An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Two outbreaks of influenza A (H3N2) in a Japanese nursing home in the winter of 1996-1997, with differing vaccine efficacy. (1/1009)

Sixty of 128 (46.9%) residents of a nursing home were immunized with two doses of the trivalent split influenza vaccine. They developed 7.4-11.5-fold antibody increases, with a 69-82% protection rate, presenting good immune response rates to the influenza vaccine. Two outbreaks of influenza A (H3N2) occurred. There were no significant antigenic differences among the vaccine strain and the strains isolated from both outbreaks in haemagglutination-inhibition tests, suggesting that the second might have been a reoccurrence. There were no residents who were infected in both outbreaks. The vaccine efficacy against clinical illness in the first outbreak of typical influenza-like-illness (ILI) was 51% (relative risk: 0.49), and the febrile period was reduced significantly by vaccination. In the second outbreak, however, in which all patients had atypical ILI with a high fever but not respiratory symptoms, vaccine efficacy was not apparent for unknown reason.  (+info)

Laboratory characteristics of an attenuated influenza type A (H3N2) virus ('Alice' strain). (2/1009)

The Alice strain of live attenuated influenza virus was obtained by selection of a gamma inhibitor-resistant strain from a virus recombinant between A/PR/8/34 (HON1) and A/England/42/72 (H3N2). Its behaviour in vitro and in vivo was studied. Three marker systems were investigated: resistance to serum inhibitors, growth capacity at high temperature and low sensitivity to amantadine hydrochloride. In ferrets the strain was found to be attenuated and immunogenic. Passages in man, animals and eggs have not affected its resistance to gamma inhibitors.  (+info)

Efficacy of influenza vaccine in the elderly in welfare nursing homes: reduction in risks of mortality and morbidity during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic. (3/1009)

The effect of influenza vaccination on the occurrence and severity of influenza virus infection in a population residing in nursing homes for the elderly was studied during an influenza A (H3N2) epidemic in Japan. Of 22,462 individuals living in 301 welfare nursing homes, 10,739 received either one dose (2027 subjects) or two doses (8712 subjects) of inactivated, subunit trivalent influenza vaccine. During the period Nov. 1998 to March 1999, there were 950 cases of influenza infection diagnosed clinically, with virus isolation or serology. There were statistically significantly fewer cases of influenza, hospital admissions due to severe infection and deaths due to influenza in the vaccinated cohort (256 cases, 32 hospital admissions, 1 death) than in the unvaccinated controls (694 cases, 150 hospital admissions, 5 deaths; reduction rates 59.8%, 76.9% and 79.1% respectively). Vaccination was almost equally effective in those who received one dose of vaccine and those who received two doses. No serious adverse reactions to vaccination were recorded. Thus influenza vaccination is safe and effective in this population, and should be an integral part of the routine care of persons aged > or =65 years residing in nursing homes.  (+info)

A simple restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy that can distinguish the internal genes of human H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses. (4/1009)

A simple molecular technique for rapid genotyping was developed to monitor the internal gene composition of currently circulating influenza A viruses. Sequence information from recent H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 human virus isolates was used to identify conserved regions within each internal gene, and gene-specific PCR primers capable of amplifying all three virus subtypes were designed. Subtyping was based on subtype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns within the amplified regions. The strategy was tested in a blinded fashion using 10 control viruses of each subtype (total, 30) and was found to be very effective. Once standardized, the genotyping method was used to identify the origin of the internal genes of 51 influenza A viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong during and immediately following the 1997-1998 H5N1 outbreak. No avian-human or H1-H3 reassortants were detected. Less than 2% (6 of 486) of the RFLP analyses were inconclusive; all were due to point mutations within a restriction site. The technique was also used to characterize the internal genes of two avian H9N2 viruses isolated from children in Hong Kong during 1999.  (+info)

Antigenic drift in the influenza A virus (H3N2) nucleoprotein and escape from recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (5/1009)

Viruses exploit different strategies to escape immune surveillance, including the introduction of mutations in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. The sequence of these epitopes is critical for their binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and recognition by specific CTLs, both of which interactions may be lost by mutation. Sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A viruses (H3N2) isolated in The Netherlands from 1989 to 1999 revealed two independent amino acid mutations at the anchor residue of the HLA-B27-specific CTL epitope SRYWAIRTR (383 to 391). A R384K mutation was found in influenza A viruses isolated during the influenza season 1989-1990 but not in subsequent seasons. In the influenza season 1993-1994, a novel mutation in the same CTL epitope at the same position was introduced. This R384G mutation proved to be conserved in all influenza A viruses isolated from 1993 onwards. Both mutations R384K and R384G abrogated MHC class I presentation and allowed escape from recognition by specific CTLs.  (+info)

Evolution of swine H3N2 influenza viruses in the United States. (6/1009)

During 1998, severe outbreaks of influenza were observed in four swine herds in the United States. This event was unique because the causative agents, H3N2 influenza viruses, are infrequently isolated from swine in North America. Two antigenically distinct reassortant viruses (H3N2) were isolated from infected animals: a double-reassortant virus containing genes similar to those of human and swine viruses, and a triple-reassortant virus containing genes similar to those of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses (N. N. Zhou, D. A. Senne, J. S. Landgraf, S. L. Swenson, G. Erickson, K. Rossow, L. Liu, K.-J. Yoon, S. Krauss, and R. G. Webster, J. Virol. 73:8851-8856, 1999). Because the U.S. pig population was essentially naive in regard to H3N2 viruses, it was important to determine the extent of viral spread. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays of 4, 382 serum samples from swine in 23 states indicated that 28.3% of these animals had been exposed to classical swine-like H1N1 viruses and 20.5% had been exposed to the triple-reassortant-like H3N2 viruses. The HI data suggested that viruses antigenically related to the double-reassortant H3N2 virus have not become widespread in the U.S. swine population. The seroreactivity levels in swine serum samples and the nucleotide sequences of six additional 1999 isolates, all of which were of the triple-reassortant genotype, suggested that H3N2 viruses containing avian PA and PB2 genes had spread throughout much of the country. These avian-like genes cluster with genes from North American avian viruses. The worldwide predominance of swine viruses containing an avian-like internal gene component suggests that these genes may confer a selective advantage in pigs. Analysis of the 1999 swine H3N2 isolates showed that the internal gene complex of the triple-reassortant viruses was associated with three recent phylogenetically distinct human-like hemagglutinin (HA) molecules. Acquisition of HA genes from the human virus reservoir will significantly affect the efficacy of the current swine H3N2 vaccines. This finding supports continued surveillance of U.S. swine populations for influenza virus activity.  (+info)

Change in receptor-binding specificity of recent human influenza A viruses (H3N2): a single amino acid change in hemagglutinin altered its recognition of sialyloligosaccharides. (7/1009)

Human H3N2 influenza A viruses were known to preferentially bind to sialic acid (SA) in alpha2,6Gal linkage on red blood cells (RBC). However, H3N2 viruses isolated in MDCK cells after 1992 did not agglutinate chicken RBC (CRBC). Experiments with point-mutated hemagglutinin (HA) of A/Aichi/51/92, one of these viruses, revealed that an amino acid change from Glu to Asp at position 190 (E190D) was responsible for the loss of ability to bind to CRBC. A/Aichi/51/92 did not agglutinate CRBC treated with alpha2, 3-sialidase, suggesting that SAalpha2,3Gal on CRBC might not inhibit the binding of the virus to SAalpha2,6Gal on CRBC. However, the virus agglutinated derivatized CRBC resialylated with SAalpha2, 6Galbeta1,4GlcNAc. These findings suggested that the E190D change might have rendered the HA able to distinguish sialyloligosaccharides on the derivatized CRBC containing the SAalpha2,6Galbeta1,4GlcNAc sequence from those on the native CRBC.  (+info)

Two cases of severe bronchopneumonia due to influenza A (H3N2) virus: detection of influenza virus gene using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (8/1009)

We report two cases of severe bronchopneumonia due to influenza A (H3N2) virus. The severity of the disease necessitated initiation of empiric therapy based on the present illness and clinical data on admission. Both patients were improved by artificial ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressures and administration of broad spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids before confirming the diagnosis of viral bronchopneumonia using viral culture and serological tests. Within 24 hours, influenza A (H3N2) virus was identified by amplification of the pathogen genes by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the stored bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of both cases. This suggests that a combination of detection methods of pathogens using RT-PCR and BAL fluid will facilitate determination of rational treatment aimed at influenza A virus.  (+info)

These results indicate that adaptive evolution occurs only sporadically in influenza virus, and that influenza virus diversity and evolution is strongly affected by chance events, such as reassortment between strains coinfecting a host or the introduction of a particular variant from elsewhere. These factors make predicting future patterns of influenza virus evolution more difficult, as vaccine strain selection then becomes dependent upon intensive surveillance, whole-genome sequencing, and phenotypic analysis.. This study supported by Cooperative Research 14 Agreement Number U50/CCU223671 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Laboratory support was provided by M. Kleabonas and R. Bennett at the Wadsworth Center.. Citation: Nelson MI, Simonsen L, Viboud C, Miller MA, Taylor J, et al. (2006) Stochastic processes are key determinants of short-term evolution in influenza A virus. PLoS Pathog 2(12): e125. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0020125 ...
Nicola Lewis is a senior research associate and veterinarian in the Department of Zoology. Her research interests focus on the antigenic and genetic evolution of viral pathogens, particularly influenza A viruses in both wild and domestic animals, the host population ecology and the potential role in disease dynamics, and the inter-host interface in the context of emerging infectious diseases.. Ongoing projects include the establishment of a surveillance system and local capacity building to enable the study the ecology and evolution of avian influenza viruses in wild and domestic birds in the Republic of Georgia, phylogeographic studies of avian influenza A viruses in Palearctic wild birds, using population genetics to characterize the structure of wild avian influenza A host species, and quantifying the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza A viruses in birds, swine and horses globally, particularly to inform vaccine strain selection as a means of control.. Nicola is a member of the ...
Early registration is now available for our next Yeast Fundamentals for Homebrewers course held at our San Diego location. Sign up before January 15th and save $25 on registration. These info-packed courses tend to sell out quick, so sign up soon if you want to secure your spot! The course covers a range of topics with the homebrewer specifically in mind, including yeast strain selection, flavor impact and pitching rates, as well as in-depth information on yeast starters and proper handling.. Speakers include Chris White, Neva Parker, Kara Taylor and John Carroll.. For more information, contact [email protected]. ...
A canine influenza A(H3N2) virus emerged in the United States in February-March 2015, causing respiratory disease in dogs. The virus had previously been circulating among dogs in Asia, where it originated through the transfer of an avian-origin influenza virus around 2005 and continues to circulate. Sequence analysis suggests the US outbreak was initiated by a single introduction, in Chicago, of an H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating among dogs in South Korea in 2015. Despite local control measures, the virus has continued circulating among dogs in and around Chicago and has spread to several other areas of the country, particularly Georgia and North Carolina, although these secondary outbreaks appear to have ended within a few months. Some genetic variation has accumulated among the US viruses, with the appearance of regional-temporal lineages. The potential for interspecies transmission and zoonotic events involving this newly emerged influenza A virus is currently unknown.
Canine influenza is also called the dog flu disease, its caused by an influenza virus. Vaccinate your dog against canine influenza to keep your dog healthy
Prospective population-based estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness and burden of disease: Abstract ABSTRACT Public health policy makers need annual esti...
Although dogs were typically considered to be refractory to infection with influenza A viruses, two canine influenza virus (CIV) subtypes—H3N8 and H3N2—have emerged in the past 12 years.
Last week Dr. Coates talked about situational vaccines for dogs. That is, vaccines appropriate to certain lifestyles. This week she covers the canine influenza vaccine and whether your dog is a candidate for it.
Canine influenza, also called dog flu, is caused by an influenza A virus. In 2004, the first strain, H3N8 was reported in racing greyhounds in Florida...
Lifes Abundance - Makers of premium health products for dogs, cats and pet parents, too! - Two years ago, if you had asked me whether or not I recommended the canine influenza vaccine, I&rsqu
Lifes Abundance - Makers of premium health products for dogs, cats and pet parents, too! - Two years ago, if you had asked me whether or not I recommended the canine influenza vaccine, I&rsqu 0 0 admin14 admin142014-08-30 20:39:202014-09-05 20:42:18Canine Influenza Puts Manhattan Dog Owners On Alert ...
Public Health Ontario (PHO) is a Crown corporation dedicated to protecting and promoting the health of all Ontarians and reducing inequities in health. PHO links public health practitioners, front-line health workers and researchers to the best scientific intelligence and knowledge from around the world.
Just like humans, dogs are susceptible to diseases and illnesses. One virus that is affecting dogs is the Canine Influenza Virus, or dog flu. This virus, H3N2, affects dogs and some cats and is thought to have come from an avian flu mutated strain in Southeast Asia.
Dogs who are most at risk are those that are housed in communal facilities, such as shelters or boarding facilities, or that participate in group activities. Cats have been reported to be susceptible to the disease as well. Clinical signs typically develop less than one week after exposure to the virus. Once infected, a dog can be contagious for up to four weeks and should remain isolated during that time.. There are vaccines that are available to help protect against two strains of Canine Influenza Virus, H3N2 and H3N8. Just like the human influenza vaccine, these vaccines may not prevent infection completely, but significantly decrease the risk and lessen the clinical signs if they do become infected. The HSHV Veterinary Clinic carries a combination vaccine that protects against both strains, and we provide this vaccine at our monthly Low Cost Vaccine Clinics as well. The first time a dog receives the vaccine, it does need to be boostered a second time 2-3 weeks later to provide immunity. Call ...
I still havent found a vet Im thrilled with The one were taking Lucy to for now has boarding and grooming. I called Monday as I wanted Lucy to have
Disclaimer: Information published on this blog are my opinions and findings the way I understand them. I try to provide good information, but my main goal is to get you to get educated and come to your own understanding of things. ...
Sanofi warns that the World Health Organizations delayed strain selection will push back the date on which it delivers vaccines for the 2019-2020 flu season.
(1999) Santos et al. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. Brazilian soils are originally free from soybean bradyrhizobia and the first inoculants were brought to the country in this century, but a search for adapted strains started immediately and still continues. A strain selection program was established...
I first became interested in adamantane when I read about it in one of rays articles. According to Ray it seems to have a stabilizing and structurally...
As a unique mammalian host for influenza A viruses, dogs support the transmission of canine influenza viruses (CIVs) of H3N8 and H3N2 subtypes and are susceptible to infection by avian and human influenza viruses. A cross-sectional serological study was performed to assess the exposure history of dogs in Hong Kong to CIV and human influenza viruses. Among 555 companion dogs sampled in 2015-2017, 1.3 per cent and 9.5 per cent showed hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titre to CIV of H3N8 or H3N2 subtypes and to A(H1N1)pdm09 human influenza viruses, respectively. Among 182 shelter dogs sampled in 2017-2018, none showed HI titre to CIV and 1.1 per cent reacted to H3N2 human influenza virus. There was a poor correlation between ELISA and HI test results. The higher seropositive rates to human influenza viruses suggests that the contact dynamics of dogs under urban settings may affect the exposure risk to human influenza viruses and CIVs.. ...
There are many causes of kennel cough, both bacterial and viral. Canine influenza virus (CIV) is one of the viral causes of kennel cough. This highly contagious respiratory disease has affected thousands of dogs in the United States. Because CIV is a relatively new virus, most dogs have not been exposed to it before. Dogs of any age, breed, and vaccine status are susceptible to this infection.. How Could My Dog Catch Canine Influenza Virus? ...
Canine influenza H3N8 virus originated in horses, has spread to dogs, and can now spread between dogs. The H3N8 equine influenza (horse flu) virus has been known to exist in horses for more than 40 years. In 2004, however, cases of an unknown respiratory illness in dogs (initially greyhounds) were reported in the United States. An investigation showed that this respiratory illness was caused by the equine influenza A H3N8 virus. Scientists believe this virus jumped species (from horses to dogs) and has adapted to cause illness in dogs and spread among dogs, especially those housed in kennels and shelters. This is now considered a dog-specific H3N8 virus. In September 2005, this virus was identified by experts as a newly emerging pathogen in the dog population in the United States.. The H3N2 canine influenza virus is an avian flu virus that adapted to infect dogs. This virus is different from human seasonal H3N2 viruses. Canine influenza A H3N2 virus was first detected in dogs in South Korea in ...
As we quickly approach Spring Break time we wanted to make you aware of the current outbreak of a new type of dog flu affecting pets across the country, even as close as Marion. This highly contagious and, for some dogs, potentially serious respiratory infection is caused by canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 or H3N8.. Chances are, if your dog is exposed to either CIV H3N2 or H3N8, he or she may become infected. Dogs that are frequently in contact with other dogs may be at high risk of infection with canine influenza. This includes dogs that are boarded, enrolled in day care, or often visit the local dog park. Below are some news links that show how this influenza can affect your pet.. The good news is that our office now has a vaccine available to help control ...
Treatment of seasonal influenza is dominated by two categories of treatment options, vaccines and antiviral therapies. In the recent years it was observed that demand for seasonal influenza vaccines have increased due to changed perception of patient population. The patient population is of the opinion that preventive healthcare is better compared to curative healthcare; this led to increased demand of vaccines in Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific (APAC) region is an attractive market for seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturers. Major drivers in the market is increasing awareness, increasing vaccination coverage in the APAC countries and rising government support for immunization against seasonal influenza. Major restraints of the market are variable demand and limited production capacity. Traditional egg based manufacturing of seasonal influenza vaccines is being replaced with cell culture vaccines. Cell culture based production of vaccines is expected to reduce the problems associated with ...
While influenza vaccines aim to decrease the incidence of severe influenza among high-risk groups, evidence of influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) among the influenza vaccine target population is sparse. We conducted a multicentre test-negative case-control study to estimate IVE against hospitalis …
Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) has been the most common subtype in Korea and China since 2007. Here, we compared the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three H3N2 CIV strains [Chinese CIV (JS/10), Korean CIV (KR/07), and Korean recombinant CIV between the classic H3N2 CIV and the pandemic H1N1 virus (MV/12)] in BALB/c mouse and guinea pig models. The pandemic H1N1 (CA/09) strain served as the control. BALB/c mice infected with H1N1 had high mortality and obvious body weight loss, whereas no overt disease symptoms were observed in mice inoculated with H3N2 CIV strains. The viral titers were higher in the group MV/12 than those in groups JS/10 and KR/07, while the mice infected with JS/10 showed higher viral titers in all tissues (except for the lung) than the mice infected with KR/07. The data obtained in guinea pigs also demonstrated that group MV/12 presented the highest loads in most of the tissues, followed by group JS/10 and KR/07. Also, direct contact transmissions of all the
The H3N8 and now the H3N2 Canine Influenza Virus strain have been identified in the U.S. Learn more about these viruses and how you can protect your pets!
Canine influenza virus (CIV) is an infectious disease of dogs that causes respiratory symptoms. Discovered in 2004, the disease is extremely contagious from dog
This notice is being sent out to provide up-to-date and accurate information about the Canine Influenza Virus to help prevent the spread of the viru
We at Bernville Veterinary Clinic - Pet Spa & Resort are now recommending that our dog patients be vaccinated for Canine Influenza and will require it for our Spa guests. Canine Influenza Virus (H3N8) is an influenza virus that is relatively new and highly contagious. It can be a part of a complex of viral and bacterial upper respiratory agents causing illness in dogs. Different parts of the country have experienced outbreaks, including the northeast and Pennsylvania. Signs of Canine Flu are very similar to Kennel Cough except usually more severe. These signs include coughing mainly; fever, ocular & nasal discharge, and sneezing. The disease can progress to pneumonia in severe cases. About 80% of dogs exposed to the virus will show signs of the Flu and up to 8% can die from infection. The 20% who show no signs will still shed and spread the virus. The virus can remain active on hands for up to 12 hours and 24 hours on clothing. The safe vaccine greatly reduces the viral shedding and severity of ...
CDC preliminary vaccine effectiveness estimates show 2019-20 influenza vaccines providing substantial protective benefit, particularly among children, who have been hard hit by influenza this season. Influenza vaccines are reducing the risk for having to go to the doctor with influenza illness by 45% overall and by 55% in children.
So, if you travel all around doing dog shows or agility, or if your dog is a regular social butterfly at doggy day care, you might want to get the influenza vaccine. If you are at dog parks all the time (with your dog hopefully, otherwise thats just weird), or travel often and board your dog frequently, the influenza vaccine might be right for your dog. There are currently two influenza vaccines available. The old flu strain, H3N8, was originally diagnosed on the East Coast in 2005, and that was the only available dog flu vaccine….until a couple months ago. The new strain of dog flu that made headlines in Chicago last spring is not the same strain - its H3N2. No vaccine existed for that until recently. Now we have vaccines available for both H3N8 and H3N2. It is doubtful if once vaccine protects against the other strain. Your veterinarian can decide which vaccine your dog should get. Just like flu shots in people, the vaccine could become obsolete rather quickly. Canine influenza viruses ...
In 2017, influenza seasonal activity was high in the southern hemisphere. We present interim influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates from Australia. Adjusted VE was low overall at 33% (95% confidence interval (CI): 17 to 46), 50% (95% CI: 8 to 74) for A(H1)pdm09, 10% (95% CI: -16 to 31) for A …
Duration of Serum Antibody Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccines: Summary. The level of antibody response made to seasonal influenza vaccines depends on the vaccine preparation, dose, prior antigenic experience, and age or underlying disease conditions of an individual Slideshow 158272 by...
According to a study published in Virology, researchers are on the path to creating a new vaccine that can be used in the battle against canine influenza.
Shire (previously Baxalta) (previously Baxter International) is developing an intramuscularly administered trivalent seasonal influenza virus vaccine. The
ITHACA, N.Y. - The canine influenza outbreak afflicting more than 1,000 dogs in Chicago and other parts of the Midwest is caused by a different strain of the virus than was earlier assumed, according to laboratory scientists at Cornell University and the University of Wisconsin. Researchers at Cornell say results from additional testing indicate that the outbreak is being caused by a virus closely related to Asian strains of influenza A H3N2 viruses, currently in wide circulation in southern Chinese and South Korean dog populations since being identified in 2006. There is no evidence that it can be transmitted to humans ...
The risk of a dog being exposed to any strain of the Canine Influenza Virus (H3N2 and H3N8) depends on that dogs individual lifestyle.
Here at Columbia University Medical Center, all employees and students may receive, at no charge, influenza vaccine every year. I just went to the lobby of the Milstein Hospital, showed my ID, and received the seasonal influenza vaccine. Here is the proof: As Ive written before, vaccine records provide interesting inf
Many recent reports on the canine influenza virus have created a big stir among pet owners. Although the canine flu can be a serious illness, and pet owners should be cautious, there is no need to panic. OCAC goes to great lengths to provide our public with the facts and we hope that the information provided will be helpful as well as aid you in keeping your pets healthy and safe.. The canine influenza strain is caused by the h1N8 influenza virus, and is known to be a mutated form of the equine virus which can be found in horses. The canine flu virus is spread through the air from respiratory discharge, and from coming into contact with contaminated dog toys and water bowls. While canine flu is more likely to spread throughout kennels, parks, and shelters, it should be noted that humans can spread the disease to a healthy dog after contact with an infected dog. The overall incidence of death caused by the canine virus is low.. The symptoms of canine influenza include a persistent cough and nasal ...
Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Market is expected to reach more than US$ 4 Billion across the seven major markets (7MM) of the United States, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom and
SAGE Emergency teams want to make pet owners aware of a recent outbreak in canine influenza cases. Here are answers to top questions about the bug.
Some canine influenza symptoms are sneezing, coughing, fever, lethargy and loss of appetite, claims the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The dog may have a fever, breathe...
Where is my dog more likely to contract Canine Influenza? Dog parks, grooming facilities, or boarding facilities in Tempe all contain possibilities! Learn:
During a first step (November 2009-February 2010), seroprevalence rates for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus were assessed in 120 breeding pigs (,4 years old) from 57 farms. Blood was obtained from randomly selected pigs at the only slaughterhouse on the island, where pigs are held for ,3 hours. We screened the samples for antibodies to influenza A viruses by using the ID Screen Antibody Influenza A kit (, Montpellier, France), and titers were determined by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assays (5) against all classical swine influenza viruses and A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (Table 1). Ninety-eight (81.7%; 95% CI 74.7%-88.5%) of the 120 serum samples were positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (HI titers ,20); the range of positive titers was 40-640, and 54.2% of the samples expressed high HI titers (160-640). Of the 98 serum samples, 5 reacted at low titer and with only 1 European A (H1N1) swine virus (titer ,20), i.e., ,4 dilutions lower than for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, indicating cross reactivity (6). Thus, pigs ...
The use of monoclonal antibodies Fab28 and Fab49 for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infections is described, the which virus is responsible for the influenza syndrome commonly known as
This publication presents the core European protocol for a series of proposed influenza vaccine effectiveness studies. The protocol includes a proposed plan for pooled analysis and has recently been adapted to measure vaccine effectiveness for the pandemic vaccine in 2009-10. Together with its twin publication Protocols for cohort database studies to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness in the EU and EEA Member States, this publication covers all methodological issues in the design and implementation of vaccine effectiveness studies, both for seasonal and the new A(H1N1)v influenza ...
To play devils advocate for a brief moment, I would like to point out that there is published work that attempts to present that cross-immunity (heterosubtypic) does occur from vaccination… however (1) they fail to compare the results in an unvaccinated population and (2) CD8+ T cells were not assessed (this is key because it is now understood that vaccination affects/hinders the induction of CD8+T cell responses which is crucial in the contribution of heterosubtypic immunity). [13] [2] ...
Multiple factors can affect and impact infection dynamics and virulence produced by influenza virus (IV) infections. Susceptibility factors and host responses can also have major effects in d
Thanks for your well articulated and researched post. It would be helpful if you could provide us the primary source for your statements on efficacy; its not that I dont trust your word, but I like to read it straight from the original source. I am curious which metals you are concerned about and why you suspect that despite of their presence, the fact they are highly neurotoxic, and the vast number of immunizations given, safety studies demonstrate no evidence of this? Efficacy: Belongia, E. A., Simpson, M. D., King, J. P., Sundaram, M. E., Kelley, N. S., Osterholm, M. T., & McLean, H. Q. (2016). Variable influenza vaccine effectiveness by subtype: a systematic review and meta-analysis of test-negative design studies. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(8), 942-951. Safety: Vellozzi, C., Burwen, D. R., Dobardzic, A., Ball, R., Walton, K., & Haber, P. (2009). Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults: background for pandemic influenza vaccine safety monitoring. Vaccine, ...
The recent outbreak of canine influenza virus (CIV) in the Midwestern region of the United States has affected more than 1,000 dogs. Should you be worried?As...
An avian term; refers to pockets in the respiratory system of birds that hold air and allow them the ability to fly and the buoyancy necessary to do so.. ...
Dr Linda Simon (MVB MRCVS, University College Dublin) While us humans are more than familiar with the flu and may be unlucky enough to catch whats going around every few years, dogs seem naturally more resistant and it is actually not as common as...
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The world is full of terrifying emerging diseases, food shortages, climate change leading to flooding and drought, the re-appearance of once-controlled diseases due to war and poverty, the collapse of the world economy and turmoil in the US health care system... it goes on and on, although I will, mercifully, cut it short there and ask one simple question. Where exactly do so many people get so much energy to freak out over things that really matter very little in the normal course of their lives? I could be talking about any number of sky is falling veterinary health warnings, some of which originate from the drug companies who seek to scare you into buying their products (yes, I mean you, Ft. Dodge), and some from the apparently endless Internet rumor mill (new parvo comes to mind). But today Im...
Avian and Human Influenza Facility : quarterly report to the donors for the period July 1st, through September 30st, 2012 (English)
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Canine influenza is present in Colorado year round and is highly contagious. About 80 percent of dogs who come in contact with the virus will get sick.
How to Treat Dog Flu. The dog flu (medically termed canine influenza) is an infection that can be passed from dog to dog. If your dog has come down with this flu, it is best to see a veterinarian for formal diagnosis and treatment....
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By now most readers may have heard about the outbreak of canine influenza in the Midwest. There are currently over 1,000 reported cases.
Pharmaceuticals company based in Fuzhou; among the top 100 pharmaceuticals companies in China; product range includes 7ACA intermediates, sterile cephalosporin API, antibiotic API, preparations and animal ...
5/4/2009 10:24:08 PM Flu viruses change slightly from year to year. This is called antigenic drift. This is what the committee that determines what the
"Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[16] A vaccine ... C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses ... Variants and subtypes of Influenzavirus A[edit]. Main article: Influenzavirus A. Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified ...
July 13 - 1968 flu pandemic: Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 first recorded in Hong Kong. July 15 - The soap opera One Life to ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China, and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, increasing fears of the ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... H5N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus of the Influenzavirus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. Like all other ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ...
The H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains both contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ... It is among the deadliest pandemics in history, and was caused by an H3N2 strain of the influenza A virus. The virus was ... The H3N2 virus returned during the following 1969-70 flu season, which resulted in a second, deadlier wave of deaths in Europe ... "1968 Pandemic (H3N2 virus)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 22 January 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Jester ...
See Influenza for details about the illnesses and Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 for details ... H3N2) viruses, three influenza A (H1) viruses, one influenza A (H7N2) virus, and 71 influenza B viruses. Of the 949 influenza A ... 470 influenza A (H3N2) and 46 influenza B viruses. Of the 470 influenza A (H3N2), 427 (91%) were A/Fujian/411/2002 (H3N2)-like ... strain of the H3N2 subtype of the Influenza A virus or a Fujian bird flu strain of the H5N1 subtype of the Influenza A virus. ...
Her first clinical trials, which were in 2008, made use of the Influenza A virus subtype H3N2, and included daily monitoring of ... It makes use of one of the core proteins (nucleoprotein and matrix protein 1) inside the Influenza A virus, not the external ... It was the first study that it was possible to stimulate T cells in response to a flu virus, and that this stimulation would ... With the support of the Wellcome Trust, Gilbert started work on the design and creation of novel influenza vaccinations. In ...
One of these is the Genus "Influenzavirus A" which consists of a single species called "Influenza A virus"; one of its subtypes ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza ... Viruses of this family contain 7 to 8 segments of linear negative-sense single-stranded RNA. Influenza virus "Influenza virus" ... "virus" resulting in the noun phrase "influenza A virus"; which when capitalized is the proper noun Influenza A virus which is ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1). Samples of the less harmful seasonal flu virus (subtype H3N2) were found to be mixed with the ... "Baxter Sent Bird Flu Virus to European Labs by Error". Bloomberg L.P. February 24, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2009. "Baxter ... influenza as early as July of the same year. The company has been one of several working with the World Health Organization and ... of the lethal virus harming humans. On July 2, 2009, Kentucky Attorney General Jack Conway announced a settlement between the ...
The three main Influenza A viruses responsible for these outbreaks are variants of the Influenza A viruses H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 ... Currently, the subtypes of influenza A virus which have been identified in pig populations within the United States are ... 2018). Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus Outbreak at Three Fairs - Maryland, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 67(42),1169-1173. ... Swine influenza is a communicable disease caused by one of several different strains of influenza A virus. ...
... oldest member of the College of Cardinals A worldwide pandemic began when the first diagnosis of influenza A virus subtype H3N2 ... "Fifty Years of Influenza A(H3N2) Following the Pandemic of 1968", by Barbara J. Jester, Timothy M. Uyeki, and Daniel B. ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 infections have predominated in China, which since November has reported low levels of flu ... "A snapshot of influenza in all 50 states - Associated Press". 13 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013. Perez, Alex (9 ... The U.S. Centers for Disease Control recommends that all persons in the United States receive an annual influenza vaccine. In ... By 13 January, nearly all U.S. states had experienced elevated influenza levels. In 9 January after the city of Boston received ...
Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs ("swine flu") in China and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, increasing fears ... A combination of these two subtypes of the species known as the avian influenza virus in a country like China is a worst-case ... and it is in this region that multiple clades of H5N1 influenza virus have already emerged. The Asian H5N1 virus was first ... "An influenza A H5 virus was present in multiple organs in all species from the outbreak site in Grd Jotyar (Table). cDNA for ...
... influenza a virus, h2n2 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.300 - influenza a virus, h3n2 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.350 - ... influenza a virus, h2n2 subtype MeSH B04.909.777.545.405.400.300 - influenza a virus, h3n2 subtype MeSH B04.909.777.545.405.400 ... influenza a virus, h3n8 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.500 - influenza a virus, h5n1 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.505 - ... influenza a virus, h5n2 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.700 - influenza a virus, h7n7 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.900 - ...
The influenza viruses usually responsible for swine flu are IAV subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. Some IAVs can be transmitted via ... Influenza B virus (IBV) and Influenza C virus (ICV) primarily infect humans, and Influenza D virus (IDV) is found in cattle and ... Influenza A virus (IAV), genus Alphainfluenzavirus Influenza B virus (IBV), genus Betainfluenzavirus Influenza C virus (ICV), ... the relationship between influenza viruses and bacteria, how influenza symptoms progress, and what make some influenza viruses ...
"Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... For example, the annual flu subtype H3N2 no longer contains the strain that caused the Hong Kong Flu. Influenza A viruses are ... C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses ...
... is caused by influenza A subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N3, H3N1, and H3N2. In pigs, four influenza A virus subtypes ( ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ... Pigs are a host where influenza viruses might exchange genes, producing new and dangerous strains. Avian influenza virus H3N2 ... As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, ...
... influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was discovered to cause canine influenza. Because of the lack of previous exposure to this virus ... H3N2)-like virus a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus The WHO recommended that quadrivalent vaccines containing two influenza B ... May 2007). "Influenza virus-like particles elicit broader immune responses than whole virion inactivated influenza virus or ... pdm09-like virus an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus a B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage) a B/Phuket/ ...
A virus subtype H2N2 Influenza A virus subtype H2N3 Influenza A virus subtype H3N1 Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 Influenza A ... virus subtype H3N8 Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Influenza A virus subtype H5N2 Influenza A virus subtype H5N3 Influenza A ... virus subtype H5N6 Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 Influenza A virus subtype H5N9 Influenza A virus subtype H6N1 Influenza A ... virus subtype H6N2 Influenza A virus subtype H7N1 Influenza A virus subtype H7N2 Influenza A virus subtype H7N3 Influenza A ...
Influenza A subtype H3N2, and two Influenza B viruses. The vaccine is approved for people over the age of three years. In ... Specifically, Flucelvax targets four Influenza sub-types which includes Influenza A subtype H1N1, ... The candidate vaccine virus strain will replicate using the mammalian cells. Next, the virus is extracted from the cells in the ... it is also produced in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and targets the same Influenza subtypes. The main differences are in ...
H3N2 and H2N3. Pigs can also become infected with the H4N6 and H9N2 subtypes.[citation needed] Swine influenza virus is common ... In virology, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. Well known outbreaks of H1N1 strains in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... The G4 virus, also known as the "G4 swine flu virus" (G4) and "G4 EA H1N1", is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in ...
H3N2) viruses, the seasonal flu vaccine should provide good protection against influenza virus as well as protection against ... Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 (A/H1N2) is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). It is ... The virus does not cause more severe illness than other influenza viruses, and no unusual increases in influenza activity have ... Between December 1988 and March 1989, 19 influenza H1N2 virus isolates were identified in 6 cities in China, but the virus did ...
The known subtypes of Influenza A virus that create influenza in pigs and are endemic in pigs are H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2. ... H3N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus, mostly affecting pigs. ... strains named by isolate Fujian flu strains named by typical host Bird flu Dog flu Horse flu Human flu Swine flu "Influenza in ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian influenza virus RNA segments. From October 2004 to February 2005, ... Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 (A/H2N2) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. H2N2 has mutated into various strains including the ... Influenza A virus subtype H11N9 Hilleman, Maurice R. (2002). "Realities and enigmas of human viral influenza: pathogenesis, ... chose the 1957 strain instead of one of the less deadly avian influenza virus subtypes. The 1957 H2N2 virus is considered ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China, and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, increasing fears of the ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other ... never previously susceptible to any influenza virus. H5N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus of the genus ... Like all other influenza A subtypes, the H5N1 subtype is an RNA virus. It has a segmented genome of eight negative sense, ...
... (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... All 162 influenza A (H3N2) viruses are related to the A (H3N2) vaccine component (A/Brisbane/10/2007). All 84 novel influenza A ... H3N2)-like virus a B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus, which replaced B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like virus In January 2013, influenza ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ...
... when it transformed via antigenic shift into influenza A virus subtype H3N2, the cause of the 1968 influenza pandemic. The ... influenza A virus subtype H2N2, was a recombination of avian influenza (probably from geese) and human influenza viruses. As it ... "1968 Pandemic (H3N2 virus) , Pandemic Influenza (Flu) , CDC". 22 January 2019. Retrieved 2 January 2021. Clark, ... The 1957-1958 Asian flu pandemic was a global pandemic of influenza A virus subtype H2N2 that originated in Guizhou in southern ...
Serotypes or Subtypes Hosts Influenza virus A Influenza A virus* H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, ... It includes seven genera: Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Influenzavirus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus, and ... Influenza CEdit. Main article: Influenzavirus C. The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, and can cause severe illness ... Influenza BEdit. Main article: Influenzavirus B. Influenza B virus is almost exclusively a human pathogen, and is less common ...
Numerous short DNA capture sequences were designed, and used to both type and subtype influenza A viruses by taking advantage ... human H3N2, and avian influenza (H5N1) subtypes, and resulted in high clinical sensitivity and specificity as detailed in ... The overall pattern of fluorescence intensities were utilized to type and subtype the influenza virus(es) present. various ... "Evaluation of MChip with Historic Subtype H1N1 Influenza A Viruses, Including the 1918 "Spanish Flu" Strain". Journal of ...
... (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... All 162 influenza A (H3N2) viruses are related to the A (H3N2) vaccine component (A/Brisbane/10/2007). All 84 novel influenza A ... A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world ... H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. Its name derives from ...
... (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... All 162 influenza A (H3N2) viruses are related to the A (H3N2) vaccine component (A/Brisbane/10/2007). All 84 novel influenza A ... A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world ... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ...
... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... analysis of human influenza A virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 viruses". PLoS ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... "Guide for considering influenza testing when influenza viruses are circulating in the community , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... An effort to recreate the 1918 flu strain (a subtype of avian strain H1N1) was a collaboration among the Armed Forces Institute ... Spanish Influenza in North America, 1918-1919. *1918 Influenza Virus and memory B-cells - Exposure to virus generates lifelong ... This is a common occurrence with influenza viruses: there is a tendency for pathogenic viruses to become less lethal with time ...
Eighteen H subtypes (or serotypes) and eleven N subtypes of influenza A virus have been identified. ... H3N2 Influenza B[change , change source]. Main article: Influenzavirus B. Influenza B virus is almost exclusively a human ... Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, and Influenza C virus, respectively. Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while ... Influenza C[change , change source]. Main article: Influenzavirus C. The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, and can ...
Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ... A/turkey/England/69(H3N2) H4 N6 A/duck/Czechoslovakia/56(H4N6) ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza, see Influenza A virus ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and Transmission and infection of H5N1. The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is ... Subtypes[edit]. There are many subtypes of avian influenza viruses, but only some strains of five subtypes have been known to ...
Role in transmission of influenza viruses from non-human animals to people[edit]. Influenza A viruses are found in many ... The host cell then forms new viruses that combine their antigens; for example, H3N2 and H5N1 can form H5N2 this way. Because ... or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two ... Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza C. Antigenic shift, ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... AVI Bio Pharma Inc. has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino ... 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) clearly arose through reassortment between human and avian viruses, the influenza virus causing the ... "Inhibition of Multiple Subtypes of Influenza A Virus in Cell Cultures with Morpholino Oligomers". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother ...
"Interspecies and intraspecies transmission of triple reassortant H3N2 influenza A viruses". Virol J. 28 (4): 129. doi:10.1186/ ... A/H1N1 subtype. *മഹാമാരി. ഓർത്തോമിക്സോ വൈറസ് കുടുംബത്തിൽ പെട്ട പന്നിപ്പനി വൈറസ് എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന സൂക്ഷ്മാണുവിനാൽ ആതിഥേയജീവിയിൽ ... Influenza B and C viruses are almost exclusively isolated from man, although influenza C virus has also been isolated from pigs ... Epidemic influenza B and C in navy recruits, 1953-1954. II. Antigenic studies on influenza virus, type C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol ...
Virus influenza A subtipe H3N2, yang menimbulkan Flu Hongkong pada tahun 1968 ... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") menimbulkan flu H5N1, yang umumnya dikenal sebagai flu ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ...
... surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses.[14] The dominant strain in January 2006 was ... Each annual flu season is normally associated with a major influenzavirus subtype. The associated subtype changes each year, ... Main article: Influenza. Three virus families, Influenzavirus A, B, and C are the main infective agents that cause influenza. ... Research done by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in 2008 found that the influenza virus has a ...
North American avian influenza, human influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and ... Where swine influenza is found[change , change source]. The bird flu virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China. It has recently ... Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs. This type of influenza virus can also infect humans and birds. Swine ... "The Universal Virus Database, version 4: Influenza A".. *↑ "Q & A: Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) - Symptoms". ...
Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern ... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with 7 ... Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into a ...
"FAQ about the H3N2 strain of canine influenza" (PDF). Cornell University. Retrieved 2015-09-14. "Canine Influenza Virus ... The highly contagious equine influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was found to have been the cause of Greyhound race dog fatalities ... "Canine Influenza Vaccine, H3N2, Killed Virus". Zoetis. Retrieved 9 June 2016. "Canine Influenza". American Veterinary Medical ... Avian influenza Equine influenza Human flu Swine influenza Cat flu "Media Briefing on Canine Influenza". CDC. September 26, ...
... is used for the prevention and treatment of influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses. It is on the World ... Subgroup analyses detected higher rates among influenza A patients, especially the H1N1 subtype. It was found that a ... In the 2008-09 season, the proportion of resistant H1N1 increased to 99.4%, while no other seasonal strains (H3N2, B) showed ... In the 2013-14 season only 1% of 2009 H1N1 viruses showed oseltamivir resistance. No other influenza viruses were resistant to ...
It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype ... An H3N2 virus first detected in Hong Kong in early 1968 and spread across the world, lasting until 1972. This pandemic killed ... Regular influenza viruses establish infection by attaching to receptors in the throat and lungs, but the avian influenza virus ... The H3N8 and H2N2 subtypes of the Influenza A virus have each been identified as possible causes. It had a very high attack and ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. Seasonal H3N2 flu[edit]. Seasonal influenza kills an ... All 162 influenza A (H3N2) viruses are related to the A (H3N2) vaccine component (A/Brisbane/10/2007). All 84 novel influenza A ... A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world ...
Browse our collection of influenza a virus subtype h3n2 information for news stories, slideshows, opinion pieces and related ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... All 162 influenza A (H3N2) viruses are related to the A (H3N2) vaccine component (A/Brisbane/10/2007). All 84 novel influenza A ... A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world ... H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A, which is an important cause of human influenza. Its name derives from ...
... and a related ancestral human H3N2 (A/Sydney/5/1997) influenza virus. Few children but a greater proportion of adults showed ... Further investigation is warranted to guide ongoing risk assessment and response to emerging swine H3N2 viruses. ... Fewer than 20% showed a four-fold rise in antibody titres to either virus following immunisation. ... age-related patterns of sero-susceptibility and vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibodies to a representative swine H3N2 ( ...
... Kristien ... "Protection Against a European H1N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs Previously Infected with H1N1 And/or H3N2 Subtypes." Vaccine ... "Protection Against a European H1N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs Previously Infected with H1N1 And/or H3N2 Subtypes." VACCINE ... Protection against a European H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. VACCINE, ...
storms" and haemorrhages seen in severe influenza infections.The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent ... The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx A Novel _1_.pdf. ... File Entry: Krishnasarma pathy, (2017) The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx: A Novel Immunomodulator and ... Krishnasarma pathy, (2017) The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx: A Novel Immunomodulator and Potential ...
Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into the nucleus and binds primarily via the C-terminal NLS2/NoLS to ...
... ... Previous reports have described cases of influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) virus* infection with the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 M ... Testing of the sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) for detection of influenza A (H3N2)v virus produced ... Antibodies cross-reactive to influenza A (H3N2) variant virus and impact of 2010-11 seasonal influenza vaccine on cross- ...
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Companies Involved in Therapeutics Development * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype ... Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Dormant Projects * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Discontinued ... Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Therapeutics Development * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - ... H3N2 infections are caused by variant H3N2 virus which is an influenza virus. Symptoms include cough, sore throat, runny or ...
Influenza type or subtype. Total frequency. Age group, y. 0-11. 12-19. 20-64. ,65. Unknown. ... Human-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus with Reduced Susceptibility to Baloxavir, Japan, February 2019 Emi ... Human-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus with Reduced Susceptibility to Baloxavir, Japan, February 2019. ... Influenza viruses with I38 substitutions in polymerase acidic protein, Japan, 2018-19* ...
H3N2. 97.21. A/SW/IA/569/99. H3N2. 97.02. HA. A/TK/NC/12344/03. H3N2. 96.91. A/TK/NC/12344/03. H3N2. 97.42. ... Novel Swine Influenza Virus Subtype H3N1, United States Porntippa Lekcharoensuk*1, Kelly Lager*, Ramesh Vemulapalli†, Mary ... Novel Swine Influenza Virus Subtype H3N1, United States. ... Virus. Subtype. % identity. Virus. Subtype. % identity. PB2. A/ ... Results of Megablast nucleotide analyses of influenza A viruses with the best match of each gene with the H3N1 swine influenza ...
H3N2). At 2, 4 and 6 days post-infection (DPI), ferrets were euthanized and lung tissue was excised for RNA purification and ... A global genomics approach was used to identify patterns of immune dysregulation during H5N1 influenza virus infection as the ... Lungs of ferrets infected with either an H3N2 or H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus.. Ontology highlight ... Lungs of ferrets infected with either an H3N2 or H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. ...
"Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[16] A vaccine ... C]ontemporary human H3N2 influenza viruses are now endemic in pigs in southern China and can reassort with avian H5N1 viruses ... Variants and subtypes of Influenzavirus A[edit]. Main article: Influenzavirus A. Variants of Influenzavirus A are identified ...
H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections ( ... Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018. Feb, 2018 , Published by: Global Markets Direct ... SummaryGlobal Markets Directs latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, ...
... a series of experiments was performed on influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. We have examined rescue of mutants of A/FPV/ ... a series of experiments was performed on influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. We have examined rescue of mutants of A/FPV/ ... The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses Virology. 1985 Dec;147(2 ... The ts mutants could be rescued by all avian H3N2 strains but not by any of the human H3N2 isolates. Only two of the swine H3N2 ...
H3N2 News and Research. RSS Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (also H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that cause influenza (flu). H3N2 ... New mutation in common subtype of influenza virus helps evade immune response Strains of a common subtype of influenza virus, ... Influenza A virus can spread by airborne aerosolized fomites, finds study Viruses like the influenza virus and even the novel ... may be in a perpetual state of H3N2 influenza virus susceptibility because their antibodies bind to H3N2 viruses but fail to ...
Influenza Virus , Genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Allergy and Immunology , Influenza Vaccines , Allergy and ... The aim of this study was to establish a system for rescuing of a cold-adapted high-yielding H3N2 subtype human influenza virus ... p,,b,BACKGROUND,/b,H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses have been identified in humans worldwide, raising concerns about their ... Generation and characterization of a cold-adapted attenuated live H3N2 subtype influenza virus vaccine candidate / 中华医学杂志(英文版) ...
A single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 subtype influenza a viruses is associated with resistance to the ... A single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 subtype influenza a viruses is associated with resistance to the ... A single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 subtype influenza a viruses is associated with resistance to the ... T1 - A single amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 subtype influenza a viruses is associated with resistance to ...
Subtype H3N2 (A/Aichi/2/1968), His Tag 5 x 5ug Thermo... ... of the influenza A virus, subtype H3N2 (A/Aichi/2/1968), HA ( ... Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, Subtype H3N2 (A/Aichi/2/1968), His Tag ... Thermo Scientific™ Sino Biological™ HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, Subtype H3N2 (A/Aichi/2/1968), His Tag ... Hemagglutinin, Influenza A Virus (HA), recombinant human protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. It is suitable for use in ...
The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. All scientific data point ... The Influenza a Virus Subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,Hdfx: a Novel Immunomodulatorand Potential Fighter against Cytokine Storms ... The Influenza a Virus Subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,Hdfx: a Novel Immunomodulatorand Potential Fighter against Cytokine Storms ... krishnasarmaPathy (2017) The Influenza a Virus Subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, Hdfx: a Novel Immunomodulatorand Potential Fighter ...
Availability of Canine Influenza Virus Subtype H3N2. 15-07. Availability of Avian Influenza Isolates. ... Virus Inactivation and Safety Test for Rabies Virus Bulks, Title 9, Code of Federal Regulations (9 CFR), Part 113.209. ... Type (Species) Designation of Vaccines Containing Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus(es). 06-11. Replacement of Potency Assay ... The Management and Disposition of Eggs, Chickens, and Biological Products Following a Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) Outbreak in a ...
Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses reported, 30.2% were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 69.8% were influenza A(H3N2). ... In the northern hemisphere, sporadic influenza virus activity was reported. Influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were co-circulating ... Influenza A(H1N1) old seasonal virus: no report. *Influenza A(H3N2): Argentina, Australia, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), ... Influenza virus detection by type/subtype in countries, areas or territories:. *Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: Australia, Bolivia ( ...
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2018. Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline ... H2 2018The latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline ...
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections Drug Pipeline Report 2020 - Current Status, Phase, Mechanism, Route of ... Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2019 * Drug Pipelines ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2019 * Drug Pipelines ... Influenzavirus B Infections Drug Pipeline Report 2020 - Current Status, Phase, Mechanism, Route of Administration, Companies, ...
... trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has been provided free-of-charge to older adults aged ≥60 years in Beijing, China, but ... Influenza A Virus, H1n1 Subtype. A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and ... influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and low effectiveness against A(H3N2) virus among older ... Moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and low effectiveness against A(H3N2) virus among ...
Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 142 (10%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1326 (90%) were influenza A(H3N2). Of the ... Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, ... Influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated in Japan and the Republic of Korea, while influenza B predominated in China. In some other ... In the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low with influenza A(H3N2) virus predominating. ...
Our risk factor analysis contributed to the development of the recommendation that people at increased risk of influenza- ... H3N2)v outbreak, no evidence of sustained human-to-human (H3N2)v transmission was found. ... H3N2 Subtype / classification* * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / genetics * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / isolation & ... Background: In 2012, one third of cases in a multistate outbreak of variant influenza A(H3N2) virus ([H3N2]v) infection ...
Frequency of influenza H3N2 intra-subtype reassortment: attributes and implications of reassortant spread ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence. Chengjun Li ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence ...
Subtypes and HA lineages of influenza viruses in the U.S.The three influenza virus subtypes that are endemic in U.S. swine-H1N1 ... Estimates of subtype prevalence.Subtype prevalence (see Fig. 1) was estimated from 6,043 influenza viruses that were subtyped ... Novel H3N2 influenza viruses (H3N2v) containing seven genome segments from swine lineage triple-reassortant H3N2 viruses and a ... influenza A viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes cocirculate in U.S. swine. In 1998-1999, a triple-reassortant H3N2 ...
  • Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). By reassortment , H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. (
  • Now, in new research posted to the bioRxiv preprint server, scientists at Novavax, Inc. present a vaccine including recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (HA) antigen along with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with saponin Matrix-M adjuvant. (
  • Previous studies demonstrated that PTX3 and the short pentraxin serum amyloid P express sialic acids that are recognized by the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of certain influenza Aviruses (IAV), resulting in virus neutralization and anti-IAVactivity. (
  • Hemagglutinin, Influenza A Virus (HA), recombinant human protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. (
  • These H1N2 viruses have an avian-like SIV H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) and a European H3N2 SIV-like neuraminidase (NA). (
  • A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. (
  • For example, if a pig were infected with a human influenza A virus and an avian influenza A virus at the same time, the new replicating viruses could mix existing genetic information (reassortment) and produce a new influenza A virus that had most of the genes from the human virus, but a hemagglutinin gene and/or neuraminidase gene and other genes from the avian virus. (
  • The resulting new virus might then be able to infect humans and spread easily from person to person, but it would have surface proteins (hemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase) different than those currently found in influenza viruses that infect humans. (
  • The genetic information in these viruses could reassort to create a new influenza A virus with a hemagglutinin gene from the avian virus and other genes from the human virus. (
  • Influenza A viruses with a hemagglutinin against which humans have little or no immunity that have reassorted with a human influenza virus are more likely to result in sustained human-to-human transmission and pose a major public health threat of pandemic influenza. (
  • These pandemics were initiated by the introduction and successful adaptation of a novel hemagglutinin subtype to humans from an animal source, resulting in antigenic shift. (
  • The H2N2/1957 pandemic strain contained introduced hemagglutinin , neuraminidase , and PB1 genes, whereas the H3N2/1968 pandemic strain incorporated avian HA and PB1 genes ( 2 ). (
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes by their surface glycoproteins with 17 hemagglutinin (HA) and 10 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes currently recognized. (
  • Influenza A viruses are further divided into different subtypes based on two proteins found on the surface of the virus - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • We characterized two novel swine human-like H3N2 and H3N1 viruses with hemagglutinin (HA) genes similar to those in human seasonal H3 strains and internal genes closely related to those of 2009 H1N1 pandemic viruses. (
  • For example, the avian virus receptor hemagglutinin (HA) recognizes oligosaccharides containing terminal sialic acid (SA) that are linked to galactose by α2,3 2 . (
  • Eleven MAbs that target hemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes were selected. (
  • Influenza A virus is subtyped based on the antigenicity of its two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (
  • Although 16 hemagglutinin (H1 to H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1 to N9) variants have been identified, only three combinations (H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2) have been responsible for human epidemics ( 2 ). (
  • Hemagglutinin(HA) binds to sialic acid-containing receptors on the cell surface, generating the attachment of the virus particle to the cell. (
  • Influenza A viruses can be further distinguished in different subtypes because of amino acid differences in the surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are the two predominant viral glycoproteins found in the viral envelope, and are the primary targets of the host immune system and are key factors in the entry and exit of influenza particles from host cells. (
  • When IAV invades host cells, the hemagglutinin (HA) located on the surface of the virus envelope first binds to sialic acid residues expressed by airway or alveolar epithelial cells, triggering the endocytosis of virus particles. (
  • The purified whole-virus proteins derived from A/swine/Shanghai/1/2014 (H1N1) (SH1) were chosen to immunize BALB/c mice to prepare the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against hemagglutinin (HA) protein of a. (
  • Two of these proteins-hemagglutinin (H), a protein that helps the virus attach to host cells in the respiratory tract) and neuraminidase (N), which releases the newly created influenza virus from host cells-are variable. (
  • Types of Influenza A virus are based on variations in the hemagglutinin (H), of which there are 15 subgroups, and neuraminidase (N), of which there are 9 subgroups. (
  • This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. (
  • Influenza type A is subcategorized by the presence of 2 surface antigens, hemagglutinin antigen (HA) and neuraminidase antigen (NA). (
  • The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) fusion protein has long been viewed as a "spring-loaded" fusion machine whereby activation at low pH initiates a rapid and irreversible cascade of conformational changes that drives the membrane fusion reaction. (
  • For influenza virus, the hemagglutinin (HA) fusion glycoprotein trimer mediates entry into host cells by its receptor binding and membrane fusion activities ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The hemagglutinin (HA) of a recent swine influenza virus, A/Sw/IN/1726/88 (HlNl), was shown previously to have four antigenic sites, as determined from analysis of monoclonal antibody (MAb)-selected escape mutants. (
  • To evaluate the level of antigenic variation of these viruses during their maintenance, we previously prepared a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the hemagglutinin (HA) of a recent HlNi swine virus (36). (
  • Influenza A is further broken down into strains or subtypes based on surface proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). (
  • Flu viruses are classified by two large surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • According to the molecular characteristics of Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) on the virus surface, so far, 18 HA subtypes (H1~H18) and 11 NA subtypes (N1~N11) have been identified. (
  • Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. (
  • Aquatic birds and shorebirds are considered natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses and 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes have been isolated from these avian hosts [3] - [5] . (
  • Neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) therapy may be considered for any previously healthy outpatient with febrile influenza who presents for care within 2 days of illness onset. (
  • The H3N2 neuraminidase (NA) was of the contemporary human N2 lineage, while the H3N1 NA was of the classical swine N1 lineage. (
  • Type A influenza viruses are subdivided on the basis of the antigenic nature of their membrane-bound surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • Only three haemagglutinin subtypes (H1, H2, H3) and two neuraminidase subtypes (N1 and N2) have established stable lineages in the human population since 1918(9). (
  • Both the neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay and CETSA demonstrated that isoimperatorin exerts an inhibitory effect on NA-mediated progeny virus release. (
  • Influenza A virus is a segmented, negative-sense RNA virus that is classified into various subtypes based on its two main surface glycoproteins, hemagluttinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • The two main treatments are adamantanes, including amantadine and rimantadine, and medications that inhibit the influenza neuraminidase protein, such as oseltamivir and zanamivir. (
  • Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s. (
  • Currently, 16 haemagglutinin (HA) subtypes and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes are identified. (
  • For the evaluation of these assays, 245 respiratory specimens from 87 patients living in Asia, Europe, and the United States who were enrolled in a prospective study of influenza illness, including assessment of neuraminidase resistance, were analyzed. (
  • In terms of drug, neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir are effective treatments for Type A and Type B influenza. (
  • Oseltamivir-resistant A/H3N2 influenza isolates with or without the E119V and I222V neuraminidase (NA) mutations were recovered from an immunocompromised patient. (
  • Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI), such as oral oseltamivir and inhaled zanamivir, are members of the other class of antivirals approved for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B infections ( 1 ). (
  • The E119V substitution found in the neuraminidase (NA) gene of several of these strains is one of the most common mutations associated with high levels of oseltamivir resistance in A/H3N2 viruses ( 14 , 18 ). (
  • Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. (
  • Skowronski D M , De Serres G , Janjua N Z , Gardy J L , Gilca V , Dionne M , Hamelin M E , Rhéaume C , Boivin G . Cross-reactive antibody to swine influenza A(H3N2) subtype virus in children and adults before and after immunisation with 2010/11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in Canada, August to November 2010. (
  • In pre- and post-immunisation sera from children (17-120 months-old) and adults (20-59 years-old) immunised with 2010/11 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, we assessed age-related patterns of sero-susceptibility and vaccine-induced cross-reactive antibodies to a representative swine H3N2 (swH3N2) and a related ancestral human H3N2 (A/Sydney/5/1997) influenza virus. (
  • In a novel proof of concept study, published on the bioRxiv preprint server, U.S. researchers used attenuated influenza viral particles that express severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain to induce neutralizing antibodies in mice - unveiling another viable vaccine candidate for preventing coronavirus disease (COVID-19). (
  • In order to generate better and safer vaccine candidate viruses , a cold -adapted high yielding reassortant H3N2 influenza A virus was genetically constructed by reverse genetics and was designated as rgAA-H3N2. (
  • Moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and low effectiveness against A(H3N2) virus among older adults during 2013-2014 influenza season in Beijing, China. (
  • Since 2007, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has been provided free-of-charge to older adults aged ≥60 years in Beijing, China, but the data regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) among these people are very limited so far. (
  • Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States during the 2016-2017 Season. (
  • This study was performed to determine the antigenic and genetic characteristics and evaluate potential vaccine efficacy of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Yantai from August 2009 to August 2017. (
  • Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness at primary care level, Hong Kong SAR, 2017/2018 winter. (
  • A total of 51 children between the ages of 4 and 9 will be randomized to receive a two dose schedule of either licensed live attenuated A/California/07/09 influenza vaccine (LAIV) or licen. (
  • A single center, observer-masked, randomized clinical trial is to be conducted in 6-35 months infants to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Sinovac's influenza A/H1N1 Vaccine (PANF. (
  • The purpose of the study is to determine whether CSL425 is a safe and effective vaccine for eliciting an immune response to H1N1 influenza in healthy adults. (
  • The identification of this N2 variant may have implications for influenza vaccine design and the potential pandemic threat of H3N2v to human age groups with differing levels of prior exposure and immunity. (
  • And the newly launched Universal Influenza Vaccine Initiative is sequencing the blood of individuals who receive the current flu vaccine or are infected with the virus. (
  • The development of a universal influenza vaccine that would protect against multiple strains of the flu is a priority, says Anthony Fauci, director of the federal National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (
  • But the virus can mutate in that time, resulting in a mismatch between the circulating virus and the vaccine. (
  • This year's dominant flu type-H3N2-has a tendency to mutate or change, making the vaccine less effective. (
  • The vaccine is "live"-consisting of a weakened form of the virus-and therefore triggers a response from B and T cells, which are both white blood cells that fight viruses, says Ren Sun, a professor of molecular and medical pharmacology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and senior author of the study. (
  • When developing the vaccine, researchers focused on interferons, proteins the body creates to kill viruses and trigger a successful immune response. (
  • An H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B strain are included in the trivalent vaccine, while an extra influenza B strain is included in the quadrivalent vaccine. (
  • The flu vaccine tends to offer more protection from flu that's caused by H1N1 viruses and influenza B viruses in comparison to H3N2 viruses. (
  • First, while all flu viruses mutate from year to year, H3N2 viruses tend to accrue more changes that are different from the H3N2 component of the flu vaccine. (
  • 2017). A structural explanation for the low effectiveness of the seasonal influenza H3N2 vaccine. (
  • While the H3N2 vaccine strain that was recommended for the 2018/19 flu season is different from the previous season's H3N2 strain, it still contains the same egg-adapted mutation. (
  • Both viruses were antigenically distant from swine H3 viruses that circulate in the United States and from swine vaccine strains and also showed antigenic drift from human seasonal H3N2 viruses. (
  • Protection dropped to 19 percent a few years ago when the vaccine didn't match an evolving virus. (
  • We illustrate the implications of low vaccine effectiveness and antigenic drift, and provide recommendations for the effective management of future influenza outbreaks. (
  • 1,7 Vaccine effectiveness against H3N2 ranges from 13% to 26%, 8,9 and protection against H3N2 wanes significantly both from the time of vaccination and within single influenza seasons. (
  • This composition is consistent with the 2012-13 northern hemisphere vaccine recommendations, in which the A(H3N2) and influenza B viruses were changed. (
  • It does not appear to interfere with the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza A virus vaccine. (
  • Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus. (
  • With the continued emergence of unique antigenic subtypes the need for an effective IAV vaccine in pigs remains high. (
  • Global surveillance of these viruses is necessary for maintaining a well-matched annual influenza vaccine, as well as for detecting the emergence of new influenza strains that may cause a human pandemic. (
  • Protective efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the European Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus in mice and pigs. (
  • During the height of the 2009 H1N1 swine-derived influenza pandemic, a clinical trial was conducted in which seven subjects were immunized using a monovalent, MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine, developed from. (
  • Thus, chitosan-based influenza nanovaccine may be an ideal candidate vaccine for use in pigs, and pig is a useful animal model for preclinical testing of particulate IN human influenza vaccines. (
  • The combined genomic and antigenic analyses of these samples demonstrate biologically significant antigenic drift among H3N2 viruses from the 2012-2013 influenza season in Texas, which provides important information for the upcoming vaccine selection decisions. (
  • Influenza is vaccine-preventable, so all people 6 months of age and older should receive trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine each year. (
  • In the past 25 years (since the 1986-1987 influenza season), there have been only 4 seasons in which there was no antigenic drift in at least one of the influenza vaccine strains. (
  • Will the vaccine developed for H3N8 protect against H3N2? (
  • As a consequence, a novel vaccine containing the H3N2 virus has been created and released for use. (
  • Influenza virus is a segmented single-stranded negative sense RNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family ( ). (
  • Influenza vaccine is the most effective way of prevention, but the protective efficacy of currently marketed vaccines varies from year to year, depending on the antigenic match between circulating virus and vaccine strain. (
  • In February 2020, the FDA approved Seqirus's Audenz for active immunization of people 6 months and older, which is the first adjuvant, cell-based vaccine ( ) (monovalent) designed to prevent H5N1 influenza during a pandemic. (
  • In February 2020, the FDA approved the first adjuvant quadrivalent influenza vaccine, Fluad Quadrivalent, to help elderly people aged 65 and above protect against seasonal influenza. (
  • As an infectious diseases physician, I have seen and heard some of the devastating results of this winter's severe influenza season, underscoring the urgent need for a universal vaccine that will provide protection against influenza regardless of each season's primary strains," said Dr. Paul Auwaerter, president, Infectious Diseases Society of America. (
  • While the flu vaccine isn't perfect, it's still the best protection against H3N2 flu and other flu strains, such as H1N1 and B viruses which have also shown up this season. (
  • In birds, humans, and pigs , the virus has mutated into many strains. (
  • Pigs can harbor influenza viruses adapted to humans and others that are adapted to birds, allowing the viruses to exchange genes and create a pandemic strain. (
  • Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome subunits by genetic reassortment ) with H5N1 , passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. (
  • H3N2 evolved from H2N2 by antigenic shift and caused the Hong Kong Flu pandemic of 1968 and 1969 that killed up to 750,000 humans. (
  • The dominant strain of annual flu in humans in January 2006 was H3N2 . (
  • Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 in humans had increased to 91% by 2005. (
  • The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. (
  • However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of avian viruses to humans is possible. (
  • Therefore, it is of major importance torecord the evolution of swine influenza viruses in pigs, and in particular monitor hallmarks of adaptation to humans. (
  • Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. (
  • Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people, with each of these pandemics being caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. (
  • H3N2 subtype influenza A viruses have been identified in humans worldwide, raising concerns about their pandemic potential and prompting the development of candidate vaccines to protect humans against this subtype of influenza A virus . (
  • Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. (
  • Novel H3N2 influenza viruses (H3N2v) containing seven genome segments from swine lineage triple-reassortant H3N2 viruses and a 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm09) matrix protein segment (pM) were isolated from 12 humans in the United States between August and December 2011. (
  • To understand the evolution of these novel H3N2 viruses in swine and humans, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of 674 M sequences and 388 HA and NA sequences from influenza viruses isolated from North American swine during 2009-2011, as well as HA, NA, and M sequences from eight H3N2v viruses isolated from humans. (
  • We identified 34 swine influenza viruses (termed rH3N2p) with the same combination of H3, N2, and pM segments as the H3N2v viruses isolated from humans. (
  • Importantly, the N2 segment of all H3N2v viruses isolated from humans is derived from a genetically distinct N2 lineage that has circulated in swine since being acquired by reassortment with seasonal human H3N2 viruses in 2001-2002, rather than from the N2 that is associated with the 1998 H3N2 swine lineage. (
  • Humans are periodically infected with zoonotic influenza viruses from swine, with at least 27 influenza viruses of swine origin of the A/H1N1, A/H1N2, and A/H3N2 subtypes having been identified in humans in the United States between 1990-2011 ( 32 ). (
  • Of particular concern is the observation that between 17 August and 23 December 2011, 12 humans in the United States were infected with a novel reassortant swine A/H3N2 influenza virus, termed H3N2v, that contains a matrix (M) protein derived from H1N1pdm09 viruses (pM) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (
  • Approximately 1 month after the isolation of the H1N1pdm09 virus in humans ( 6 ), the virus was transmitted back to swine, with the first H1N1pdm09 virus being isolated from swine in Alberta, Canada, in May 2009 ( 16 ). (
  • Currently circulating Influenza A subtypes in humans are H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. (
  • However, in 1998, H3N2 viruses from humans were introduced into the pig population and caused widespread disease among pigs. (
  • Antigenic shift results when a new influenza A virus subtype to which most people have little or no immune protection infects humans. (
  • Therefore, careful evaluation of influenza A viruses recovered from humans who are infected with avian influenza A viruses is very important to identify reassortment if it occurs. (
  • Pandemic influenza viruses cause significant mortality in humans. (
  • Here we estimated the evolutionary history and inferred date of introduction to humans of each of the genes for all 20th century pandemic influenza strains. (
  • Our results indicate that genetic components of the 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus circulated in mammalian hosts, i.e., swine and humans, as early as 1911 and was not likely to be a recently introduced avian virus. (
  • Phylogenetic relationships suggest that the A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 virus (BM/1918) was generated by reassortment between mammalian viruses and a previously circulating human strain, either in swine or, possibly, in humans. (
  • Pandemic influenza outbreaks pose a significant threat to public health worldwide as highlighted by the recent introduction of swine-derived H1N1 virus into humans ( 1 ). (
  • A number of hypotheses have been proposed for the development of pandemicity of the influenza virus, including direct introduction into humans from an avian origin and reassortment between avian and previously circulating human viruses, either directly in humans or through an intermediate mammalian host ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • Based on studies of amino acid similarities of all 8 gene segments of A/Brevig Mission/1/1918 virus (BM/1918), it was concluded that this virus most likely was derived directly from an avian precursor that was introduced to humans shortly before the pandemic ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • Humans are infected by influenza A or B viruses. (
  • Mutations can create different strains among the main two types of A viruses infecting humans, H1N1 and H3N2. (
  • The influenza A variant subtype H1N1 is commonly the cause of swine flu in humans. (
  • There have been infections in humans with these two variant subtypes as well. (
  • However, any time a virus affects humans from a different source, it is a concern. (
  • The experimental infections indicate that these novel H3 viruses are virulent and can sustain onward transmission in pigs, and the naturally occurring mutations in the HA were associated with antigenic divergence from H3 IAV from humans and swine. (
  • Health organizations use the term "variant" to refer to viruses that are genetically different from what is usually isolated from humans. (
  • Pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks occur when strains from animal reservoirs acquire the ability to infect and spread among humans. (
  • Pandemics occur when influenza strains of avian origin with novel antigenicity acquire the ability to transmit among humans 1 . (
  • Today there are three influenza A virus subtypes circulating in humans: H3N2, seasonal H1N1, and 2009 H1N1. (
  • However, the rapid spread in wild bird species of a highly pathogenic virus subtype, H5N1, that can cause a deadly infection in man, has generated the concern that a mutated form of this virus could acquire the capability to spread in humans and cause a pandemic of catastrophic consequences. (
  • Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 (A/H5N1) is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. (
  • A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient. (
  • H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic, as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. (
  • To date, 16 HA, and 9 NA subtypes have been detected in wild birds and poultry, of which subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 are currently circulating among humans in seasonal influenza outbreaks(3,4,5,6,7). (
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) and influenza B virus (IBV) are responsible for seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness among humans. (
  • Human influenza viruses are divided into two main groups, type A and type B. Type A viruses are found in ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, and humans, among other animals. (
  • Type B viruses are known to circulate only among humans. (
  • An additional form of the virus, Type C influenza, has been identified in humans, pigs and dogs, but has not yet caused serious disease or epidemics in humans. (
  • At this time, only three of the 15 H subtypes have infected humans. (
  • The outbreak of 'Bird' flu in Hong Kong was attributed to H5N1, however, this subtype was not shown to be transmissible form person to person (only from birds to humans). (
  • The two influenza A subtypes that annually circulate in humans are seasonal H1N1 and seasonal H3N2. (
  • The 2009 outbreak of swine flu that infected humans was of the H1N1 subtype. (
  • By 1908 we knew that viruses could cause diseases of plants, animals and even humans. (
  • AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. (
  • Humans, including children, occasionally are infected with influenza A viruses of swine or avian origin. (
  • Other influenza subtypes of avian origin, including H7, also are identified occasionally in humans. (
  • Does H3N2 pose a risk to humans? (
  • At this time there are no known cases of this influenza virus infecting humans, though authorities such as the CDC are monitoring the situation closely. (
  • Influenza A viruses are widespread in nature and cause disease in a variety of species, including humans, lower mammals, and birds (14). (
  • In addition to the yearly burden of seasonal influenza viruses, novel zoonotic IAV strains periodically emerge into humans from swine or birds, triggering unpredictable pandemics that can dramatically increase infection and mortality rates ( 2 ). (
  • We're currently concerned about two subtypes which cause outbreaks in humans: A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2. (
  • Influenza type A strains that infect humans usually have one of three HA proteins (H1, H2, H3) and one of 2 NA proteins (N1, N2). (
  • Certain avian influenza viruses such as the H5N1 and H7N9 viruses are highly pathogenic and are associated with a high morality when they infect humans. (
  • Fortunately these viruses, except in rare instances, cannot be transmitted from humans to other humans. (
  • In this review, we examine genetic, molecular, and pathogenicity and transmissibility data from a panel of contemporary North American H1 subtype swine-origin viruses isolated from humans, as compared to H1N1 seasonal and pandemic viruses, including the reconstructed 1918 virus. (
  • Collectively, we find that despite strain-specific heterogeneity among swine-origin H1 viruses, contemporary swine viruses isolated from humans possess many attributes shared by prior pandemic strains, warranting heightened surveillance and evaluation of these zoonotic viruses. (
  • Several mammalian hosts including, but not limited to, humans, pigs, horses, and dogs maintain genetically and antigenically distinct lineages of influenza viruses [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • And flu strains that usually infect only animals have also periodically caused disease in humans, as seen in the recent outbreak of avian influenza in Asia. (
  • Seo, Sang 2015-01-01 00:00:00 Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus continues to infect animals and humans. (
  • Currently the main circulating influenza viruses that cause disease in humans are the influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes together with influenza B virus. (
  • In conclusion, the swine H2N3 virus represents a threat to humans with the potential for causing a larger outbreak in a non-immune or partially immune population. (
  • Influenza A virus infections in humans are typically associated with limited seasonal outbreaks of commonly circulating influenza virus strains. (
  • Occasionally however, new virus strains or subtypes appear that infect millions of individuals causing severe illness and high case fatality rates in humans [1] . (
  • Influenza A viruses can infect birds and a large variety of mammalian species including humans, horses, pigs, dogs, cats and sea mammals. (
  • In general, avian influenza viruses grow poorly in mammals including humans, cause little disease and are not easily transmitted between mammalian hosts [1] . (
  • Pigs have been suggested to play an important role in transmission between birds and humans by acting as a "mixing vessel" for influenza viruses allowing for major genetic changes through reassortment of gene segments during co-infection [6] , [7] . (
  • For example there have been reports of humans being infected with the H5N1 bird flu, without it spreading en masse. (
  • Lungs of ferrets infected with either an H3N2 or H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus. (
  • A global genomics approach was used to identify patterns of immune dysregulation during H5N1 influenza virus infection as the host response, in particular hyperchemokinemia, is thought to contribute to the extreme pathology associated with this disease. (
  • Keywords: time course Overall design: Ferrets were inoculated intranasally with 10(6) EID50 of either A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) or A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2). (
  • Mouse lung transcriptome response to infection with H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza virus. (
  • The cellular transcriptome of C57BL/6 mouse lungs was profiled by mRNA-Seq analysis at multiple time points in response to infection with influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1), A/Wyoming/03/03 (H3N2), and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) HALo virus. (
  • The Influenza A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) HALo mutant virus is an attenuated H5N1 virus generated from wild-type Influenza A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) virus as described in Steel, J., et al. (
  • Overall design: Six to eight week-old female C57BL/6 mice were infected with influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1), A/Wyoming/03/03 (H3N2), or A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) HALo virus. (
  • Human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE) cell transcriptome response to infection with H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza virus. (
  • Overall design: Human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE) cells that have been isolated from normal donor airway epithelial tissue were infected with influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1), A/Wyoming/03/03 (H3N2), and A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) HALo virus at an MOI of 5. (
  • H3N2- and H5N1-infected samples and time-matched mock-infected samples were collected in duplicates at 3, 6, 12, and 18 hrs post infection for mRNA-Seq analysis. (
  • One strain of virus that may produce a pandemic in the future is a highly pathogenic variation of the H5N1 subtype of influenza A virus . (
  • SummaryGlobal Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape.H5N1 is a type of influenza. (
  • for outpatients with suspected or confirmed influenza who are at higher risk of influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions: and in suspected or proven infections due to virulent viruses like avian A(H5N1) or A(H7N9). (
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (
  • HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (
  • Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, in 2006, the H5N1 virus has been regarded to be the world's largest pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. (
  • Influenza pandemics from its genetic offspring may include influenza A virus subtypes other than H5N1. (
  • Rare but severe infections with influenza A subtype H5N1 viruses have been identified since 1997 in Asia, Africa, Europe and the Middle East, areas where these viruses are present in domestic or wild birds. (
  • We compared the infectivity and pathogenesis of H5N1 virus in domestic cats and dogs to find out which animal is more susceptible to H5N1 influenza virus. (
  • When cats and dogs were infected with the H5N1 virus, cats suffered from severe outcomes including death, whereas dogs did not show any mortality. (
  • Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats. (
  • Although infection from H7N9, the new potential pandemic Influenza strain, or H5N1, a continuing pandemic threat since 1997, can be identified by exclusion (positive in the Influenza matrix RT-PCR but negative in RT-PCR typing), development of rapid typing RT-PCR for these potential pandemic viruses may be useful in complementing the existing set. (
  • Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) frequently are used for the diagnosis of influenza infection in clinical settings, and the recent outbreaks of H3N2v virus ( 2 , 3 ) have highlighted the need to evaluate commercially available, widely used RIDTs for their ability to detect H3N2v viruses. (
  • Influenza A viruses can occasionally be transmitted from wild birds to other species causing outbreaks in domestic poultry and may give rise to human influenza pandemics. (
  • Examples of different influenza A virus subtypes that have infected animals to cause outbreaks include H1N1 and H3N2 virus infections of pigs, and H7N7 and H3N8 virus infections of horses. (
  • More recently, H3N8 viruses from horses have crossed over and caused outbreaks in dogs. (
  • Although it is unusual for people to get influenza virus infections directly from animals, sporadic human infections and outbreaks caused by certain avian influenza A viruses and swine influenza A viruses have been reported. (
  • Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks in pigs. (
  • A century after one of history's most catastrophic disease outbreaks, scientists are rethinking how to guard against another super-flu like the 1918 influenza that killed tens of millions as it swept the globe. (
  • This report describes 6 influenza outbreaks in residential care facilities during the 2014 influenza season in the Sydney Local Health District. (
  • 5 One hundred and eleven influenza outbreaks in RCFs were reported in New South Wales in 2014, the highest number in the past decade. (
  • 8,10 RCFs are thus at high risk of influenza outbreaks and require robust prevention and control measures. (
  • This report describes the management of influenza outbreaks in RCFs by the Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (PHU) during the 2014 influenza season (May to October). (
  • Influenza is a scheduled medical condition in New South Wales, and RCF outbreaks are notifiable to the NSW Ministry of Health. (
  • Six influenza outbreaks were notified to the PHU between 4 July and 8 September 2014 affecting 90 residents and 43 staff. (
  • Influenza can occur in pandemics and epidemics, localized outbreaks, and as sporadic cases(1). (
  • Swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) causing outbreaks of acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs also pose a potential threat to public health. (
  • Outbreaks typically result from direct dog-to-dog contact, contact with contaminated surfaces or aerosol transmission of the virus through sneezing or coughing. (
  • The disease was also unusually severe, with death rates of 2.5 to 5 percent-up to 50 times the mortality seen in other influenza outbreaks. (
  • The Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) collects data regularly on outbreaks of communicable diseases including influenza H1N1 from different parts of the country. (
  • In general, both IAV and IBV can cause influenza, and IAV is a more critical factor leading to seasonal and epidemic outbreaks. (
  • H3N2 viruses can infect birds and mammals. (
  • These novel strains are unaffected by any immunity people may have to older strains of human influenza and can therefore spread extremely rapidly and infect very large numbers of people. (
  • This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. (
  • Influenza A viruses that typically infect and transmit among one animal species sometimes can cross over and cause illness in another species. (
  • The segmented genome allows influenza A viruses from different species to mix and create a new virus if influenza A viruses from two different species infect the same person or animal. (
  • Influenza viruses in pigs can occasionally infect people, and human influenza viruses can infect swine. (
  • H3N2 viruses are able to infect mammals and birds. (
  • In Europe every year influenza viruses infect 10-15% of the population and account for about 100,000 cases of hospital admissions of which 20% die as either direct or indirect consequence of influenza infection, particularly the elderly and people suffering from chronic heart and respiratory diseases. (
  • Influenza viruses also infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, where all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can be found. (
  • This virus is a genetic variant of the H3N8 equine influenza virus that gained the ability to infect dogs. (
  • The Asian H3N2 virus is derived from an avian strain that also gained the ability to infect dogs and be transmitted from dog to dog. (
  • In addition to the Influenza Virus Matrix PCR test that will detect any influenza variant currently circulating that may infect dogs or other species, the AHDC offers a more broadly diagnostic Canine Respiratory PCR Panel. (
  • Their genetic material consists of segments of single-stranded RNA that can be shuffled and exchanged whenever multiple viruses infect a single cell. (
  • Strain H3N2 , new in this country as of two years ago, was originally identified in southern China and South Korea and is derived from a strain of avian flu that now has the ability to infect dogs. (
  • It is possible that H3 virus could easily bind to the specific receptors resulting in better ability to infect cells than H1 virus. (
  • Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia , then trickle around the globe before dying off. (
  • In contrast to the regular seasonal epidemics of influenza, these pandemics occur irregularly - there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years. (
  • However, only influenza A and B cause the seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur every year. (
  • In temperate climates, epidemics of influenza typically occur during the late fall and winter seasons(2,11), whereas in tropical and subtropical regions influenza epidemics occur throughout the year(11). (
  • Since the Hong Kong flu (H3N2) pandemic, the number of influenza-associated hospitalizations has typically been greater during seasonal influenza epidemics caused by influenza A/H3N2 viruses than during seasons in which other influenza A virus subtypes have predominated(18). (
  • Annual human epidemics are currently caused by two IAV subtypes (A/H3N2, A/H1N1) and by two diverging IBV lineages (B/Yamagata, B/Victoria). (
  • Type A contains lots of subtypes and has been the major culprit in epidemics and pandemics in the last 100 years. (
  • Seasonal influenza epidemics have been responsible for notable morbidity and mortality, with the severity of systemic symptoms from this acute viral infection ranging from fever and fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (
  • Seasonal epidemics occur secondary to unremitting antigenic drift, or continuous minor antigenic variations within a particular type A subtype. (
  • Influenza A viruses (IAV) are estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths across the world every year during seasonal epidemics, despite widespread preexposure and vaccination ( 1 ). (
  • Influenza is caused by viruses of three types - A, B and C. It is the type A virus which has caused major pandemics and epidemics across the globe. (
  • According to the scale, influenza epidemics can be divided into influenza pandemics and seasonal influenza epidemics. (
  • There are four main types of viruses that cause seasonal influenza epidemics, namely the IAV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 and two IVB subtypes. (
  • The annual seasonal influenza epidemics cause 3 million to 5 million severe cases and 290,000 to 650,000 respiratory disease related deaths worldwide, posing a serious threat to public health security. (
  • Among the various types and subtypes of influenza viruses circulating every year, the A/H3N2 subtype is associated with the most severe epidemics ( 8 ). (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics, which often overlap with the influenza season, cause significant morbidity and mortality in adults, especially the elderly. (
  • Previous reports have described cases of influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) virus * infection with the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 M gene detected in the United States during July 2011-July 2012 ( 1- 3 ). (
  • Human tracheobronchial epithelial (HTBE) cells are considered to serve as a good correlate of influenza virus infection in the human respiratory tract. (
  • A child's first influenza infection shapes their immunity to future airborne flu viruses-;including emerging pandemic strains. (
  • A fluorescent focus assay (FFU) was performed 24-36 hours post- infection using a specific antibody and bright staining was used for determining the virus titer . (
  • In a mouse model of infection, the enhanced virulence of PTX3-resistant mutants was associated with increased virus replication and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the airways, leading to pulmonary inflammation and lung injury. (
  • We have examined rescue of mutants of A/FPV/Rostock/34 with temperature-sensitive (ts) lesions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene by double infection of chick embryo cells with H3N2 strains isolated from different species. (
  • Clinical management and viral genomic diversity analysis of a child's influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the context of a severe combined immunodeficiency. (
  • A child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) had an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with viral excretion longer than 6 months, during 2013-2014 influenza season, despite cord blood transplant. (
  • In 2012, one third of cases in a multistate outbreak of variant influenza A(H3N2) virus ([H3N2]v) infection occurred in Ohio. (
  • Observational studies indicate that oseltamivir treatment reduces the likelihood of pneumonia, hospitalization and mortality, and the duration of hospitalization in those hospitalized with seasonal or pandemic 2009 H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus infection. (
  • Influenza virus infection was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (
  • H9N2 Avian influenza virus (AVI) infection is a major cause of economic losses in poultry industry. (
  • This subtyping IFA provides clinical laboratories with a cost-effective diagnostic tool for better management of influenza virus infection and surveillance of influenza virus activity. (
  • Continuous daily ingestion of 1073R-1-yogurt may help prevent infection with influenza A virus subtype H3N2 in elderly subjects with weakened immunity. (
  • Our study suggests that continuous daily ingestion of 1073R-1-yogurt may help prevent infection with influenza A virus subtype H3N2 in elderly subjects with weakened immunity, by increasing the production of influenza A virus subtype of H3N2-bound salivary IgA. (
  • Influenza is an extremely contagious infection of the upper and/or lower respiratory tract and is caused by distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses. (
  • Human infection from bird viruses (avian viruses) occurs only upon exposure to infected poultry, wild birds or contact with surfaces contaminated with secretion/excretions of infected animals. (
  • Rapid diagnosis of influenza infection is a key component of disease surveillance activity carried out by health authorities to monitor the presence of these viruses in the community. (
  • Less than 1% were associated with influenza A virus and influenza B virus co-infection and 0.3% had no influenza virus type determination. (
  • At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing prepandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. (
  • Influenza A virus can cause infection in many mammalian and avian species and exists in multiple subtypes. (
  • Influenza virus infection in dogs follows a similar pattern to infections in other species. (
  • Peak of virus shed is 3-4 days post infection. (
  • Influenza is an acute viral infection of the upper respiratory system that accounts for 3-5 million hospitalizations and 250,000-500,000 deaths annually worldwide (WHO). (
  • This same HA protein is responsible for the attachment of the virus to the host cell and beginning the infection of the cell. (
  • Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. (
  • Influenza virus infection is commonly marked by an acute onset of fever accompanied by chills, rigors, malaise, headache, diffuse myalgia and nonproductive cough. (
  • Influenza infection generally presents with a greater severity of symptoms (e.g., fever, chills, myalgia) than the more common upper respiratory tract infection (e.g., nasal congestion, rhinorrhea). (
  • Infection with a novel influenza A virus should be reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a nationally reportable disease. (
  • Infection by influenza virus and all enveloped viruses requires fusion of the viral and host membranes. (
  • Influenza virus infection begins when HA binds sialic acid on cell surface receptors through a low-affinity, high-avidity interaction that initiates internalization through receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • IMPORTANCE Superinfection, the sequential infection of a single cell by two or more virions, plays an important role in determining the replicative and evolutionary potential of influenza A virus (IAV) populations. (
  • Finally, increasing the frequency of coinfection can accelerate viral replication kinetics and virus output by increasing the average multiplicity of infection (MOI) ( 13 - 15 ). (
  • The elderly, patients with heart and lung disease, and immunocompromised patients (cancer patients, those with HIV infection, transplant patients, etc.) are particularly susceptible to influenza. (
  • Influenza infection causes damage to cells of the respiratory tract tissue which predisposes infected individuals to a secondary bacterial infection. (
  • Other complications of influenza infection include encephalitis and meningitis. (
  • Adults "shed" influenza virus for approximately 7 days following infection during which time they can spread the infection and thus considered contagious. (
  • The HA protein is involved in entry of the virus into cells and is the primary antigen involved in the immune response to infection or vaccination. (
  • Co-infection of animals such as pigs with different influenza viruses can allow mixing of viral genomes and re-assortment of viral RNA segments thus creating new viruses. (
  • Virus shedding peaks at three to four days post-infection, and the illness declines rapidly once your dog's immune system responds to the presence of the virus. (
  • A CIV infection by itself is not usually serious, however, the infection plus the presence of other respiratory viruses can result in secondary bacterial pneumonia . (
  • Swine influenza is an acute, highly contagious, respiratory disease caused by type A influenza virus infection. (
  • In Thailand, pathogenesis of SIV subtype H1N1 and H3N2 infection in swine has never been studied. (
  • In addition, the influenza virus infection may predispose to other conditions, such as bacterial superinfection and cardiovascular complications 10 - 12 . (
  • Here we investigated the pathogenic potential of swine H2N3 in Cynomolgus macaques, a surrogate model for human influenza infection. (
  • Both viruses replicated in the entire respiratory tract, but only swine H2N3 could be isolated from lung tissue on day 6 post infection. (
  • 3-7,12 Studies of both influenza and RSV infections typically employ indirect methods because neither infection is routinely confirmed virologically. (
  • Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1 , H3N2, H1N2 , and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. (
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (
  • Of the 97 recent H3N2 isolates examined, only 41 had strong serologic cross-reactions with antiserum to three commercial SIV vaccines. (
  • Influenza vaccines need to be evaluated every year to ensure they remain effective against new influenza viruses. (
  • In recent influenza seasons, the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines against circulating A(H3N2) virus has been lower than against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, even when circulating viruses. (
  • Influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 are still currently circulating in the human population(25) and are included in current vaccines(11). (
  • Since the viruses mutate rapidly, vaccines must be reformulated from year to year to be effective. (
  • Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. (
  • Hence, only influenza A and B virus antigens are included in influenza vaccines. (
  • Vaccines are currently available as independent formulations or as a combination including both H3N2 and H3N8 strains. (
  • Defining the specific factors that influence the evolution of influenza viruses is critical for designing more-effective vaccines, therapeutics, and surveillance strategies. (
  • Most flu vaccines protect against four strains of influenza. (
  • Since influenza viruses are prone to mutate during replication, influenza vaccines must be replaced with strains and re-vaccinated every year. (
  • Both are adjuvant seasonal influenza vaccines for adults 65 years and older. (
  • Influenza viruses rapidly evolve in shape, making it hard to develop protective vaccines against them. (
  • Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. (
  • Mean estimates of the time of most recent common ancestor also suggest that the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains may have been generated through reassortment events in unknown mammalian hosts and involved multiple avian viruses preceding pandemic recognition. (
  • There are several subtypes of influenza A virus include H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2. (
  • for example, only three subtypes are known to have circulated in the human population (H1N1, H2N2 and H3N2) and only three subtypes of influenza A viruses (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2) are consistently isolated from pigs worldwide. (
  • 2 days after illness onset) in ambulatory patients with febrile influenza illness reduces the duration of illness, time to resume usual activities, and the risk of physician-diagnosed respiratory complications leading to antibiotic use. (
  • It is a respiratory disease that results from an influenza A virus. (
  • The flu is a respiratory illness that's caused by the influenza virus. (
  • Tissue samples from the animals' upper and lower respiratory tracts helped the investigators pinpoint the soft palate-which has surfaces facing both the mouth and nasopharyngeal region-as the key site for virus mutation. (
  • Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. (
  • During the summer of 2002, an epidemic of respiratory illness with 22,646 cases and a 3% case- mortality affected Madagascar and was attributed to a strain of H3N2(9). (
  • As is the case with all influenza viruses, there is the opportunity for changes in the virus that could affect transmission rates and increase or decrease the ability of the virus to cause respiratory illness. (
  • While in the past CIV infections in and of themselves have not shown a significant mortality rate, CIV infections as well as other respiratory viruses compromise the normal defenses of the lung permitting secondary bacterial pneumonias. (
  • This panel includes canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Mycoplasma cynos along with Influenza Virus Matrix PCR. (
  • As with all respiratory viruses, it is critical to take samples for agent detection within a day or two of the onset of clinical signs which include runny nose, low grade fevers, and coughing. (
  • Influenza virus, a single-stranded negative-strand RNA virus of Orthomyxoviridae , is an important respiratory pathogen that has a significant impact on global health. (
  • Swine influenza is a worldwide disease, which causes damage to the respiratory system of pigs. (
  • In summary, chitosan SwIAV nanovaccine delivered by IN route elicited strong cross-reactive mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract that resulted in a reduced nasal viral shedding and lung virus titers in pigs. (
  • It is a highly contagious respiratory disease caused by one of many Influenza A viruses. (
  • All viruses replicated and were shed in the upper respiratory tract without prior adaptation although H1N2 viruses showed the highest shedding titers. (
  • Influenza is a contagious airborne disease, initially affecting the upper respiratory system. (
  • Our study use the surveillance data collected from 16 sentinel hospitals across Zhejiang Province during March 2011 through June 2015, including the demographic information and respiratory specimens from influenza-like illness (ILI) patients and severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) patients. (
  • Laboratory surveillance data of respiratory viruses from 2009 to 2016 were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • As a result, among individuals under 65 years old, 6774 (0.51%) all-cause deaths, 2521 (3.05%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 1048 (18.23%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. (
  • Among those 65 years of age or older, 30 414 (2.27%) all-cause deaths, 16 411 (3.42%) respiratory or circulatory deaths, and 4906 (6.87%) influenza or pneumonia deaths were estimated. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) virus was the major contributor to influenza-associated all-cause and respiratory or circulatory deaths in both age groups. (
  • Influenza virus is transmitted via aerosols and infects cells of the respiratory tract. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the new strains resulted from reassortment among swine, human, and avian viruses and called attention to pigs as a "mixing vessel" for different influenza viruses, potentially due to the presence of both human-like and avian-like sialic acids (SA) on the swine respiratory tract epithelium [ 6 ]. (
  • The canine influenza virus (CIV) is a relatively new virus and is part of the canine infectious respiratory disease complex, also known as kennel cough . (
  • If your veterinarian suspects the flu, chest x-rays may be recommended to rule out other respiratory diseases prior to testing for influenza. (
  • World situation of 2019-nCov (WHO) Regional situation of influenza and other respiratory viruses. (
  • Sentinel surveillance of respiratory viruses. (
  • The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality and hospitalisations, especially the influenza-associated burden among low-risk individuals ≤65 yrs old, not yet recommended for influenza vaccination in many European countries. (
  • The respiratory syncytial virus-associated burden was highest for young children but also substantial for the elderly. (
  • Co-circulation of other respiratory viruses during influenza season, in particular the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) 13 , makes it challenging to estimate the influenza-associated burden indirectly. (
  • There are suggestions that respiratory virus coinfections also affect virus virulence. (
  • Studies investigating the role of genetic mutations on disease outcome should make efforts to also investigate the role of respiratory virus coinfections. (
  • The investigators report on the design, validation, and evaluation of a set of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for quantification and subtyping of human influenza A and B viruses from patient respiratory material, as well as four assays for detecting drug resistant mutations. (
  • In total, 129 respiratory specimens tested positive for influenza A and 60 for influenza B virus. (
  • Complete genomic characterization of a Chinese isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. (
  • Influenza is a respiratory infectious disease caused by the influenza virus. (
  • Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections cause seasonal excess mortality and hospitalisation in adults (particularly the elderly) in high-income countries. (
  • Initially, if specimens tested positive for influenza A, H3, and pandemic influenza A markers and negative for H1 and pandemic H1 markers, they were reported as inconclusive until confirmed as influenza A (H3N2)v at the CDC laboratory ( 1 ). (
  • Despite global concern regarding a new pandemic influenza, the emergence pathway of pandemic strains remains unknown. (
  • Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling study. (
  • In addition 96 pre-pandemic influenza A/H1N1 viruses from the epidemic of 2007-2008 were analyzed by the H275Y assay to check the robustness of the assay. (
  • Furthermore, surveillance efforts in farmed pig populations need to become an integral part of any epidemic and pandemic influenza preparedness. (
  • 10 11 By November, 622 482 laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infections and 8768 deaths were reported to the WHO. (
  • however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. (
  • Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China , and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, contributing to the emergence of new variant strains. (
  • All scientific data point towards swine as the key host species for new human influenza pandemics, which have been suggested to evolve in pigs from viral genes of avian, human and porcine origin. (
  • The scope of this paper was to increase the understanding of the genetics of swine influenza virus (SIV), and to investigate the importance of different viral gene markers in association with differences in pathogenicity of two viruses of H1N2 subtype in pigs. (
  • Our observations are compatible with the idea that human H3N2 strains might not be able to cross the species barrier to birds directly, and possibly also not the other way around, without prior reassortment in pigs, which seem to have a broader host range concerning the compatibility of the NP gene in reassortants. (
  • It has similar genetic features to the H1N1 subtype of influenza virus that causes influenza in pigs. (
  • Other main subtypes known to occur and cause influenza in pigs include H1N2 and H3N2 . (
  • Their pathogenicity and transmission in pigs were compared to those of a human H3N2 virus with a common HA ancestry. (
  • Both swine human-like H3 viruses efficiently infected pigs and were transmitted to indirect contacts, whereas the human H3N2 virus did so much less efficiently. (
  • To evaluate the role of genes from the swine isolates in their pathogenesis, reverse genetics-generated reassortants between the swine human-like H3N1 virus and the seasonal human H3N2 virus were tested in pigs. (
  • Influenza is present at low levels in pigs throughout the world, and is monitored by the voluntary USDA Swine Influenza Surveillance Program, although it is not a reportable or regulated disease. (
  • Like human influenza viruses, there are different subtypes and strains of influenza viruses in pigs. (
  • The main influenza viruses circulating in U.S. pigs in recent years are H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. (
  • While H1N1 viruses have been known to circulate among pig populations since at least 1930, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza A viruses did not begin circulating among pigs in the United States until about 1998. (
  • This 2009 H1N1 M gene may allow these H3N2 viruses in swine to be more transmissible from pigs to people and possibly from person to person. (
  • In a study with pigs, we vaccinated pigs with an inactivated delta-cluster H1N2 virus representative of the currently circulating delta-cluster strain of IAV in pigs. (
  • Identification and genomic characterization of influenza viruses with different origin in Mexican pigs. (
  • In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. (
  • Pigs vaccinated with CNPs-KAg exhibited an enhanced IgG serum antibody and mucosal secretory IgA antibody responses in nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, and lung lysates that were reactive against homologous (H1N2), heterologous (H1N1), and heterosubtypic (H3N2) influenza A virus strains. (
  • In CNPs-KAg vaccinated pigs challenged with heterologous virus reduced severity of macroscopic and microscopic influenza-associated pulmonary lesions were observed. (
  • This multiplex RT-qPCR assay provides a fast and specific diagnostic tool for identification of different subtypes and lineages of IAV in pigs, contributing to the monitoring of influenza in swine. (
  • Influenza A viruses of the HlNl subtype were first detected in pigs in the United States in 1930. (
  • Such viruses continue to circulate in pigs and cause substantial disease problems, resulting in delayed marketing and increased expense for care and medication (7, 13). (
  • The mechanism for maintenance of the HlNi virus in pigs remains an unanswered question. (
  • These viruses were dominant in swine until the emergence of H3N2 viruses in pigs in the late 1990s. (
  • The objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N1 and H3N2 (Thai isolates) in 22-day-old SPF pigs. (
  • The H1N1-infected pigs had greater lung lesion scores than those of the H3N2-infected pigs. (
  • The results demonstrated that both SIV subtypes were able to induce flu-like symptoms and lung lesions in weanling pigs. (
  • However, pigs can also be infected with other subtypes of influenza A viruses. (
  • 9 ] demonstrated that pigs infected with a European H3N2 virus induced higher HI titers compared to a European H1N1 virus. (
  • Since different subtypes of the influenza type A viruses isolated from pigs are found to cause different pathogenic levels in pigs, the objective of this study is to investigate the pathogenesis of SIV (Thai isolates) subtype H1N1 (A/swine/Thailand/HF6/05) and H3N2 (A/swine/Thailand/S1/05) in weanling SPF pigs. (
  • The triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. (
  • Oral oseltamivir and orally inhaled zanamivir, which requires use of a specific device (Diskhaler®), are inhibitory for almost all currently circulating strains of influenza A and B viruses. (
  • Antigenic drift is responsible for the production of new strains of influenza A and B viruses. (
  • Researchers at Cornell say results from additional testing indicate that the outbreak is being caused by a virus closely related to Asian strains of influenza A H3N2 viruses, currently in wide circulation in southern Chinese and South Korean dog populations since being identified in 2006. (
  • This means it covered four strains in total: two strains of influenza A, and two strains of influenza B. (
  • Influenza A viruses also infects many mammalian species and birds including migratory birds which can spread strains of influenza across the globe. (
  • Emergence of genetically and antigenically diverse strains of influenza to which the human population has no or limited immunity necessitates continuous risk assessments to determine the likelihood of these viruses acquiring adaptations that facilitate sustained human-to-human transmission. (
  • Krishnasarma pathy, (2017) The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx: A Novel Immunomodulator and Potential Fighter Against Cytoki Infections- Carica papaya Linn. (
  • The discovery of a new, biologic host-defense protein, "HDFx", may provide a unique way to ameliorate and prevent the "cytokine storms" and haemorrhages seen in severe influenza infections.The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. (
  • This report provides 1) an update on the number of reported cases of H3N2v infections from July 12 to August 9, 2012, in the United States, 2) an updated results interpretation for the CDC Flu Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) Dx Panel for A(H3N2)v for public health laboratories, and 3) an evaluation of rapid influenza diagnostic tests for the detection of H3N2v viruses. (
  • DUBLIN-( BUSINESS WIRE )-The "Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2020" drug pipelines has been added to's offering. (
  • This report provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (
  • H3N2 infections are caused by variant H3N2 virus which is an influenza virus. (
  • This Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (
  • The Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects. (
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (
  • Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease). (
  • Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (
  • Penn Medicine researchers have found that middle-aged individuals -- those born in the late 1960s and the 1970s -- may be in a perpetual state of H3N2 influenza virus susceptibility because their antibodies bind to H3N2 viruses but fail to prevent infections, according to a new study led by Scott Hensley, PhD, an associate professor of Microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. (
  • SummaryGlobal Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human her. (
  • While influenza viruses almost always remain infectious only within their host species, at times infections may spread to other species. (
  • They then introduced the virus into ferrets, which are typically studied to model human flu infections. (
  • Human, avian, and classical swine lineage viruses are co-circulating in North American swine populations, generating novel reassortants and leading to hundreds of zoonotic infections (e.g. (
  • Mixed viral infections (3.7%) and reassortant viruses (1.9%) were also detected by the test. (
  • The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. (
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease). (
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (
  • According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), influenza infections cause more than 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths annually. (
  • It is difficult to estimate the influenza-associated healthcare burden accurately, because influenza virus infections are generally not virologically confirmed and are often not recognised clinically 8 , 9 . (
  • Most of the laboratory diagnoses of influenza virus and RSV infections were made by virus isolation on cell culture or rapid antigen tests. (
  • Plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and IFNγ were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. (
  • The immunity acquired by host populations from infections with different strains shapes the virus' evolution. (
  • It has been estimated that 5-10% of the world's population are affected by seasonal influenza annually, causing 3-5 million severe infections and 250 000-500 000 deaths. (
  • 10 The pressure on medical facilities and intensive care units due to severe influenza infections has been substantial. (
  • The adamantanes, also called M2 ion channel blockers, have been available for the treatment and prevention of influenza infections for the past 40 years ( 13 ). (
  • The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift , in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. (
  • In years in which H3N2 is the predominant strain, there are more hospitalizations. (
  • On 11 June 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza was declared to be a global pandemic (Stage 6) by the WHO after evidence of spreading in the southern hemisphere. (
  • The rgAA- H3N2 virus contained HA and NA genes from an epidemic strain A/ Wisconsin /67/2005 (H3N2) in a background of internal genes derived from the master donor viruses (MDV), cold -adapted (ca), temperature sensitive (ts), live attenuated influenza virus strain A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (MDV-A). (
  • In winters like this one, when the H3N2 flu is the dominant strain, effectiveness can be much lower. (
  • Doctors now consider H1N1 to be a flu strain that can occur in people and spread alongside seasonal flu viruses. (
  • However, this test can vary in effectiveness and may show a negative result when a certain influenza virus strain is present. (
  • Allows strain identification and comparison of various viruses. (
  • Subtype/strain specific-depending on antigen used. (
  • There's no way to predict what strain of the shape-shifting flu virus could trigger another pandemic or, given modern medical tools, how bad it might be. (
  • Among the new strategies: Researchers are dissecting the cloak that disguises influenza as it sneaks past the immune system, and finding some rare targets that stay the same from strain to strain, year to year. (
  • Four swabs were sent for strain detection to the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza. (
  • H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. H3N2 strain descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which genes from multiple subtypes re-assorted to form a new virus. (
  • NAME: Influenza virus type A (excluding 1918 influenza A (H1N1) strain and subtypes H5, H7 and H9). (
  • Another influenza pandemic that occurred in 1968-1969 (Hong Kong flu), was caused by an H3N2 strain of influenza that was the result of a reassortment between circulating human H2N2 and avian H3(15) viruses and is estimated to have caused 34,000 deaths in the United States(16). (
  • Full influenza genomic sequencing was performed on all samples using the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform to identify nucleotide substitutions important in the epidemic strain. (
  • However, since 2017, the H3N2 subtype has become the dominant strain. (
  • The most recent (April 2009 through August 2010) influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic declared by the World Health Organization occurred secondary to antigenic shift creating a strain which was efficiently transmitted in a sustained manner in the setting of poor preexisting immunity. (
  • For example, seasons with influenza A (H3N2) as the predominant circulating strain have demonstrated mortality rates 2.7 times higher than average mortality rates in seasons with different predominant strains. (
  • The canine influenza outbreak that began in the Chicago area in March of 2015 and spread to other areas across the country over the next year is caused by a different strain of the virus than was earlier assumed, according to laboratory scientists at Cornell University and the University of Wisconsin. (
  • Although both are H3 viruses, H3N2 is antigenically different from the H3N8 virus strain. (
  • Back in 1937, one case emerged in a woman living in a pig farm, the flu strain was genetically modified and a new flu influenza was created right in the lab of the University of Massachusetts. (
  • Our next step, as described in this report, was to identify the genetic changes associated with the four antigenic sites on the HA of HlNi swine viruses by sequencing the HA genes of MAb-selected mutants and the parent strain, Sw/ IN/1726/88 (Sw/IN/88), for comparison with the Hi HA of AIPR/8/34 (6, 21, 32, 42). (
  • Strain H3N8 was initially an influenza virus occurring in horses. (
  • Still, this particularly virulent and infectious strain of the flu virus is thought to have killed as many as 40 million people around the world between 1918 and 1919. (
  • Now, more than 80 years after the horrible natural disaster of 1918-1919, tissues recovered from a handful of victims are answering fundamental questions both about the nature of this pandemic strain and about the workings of influenza viruses in general. (
  • Audenz combines the MF59 adjuvant and cell-based antigen manufacturing technology, which can enhance and expand the body's immune response by inducing antibodies against the mutated virus strain. (
  • The flu strain circulating this year's mostly influenza A subtype H3N2. (
  • This flu season, H3N2 - a subtype of influenza A - has been the dominant strain. (
  • The H3N2 strain combined with a long bout of cold, wintery weather has resulted in a very active flu season. (
  • The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. (
  • Currently, influenza A viruses of the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes cocirculate in U.S. swine. (
  • Endemic strains of swine influenza A virus (IAV) in North America consist of the subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. (
  • AbstractNovel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. (
  • There are 18 different subtypes of HA, which are numbered H1 through H18. (
  • Similarly, there are 11 different subtypes of NA, numbered N1 through N11. (
  • The combinations of the different subtypes of HA and NA are used to classify influenza A viruses. (
  • The results mentioned above demonstrated that cold -adapted, attenuated reassortant H3N2 subtype influenza A virus was successfully generated, which laid a good foundation for the further related research . (
  • In 1998-1999, a triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza virus was identified in U.S. swine that possessed H3, N2, and PB1 segments of seasonal human H3N2 virus origin, PB2 and PA segments of avian virus origin, and NP, M, and NS segments of classical H1N1 swine virus origin ( 38 ). (
  • These triple-reassortant H3N2 viruses cocirculated with classical H1N1 viruses in swine and exchanged genome segments via reassortment, generating H1N2 viruses ( 17 ). (
  • In the last 10 years the majority of H1 and H3 viruses isolated from swine contain the triple-reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation (avian origin PB2 and PA, human H3N2 origin PB1, and classical swine origin NP, M, and NS), although whole-genome sequence data for swine influenza viruses in the U.S. are limited ( 28 ). (
  • The subsequent emergence of quadruple reassortant 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses containing two genes derived from Eurasian swine viruses further supported the role of swine in the generation of new strains with pandemic potential. (
  • all sequenced viruses had the M gene from the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 activity declined further in Australia and the southern hemisphere in general. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were co-circulating in Asia at low levels, while A(H1N1)pdm09 virus detections were reported in some countries in South-east Asia. (
  • A total of 1027 specimens were reported as positive for influenza viruses, 716 (69.7%) were typed as influenza A and 311 (30.3%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses reported, 30.2% were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 69.8% were influenza A(H3N2). (
  • 3148 (11%) were positive for influenza viruses, of which 1759 (56%) were typed as influenza A and 1389 (44%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 142 (10%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1326 (90%) were influenza A(H3N2). (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. (
  • Influenza B virus was detected at low levels with A(H1N1)pdm09 detected sporadically. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected at very low levels. (
  • Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Yantai, China, during the 2009-2017 influenza season. (
  • Nationally, influenza B/Victoria viruses are predominant, followed by A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 are the most common viruses among adults aged 25 to 64 years (42% of reported viruses) and those aged 65 years and older (43% of viruses). (
  • Most (80.7%) influenza A viruses that underwent subtyping were A(H1N1)pdm09 and 19.3% were A(H3N2) viruses. (
  • four of these were subtyped and all four were A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. (
  • Both A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulated widely and detection levels in primary care and hospital settings were similar to past seasons. (
  • Hospitalisation data may suggest an increased susceptibility to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in older age groups. (
  • This study investigated the association between mutations in these genes in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and the risk of severe or fatal disease. (
  • D'autre part, 6 souches virales ont été trouvées génétiquement liées au virus pandémique A(H1N1)pdm09 avec au moins trois profils de réassortiment génétique différents. (
  • On the other hand, 6 Quebec SIV strains were found to be genetically related to the pandemic virus A(H1N1)pdm09 and from which three reassortment profiles were identified. (
  • The ts mutants could be rescued by all avian H3N2 strains but not by any of the human H3N2 isolates. (
  • To provide clinical laboratories with a definitive immunofluorescence assay for the subtyping of influenza A virus isolates, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the major circulating influenza A virus subtypes using multiple inactivated H1N1, H3N2, and 2009 H1N1 strains individually as immunogens. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly all influenza A virus H1N1 isolates tested during the 2008-2009 influenza season were resistant to oseltamivir, while 100% of influenza A virus H3N2 isolates tested were resistant to amantadine ( 3 ). (
  • The fact that seasonal influenza A viruses H1N1, H3N2, and 2009 H1N1 and influenza B viruses with variable antiviral drug susceptibilities are cocirculating has driven the need for a rapid and accurate test for both typing and subtyping influenza virus isolates to establish a definitive laboratory diagnosis. (
  • Amantadine inhibits the replication of influenza A virus isolates from each of the subtypes, i.e. (
  • It has very little or no activity against influenza B virus isolates. (
  • Sensitivity test results, expressed as the concentration of amantadine required to inhibit by 50% the growth of virus (ED 50 ) in tissue culture vary greatly (from 0.1μg/mL to 25.0 μg/mL) depending upon the assay protocol used, size of virus inoculum, isolates of influenza A virus strains tested, and the cell type used. (
  • Indeed, 100% of all tested A/H3N2 isolates recovered in 2008-2009 were resistant to the adamantanes ( 6 ). (
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A , which is an important cause of human influenza . (
  • A/Wyoming/03/03 (H3N2) influenza virus replicates poorly in mice and lung tissue collected from mice inoculated with this virus did not carry viral loads detectable by plaque assay. (
  • A double-dose regimen of oseltamivir (i.e., 150mg twice daily in adults) has adequate tolerability but has not been shown to be superior to standard doses in RCTs of ambulatory or hospitalized patients with seasonal influenza, although it has not been adequately studied in those with severe viral pneumonia. (
  • Despite these differences in receptor binding, many avian viruses are internalized by human cells and initiate expression of the viral genome. (
  • One well-established factor is the influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP): this enzyme catalyzes replication of the viral genome and transcription of viral messenger RNAs (mRNAs) 3 . (
  • Subtyping influenza A virus in the clinical laboratory has become more important, especially since the emergence of viral mutations that confer drug resistance to antiviral treatment. (
  • Pulmonary complications of influenza include pneumonia (viral and bacterial), croup, asthma and bronchitis. (
  • In healthy adults, bronchitis and pneumonia (primary viral and secondary bacterial) are the most common complications of influenza. (
  • The influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the family Orthomyxoviridae and are classified as either type A or type B based upon the viral nucleoprotein (NP). (
  • Contrary to former studies 3 , 7 , viral surveillance data in the Netherlands from 1997-2003 revealed largely separate peaks of influenza virus- and RSV-activity that allowed quantification of the impact of both viruses separately. (
  • Information regarding influenza virus (sub) type, viral load and antiviral susceptibility can be obtained within one working day. (
  • Influenza virus is mainly composed of three parts, namely core, matrix protein, and viral envelope. (
  • This capability may lie in the fact that viral receptors for both mammalian and avian viruses are present on porcine tracheal cells [8] . (
  • Consecutive, hospitalised adult patients were recruited and followed once their laboratory diagnosis of influenza A/B was established (based on viral antigen detection and virus isolation from nasopharyngeal aspirates collected per protocol). (
  • Viral surveillance data from South Africa from 1997 to 1999 revealed influenza seasons of varying severity. (
  • Influenza Type B viruses are not divided into subgroups, but A viruses are categorized into subtypes based on two important proteins present on the surface of the virus. (
  • Influenza A viruses are classified into subtypes based on combinations of different HA and NA proteins. (
  • The 2017/18 winter influenza season in Hong Kong SAR started in early January 2018, predominated by influenza B/Yamagata. (
  • Flu caused by H3N2 viruses predominated during the 2017/18 flu season. (
  • Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (
  • Influenza Surveillance Country, Territory and Area Profiles 2017. (
  • Dominant influenza A(H3N2) and B/Yamagata virus circulation in EU/EEA, 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons, respectively. (
  • European all-cause excess and influenza-attributable mortality in the 2017/18 season: should the burden of influenza B be reconsidered? (
  • Virological and Epidemiological Situation in the Influenza Epidemic Seasons 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 in Poland. (
  • In the 2016/2017 epidemic season in Poland, the incidence of influenza was 1,692 per 100,000 population. (
  • For the analytical specificity, 73 pig samples collected during 2017 and 2018 were analyzed, resulting in the identification of the subtype in 74.0% (62.9-82.7, CI 95%) of samples. (
  • 2017. "Comparison of Influenza Epidemiological and Virological Characteristics between Outpatients and Inpatients in Zhejiang Province, China, March 2011-June 2015. (
  • There have been about three influenza pandemics in each century for the last 300 years, the most recent one being the 2009 flu pandemic . (
  • However, as highlighted by the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 ( 11 , 33 ), swine influenza viruses that evolve the capacity for human-to-human transmission can lead to global pandemics, and therefore, the early stages of stuttering human transmission must be closely monitored. (
  • In the 20th century, 3 influenza viruses caused major pandemics: the 1918 H1N1 virus, the 1957 H2N2 virus, and the 1968 H3N2 virus. (
  • The possible generation of pandemic strains through a series of reassortment events in mammals over a period of years before pandemic recognition suggests that appropriate surveillance strategies for detection of precursor viruses may abort future pandemics. (
  • Analysis of sequences generated from the H2N2/1957 and H3N2/1968 strains showed that these pandemics were caused by genetic reassortment between avian and pre-existing human viruses ( 8 ). (
  • However, the evolutionary history of these 3 pandemic viruses remains unclear, and that lack of understanding hinders the recognition of and preparedness for future influenza pandemics. (
  • We therefore investigated evolutionary mechanisms of pandemic emergence by conducting comparative genetic analyses of all available viruses associated with the emergence of the 1918, 1957, and 1968 pandemics. (
  • But researchers hope they're finally closing in on stronger flu shots, ways to boost much-needed protection against ordinary winter influenza and guard against future pandemics at the same time. (
  • Influenza pandemics may occur as a result of antigenic shifts if the mutation of the virus leads to efficient human-to-human transmission(2,8). (
  • Influenza pandemics may occur secondary to antigenic shift, or abrupt, major changes in the influenza A virus, which include the creation of new hemaglglutinin antigen (HA) or neuroaminidase antigen (NA) components of thisvirus. (
  • There now have been four influenza pandemics caused by antigenic shift in the 20th and 21st centuries. (
  • Given the rapid rate of global spread and consequently healthcare costs related to influenza, surveillance plays an important role in monitoring the emerging pandemics in China. (
  • So far, 5 influenza pandemics have been recorded, which are Spain H1N1 influenza in 1918, Asia H2N2 influenza in 1957, Hong Kong H3N2 influenza in 1968, H1N1 avian influenza in 2005, and H1N1 influenza in 2009. (
  • So far four such influenza pandemics have been reported in 1918, 1957, 1968 and 2009 in the past 100 years [2] . (
  • Influenza ward at Walter Reed Hospital , in Washington, D.C. during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918-1919. (
  • The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. (
  • Furthermore, seasonal and classic swine H1N1 viruses were not derived directly from BM/1918, but their precursors co-circulated during the pandemic. (
  • While working as a pathologist for the military, he led the team that identified and reconstructed the extinct 1918 virus, using traces unearthed in autopsy samples from World War I soldiers and from a victim buried in the Alaskan permafrost. (
  • The first swine influenza viruses were isolated in the 1930s [ 4 ], representative of the classical swine H1 lineage derived from the ancestors of the 1918 pandemic virus [ 5 ]. (
  • What can the 1918 virus reveal about why it killed millions and where more like it may be lurking? (
  • But thanks to incredible foresight by the U.S. Army Medical Museum, the persistence of a pathologist named Johan Hultin, and advances in genetic analysis of old tissue samples, we have been able to retrieve parts of the 1918 virus and study their features. (
  • Pandemic human flu viruses have emerged twice since 1918-in 1957 and 1968. (
  • Our two principal goals are determining what made the 1918 influenza so virulent, to guide development of influenza treatments and preventive measures, and establishing the origin of the pandemic virus, to better target possible sources of future pandemic strains. (
  • In many respects, the 1918 influenza pandemic was similar to others before it and since. (
  • By the fall of 1918 everyone in Europe was calling the disease the 'Spanish' influenza, probably because neutral Spain did not impose the wartime censorship of news about the outbreak prevalent in combatant countries. (
  • The second, main wave of the global pandemic occurred from September to November 1918, and in many places yet another severe wave of influenza hit in early 1919. (
  • Authors: Hallmann-Szelińska E, Łuniewska K, Szymański K, Kowalczyk D, Sałamatin R, Masny A, Brydak LB Abstract The World Health Organization estimates that influenza virus infects 3-5 million people worldwide every year, of whom 290,000 to 650,000 die. (
  • We sought to estimate influenza VE against medically-attended laboratory-confirmed influenza illness among older adults during the 2013-2014 season. (
  • That said, self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) was equal. (
  • Confirmed cases had influenza-like illness (ILI) and a positive laboratory test for (H3N2)v, and probable cases had ILI. (
  • If this new influenza A virus causes illness in people and is transmitted easily from person to person in a sustained manner, an influenza pandemic can occur. (
  • Influenza is an important cause of serious illness and death, particularly in elderly and high-risk groups. (
  • The Australian Influenza Report is compiled from a number of data sources, including laboratory-confirmed notifications to NNDSS, sentinel influenza-like illness reporting from General Practitioners and Emergency Departments, workplace absenteeism, and laboratory testing. (
  • Influenza-like illness (ILI) activity has continued to decrease across all ILI surveillance systems. (
  • Depending on the pathogenicity of the virus and the susceptibility of the host, influenza can vary from a self resolving moderate disease to a life threatening illness. (
  • Most of the country is experiencing high influenza-like illness activity and 800 more deaths were reported during the last week of 2019 alone, according to the most recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • The percentage of outpatient healthcare provider visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) rose from 5.1% to 6.9% during the week ending December 28 (week 52). (
  • Influenza-like illness activity was high in the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and 34 states (37 jurisdictions), compared with 28 jurisdictions during the previous week. (
  • Influenza viruses with reduced in vitro sensitivity have been shown to be transmissible and to cause typical influenza illness. (
  • An illness which is caused by any of the three types of Influenza A, B and C virus. (
  • This is an observational study of safety and occurrence of influenza-like illness following administration of flu cell culture derived adjuvanted swine origin A (H1N1) pandemic subunit vac. (
  • Influenza viruses are orthomyxoviruses of three types (A, B and C), with type C viruses merely causing sporadic mild influenza-like illness (ILI) in children. (
  • Estimating influenza-associated mortality is important since seasonal influenza affects persons of all ages, causing severe illness or death. (
  • During this short window of time, dogs are infected and shedding the virus in their nasal secretions, but are not yet showing signs of illness. (
  • 7-9 Among the circulating seasonal influenza subtypes, H3N2 is usually a more frequent cause of severe illness and hospitalisation. (
  • Health officials say we tend to see a worse flu season with more severe illness when H3 viruses are prominent. (
  • Influenza can spread rapidly through residential care facilities (RCFs) resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. (
  • Secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza is a leading cause of mortality worldwide(12). (
  • This study aimed to estimate influenza-associated mortality, considering both periodic changes and age-specific mortality by influenza subtypes. (
  • Influenza-associated mortality was substantial during this period, especially in the elderly. (
  • By subtype, influenza A(H3N2) virus made the largest contribution to influenza-associated mortality. (
  • Retrospectively during 1997-2003, Dutch national all-cause mortality and hospital discharge figures and virus surveillance data were used to estimate annual average influenza- and RSV-associated excess mortality and hospitalisation using rate difference methods. (
  • Influenza virus active periods were significantly associated with excess mortality among 50-64-yr-olds and the elderly, but not in younger age categories. (
  • Influenza-associated mortality was demonstrated in 50-64-yr-olds. (
  • The aim of the current study was to assess influenza- and RSV-associated mortality and hospitalisation, especially the influenza-associated burden among low-risk individuals ≤65 yrs of age. (
  • But this year, the cases and more importantly, the mortality associated with influenza seems to be on the higher side. (
  • Conclusions Antiviral treatment for severe influenza is associated with reduced mortality and improved clinical outcomes. (
  • To estimate influenza- and RSV-related adult mortality, stratified by age and hospitalisation in Soweto. (
  • Influenza seasons were significantly associated with excess mortality in adults across all 3 years, except for 18 - 64-year-olds in 1998. (
  • Influenza-related mortality was substantial and disproportionately affected the elderly. (
  • Influenza is a major cause of seasonal excess mortality and hospitalisation in adults, particularly the elderly, in temperate climates and in subtropical areas. (
  • To calculate mortality and hospitalisation attributable to influenza or RSV, we used differences by calendar year between the rates of these events when the viruses were circulating, and the rates when neither virus was present above baseline levels. (
  • Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. (
  • The results from this study demonstrate, for the first time, natural reassortment in H1N2 viruses in the pig populations of Sweden. (
  • Notably, these rH3N2p viruses were generated in swine via reassortment events between H3N2 viruses and the pM segment approximately 4 to 10 times since 2009. (
  • It is possible that the process of genetic reassortment could occur in a person who is co-infected with an avian influenza A virus and a human influenza A virus. (
  • A pandemic that occurred in 1957-1958 (Asian flu) was caused by influenza virus A subtype H2N2, that resulted from the reassortment of circulating human H1N1 and avian H2N2 viruses(15), and is estimated to have caused 70,000 deaths in the United States(16). (
  • The accumulation of mutations at antigenic sites (antigenic drift) and the reassortment of segments with differing evolutionary histories (antigenic shift) allow influenza viruses to continually evade the host immune response. (
  • Swine are 'mixing vessels' for reassortment between avian and human viruses because they express sialic acid molecules that act as receptors for both avian and human viruses. (
  • Reassortment events have contributed to the emergence of every major influenza pandemic of the past century ( 7 ). (
  • In 2011, a new variant virus was detected that was an influenza A (H3N2) virus with genes from avian, swine and human viruses. (
  • Due to the high mutation rate of virus genes, effective virus transmission, rapid emergence of drug resistance and the limited effectiveness of currently available therapies, the spread of the virus can easily cause a pandemic. (
  • The virus contains a combination of flu genes from bird, swine, and human flu types. (
  • These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. (
  • To define the HA mutations related to these antigenic sites, we cloned and sequenced the HA genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction of parent virus and MAb-selected escape mutants. (
  • A quantitative relationship between the in vitro susceptibility of influenza A virus to amantadine and the clinical response to therapy has not been established in man. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) virus was predominant at low levels in some countries in Americas and Asia, and influenza B in parts of Africa. (
  • Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. (
  • 4 New South Wales experienced a more severe season than other states, characterised by higher prevalence of influenza A(H3N2) than the nationally predominant A(H1N1) subtype. (
  • Influenza B is now the predominant circulating virus comprising 53% of notifications over the reporting period, followed by influenza A(H3N2). (
  • Predominant viruses differ by region and age group, the CDC explains. (
  • The influenza A virus, subtype A/H3N2/, was the predominant one in that season. (
  • In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. (
  • During the last years a number of influenza in vitro diagnostic tests have been developed because of the need to make a timely diagnosis of influenza for the optimal use of available antiviral treatments. (
  • 99%) of the influenza viruses tested this season are susceptible to the four FDA-approved influenza antiviral medications recommended for use in the US this season. (
  • Most antiviral treatments used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza (Amantadine, Oseltamivir, Zanamivir) are compatible while breastfeeding, although Amantadine may reduce milk production (see specific info). (
  • As global anti-influenza virus drug resistance has increased significantly, there is an urgent need to develop new antiviral drugs, especially drugs from natural products. (
  • In this study, the antiviral and mechanistic effects of isoimperatorin on influenza A virus in vitro were studied. (
  • Isoimperatorin illustrated a broad-spectrum antiviral effect, especially against the A/FM/1/47 (H1N1), A/WSN/33 (H1N1, S31N, amantadine resistant), A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), and A/Chicken/Guangdong/1996 (H9N2) virus strains. (
  • Further time-of-addition experiment results indicated that when isoimperatorin was added at the later stage of the virus replication cycle (6-8 h, 8-10 h), it exhibited an effective antiviral effect, and the virus yield was reduced by 81.4 and 84.6%, respectively. (
  • Based on current knowledge, TLR7 fulfills opposing tasks in the immune system, with the unwanted activation of TLR7-bearing cells leading to autoreactive immune responses as well as protective functions represented by antiviral and antimicrobial defense mechanisms mediated by TLR7 (e.g., after stimulation with influenza virus [FLU V] or HIV-1 ssRNA) ( 3 , 6 - 8 ). (
  • Alongside previously described assays that detect antiviral resistance associated mutations in 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, these assays are a powerful tool for the clinical management of influenza virus infected patients," he concludes. (
  • Since 2009, the H1N1 virus has becom e one of the common viruses that circulate each flu season . (
  • Every year, experts try to predict which flu virus strains are likely to circulate during the flu season, which usually peaks in winter. (
  • The H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes circulate mainly in the swine population of Mexico. (
  • Flu viruses change every year so researchers have to make an educated guess about which ones might circulate. (
  • WHO in August 2010 declared that pandemic H1N1 virus would continue to circulate as a seasonal influenza virus for some years to come. (
  • The envelope is composed of phospholipids and glycoproteins in most viruses. (
  • The virus may also add some of its own glycoproteins to the envelope. (
  • An analysis of 13,000 samples of influenza A/H3N2 virus that were collected across six continents from 2002 to 2007 by the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance Network showed the newly emerging strains of H3N2 appeared in East and Southeast Asian countries about six to 9 months earlier than anywhere else. (
  • Source: Laboratory confirmed data from the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). (
  • Annual report of the National Influenza Surveillance Scheme, 2010. (
  • Weekly U.S. influenza surveillance report: 2018-2019 season week 52 ending December 29, 2018. (
  • Human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) were detected by the USDA surveillance system. (
  • In the World Health Organization European Region, the 2018/19 influenza season started in week 49 2018, crossing 10% virus-positivity in sentinel surveillance specimens. (
  • The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (
  • ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. (
  • Intense surveillance is vital for controlling the further spread of the virus, and isolation remains the most effective means of blocking the spread of the disease. (
  • During the period 1997-2003, laboratory-based surveillance for various viruses was conducted by the Weekly Sentinel System of the Dutch Working Group on Clinical Virology in the Netherlands. (
  • Surveillance data for influenza virus and RSV from that system were used in the current study. (
  • The study was financially supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health and by the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, under contract number HHSN266200700005C and by the Kansas Bioscience Authority. (
  • La présence des VIs résistants aux drogues antivirales chez les porcs ainsi que l'émergence possible de nouvelles souches virales constituent des préoccupations majeures en la santé publique et animale justifiant ainsi la surveillance continue des VIs dans la population porcine au Québec. (
  • The study was based on influenza seasons of varying severity, provided by surveillance data. (
  • 10 Regular active surveillance for influenza to define seasons and infecting types is conducted in only a few African countries, including South Africa. (
  • This recombinant protein was expressed from a DNA sequence encoding the extracellular domain (Met 1-Trp 530) of the influenza A virus, subtype H3N2 (A/Aichi/2/1968), HA (AAA43178.1) fused to a C-terminal polyhistidine tag. (
  • The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the epidemic of 'Hong-Kong' flu in 1968. (
  • One of the successful jumps was made in 1968 by a subtype called H3N2 . (
  • The outbreak of pandemic H1N1 virus in 2009 also drew a great deal of attention to the identification of this influenza A virus subtype, which was found to be almost uniformly susceptible to oseltamivir ( 3 ). (
  • The mainstay of treatment is drug Oseltamivir for treating influenza A H1N1. (
  • Influenza A viruses were then subtyped and tested for presence of oseltamivir resistance mutations using the resistance RT-PCR assays. (
  • The assays described here cover all currently circulating human influenza viruses and can detect major resistance mutations to oseltamivir. (
  • Unlike A/H1N1 viruses, most A/H3N2 strains are still susceptible to the NAIs, although there are several reports of oseltamivir-resistant variants, particularly in immunocompromised patients ( 2 , 14 ). (
  • Many people now have some immunity to the virus. (
  • This is because influenza A type of virus has the tendency to undergo rapid mutation known as "shift" against which the affected population may not have sufficient immunity. (
  • It can only be used as an emergent treatment for people at high risk of severe influenza who have not been vaccinated or have not gained immunity after vaccination. (
  • Viruses with mutations that allow them to escape antibodies tend to spread faster, leaving a trail of immunity that helps drive their weaker ancestors to extinction. (
  • Finally, the model reveals that as it evolves, influenza follows a narrow path between beneficial mutations to escape immunity and harmful ones that affect its functional stability. (
  • Influenza A virus was chosen as the pathogen of interest as ( i ) it is an important, globally-circulating human pathogen, ( ii ) influenza is well characterized antigenically, ( iii ) a precise and repeatable serological assay was available, and ( iv ) the human population receives almost no influenza vaccination in our study location of southern Vietnam. (
  • These data may further support extension of recommendations for influenza vaccination to include younger low-risk persons. (
  • Therefore, most countries recommend influenza vaccination for these groups 4 . (
  • Many European countries are now considering extending recommendations for influenza vaccination. (
  • Moreover, vaccination may not provide full protection against the virus. (
  • Strategies to combat influenza virus-induced disease rely on vaccination as a preventive measure. (
  • This suggests that widespread vaccination could shape the evolution of influenza. (
  • Influenza vaccination for the elderly warrants consideration. (
  • 11 Knowledge of the local burden of influenza is important to assess the potential benefits of a vaccination programme. (
  • As at 28 September 2012, there have been 41,201 laboratory confirmed cases of influenza reported. (
  • The National Institute of Virology, Pune, which is part of ICMR, and the National Centre for Diseases Control, Delhi, have found that cases of influenza A being detected now are the same virus as of 2009 and there is no mutation in the virus. (
  • But Sen. Angus King, I-Maine and a number of his colleagues are sponsoring legislation that could prevent future cases of influenza. (
  • Flu News Europe, Joint ECDC-WHO weekly influenza update 2019. (
  • El brote de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), causado por el virus del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo tipo-2 (SARS-CoV-2), fue decla-rado como una pandemia en marzo de 2020. (
  • Situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS) Situación regional de influenza y otros virus respiratorios. (
  • antigenic drift or shift of the circulating viruses. (
  • As the North American swine H1 virus population has diversified over the last century by means of both antigenic drift and shift, in vivo assessments to study multifactorial traits like mammalian pathogenicity and transmissibility of these emerging influenza viruses are critical. (
  • Specimens with these findings may now be reported as "presumptive positive for influenza A (H3N2)v virus" and, for the ongoing investigations, cases with presumptive-positive test results at the state or local public health laboratory will now be classified as confirmed, as are those cases confirmed at CDC. (
  • These MAbs were combined into three subtype-specific reagents, one each for pan-H1 (seasonal and 2009 strains), H3, and 2009 H1, for the subtyping of influenza A virus-positive specimens by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). (
  • Combining genetic and experimental data into models about the influenza virus can help predict more accurately which strains will be most common during the next winter, says a study published recently in eLife. (
  • To help determine genetic mutations that affect airborne transmission, the team took a 2009 H1N1 virus, which binds well to alpha 2-6 receptors, and made four mutations in its HA molecule to make it better suited to bind to alpha 2-3 receptors. (
  • Sequencing of the virus then determined that airborne transmission was associated with a single genetic change in the mutated virus's HA, and it appeared to have happened within 24 hours in the ferrets. (
  • Like all viruses, influenza viruses consist of genetic material surrounded by a protective coat. (
  • The genetic information in the DNA or RNA has the codes for producing and assembling more viruses. (
  • You could consider a virus an intracellular (within a cell) genetic parasite . (
  • Sometimes the virus undergoes major genetic changes or "mutations" in a relatively short space of time. (
  • Because of the differences in the time dogs may shed virus, the quarantine of 7 days is recommended for dogs with H3N8 influenza, while a 21 day quarantine is recommended for dogs with H3N2 influenza. (
  • Influenza A positive samples will be further characterized as H3N8 or H3N2 at no additional cost. (
  • In the U.S., two strains of canine influenza have been reported, H3N8 and H3N2. (
  • For example, until 1998, only H1N1 viruses circulated widely in the U.S. pig population. (
  • Influenza significantly increased adult medical hospitalisation in the severe 1998 season alone. (
  • In this (H3N2)v outbreak, no evidence of sustained human-to-human (H3N2)v transmission was found. (
  • The median influenza attack rate among residents was 24% and median outbreak duration was 16 days. (
  • On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people. (
  • The recent outbreak of influenza A H1N1 is seen in almost all parts of the country. (
  • Influenza viruses are designated by their host source (i.e., human, other animal), type, location/sample, number/year of isolation, and subtype for influenza A viruses (e.g. (
  • Influenza virus strains are also identified by the location where they were isolated, the isolate number and the year of isolation. (
  • Virus shedding was detected at 2 dpi from both infected groups as demonstrated by RT-PCR and virus isolation. (
  • Samples including lung tissues, saliva and nasal swabs were collected and virus isolation was attempted in MDCK cells and embryonated eggs. (
  • In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i. (
  • Four recombinant SIV H1N2 viruses were constructed that displayed differences in virulence in mice, r1021 (more virulent) and r9706 (less virulent), as well as the same viruses with swapped PB1 segments. (
  • Interestingly, the current findings showed that the replacement of the PB1segment of r9706 by that of r1021 increases the virulence of the virus that replicate with higher titer in mice lungs, while the opposite is true when PB1 r9706 is introduced into r1021. (
  • This study demonstrates that differences in virulence of swine influenza virus subtype H1N2 are attributed at least in part to the PB1 segment. (
  • Influenza virus types or subtypes vary in virulence, affecting influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths. (
  • Klapper, P. 2014-12-01 00:00:00 Mutations in the haemagglutinin (HA), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) of influenza viruses have been associated with virulence. (
  • The results suggest that no virus quasispecies bearing virulence-conferring mutations in the HA, PB2 and NS1 predominated. (
  • Influenza A viruses should continue to be monitored for the occurrence of virulence-conferring mutations in HA, PB2 and NS1. (
  • However, certain subtypes of influenza A virus are specific to certain species, except for birds, which are hosts to all known subtypes of influenza A viruses. (
  • Detects all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple animal species, very sensitive, fast. (
  • Primary screening test, detects antibody from all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple animal species. (
  • Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected. (
  • While aquatic birds represent the main natural reservoir, they are not the only species in which influenza A viruses have established stable lineages. (
  • The recent association of certain influenza A virus subtypes with clinically relevant phenotypes has led to the increasing importance of subtyping by clinical virology laboratories. (
  • Influenza and RSV seasons were based on weekly isolations of the viruses at the National Institute of Virology, Johannesburg, which has a sentinel network. (
  • An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population . (
  • 1 Epidemic Intelligence Service Influenza Division. (
  • Influenza A variants with reduced in vitro sensitivity to amantadine have been isolated from epidemic strains in areas where adamantane derivatives are being used. (
  • The 2012-2013 influenza season resulted in a severe epidemic of H3N2 viruses. (
  • In the southern hemisphere, the number of laboratory confirmed influenza detections continued to decline. (
  • During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. (
  • The 2010 influenza season was moderate overall, with more laboratory-confirmed cases than in earlier years (with the exception of 2009). (
  • During this fortnight there were 1,470 laboratory confirmed notifications of influenza. (
  • The transmission of avian influenza viruses from man-to-man has been reported very rarely. (
  • The onset of symptoms of canine influenza is two to three days after your dog has been infected. (
  • Patients hospitalized for influenza were identified in a prospective , multicenter study carried out in French hospitals during three consecutive influenza seasons (2012-2015). (
  • Typically, flu seasons that are dominated by H3N2 activity are more severe, particularly among at-risk groups such as older adults and younger children. (
  • With the predominance of influenza A(H3N2) in 2012, the age distribution of notifications are currently reflective of traditional pre-pandemic seasons with peaks among those aged 0-4 and over 70 years. (
  • It meets twice a year to review the evidence on circulating viruses and pick the likeliest candidates for the next flu seasons. (
  • This kind of virus tends to cause more suffering and have been responsible for the worst recent flu seasons. (
  • When certain types and strains of the virus show up, it can make some flu seasons worse than others. (
  • The researchers are now trying to determine the exact role the soft palate plays in flu virus transmission, according to an MIT news release. (
  • The key change in the virus was the ability for transmission of the virus from dog to dog. (
  • Prevention of mother-to-infant transmission of influenza during the postpartum period. (
  • And by 1940 we had seen pictures of viruses taken through the transmission electron microscope. (
  • Defining the specific factors that govern the evolution and transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) populations is of critical importance for designing more-effective prediction and control strategies. (
  • Swine H2N3 virus was also detected to significantly higher titers in nasal and oral swabs indicating the potential for animal-to-animal transmission. (
  • Data about genomic variability of swine influenza A viruses (SIV) in Quebec herds are scarce. (