infecting other cells. (
  • In the study, researchers looked at antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD), part of the spike protein on the outside of the virus. (
  • Overall, the quality of the underlying evidence for all recommendations was rated as very low because it was based on small case series of H5N1 patients, on extrapolation from preclinical studies, and high quality studies of seasonal influenza. (
  • Much of the illness and death caused by conventional or seasonal influenza can be prevented by annual influenza vaccination. (
  • Three independent studies scanned combinatorial antibody libraries in which immunoglobulin light and heavy chains were amplified by PCR from survivors of H5N1 contamination11 or recipients of seasonal influenza vaccine12, or a pooled nonimmune human antibody phage display library2. (
  • Level of resistance to NAIs among seasonal influenza computer virus was low ( 0.1%) in the field isolates until 2006-2007 time of year. (
  • Today's study was completed to judge antiviral medicines susceptibility for seasonal influenza A and B infections circulating in India from 2004 to 2011. (
  • Despite effective vaccines, about 250 000 to 500 000 people die each year of seasonal influenza. (
  • Anti-viral drugs such as for example oseltamavir and rimantadine are a significant addition to the arsenal of treatment plans against both seasonal and pandemic influenza, nevertheless, level of resistance continues to be noticed and they'll become inadequate as time passes [7] undoubtedly, [8]. (
  • The graph shows case mortality rates in percent for pneumonia and influenza combined for 1918-1919, and for seasonal influenza for 1928-1929, for different age groups. (
  • Antiviral drugs for seasonal influenza are available in some countries and effectively prevent and treat the illness. (
  • Regional and seasonal influenza. (
  • Influenza A viruses are divided into 16 hemagglutinin (H1-16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1-9) subtypes. (
  • Influenza A virus, typically encountered more frequently than types B and C, and associated with the majority of serious epidemics, can be further subdivided into strains or subtypes based on antigenic differences in the external hemagglutinin proteins (H1-H18) and neuraminidase proteins (N1-N11). (
  • These subtypes are classified based on the combination of the virus coat glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. (
  • Although it has been known that cleavage site and glycosylation patterns of the HA protein play important roles in determining the pathogenicity of H5 avian influenza viruses, it has only recently been shown that an additional glycosylation site within the globular head of the neuraminidase protein also contributes to the high virulence of the H5N1 virus. (
  • The principle underlying licensed influenza virus vaccines is the induction of an immune response to two proteins, hemagglutinin (HA), the protein responsible for attachment to the receptor (sialic acid) and fusion of the viral membrane to the endosome during viral entry and neuraminidase (NA), the proteins that cleaves sialic acidity through the cellular and virion membranes, liberating progeny virions. (
  • Background & objectives: Latest influenza antiviral resistance research in Southern East Asia, Europe and america reveal adamantane and neuraminidase inhibitor (NAIs) resistance. (
  • Using the persistence of amantadine-resistant infections, usage of the newer band of antiviral neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamavir continues to be suggested for treatment and/or avoidance of influenza A and B since 2007. (
  • Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. (
  • There are two classes of such medicines, 1) adamantanes (amantadine and remantadine), and 2) inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase (oseltamivir * and zanamivir). (
  • Nonpathogenic replication-defective adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein (NP), or matrix 1 (M1) proteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses will be tested for their efficacy related to long-lasting and broad immunity in suitable animal models. (
  • Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin gene confers protection against homologous and heterologous H5N1 influenza virus infections in macaques. (
  • Although all flu viruses carry a variant of the hemagglutinin gene, Kawaoka says that the 1918 version "does something different, but we don't know how it does it. (
  • Studies of the binding properties of influenza hemagglutinin receptor-site mutants. (
  • Of these specimens, 78 (5.7%) were confirmed by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay to be positive for H9, and sequencing data for 55 virus isolates were generated. (
  • Following this US FDA approval, the providers will be able to use the same dose of FLUARIX QUADRIVALENT (15 ug of hemagglutinin per virus strain in 0.5 mL) to cover all eligible persons from six months of age and up, added the company. (
  • Scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and Johnson & Johnson's Janssen pharmaceutical subsidiary reported they had mimicked a protein on the flu virus known as a hemagglutinin--and in particular a portion of the protein called the hemagglutinin head, where many mutations occur--helping them develop experimental vaccines that protected animals against numerous flu types. (
  • H5N1 hemagglutinin interacts with cell surface proteins containing oligosaccharides with terminal sialyl residues. (
  • Interpretation & conclusions: Introduction of influenza infections resistant to amantadine and oseltamivir regardless of negligible using antivirals emphasizes the necessity for constant monitoring of antiviral level of resistance. (
  • Two lineages of influenza B infections Victoria and Yamagata (HA/NA centered) have already been co-circulating since 1980s. (
  • The Country wide Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune, displays genetic variants and medication susceptibility in circulating influenza infections received from local centres. (
  • Influenza infections, isolated from 2004. (
  • SRLV) are a group of highly divergent viruses responsible for global and fatal infections in sheep and goats. (
  • Because doctors in Beijing didn't have any experience with BV infections, the veterinarian was asked to visit several hospitals for treatment, but was not diagnosed until April 17 when doctors collected his cerebrospinal fluid and that of his two co-workers to test for monkey-related viruses. (
  • In this study, we demonstrated that the human gut expresses abundant avian H5N1 receptors, is readily infected ex vivo by the H5N1 virus, and produces infectious viral particles in organ culture. (
  • An autopsy colonic sample from an H5N1-infected patient showed evidence of viral antigen expression in the gut epithelium. (
  • Emergence of other novel influenza A viral subtypes with pandemic potential, or changes in the pathogenicity of H5N1 virus strains, will require an update of these guidelines and WHO will be monitoring this closely. (
  • Avian flu is a highly contagious viral disease caused by type A influenza viruses that generally affects poultry such as chickens and turkeys. (
  • Viral RNA in blood was present only in fatal H5N1 cases and was associated with higher pharyngeal viral loads. (
  • We observed low peripheral blood T-lymphocyte counts and high chemokine and cytokine levels in H5N1-infected individuals, particularly in those who died, and these correlated with pharyngeal viral loads. (
  • Genetic characterization of H5N1 viruses revealed mutations in the viral polymerase complex associated with mammalian adaptation and virulence. (
  • Our observations indicate that high viral load, and the resulting intense inflammatory responses, are central to influenza H5N1 pathogenesis. (
  • 1 (2020) Abstract: BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. (
  • This presents challenging because the influenza disease is continually changing meaning immunity through contact with one viral stress does not always provide adequate safety against long term strains. (
  • Apparently we are supposed to take comfort in the fact that the family of this individual and others they had close contact with upon their return are asymptomatic and being treated prophylactically with anti-viral medication while under supervision for the next 10 days, which is double the time the H5N1 takes to normally incubate and become symptomatic. (
  • The GMT of HI antibody indicated high antibody titres against H1N1pdm followed by H3N2 virus [Figure 1] . (
  • The data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells and antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive and therapeutic use. (
  • We already know that the virus shows resistance to two antiviral medications currently used for treatment of influenza - amantadine (Cerebramed) and rimantadine (Roflual). (
  • The World Health Organisation (WHO) website says "The majority of people who contract the virus experience the milder disease and recover without antiviral treatment or medical care. (
  • With a more contagious virus, additional measures such as school closings, travel bans, and antiviral drugs would have to be used in combination with vaccination, says the report published online last week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (
  • Most of the previously reported swine influenza cases recovered fully from the disease without requiring medical attention and without antiviral medicines. (
  • Some influenza viruses develop resistance to the antiviral medicines, limiting the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis and treatment. (
  • The main goal of this research is to develop effective influenza virus A vaccines which induce long-lasting and broad immunity against multiple strains of influenza. (
  • The proposed research explores the utility of adenoviral vectors for the construction of vaccines that provide protection against pandemic influenza. (
  • Influenza A undergoes frequent antigenic changes that require new vaccines to be developed and people to obtain a new vaccination every year. (
  • With a moderately transmissible virus (meaning each case leads to fewer than 1.9 additional cases), "Our model suggests that the rapid production and distribution of vaccines, even if poorly matched to the circulating strains, could significantly slow disease spread and limit the number ill to less than 10% of the population, particularly if children are preferentially vaccinated," says the report by Timothy C. Germann and colleagues. (
  • They are H5N8, a subtype of avian influenza found in poultry and wild animals, which has been found in crows in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh. (
  • BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of hypervirulent subtypes of avian influenza has underlined the potentially devastating effects of pandemic influenza. (
  • The public health implications of the pandemic therefore remain in doubt even as we now grapple with the feared emergence of a pandemic caused by H5N1 or other virus. (
  • A state of emergency has been declared in Malaysia's northeastern Kelantan state after an outbreak of avian influenza virus H5N1. (
  • The Bhopal-based National Institute for High Security Animal Diseases (NIHSAD), the accredited laboratory for confirming avian influenza, has detected two strains of influenza viruses so far. (
  • The complet genome of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach and it was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalopathy virus (VMEV). (
  • Structure and receptor binding preferences of recombinant hemagglutinins from avian and human H6 and H10 influenza A virus subtypes. (
  • Avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses can directly infect and replicate in human gut tissues. (
  • Our results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that H5N1 can directly target human gut tissues. (
  • While influenza A virus will infect a wide variety of species, influenza B virus is predominantly a human pathogen, although it has been found to infect seals. (
  • Human cases of H5N1 are rare, but if infected, the death rate is about 60% according to the World Health Organization. (
  • Recently, the cross-species transmission of avian influenza A, particularly subtype H5N1, has highlighted the importance of the non-human subtypes and their incidence in the human population has increased over the past decade. (
  • To assess the relevance of these findings for human disease, we performed virological and immunological studies in 18 individuals with H5N1 and 8 individuals infected with human influenza virus subtypes. (
  • There was some evidence of human to human spread of this virus, but it is thought that the transmission efficiency was fairly low. (
  • Virus isolated from a human infected with the H5N1 strain in 1997 could bind to oligosaccharides from human as well as avian sources, indicating its species-jumping ability. (
  • It's worrisome though, since if the H5N1 genes mix with those from a human flu, the resulting could spread from person to person with more ease. (
  • H5 disease can be endemic in chicken in certain elements of the entire world and presently does not look like in a position to transmit easily from individual to individual despite causing a minimum of 384 deaths world-wide (WHO site, H5N1 instances.pdf.accessed14Jan2014). (
  • The viruses obtained from the recent human cases with swine influenza in the United States were sensitive to oselatmivir * and zanamivir but resistant to amantadine and remantadine. (
  • The RBD is what grips on to human cells and allows the virus to enter them. (
  • According to a new paper in the Journal of Virology, H5N1 avian influenza viruses may be widespread in Tree Sparrow populations in Asia. (
  • The common usage of NAIs for pandemic control may create raising selective pressure for the introduction and pass on of drug-resistant influenza. (
  • However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. (
  • Evaluation of the duration and breadth of influenza-specific immunity in experimental animals. (
  • This get away occurs yearly by stage mutations across the conserved receptor binding pocket from the HA (antigenic drift) or a lot more rarely, from the introduction of the book HA subtype to that your population does not have immunity producing a pandemic (antigenic change). (
  • Intro Pandemic influenza generally happens when a fresh disease emerges and infects the global population that has little if any pre-existing immunity [1]. (
  • A strong recommendation to treat H5N1 patients with oseltamivir was made in part because of the severity of the disease. (
  • It is believed, however, that oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) should still be effective against the currently circulating strains of the H5N1 virus. (
  • 244-247 of gene of influenza A have already been implicated towards level of resistance to oseltamivir and/or zanamavir8. (
  • During 1997, an H5N1 avian influenza virus was determined to be the cause of death in 6 of 18 infected patients in Hong Kong. (
  • So far, about 700 people have died from H5N1 since its reemergence in 1997, mainly in Asia and Africa. (
  • By way of background, three major pandemics occurred in the 20th century, in 1918-1919, 1957, and 1968, mainly due to genetic variants of type A influenza virus. (
  • Generation and characterization of adenoviral vectors expressing HA, NP, or M1 proteins of avian influenza viruses. (
  • APPROACH: Nonpathogenic replication-defective adenoviral vectors will be used for expressing HA, NP, or M1 proteins of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. (
  • Flu strains differ in their H and N subtypes based on the amino acid makeup in two major structural proteins in the virus. (
  • Changes to these proteins change which types of cells in what species the virus can infect, and how dangerous the virus is when it infects an organism. (
  • Like the influenza virus, drug treatments are constantly changing and improving, but currently, timely vaccination is still considered to be the best defense against the flu. (
  • Influenza viruses can be divided into three classes, A, B, and C, largely based upon conserved antigenic differences in the internal nucleoprotein. (
  • 2010. A Computation Framework for Influenza Antigenic Cartography. (
  • 2011. Extent of Antigenic Cross-Reactivity Among Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Viruses. (
  • 2002. Structure Of Antigenic Sites On the Haemagglutinin Molecule of H5 Avian Influenza and Phenotypic of Escape Mutants. (
  • CNN has a cool feature about antigenic shift and how the flu virus can mutate to cause pandemics . (
  • H5N1 is an especially scary strain of influenza, since it has a high mortality rate and can also be spread from person to person, though it's a rare event. (
  • Medical historians have used contemporary reports to identify probable influenza epidemics and pandemics from as early as 412 BCE - and the term " influenza " was first used in 1357 CE, describing the supposed " influence " of the stars on the disease. (
  • Influenza A pandemics in modern times. (
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: To evaluate the potential of local control measures and travel restrictions to impede global dissemination, we developed stochastic models of the international spread of influenza based on extensions of coupled epidemic transmission models. (
  • Which of the following subtypes is most likely to cause a highly pathogenic form of avian influenza in poultry? (
  • During March 2006, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) occurred in multiple poultry farms in Israel. (
  • Kuwait was declared free of highly pathogenic avian influenza on July 21, 2007. (
  • More recently, the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus is descended from a strain that first appeared in Scotland in 1959. (
  • Influenza virus: Highly pathogenic avian influenza. (
  • This strain of the virus is highly pathogenic and the WHO reports that those infected with H5N1 have a 60% mortality rate . (
  • For a highly transmissible virus (R greater than 1.9), it would take a combination of measures to limit the pandemic, the model predicted. (
  • To determine the difference in age-specific immunoprotection during waves of influenza epidemics, we analyzed excess monthly death data for the 1918-1. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce local transmission of influenza are likely to be more effective at reducing the rate of global spread and less vulnerable to implementation delays than air travel restrictions. (
  • 2012. Public Health and Biosecurity Restricted Data On Influenza H5N1 Virus Transmission. (
  • Mechanical transmission of African swine fever virus by Stomoxys calcitrans: Insights from a mechanistic model. (
  • transmission model for ASF virus (ASFV) within an outdoor domestic pig farm in order to assess the relative contribution of stable flies to the spread of the virus . (
  • Phylogenetic Analysis of Belgian Small Ruminant Lentiviruses Supports Cross Species Virus Transmission and Identifies New Subtype B5 Strains. (
  • Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore transmission of H1N1pdm and other influenza viruses in pigs in Maharashtra and Gujarat States. (
  • The "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, which caused approximately 50 million deaths worldwide, remains an ominous warning to public health. (
  • The geography of the KYZV and XJ-160 isolation points and their genetic distance from the European viruses allow theKYZV to be suggested as a SINV (genotype IV) topotypic variant typical of Transcaucasia and Central Asia. (
  • Genome sequencing and virus isolation is in course of and an epidemiological investigation has been initiated, the well being ministry mentioned. (
  • The result showed that H5N1 AIV NG isolate were able to neutralized by antibody anti H5N1 AIV from egg yolk produced by hens vaccinated with VS1, VC1, VV1 and VM1, but LW isolate were able to neutralized by showed that H5N1 AIV NG isolate were able to neutralized by antibody anti H5N1 AIV from egg yolk produced by hens vaccinated with VS1, VC1, and VM1. (
  • The African swine fever virus isolate Belgium 2018/1 shows high virulence in European wild boar. (
  • Computer-Guided Approach to Access the Anti-influenza Activity of Licorice Constituents. (
  • Materials & Strategies In India, influenza monitoring continues to be completed in multisite local centres located at various areas of India (Pune and Nagpur in Western, Delhi and Lucknow in North, Kolkata and Dibrugarh in East, Chennai, Vellore and Kerala in South)20. (
  • The virus spread quickly across Europe, and via troop transports again to northern Russia, north Africa and India . (
  • The virus quickly spread through Europe, to the USA, to India by October 1918 , and to Australia by January 1919, all the while spreading through and around Africa. (
  • However, one expert has expressed concern, telling the South China Morning Post that the import ban does not apply to species other than chickens, and that the virus could easily be reintroduced to the territory on silkies ("Chinese chickens"), chukar partridges, pheasants and quails, which are coming into Hong Kong from China increasing numbers to fill the demand gap. (
  • There are thousands of different variants of the hundreds of different HN subtypes in thousands of different bird species. (
  • Efficient control of Japanese encephalitis virus in the central nervous system of infected pigs occurs in the absence of a pronounced inflammatory immune response. (
  • Influenza, commonly called "the flu," is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract. (
  • Baumgärtner W.K., Metzler A.E., Krakowka S., Koestner A., In vitro identification and characterization of a virus isolated from a dog with neurological dysfunction, Infect. (
  • Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. (
  • With these cases, however, the risk for genetic change and development of a novel virus increases, heightening the need for public health and hospital measures. (
  • GRAIN , an international non-governmental organisation (NGO) which promotes the sustainable management and use of agricultural biodiversity based on people's control over genetic resources and local knowledge, has just come out with a report that places primary responsibility for spreading H5N1 avian influenza on the international poultry industry. (
  • a total of 30 primers and probe sets) used for SARS-CoV-2 detection and the impact of the virus ' genetic evolution on four of them. (
  • Precision medicine" is an anti-cancer treatment strategy in which doctors use genetic or other tests to identify vulnerabilities in an individual's cancer subtype. (
  • You can find 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes among influenza A viruses and the 16 HA genes fall into two phylogenetic groups (I and II)4. (
  • If we are to ever really understand these viruses, we'll need widespread testing of as many species as possible. (
  • Influenza A viruses are known since decades to cause disease in avian and mammalian species. (
  • These exotic species are just as vulnerable to the avian flu virus, according to Dr. Alexander Wong, consultant to the United Nations. (
  • Though the virus can spread through airborne secretions, the disease itself is not an airborne disease. (
  • Laboratory experiments suggest that virus-induced cytokine dysregulation may contribute to disease severity. (
  • Monkey B virus (BV), also known as Herpes B virus, has a fatality rate of 70 to 80 percent, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's English journal the "China CDC Weekly" cited in its July 17 report . (
  • is when at least two different strains of a virus combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two original strains. (
  • Baumgärtner W., Krakowka S., Blakeslee J., Evolution of in vitro persistence of two strains of canine parainfluenza virus. (
  • Baumgärtner W., Krakowka S., Durchfeld B., In vitro cytopathogenicity and in vivo virulence of two strains of canine parainfluenza virus, Vet. (