An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

A simple restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy that can distinguish the internal genes of human H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses. (1/3680)

A simple molecular technique for rapid genotyping was developed to monitor the internal gene composition of currently circulating influenza A viruses. Sequence information from recent H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 human virus isolates was used to identify conserved regions within each internal gene, and gene-specific PCR primers capable of amplifying all three virus subtypes were designed. Subtyping was based on subtype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns within the amplified regions. The strategy was tested in a blinded fashion using 10 control viruses of each subtype (total, 30) and was found to be very effective. Once standardized, the genotyping method was used to identify the origin of the internal genes of 51 influenza A viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong during and immediately following the 1997-1998 H5N1 outbreak. No avian-human or H1-H3 reassortants were detected. Less than 2% (6 of 486) of the RFLP analyses were inconclusive; all were due to point mutations within a restriction site. The technique was also used to characterize the internal genes of two avian H9N2 viruses isolated from children in Hong Kong during 1999.  (+info)

Infection of human airway epithelia with H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains. (2/3680)

Three subtypes of influenza A virus cause human disease: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Although all result in respiratory illness, little is known about how these subtypes infect differentiated airway epithelia. Therefore, we assayed A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2), and X31 (H3N2) influenza virus strains for binding and infection on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelia isolated from human bronchus, grown on semiporous filters at an air-liquid interface. In this model system, viral infectivity was highest when virus was applied to the apical versus the basolateral surface; Japan was most infectious, followed by PR8. The X31 strain showed very low levels of infectivity. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies indicated that Japan virus could enter and fuse with cellular membranes, while infection with X31 virions was greatly inhibited. Japan virus could also productively infect human trachea explant tissues. These data show that influenza viruses with SAalpha2,3Gal binding specificity, like Japan, productively infect differentiated human airway epithelia from the apical surface. These data are important to consider in the development of pseudotyped recombinant viral vectors for gene transfer to human airway epithelia for gene therapy.  (+info)

Antigenic and genetic characterization of swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated from pneumonia patients in The Netherlands. (3/3680)

It is generally believed that pigs can serve as an intermediate host for the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of avian-human reassortant viruses. Here we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of two influenza A (H1N1) viruses, which were isolated in The Netherlands from two patients who suffered from pneumonia. Both viruses proved to be antigenically and genetically similar to avian-like swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses which currently circulate in European pigs. It is concluded that European swine H1N1 viruses can infect humans directly, causing serious disease without the need for any reassortment event.  (+info)

Outbreak of influenza type A (H1N1) in Iporanga, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (4/3680)

From June to July 1999 an outbreak of acute respiratory illness occurred in the town of Iporanga. Out of a total of 4,837 inhabitants, 324 cases were notified to the Regional Surveillance Service. Influenza virus was isolated from 57.1% of the collected samples and 100% seroconversion to influenza A (H1N1) was obtained in 20 paired sera tested. The isolates were related to the A/Bayern/07/95 strain (H1N1). The percentages of cases notified during the outbreak were 28.4%, 29.0%, 20.7%, 6.2% and 15.7% in the age groups of 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and older than 20 years, respectively. The highest proportion of positives was observed among children younger than 14 years and no cases were notified in people older than 65 years, none of whom had been recently vaccinated against influenza. These findings suggest a significant vaccine protection against A/Bayern/7/95, the H1 component included in the 1997-98 influenza vaccine for elderly people. This viral strain is antigenically and genetically related to A/Beijing/262/95, the H1 component of the 1999 vaccine. Vaccines containing A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) stimulated post-immunization hemagglutination inhibition antibodies equivalent in frequency and titre to both A/Beijing/262/95-like and A/Bayern/7/95-like viruses. Thus, this investigation demonstrates the effectiveness of vaccination against influenza virus in the elderly.  (+info)

Antigenic and genetic diversity among swine influenza A H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in Europe. (5/3680)

Three subtypes of influenza A viruses, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, co-evolve in pigs in Europe. H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in France and Italy since 1997 were closely related to the H1N2 viruses which emerged in the UK in 1994. In particular, the close relationship of the neuraminidases (NAs) of these viruses to the NA of a previous UK H3N2 swine virus indicated that they had not acquired the NA from H3N2 swine viruses circulating in continental Europe. Moreover, antigenic and genetic heterogeneity among the H1N2 viruses appeared to be due in part to multiple introductions of viruses from the UK. On the other hand, comparisons of internal gene sequences indicated genetic exchange between the H1N2 viruses and co-circulating H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Most genes of the earlier (1997-1998) H1N2 isolates were more closely related to those of a contemporary French H1N1 isolate, whereas the genes of later (1999-2000) isolates, including the HAs of some H1N2 viruses, were closely related to those of a distinct H1N1 antigenic variant which emerged in France in 1999. In contrast, an H3N2 virus isolated in France in 1999 was closely related antigenically and genetically to contemporary human A/Sydney/5/97-like viruses. These studies reveal interesting parallels between genetic and antigenic drift of H1N1 viruses in pig and human populations, and provide further examples of the contribution of genetic reassortment to the antigenic and genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses and the importance of the complement of internal genes in the evolution of epizootic strains.  (+info)

Frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses during two seasons featuring cocirculation of H1N1 and H3N2. (6/3680)

In two influenza seasons during which H1N1 and H3N2 cocirculated, resistance was more frequent in H3N2 strains than in H1N1 strains after amantadine treatment. Predominant amino acid substitutions in M2 protein occurred at position 31 (serine to asparagine) in H3N2 strains and at position 27 (valine to alanine) in H1N1 strains.  (+info)

Estimating efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine (CAIV-T) against influenza A (H1N1) and B using surveillance cultures. (7/3680)

The authors report on a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label study, conducted during the 2000-2001 influenza season in Temple-Belton, Texas, of the protective effectiveness of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine (CAIV-T) in children aged 18 months-18 years. The dominant circulating strains in 2000-2001 were influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) and influenza B/Sichuan/379/99. Children had access to CAIV-T during the 1998-1999, 1999-2000, and 2000-2001 influenza seasons. The vaccine included influenza A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) and B/Beijing/184/93-like (B/Ann Arbor/l/94) strains in all three seasons. The vaccine included A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000, which was replaced by A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) in 2000-2001. When medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) was used as the outcome, the protective effectiveness for children vaccinated in 2000 was 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 25). Based on a combination of a validation sample of surveillance cultures and the MAARI outcome, protective efficacy against combined influenza A (H1N1) and B was 79% (95% CI: 51, 91). The efficacy estimate, after accounting for missing influenza culture status, against influenza A (H1N1) alone was 92% (95% CI: 42, 99) and against a new variant of influenza B alone was 66% (95% CI: 9, 87). CAIV-T provides substantial protection against a mixture of influenza A (H1N1) and B. Results demonstrate the powerful potential of using validation sets for outcomes in vaccine field studies.  (+info)

Comparison of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with hemagglutination inhibition assay for serodiagnosis of swine influenza virus (H1N1) infection. (8/3680)

A commercial indirect swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay by testing 72 samples from experimentally infected pigs and 780 field samples of undefined SIV status. The HI assay was performed using SIV isolates A/Swine/IA/73 for H1N1 and A/Swine/IA/8548-1/98 for H3N2. The ELISA used an SIV isolated in 1988. The results showed that HI and ELISA detected an antibody in 11 and 6, respectively, of 72 serum samples collected from pigs experimentally infected with a 1992 SIV isolate (A/Swine/IA/40776/92). The presence of antibodies in these experimental samples was confirmed by HI tests in which all 72 samples were positive against the homologous virus, a more recent H1N1 SIV isolate (A/Swine/NVSL/01) supplied by National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, Iowa, and a 1999 H1N1 isolate currently used in a commercial vaccine. On testing 780 field samples, an overall agreement of 85.5% was generated between the HI and ELISA. This study demonstrated that the ELISA is a useful serodiagnostic screening test at herd level for detecting swine antibodies against SIV. However, a new SIV isolate representing current SIV strains circulating in the field is needed to replace the older isolates used in the HI and ELISA to increase the test accuracy for serodiagnosis of SIV.  (+info)

Abstract. Secondary or reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently related to viral infections. However, the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus associated HPS has never been reported. On October 10, 2009, a 17-year-old female child with no past medical history, complaining of severe asthenia, pneumonia, myalgia, and high fever, was admitted to our department, and H1N1 DNA was detected. Five days after her hospitalization, all signs and symptoms aggravated into HPS. After treatment for H1N1 influenza, the patient had a recovery and clearance of H1N1 infection 10 days after hospitalization. Three weeks later, the patient was discharged without any complaints, indicating the etiological role of H1N1infection in HPS.
In April 2009, novel swine-origin influenza viruses (S-OIV) were identified in patients from Mexico and the United States. The viruses were genetically characterized as a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain originating in swine, and within a very short time the S-OIV strain spread across the globe via human-to-human contact.We conducted a comprehensive computational search of all available sequences of the surface proteins of H1N1 swine influenza isolates and found that a similar strain to S-OIV appeared in Thailand in 2000. The earlier isolates caused infections in pigs but only one sequenced human case, A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza a epidemic. AU - Smith, Gavin J D. AU - Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran. AU - Bahl, Justin. AU - Lycett, Samantha J.. AU - Worobey, Michael. AU - Pybus, Oliver G.. AU - Ma, Siu Kit. AU - Cheung, Chung Lam. AU - Raghwani, Jayna. AU - Bhatt, Samir. AU - Peiris, J. S Malik. AU - Guan, Yi. AU - Rambaut, Andrew. PY - 2009/6/25. Y1 - 2009/6/25. N2 - In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (HlNl) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States. During the first few weeks of surveillance, the virus spread worldwide to 30 countries (as of May 11 ) by human-to-human transmission, causing the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to level 5 of 6. This virus has the potential to develop into the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century. Here we use evolutionary analysis to estimate the timescale of the origins and the early development of the S-OIV epidemic. We show ...
This document provides interim guidance for state and local health departments, hospitals, and clinicians in regions with few or no reported cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) (S-OIV) regarding which patients to evaluate for possible infection with swine influenza A (H1N1). As of April 29 1:00 PM, there were 91 laboratory confirmed cases of S-OIV infection identified in 14 states in the United States. Human cases of S-OIV infection also have been identified internationally. Based on the rapid spread of the S-OIV thus far, public health officials believe that more cases will be identified over the next several weeks, including in regions that currently have few or no reported cases ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic. For other names see the Nomenclature section below. The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, had some degree of immunity. Children showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction to the new strain, adults aged 18 to 64 had 6-9%, and older adults 33%. Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically found in Asia and Europe. Further analysis showed that several of the proteins of the virus are most similar to strains that caused mild ...
The recent swine origin influenza pandemic (2009), new emergence of swine origin H3N2v, and delayed availability of vaccine for these agents highlight the need to test and optimize public health intervention strategies to reduce transmission of influenza. We will use a new technology for biological particle collection (U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/162,395, McDevitt et al., Aerosol Sci Technol 2013) to make fundamental observations on infectious respiratory droplets in a study of up to 200 naturally occurring seasonal influenza cases. We will collect respiratory droplets shed by participants while breathing normally, talking, and spontaneously coughing. We will characterize the size distribution of droplets containing infectious virus. We will use these basic data to examine the roles of large and small respiratory droplets and examine how the interaction of host factors and virus type impact the shedding of infectious respiratory droplets. Subjects will be recruited through a web ...
The use of monoclonal antibodies Fab28 and Fab49 for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infections is described, the which virus is responsible for the influenza syndrome commonly known as
Vaccination Pandemrix suspension and emulsion for emulsion for injection. 1 dose (0.5 ml) contains Split influenza virus, inactivated, containing antigen 3.75 micrograms of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like strain (X-179A). * Pandemic influenza vaccine (H1N1)v (split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted) ...
Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID50 assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor
On April 24, 2009, CDC reported eight confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection in Texas and California.1 The strain ...
Influenza A virus is a major public health threat, killing more than 30,000 people per year in the USA (1). In early 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in specimens obtained from patients in Mexico and the United States (2). The virus spread quickly around the world and on June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic (3). Influenza A virus has one of sixteen possible Hemagglutinin (HA) surface proteins and one of nine possible neuraminidase (NA) surface proteins. The Hemagglutinin protein facilitates viral attachment while neuraminidase is involved in viral release. These proteins also elicit immune responses that prevent infection or independently reduce viral replication. The genetic make-up of this swine flu virus is unlike any other: it is an H1N1 strain that combines a triple assortment first identified in 1998 including human, swine, and avian influenza with two new pig H3N2 virus genes from Eurasia, themselves of recent human origin ...
Influenza A virus is a major public health threat, killing more than 30,000 people per year in the USA (1). In early 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in specimens obtained from patients in Mexico and the United States (2). The virus spread quickly around the world and on June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic (3). Influenza A virus has one of sixteen possible Hemagglutinin (HA) surface proteins and one of nine possible Neuraminidase (NA) surface proteins. The Hemagglutinin protein facilitates viral attachment while Neuraminidase is involved in viral release. These proteins also elicit immune responses that prevent infection or independently reduce viral replication. The genetic make-up of this swine flu virus is unlike any other: it is an H1N1 strain that combines a triple assortment first identified in 1998 including human, swine, and avian influenza with two new pig H3N2 virus genes from Eurasia, themselves of recent human origin ...
A pandemic novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus has emerged. Most recently the World Health Organization has announced that in a country-dependent fashion, up to 15% of cases may require hospitalization, often including respiratory support. It is now clear that healthy children and young adults are disproportionately affected, most unusually among those with severe respiratory disease without underlying conditions. One possible explanation for this case age distribution is the doctrine of Original Antigenic Sin, i.e., novel H1N1 may be antigenically similar to H1N1 viruses that circulated at an earlier time. Persons whose first exposure to influenza viruses was to such similar viruses would be relatively immune. However, this principle is not sufficient to explain the graded susceptibility between ages 20 and 60, the reduced susceptibility in children below age 10, and the unusual toxicity observed. We collected case data from 11 countries, about 60% of all cases reported through mid-July 2009. We
Feng-Cai Zhu, M.D Click here ., Hua Wang, M.D., Han-Hua Fang, M.D., Jian Guo Yang, M.D., Xiao Jun Lin, M.D., Xiao-Feng Liang, M.D., Xue-Feng Zhang, M.D., Hong-Xing Pan, M.D., Fan-Yue Meng, M.D., Yue Mei Hu, M.D., Wen-Dong Liu, M.D., Chang-Gui Li, M.D., Wei Li, M.D., Xiang Zhang, M.D., Mei Hu Jin, M.D., Wei Bing Peng, M.D., Bao Ping Yang, M.D., Pei Xi, M.D., Hua-Qing Wang, M.D., and Jing-Shan Zheng, M.D.: A Novel Influenza A Vaccine in a variety of Age Groups Recently, a novel swine-origin influenza A virus was defined as the cause of large numbers of febrile respiratory ailments in Mexico and the United States.1,2 It quickly spread to numerous countries around the world, prompting the World Health Company to declare a pandemic on June 11, 2009.3 An important technique of controlling this pandemic will be large-level immunization.. This getting contrasts with the constant observation of JC virus in urine in mere one third of people in cross-sectional studies10-13 and the observation that the ...
Swine influenza A virus (SwIV) infection has considerable economic and animal welfare consequences and, because of the zoonotic potential, can also have public health implications. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin infection is now endemic in both pigs and humans. In Europe, avian-like H1avN1, human-like H1huN2, human-like swine H3N2 and, since 2009, pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) lineage viruses and reassortants, constitute the dominant subtypes. In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an
Prior research developed Reassortment Networks to reconstruct the evolution of segmented viruses under both reassortment and mutation. We report their appl
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Patient is a male in his 40s from Bannock County. Patient is recovering at home. Patient had contact with a confirmed case.. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bannock County. Patient is recovering at home. Patient had contact to a confirmed case. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bannock County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bear Lake County. Patient is recovering at home. Patient had contact to a confirmed case.. - Patient is a male in his 80s from Bingham County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bingham County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female in her 30s from Bingham County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female in her 60s from Bingham County. Case is considered ...
Limitations of the study. The study has several limitations, however. For example, it isnt known what proportion of all hospitalised SARI patients were tested by each of the 41 sentinel laboratories. This proportion is expected to be lower during initial weeks of surveillance. However, with the expansion of the testing criteria to include all SARI patients, it is assumed that majority of SARI patients hospitalised in these facilities would have been tested for COVID-19, the authors say. Further, most of the sentinel hospitals which tested for COVID-1 are state-run and located in urban areas. This means that the study would not be able to pick up on community transmission in rural areas, if it is happening. Also, the fact that private labs and hospitals may not be sending their SARI samples to government-tun testing sites is a blind-spot. Finally, the authors say the study could have missed some COVID-19 positive SARI patients, because the test used, called the reverse-transcriptase real-time ...
Original text: Last week I began an essay on the current pandemic in which I tried to address what I take to be the central question that it raises: Is the massive and costly effort to contain and limit the harm that the virus will do the only choice we have? Is it no more than an obvious and unavoidable exercise of prudence undertaken to protect the most vulnerable? Or is it a disastrous effort to maintain control of what is obviously out of control, an effort which will compound the damage being done by the disease with new troubles that will reverberate far into the future? I hadnt been writing for long before I began to realize that many of the assumptions I was making were quite remote from those being expressed all around me. These assumptions had mainly come, I reflected, from my prolonged conversation with the work of Ivan Illich. What this suggested was that, before I ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Although to date the H1N1 (or swine flu) vaccine has not been released, there is already talk about it becoming mandatory. Concern among parents and others, including people who have not vaccinated before, is that this time they should.. When deciding whether to vaccinate of not, consider that even though swine flu has spread rapidly across the world, most people who had it experienced unusually mild flu symptoms. In rare cases it affects the lungs causing pneumonia, which could become life-threatening. Though I believe that the risk of these severe complications can be all but eliminated with a few natural precautions, no one can prove definitively that this is so.. Also consider that the swine flu vaccine is not just the usual flu vaccine adapted to a new strain, it is a newly engineered vaccine. Given how quickly it is being developed, it is impossible to rule out the risk of potentially severe side effects that may only become apparent after the vaccine is released in the ...
The symptoms of swine flu are similar to normal flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, headache, aching limbs, chills and fatigue. Some patients infected with swine flu have also reported loss of appetite, diarrhoea and vomiting. In very young children, the warning signs include fast or troubled breathing, a bluish skin tone, a failure to interact with others, and being highly irritable. As with seasonal flu, swine flu varies in severity, with the worst cases leading to fatal pneumonia and respiratory failure. The new strain seems to be more lethal to those in the 25 to 45 age range. This was a hallmark of the Spanish 1918 flu pandemic that killed tens of millions worldwide. Younger people were probably hit harder than the elderly by the 1918 flu virus because their immune systems overreacted. ...
WHOs done it: Swine flu scam enters $600 billion phase! Responding to pharmaceuticals business emergency, WHO phinally declares swine flu phandemic Here are some of the issues to consider: 1. Swine flu is a phandemic; its a pandemic created by the World Health Organization (WHO), for pharmaceuticals. [See background, and scam details.] 2. The recent…
WASHINGTON - A substantial portion of elderly Americans may have some immunity to the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus, a finding that may prove useful when and if a vaccine to the new flu strain becomes available. The questions of whom to target with a swine flu vaccine, and how to stretch the supply if it is limited, are among the most important issues facing public health officials over the next four months.
Source: AP. ATLANTA - Health officials are investigating a never-before-seen form of the flu that combines pig, bird and human viruses and which has infected seven people in California and Texas. All the victims recovered, but the cases are a growing medical mystery because its unclear how they caught the virus.. None of the seven people were in contact with pigs, which is how people usually catch swine flu. And only a few were in contact with each other, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Still, health officials said its not a cause for public alarm: The five in California and two in Texas have all recovered, and testing indicates some mainstream antiviral medications seem to work against the virus.. Dr. Anne Schuchat of the CDC said officials believe it can spread human-to-human, which is unusual for a swine flu virus.. The CDC is checking people who have been in contact with the seven confirmed cases, who all became ill between late March and ...
WILL THE CORONA VIRUS PANDEMIC DECIMATE THE L.T.C.I. INDUSTRY? Courtesy: By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA I admit that I held a state insurance license. LINK: A 22 minute computer test was the barrier to entry. There arent many with both medical and insurance licenses; and even fewer who actually practiced inside a…
The last time the government embarked on a major vaccine campaign against a new swine flu, thousands filed claims contending they suffered side effects. This time, the government has already taken steps to head that off.
The best thing you can do to protect your children from swine flu (H1N1 virus) is to get them the seasonal flu vaccine. Each year, researchers determi
momof2little1s and her family Last summer, CafeMom momof2little1s personally endured a swine flu horror story at 34 weeks pregnant. Although, she and ...
Via the Globe and Mail, a report by Caroline Alphonso: Swine flu less severe than feared? Excerpt:The pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Canada is not as severe as expected nor is it spreading quickly, the countrys top public health official...
So, news today that a new pandemic of swine flu is threatening the health and lives of the citizens of the world. The dictionary assures me that the word pandemic is an adjective which means: Widespread; general. Medicine Epidemic over a wide geographic area and affecting a large proportion of the population: pandemic influenza. Now, I…
At the beginning of the summer it looked as if we could be on the brink of a major health epidemic that could bring the country to its knees. A huge machine went to work preparing for the impending cataclysm. Six months later the swine flu epidemic has been a bit of a damp squib, and the medical profession looks as if it has been crying wolf yet again.. Millions of pounds were spent on vaccines and antivirals and a great deal of anxiety has been generated. So was this incompetence? And, are we going to point the finger of blame at someone?. The retrospectoscope is a great and wonderful tool. Looking back to the summer there was a very real threat of a new strain of a virus, which had the potential to spread rapidly across the world. Attempts at containment were unlikely to succeed. In addition, there was evidence from South America showing that this new virus had the potential to be highly virulent, and worst case scenarios suggested that up to 65,000 people could have died.. Those responsible ...
Using the finger-prick tests suitable for large scale home testing has given us clearest insight yet into the spread of the virus in the country and who has been at greatest risk. Prof Graham ...
First Minister Arlene Foster said decisions at the Executive had been taken mindful of the fact that the R number pertaining to the transmission rate of the coronavirus has risen to an estimated 1.3.. Because of the concern around the level of community transmission and the desire prioritise the reopening of our schools, we have decided that it is prudent to pause the reopening of our public houses and we have set a new indicative date of September 1, she said.. I want to acknowledge that the hospitality sector have been working very hard with us, they have been in partnership with us right throughout this issue and this is not a reflection on the hospitality sector, rather its a reflection on the fact that the R rate has risen, there is a rise in community transmission and we always said there is a need to work together to try and push that down.. Turning to mandatory face coverings, Mrs Foster said retail workers will not have to wear masks, but those entering shops will.. Its about ...
The likelihood of a third wave of pandemic H1N1 influenza appears to be declining as all indicators of swine flu activity remain low throughout the bulk of the country, according to data released
Swine flu cases continue appearing as the virus evolves, prompting a World Health Organization meeting to address decisions surrounding creation and distribution of a vaccine.
The World Health Organization said Friday that swine flu infections are declining in the Southern Hemisphere as its seasonal flu period comes to an end.
Children should be among the first people to be vaccinated against swine flu if health officials hope to temper the severity of the epidemic, a study published Thursday has found.
Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius appealed anew Wednesday for widespread inoculation against a surging swine flu threat, calling the vaccine
All this week weve been talking to CafeMoms about whether or not their family will receive the H1N1 vaccine to prevent the swine flu. AmyTuteurM...
Well after posting yestreday about definately not having it im now really really unsure. I cant believe they would let us have it but then the WHO dont agree with it so who do we believe? I cant help thinking I have come this far without getting Swine Flu that im due on 20th December so its only another 7 weeks to hold off until. Its the ladies earlier on that I feel sorry for having to make a bigger decision ...
More than half of Britons being offered vaccination against pandemic H1N1 flu are turning it down because they fear side-effects or think the virus is too mild to bother, a survey of doctors showed on Wednesday ...
A 56-year-old woman and a 50-year-old man died of swine flu here Monday - the first deaths in Orissa due to the pandemic H1N1 virus this year, a senior health official said. The woman from citys Sailashree Vihar area
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
Background The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase™) is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1). Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Methods and Findings The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in ...
On May 18, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website ( Since April 15 and 17, 2009, when the first two cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection were identified from two southern California counties, novel influenza A (H1N1) cases have been documented throughout the world, with most cases occurring in the United States and Mexico (1--3). In the United States, early reports of illnesses associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) infection indicated the disease might be similar in severity to seasonal influenza, with the majority of patients not requiring hospitalization and only rare deaths reported, generally in persons with underlying medical conditions (2,3). As of May 17, 2009, 553 novel influenza A (H1N1) cases, including 333 confirmed and 220 probable cases, had been reported in 32 of 61 local health jurisdictions in California. Of the 553 patients, 30 have been hospitalized. No fatal cases associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) ...
It was found by the technique of molecular hybridization that the pandemic influenza virus strains of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) evolved by reassortment of RNA segments from the foregoing pandemic strains, replacing four genes including those coding for haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) (1957) or only that coding for the haemagglutinin (1968), respectively. The earlier pandemic strains from 1918-9 (as deduced from the swine influenza strain (Hsw1N1), which is assumed to be a survivor of the Spanish influenza), from 1933-4 (H0N1), and from 1947 (H1N1) were derived from each other through a number of point mutations only. The Russian strain from 1977 (H1N1) is genetically almost identical with the FW strain from 1950 (H1N1). In contrast to the conserved genes coding for the internal viral proteins, the genes coding for the viral surface glycoproteins consist of a relatively small highly conserved part which presumably is responsible for the functional integrity of the gene products, and ...
On April 30, this report was posted as an MMWR Dispatch on the MMWR website ( In March and early April 2009, Mexico experienced outbreaks of respiratory illness and increased reports of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) in several areas of the country. On April 12, the General Directorate of Epidemiology (DGE) reported an outbreak of ILI in a small community in the state of Veracruz to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in accordance with International Health Regulations. On April 17, a case of atypical pneumonia in Oaxaca State prompted enhanced surveillance throughout Mexico. On April 23, several cases of severe respiratory illness laboratory confirmed as swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection were communicated to the PAHO. Sequence analysis revealed that the patients were infected with the same S-OIV strain detected in two children residing in California (1). This report describes the initial and ongoing investigation of the S-OIV ...
An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population. Influenza pandemics are impossible to predict; and they may be mild, or cause severe disease or death. Severe disease may occur in certain risk groups, which may correspond to those at risk of severe disease due to seasonal influenza. However, healthy persons are also likely to experience more serious disease than that caused by seasonal influenza.. The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009 and was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. It is estimated to have caused between 100 000 and 400 000 deaths globally in the first year alone. ...
World Health body raises alert to level 6, we are entering full pandemicSwine Flu Fallout: 1000+ Deaths Suspected, 150,000+ SickenedMarine Tests Positive for Swine FluA Flu By Any Other Name Is Still DeadlySwine Flu Vaccine Could Take 6 MonthsSwine flu epidemic enters dangerous new phaseScientists say Swine Flus Movement is Impossible to Predict US Declares Public Health Emergency Over Swine Flu Outbreak. Swine Flu: Asian countries take measures against outbreak. Texas closing school indefinitely 3rd student w/swine flu. Deadly swine flu outbreak cant be contained. WHO fears swine flu pandemic imminent. More than 100 U.S. schools closed because of swine flu. India: India finally wakes up to swine flu. Suspected Swine Flu Has College Campus on Alert. Swine Flu Disease: A Prophetic Sign?. Swine Flu Is Evolution in Action. TOO MANY TO LIST!!!! ...
Phylogenetic analyses performed in this study and by others (7, 19, 24) have shown that each segment of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus clusters with an established swine influenza lineage, suggesting that the progenitors of this virus likely originated in pigs. In previously documented instances of swine influenza virus infections of people, only limited human transmission was evident (22, 23, 30). The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus has demonstrated the ability for sustained human-to-human transmission, and the results of this and an associated study (10) confirm that the virus is also capable of human-to-swine, swine-to-swine, and swine-to-human transmission.. Based on a presumed single point source of infection for this swine herd (10), it is worth noting that none of the isolates, based on the sequences obtained for the H1, N1, NP, or M gene, were identical. This is in contrast to the apparent genetic stability of pandemic H1N1 2009 viruses that have been isolated from humans, as well as ...
BackgroundIn April 2009, an outbreak of novel swine-origin influenza A (2009 H1N1 influenza) occurred at a high school in Queens, New York. We describe the outbreak and characterize the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of this novel virus.MethodsThe New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene characterized the outbreak through laboratory confirmation of the presence of the 2009 H1N1 virus in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens and through information obtained from an online survey.
Swine flu is an infection of a host animal by any one of several specific types of microscopic organisms called swine influenza virus.Basically Swine flu is a respiratory disease that infects pigs . This new killer swine flu virus is a never-before-seen virus in human beings that can cause a serious situation with pandemic potential. The symptoms of Swine Flu are similar to that of a regular seasonal flu that includes fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue.. The preventive measures are as follows:. 1. Cover your mouth and nose with tissues when you sneeze or cough and dispose them properly. Practice good personal hygiene and make sure you use surgical masks and gloves and other sanitary products when you are stepping out of your home.. 2. Those who travel abroad have to be alert about the epidemic situation. Especially those who travel to California, Kansas, New York, Ohio and Texas have to be very cautions avoiding crowded groups because confirmed human cases of ...
Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) for detection of influenza antigens from nasal or throat swabs are widely available, highly specific and produce fast results but have low sensitivity leading to high false negative results. Not all commercial RIDT can differentiate between influenza A and influenza B, and none of the available RIDT can provide information on influenza A subtypes. ...
Some important videos that one must watch to understand to remove the misconceptions about swine flu. The videos titled How I survived swine flu is the interview of two swine flu survivors. Is is basically a first hand account of two H1N1 survivors. Also Dr. Srinivasan Ramanathan Lilavati Hospital gives tips on choosing the right mask for H1N1 and precautions that we need to take to avoid swine flu. It is important to note that the fatality rate in swine flu is less than 1%. Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probable swine flu requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the persons recent and past medical history. For example, during the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one ...
The clinical diagnosis of influenza is often challenging, especially in young children. Thus, pediatricians often use in-office rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) to confirm clinical suspicions of influenza.
The global swine flu pandemic is now over, the WHO has said, though some groups remain at risk of severe illness from the virus.. Following a meeting of its emergency committee, the WHO announced that the world was now in a post-pandemic period.. The world is no longer in phase 6 of influenza pandemic alert, WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan said. We are now moving into the post-pandemic period. The new H1N1 virus has largely run its course.. The WHO said that a number of groups remain at increased risk of severe illness from the pandemic H1N1 virus. These include young children, pregnant women, and people with underlying respiratory or other chronic conditions, including asthma and diabetes.. Patients who have severe or deteriorating influenza should be treated as soon as possible with oseltamivir, the WHO said.. Read more at Healthcare Republic.. ...
Transmission of swine influenza virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always cause human influenza, often only resulting in the production of antibodies in the blood. The meat of the animal poses no risk of transmitting the virus when properly cooked. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People who work with pigs, especially people with intense exposures, are at increased risk of catching swine flu. In the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, which allows accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, fifty confirmed transmissions have been recorded. Rarely, these strains of swine flu can pass from human to human. In humans, the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. Pigs can also become infected with human influenza, and this ...
A DOCTOR IN SWEDEN HAS FOUND THE TOXIC METALS ARSENIC AND TIN IN PANDEMRIX SWINE FLU VACCINE. *DEADLY POISONS PRESENT IN SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS. *NATIONAL AUTHORITIES FAILED TO REACT TO HIS RESEARCH. *DOCTOR FEARS THE CONTAMINATION OF DRUGS WITH POISONOUS METALS COULD BE WIDESPREAD. A doctor inSwedenhas found traces of the toxic metals arsenic and tin in GlaxoSmithKline s swine flu Pandemrix vaccine.. The consultant anaesthetist at aUniversityHospitalsaid he was surprised to find quite robust amounts of colloidal or nano-sized heavy metals when he conducted an ICP analysis of GSK s swine flu vaccine.. He found the following concentration in Pandemrix: arsenic [As] = 2.421 ppm and tin [Sn] = 1.511 ppm.. There was no indication on the product details supplied by GSK that the Pandemrix vaccine with the ASO3 adjuvant contained these toxic compounds.. Colloidal or nano-sized arsenic is a strong and active haemolytic agent. In addition, both arsenic and tin are known to be carcinogenic, to disturb DNA ...
Influenza, also known as the flu, is a disease that attacks the respiratory tract (nose, throat, and lungs) in humans. Different from a viral cold, influenza usually comes on suddenly and may include fever, headache, tiredness (which may be extreme), dry cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, and body aches. Seasonal influenza is a yearly occurrence that causes minor economic impact and kills primarily persons aged 65 and older. It also provides immunity to those who are exposed, but do not succumb, to the virus.. World-wide pandemics of influenza occur when a novel (new or different) virus emerges to which the population has little immunity. During the 20th century there were three such pandemics, the most notable of which was the 1918 Spanish influenza responsible for 20 million deaths throughout the world. When influenza strains of avian or swine influenza interact with the common strains of human influenza, a mutation can occur that leads to a virus capable of human-to-human transmission, ...
Every year influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics that affect 5-10% of the world population and kill up to 500,000 people. In nature, the virus primarily infects aquatic birds which can further infect domestic chickens and pigs. Sporadically, the virus jumps the species barrier from these domestic animals to humans causing a world-wide pandemic that can infect 30-50% of the population in a single winter season. This is what may happen with the pandemic swine-origin H1N1 virus because few people have protective antibodies against it.. As with all genes, those of influenza virus need to be transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) that is subsequently translated into proteins by ribosomes. However, viruses have no metabolism of their own and must use the ribosomes of the cells they have infected. Therefore, the viral mRNA molecules must resemble cellular mRNAs otherwise the ribosomes will not recognise them. One of the characteristics of all cellular mRNAs is that they start with a molecular tag, a ...
Transmission of swine influenza virus from pigs to humans is not common. When transmitted, it does not always cause human influenza and often, the only sign of infection is the presence of antibodies which are only detectable by laboratory tests. When transmission results in influenza in a human, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People who work with pigs, especially people with intense exposures, are at risk of catching swine flu. However, only about fifty such transmissions have been recorded since the mid-20th Century, when identification of influenza subtypes became possible. Eating pork does not pose a risk of infection. Rarely, these strains of swine flu can pass from human to human. In humans, the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort ...
Diagnosis of influenza is done mainly by Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests (RIDTs), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), culture, serology, and immunofluorescence assays.
Carlsbad-based Life Technologies Corp. has created a USDA-approved, real-time test to detect strains of swine flu. The Swine Influenza Virus testing kit will be sold to veterinary diagnostic labs around the world, the company said, in a statement July 12. Swine flu is a common debilitating condition mostly affecting pigs, causing fever, lethargy, breathing problems and significant weight loss - and resulting in economic loss to swine producers. In rare instances, the virus is transmitted from pigs to humans, with human symptoms similar to the regular seasonal influenza virus, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, Lifes test, called the VetMAXTM-Gold SIV Detection Kit, is for animal use only. The detection kit can test for various strains of swine flu, including H1N1. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25 percent of animals showing antibody evidence of infection, according to the CDC. In the U.S., ...
ECDC has published Seasonal influenza transmission in Europe. Click through to download the full report as a PDF. Excerpt from the summary: Today ECDC publishes its risk assessment on the 2012/13 seasonal influenza epidemics in Europe. Epidemics started earlier than...
Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into different strains. Current sub-types of influenza A viruses found in people are influenza A (H1N1) and influenza A (H3N2) viruses. In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged to cause illness in people. This virus was very different from the human influenza A (H1N1) viruses circulating at that time. The new virus caused the first influenza pandemic in more than 40 years. That virus (often called 2009 H1N1) has now replaced the H1N1 virus that was previously circulating in humans ...
Here, we have evaluated the cross-neutralization of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses. Despite more than 90 years of separation between these viruses that both caused human pandemics, the 1918 SC and 2009 CA viruses raised immune responses in mice that demonstrated cross-neutralization, whereas they were both resistant to antisera directed to a relatively recent seasonal influenza virus of the same subtype. To understand the molecular basis for cross-neutralization, we examined the specificity of antibody recognition by protein competition studies, as well as by site-directed mutagenesis and protein structural modeling. The RBD-A region was defined as the target of neutralization, and we demonstrated that glycosylation sites in this region are important in allowing evasion of antibody neutralization in seasonal strains. Specifically, introduction of glycosylation sites into these strains eliminated their ability to bind neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that glycan shielding from ...
Whats your opinion on this article? ( - Top officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently reported that the United States has exceeded 1,000 deaths from the declared swine influenza pandemic and has witnessed many millions of cases since the virus first emerged six months ago. We have seen, since the beginning of the pandemic in April and May, more than 1,000 deaths from pandemic influenza and more than 20,000 hospitalizations in this country,said Thomas Frieden, director of the CDC, in a news briefing.. We have had, up until now, many millions of cases of pandemic influenza in the U.S., and the numbers continue to increase, said Mr. Frieden.. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 4,735 people have died globally from swine flu infections since the H1N1 virus was first reported in Mexico. The seasonal flu causes an estimated 36,000 deaths yearly according to the CDC.. Plans of mass vaccinations by the government are now ...
Swine flu, like the seasonal influenza virus, is a respiratory infection which can be passed from person to person as a result of the transmission of bodily fluids. Prevention of the swine flu virus is possible and there are simple steps residents can take to reduce their risk, said Cindy Powers, director of infection control at Christus Hospital - St. Elizabeth and St. Mary. t Staying in good general health by getting plenty of sleep, engaging in physical activity, managing your stress, drinking plenty of fluids and eating nutritious meals In most cases, symptoms of swine flu are identical to the influenza virus symptoms - fever, headache, fatigue, dry cough, sore throat, nasal congestion and body aches, said Powers. If you, or someone you know, live in an area where swine flu cases have been reported and become ill with the symptoms listed above, contact your health care provider who will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed.
Sustaining Indie Brands Post-pandemic will discuss a 360-degree review of strategies to emerge competitive in the post-pandemic recovery.
Background: Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 was the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Though the overall global case fatality rate of the 2009 pandemic H1N...
What is 2009 H1N1 (swine flu)? 2009 H1N1 (sometimes called swine flu) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was underway. Why is the 2009 H1N1 virus sometimes called swine flu? This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in the virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that the 2009 H1N1 is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a quadruple ...
What is 2009 H1N1 (swine flu)? 2009 H1N1 (sometimes called swine flu) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was underway. Why is the 2009 H1N1 virus sometimes called swine flu? This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in the virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that the 2009 H1N1 is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a quadruple ...
No matter what you open, turn on, or tune into, chances are youll catch a headline about swine flu. The outbreak can be tracked at HealthMap or with their newly launched Twitter stream, which, according to Discovery News, was created in response to swine flu to enable more frequent updates than the hourly ones on the official HealthMap website.. A respiratory illness once limited to pigs, with occasional transmission to humans, the strain of swine flu that has appeared today and in cases throughout Mexico and the United States is unusual because it is capable of being spread from human to human. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this current swine flu has been sequenced and identified as part of the H1N1 family of influenza viruses. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the pandemic alert level for swine flu at phase 4, which indicates sustained human-to-human transmission. Stages 5 and 6 represent pandemic levels of widespread transmission.. Scientists are ...
The World Health Organization said Tuesday a spike in swine flu cases in Australia may push it to finally announce the first flu pandemic in 41 years. It also expressed concern about an unusual rise in severe illness from the disease in Canada. WHOs flu chief Keiji Fukuda said the agency wanted to avoid adverse effects if it announces a global outbreak of swine flu. Fukuda said people might panic or that governments might take inappropriate actions if WHO declares a pandemic. Some flu experts think the world already is in a pandemic and that WHO has caved in to country requests that a declaration be postponed. On the surface of it, I think we are in phase 6, or a pandemic, said Margaret Chan, WHOs director-general. ...
Interviews, Latest News, Local and National Resources Featured in Companion Website to PBS Flu Special that Airs Nationwide on December 14 -. WASHINGTON, D.C. - PBS NewsHour, the premiere news and public affairs website at, will launch today, Tuesday, December 8, the companion website to Anatomy of a Pandemic, a television special and on-going digital media initiative about a pandemics impact on modern society, in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic.. The Anatomy of a Pandemic website ( will feature a forum after the programs premiere to ask questions of influenza experts from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. The site will also provide the latest public media news on H1N1, as well as national and local resources Categories: Care and Treatment,International News,US News,Vaccine Updates,Video and Media. Tagged: Care and Treatment, flu, h1n1, influenza, International News, ...
Infection with the novel H1N1 influenza virus, initially popularly termed swine flu, was first reported in April 2009 and prompted the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to the highest level. The World Health Organization also stated that during pregnancy both mother and baby were at increased risk when infected with either pandemic or seasonal influenza and that pregnant women should be vaccinated. 1 Because of concerns about the severity of the disease during pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented enhanced surveillance for infection with this novel virus in pregnant women and placed them in a group that merits priority vaccine administration. It was also suggested that the benefit of treatment with the antiviral medication oseltamivir outweighs any theoretical risk 2 and that confirmed H1N1 cases, with associated symptoms, particularly fever, merit immediate attention. In addition, precautions must be taken when confirmed or suspected ...
Boost your immune system with the best immune support supplement available to you.. London July 24 2009. Britain released today that England has 100,000 MORE cases of swine flu this week than they had last week. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) announced that swine flu now has developed another symptom, neurological disorders, especially in children (4 cases in Dallas TX this week). There seems to be a surge of swine flu infections that support a growing concern for a catastrophic world pandemic. The technical definition for pandemic has been reached. There is now the waiting game to determine how man will tame this invisible scourge.. Swine flu Conspiracy?. Swine flu vaccine manufacturers will make an estimated one and a half billion dollars from the vaccines and medications that have been ordered by nations all over the world (BUT NOT TAKEN YET). If there is not a STORY to keep patients requesting the swine flu shots and meds, these manufacturers stand to lose ...
Swine Flu is caused by influenza type A virus, there are regular outbreaks among herds of pigs, where the disease causes high levels of illness but is rarely fatal. It tends to spread in autumn and winter but can circulate all year round. There are many different types of swine flu and like human flu, the infection is constantly changing. Swine flu does not normally infect humans, although sporadic cases do occur usually in people who have had close contact with pigs. There have also been rare documented cases of humans passing the infection to other humans. Human to human transmission of swine flu thought to spread in the same way as seasonal flu - through coughing and sneezing. In the latest outbreak, in Mexico, it is clear that the disease is being passed from person to person. The outbreak in Mexico seems to involve a new type of swine flu that contains DNA that is typically found in avian and human viruses. The World Health Organisation has confirmed at least some of the cases are caused by ...
Swine flu - an alternative approach by Professor Gerber, Alumnus Medical Faculty. University of Berlin Germany.. Everybody has experienced common cold or even flu several times, nevertheless more and more people are getting very nervous about it in view of the current swine influenza pandemic although the virus has proven to be relatively mild with mostly moderate symptoms.. Every year, seasonal flu causes an estimated fifty thousand deaths in the European Union alone; most people die from bacterial infections and secondary illnesses. The highly variable type A is the most virulent one among the influenza viruses. Based on the antibody response these pathogens can be subdivided into different stereotypes, e.g. H5N1 that causes avian flu, or H1N1 that caused Spanish flu in 1918, and the swine flu 2009. Owing to frequent variations in their genetic pattern, every year different strains prevail and, therefore, novel vaccines have to be manufactured.. Flu vaccination may help to avoid influenza. ...
Novel H1N1 (referred to as swine flu early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the U.S. in April 2009. This virus is contagious and spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread (through coughing or sneezing by people with influenza). On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) signaled that a pandemic of novel H1N1 flu was underway ...
WEDNESDAY, April 15, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Trying to identify animals that are most likely to transmit viruses to humans may not help prevent future pandemics, researchers say.. Instead, the focus should be on specific types of viruses and how they spread, they suggest.. The current coronavirus pandemic is believed to have originated in bats, and most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, meaning that theyre spread from animals to humans, according to researchers from the University of Glasgow in Scotland.. This pandemic shows the serious health and economic threat that zoonotic viruses pose, so its crucial to learn more about them.. This study found little variation in the proportion of zoonotic viruses in 11 major orders of birds and mammals, and that animal orders with more species hosted more viruses overall and more zoonotic viruses.. The findings challenge the belief that certain animal reservoirs, such as bats, pose a heightened risk of spreading viruses to humans, according to ...
List of swine flu cases around the world. Swine flu outbreaks and swine flu countries are found here to show the impact of swine flu worldwide. List includes ...
Are you structured for slow in a fast world? The global pandemic has changed the axis of our universe. What was disruptive before is now massively transformative. Do you have a strategy to keep up?. History tells us that every global crisis shifts the axis of the future of our universe, and every crisis offers an opportunity to improve. In the harsh reality of our post-pandemic world, leadership strategies that worked yesterday are exposed as being irrelevant tomorrow even while they are being actively considered today.. Pre-pandemic, CEOs and organizations were dealing with a world of business model disruption, the acceleration of technology, the faster evolution of key skills, and other critical issues. Now, in the harsh light of our new world, one thing is clear - the future is even more complex than it was before. And a simple fact has emerged - there is a massive and growing gap between the speed of change and the ability of organizations to keep up. Bridging this gap is critical to future ...
The Chenango County Health Department has been notified by the New York State Department of Health that there are laboratory confirmed cases of swine origin influenza A (H1N1)...
60 Minutes: Swine Flu Vaccine Fraud Of 1976. We are all familiar with Swine Flu, many of us recall the Swine Flu Pandemic of 2009 that killed 12,500 Americans. This video explains some Americans who received the Swine Flu vaccine suffered neurological disorders. Lawsuits were then filed against the drug[…]. ...
Swine flu symptoms and signs: Swine flu is an influenza A H1N1 virus. Symptoms of swine flu in humans are similar to that of the regular flu. The big difference is that the current swine influenza A (H1N1) virus is new and most of us dont have any i
AUSTIN (KXAN) - Researchers in China have identified a new strain of swine flu that has pandemic potential. It has been more than a decade since the swine flu, known as the virus H1N1, last caused a global pandemic. The CDC estimates that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic killed up to 575,000 people globally. The new […]
She died of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and meningitis on December 28, 2018. Payton was born on June 8, 1992 in California. ...
Kung HC, Jen KF, Yuan WC, Tien SF, Chu CM (1978). "Influenza in China in 1977: recurrence of influenzavirus A subtype H1N1". ... "1977 H1N1 influenza virus is not relevant to the gain of function debate". Virology Blog. 2015-08-20. Furmanski M (2014-02-17 ... Wertheim JO (June 2010). "The re-emergence of H1N1 influenza virus in 1977: a cautionary tale for estimating divergence times ... Wertheim JO (June 2010). "The re-emergence of H1N1 influenza virus in 1977: a cautionary tale for estimating divergence times ...
Twenty were confirmed to be linked to a new strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. "'As many as 23,000 Mexicans were likely ... Influenza: H1N1 at Curlie Swine influenza, at the World Health Organization WHO's current Pandemic Influenza Phase Centres for ... June 2009). "Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (25): 2605-15. doi: ... "Introduction and Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus --- Kenya, June-July 2009". Morbidity and Mortality ...
His work in this area includes elucidating the origin of the influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Rabadan's work in cancer genomics ... Trifonov, V., Khiabanian, H., Greenbaum, B. & Rabadan, R. The origin of the recent swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infecting ... and origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus". N Engl J Med. 361 (2): 115-119. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0904572. Tiacci, E.; et al ... in particular RNA viruses like influenza and coronaviruses. ... viruses and cancer. Rabadan is an expert on mathematical ...
The system was used to assign the host-cell receptors in SV40 and Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. 1994 American Society for ... "Receptor-binding specificity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined by carbohydrate microarray". Nature ... "Carbohydrate structures of the human-immunodeficiency-virus (HIV) recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120 produced in Chinese- ...
Preliminary tests have shown it to be an effective neuraminidase inhibitor against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Huang, ... "Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis". Food Chemistry. 124 (2): 437-443. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem. ...
Their early work considered the development of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and H5N1 virus-like particle pandemic influenza ... In 2018 phase 2 clinical trials began on the Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 vaccine. In 2019 Neuzil and the Center for Vaccine ... She has spoken about the need for the public to have an influenza vaccine (flu shot), ideally by the end of October. Alongside ... Virus-like particle vaccines offer immunogenic, strain-specific recombinant antigens that can be produced at scale. In 2008 ...
... fears of contamination and disgust sensitivity were associated with influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Olatunji has studied the ... "Psychological predictors of anxiety in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic". Retrieved 2020-07-28. ...
Chu encountered the fields of public health and epidemiology through her work on Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Chu ... She then sequences the genome of influenza viruses to track the flu as it moves around the city. During the COVID-19 pandemic, ... Her research considers maternal immunization, with a focus on influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. During the COVID-19 ... She is part of Seattle Flu Study, a multi-institutional community-wide virus surveillance platform that began in 2018. ...
Another cause is infection with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (and other subtypes of the Influenza A virus) and is then often ... Lymphocytopenia caused by Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections is treated with ... associated with Monocytosis; H1N1 was responsible for the Spanish flu, the 2009 flu pandemic and in 2016 for the Influenza- ... Over 1,000 Deaths from H1N1 Outbreak in Brazil Archived 2016-09-11 at the Wayback Machine (article from 12 July 2016) Low, ...
... was canceled due to the WHO declaring the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 a pandemic. A similar event occurred in the 7th ...
HA subtype designation NA subtype designation Avian influenza A viruses H1 N1 A/duck/Alberta/35/76(H1N1) ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 and Transmission and infection of H5N1. The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is ... Subtypes[edit]. There are many subtypes of avian influenza viruses, but only some strains of five subtypes have been known to ...
The 2009 flu outbreak in Malaysia is part of a larger flu pandemic involving a new type of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A ( ... The flu virus is officially designated by the WHO as "Influenza A (H1N1)", following a name change from "swine flu" to avoid ... "A (H1N1) flu: M'sia reports 3 more cases". The Star. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009. "Influenza A (H1N1) Cases Rise To Five ... "Influenza A H1N1 Deaths Leap To 14". Bernama. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009. "Malaysian PM views A/H1N1 flu a serious ...
... and Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 outbreaks in Toronto. From 2005 to 2007, Henry worked as a physician epidemiologist at the ... as well as advising the Government of Canada on the Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 epidemic. In February 2018, Henry was ... 2009: Canadian Pandemic Coordinating Committee responding to pandemic H1N1 influenza, Member Canadian Public Health Measures ... Bonnie Henry, virus hunter and healer, resolves to 'break' COVID-19". British Columbia. Archived from the original on 2020-03- ...
RCSU(A) was successful in managing a 2009 outbreak of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 at the Argonaut Army Cadet Summer Training ... "Cadets at Gagetown camp test positive for H1N1". The Daily Gleaner. 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2011-07-21. "More army cadets being ... "Cadet camp winning battle against H1N1". The Daily Gleaner. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2011-07-21. "Trident Newspaper - Volume 4, ... treated for symptoms of H1N1 flu". Telegraph-Journal. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2011-07-21. " ...
... activated public health emergency structures in response to the 2009 swine flu pandemic of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. ... prompted by increasing international concern at the time over Influenza A virus subtype H5N1). It initially met on a quarterly ... The first NPHET was convened in October 2006, to aid with planning for a possible future human influenza pandemic ( ...
... influenza virus and tuberculosis; or specific strains such as H1N1 virus or SARS-CoV-2. Genetic identification can be swift; ... Molecular diagnostics can help diagnose the subtype-for example of infections and cancers-or the genetic analysis of a disease ... "RT-PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry approach in detection and characterization of influenza viruses". Expert ... Burkardt HJ (January 2011). "Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu'): diagnostic and other challenges". Expert Review of Molecular ...
... including Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Fish has investigated the use of IFN-α as a treatment for ebola virus disease. In ... They do this by triggering an immune response as well as inhibiting the virus from multiplying. The success of these clinical ... similar to the approach that Fish had used for SARS and Ebola virus disease patients, was effective against coronavirus disease ...
In May 2009 the Navy announced that a sailor on the ship had been confirmed as infected with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 ... It was later found out that approximately 50 cases were likely also H1N1 (swine flu). On 9 September 2010, Marines attached to ...
In 1976, an outbreak of the swine flu, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 at Fort Dix, New Jersey caused one death, hospitalized 13 ... Kolata, Gina (1999). Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It. New ... The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus That Caused It. She wrote that the CDC did not ... She quoted Keiji Fukuda: "if a new virus gets identified or reappears, you don't want to jump the gun and assume a pandemic is ...
... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with 7 ... a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern ... Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into a ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
... subtypes of influenza A virus which have been identified in pig populations within the United States are referred to as H1N1, ... The three main Influenza A viruses responsible for these outbreaks are variants of the Influenza A viruses H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 ... H1N1 is now a regularly occurring human influenza virus that continues to circulate seasonally and globally with the other ... Swine influenza is a communicable disease caused by one of several different strains of influenza A virus. Currently, the ...
The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1, first identified in April 2009, ... "UK National Institute for Medical Research WHO World Influenza Centre: Emergence and spread of a new influenza A (H1N1) virus, ... On 2 November, the Turkish Health Ministry began administering vaccines against H1N1 influenza, starting with health workers. ... A/H1N1 influenza like human illness in Mexico and the USA: OIE statement". World Organisation for Animal Health. Archived from ...
Because of similarities between the 2009 influenza A subtype H1N1 virus and the 1976 influenza A/NJ virus many countries ... Analysis by the CDC scientists showed that the measles virus type in this outbreak (B3) was identical to the virus type that ... Some Christians have objected to the use of cell cultures of some viral vaccines, and the virus of the rubella vaccine, on the ... Nigeria had become a net exporter of the polio virus to its African neighbors. People in the northern states were also reported ...
The 2009 flu pandemic in Asia, part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing what has ... Lebanon has recorded more than 100 cases of H1N1. Malaysia detected the first case of influenza A(H1N1) on 15 May 2009 in a 21- ... virus in Asia: Deaths Confirmed cases Suspected cases No reported cases Number of confirmed deaths of A(H1N1) virus in Asia: No ... along with 15,000 suspected cases of the virus. As of 22 August 98 cases of the A (H1N1) virus were confirmed in Bangladesh. On ...
... she has worked on assessing the healthcare response to the 2009 flu pandemic that resulted from Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 ... "Impact of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic on Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Center in New York City". Infection ... In the wake of the epidemic, Bhadelia has returned to West Africa to help set up research centers to study viruses such as ... During the Western African Ebola virus epidemic, which lasted from 2013 through 2016, Bhadelia worked with the World Health ...
... coordinated with Emory Vaccine Center of Emory University on a program of drug development for Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 ... Known for his studies on papilloma viruses, Pillai is an elected fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, National Academy of ...
The 2009 swine flu pandemic in Canada was part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing ...[permanent dead link] "H1N1 Influenza Virus - ... "Information on H1N1 Influenza Virus". Health and Community Services. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 4 January 2010. ... Swine Influenza International Swine influenza, at the World Health Organization WHO's Pandemic Influenza Phases Influenza ...
The 2009 flu pandemic in Oceania, part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing what ... A multi-sectoral task force has been activated by the Solomon Islands Ministry of Health to deal with the swine influenza virus ... The ten students tested positive for an influenza A virus, with three of them later testing positive for swine flu. The ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Influenza A (H1N1) Swine Flu - Update 110". Archived from the original on 2009-09-11. ...
... because of concerns about Influenza A virus subtype H1N1). In 2000 this festival was held for the first time with four ...
Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus) pigs close ... Barmah Forest virus kangaroos, wallabies, opossums mosquito bite Bird flu Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 wild birds, ... Influenza Influenza A virus horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ...
... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... H1N1) reference virus selected by WHO as a potential candidate for novel influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Influenza B viruses ... A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world ...
... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or ... H1N1. N/A The first influenza virus to be isolated was from poultry, when in 1901 the agent causing a disease called "fowl ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... "Guide for considering influenza testing when influenza viruses are circulating in the community , Seasonal Influenza (Flu) , ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 [117][118][119]. worldwide 2015-present 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus. ... 2018 Nipah virus outbreak Nipah virus infection 1,743 (as of 21 July 2019[update]) Democratic Republic of the Congo & Uganda ... Local Government Board (1893). Further report and papers on epidemic influenza, 1889-92: with an introduction by the medical ... Patterson, K. D.; Pyle, G. F. (1991). "The geography and mortality of the 1918 influenza pandemic". Bulletin of the History of ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic ... In July 2009, WHO experts named the virus "pandemic H1N1/09 virus" to distinguish it from both various seasonal H1N1 virus ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically ...
Swine influenza. any strain of the influenza virus endemic in pigs (excludes H1N1 swine flu, which is a human virus). pigs. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1. wild birds, domesticated birds such as chickens. close contact. ... Influenza. Influenza A virus. horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, ...
The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which lasted from 1918 ... Influenza viruses are common pathogens. This image has a magnification of about 100.000 times ... Knobler S, Mack A, Mahmoud A, Lemon S (ed.). "1: The Story of Influenza". The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? ... clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus". Philos ...
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... was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.[1] It infected 500 ... An effort to recreate the 1918 flu strain (a subtype of avian strain H1N1) was a collaboration among the Armed Forces Institute ... Spanish Influenza in North America, 1918-1919. *1918 Influenza Virus and memory B-cells - Exposure to virus generates lifelong ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
Eighteen H subtypes (or serotypes) and eleven N subtypes of influenza A virus have been identified. ... Subtype involved Asiatic (Russian) Flu 1889-90. 1. possibly H2N2 Spanish Flu 1918-20. 40. H1N1 ... Influenza A virus, Influenza B virus, and Influenza C virus, respectively. Influenza A and C infect multiple species, while ... Influenza C[change , change source]. Main article: Influenzavirus C. The influenza C virus infects humans and pigs, and can ...
Role in transmission of influenza viruses from non-human animals to people[edit]. Influenza A viruses are found in many ... or strains of two or more different viruses, combine to form a new subtype having a mixture of the surface antigens of the two ... The most recent 2009 H1N1 outbreak was a result of antigenic shift and reassortment between human, avian, and swine viruses.[7] ... Antigenic drift occurs in all types of influenza including influenzavirus A, influenza B and influenza C. Antigenic shift, ...
Some cases may be triggered by the influenza virus and potentially influenza vaccine. An increased incidence of Guillain-Barré ... Clinical subtypes[edit]. A number of subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome are recognized.[4][20] Despite this, many people have ... against pandemic swine flu virus H1N1/PDM09) did not cause a significant increase in cases.[8] It is considered that the ... Lehmann HC, Hartung HP, Kieseier BC, Hughes RA (Sep 2010). "Guillain-Barré syndrome after exposure to influenza virus". The ...
AVI Bio Pharma Inc. has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino ... a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples.[32][33][34] On 18 January 2007, Kobasa et ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ... "Inhibition of Multiple Subtypes of Influenza A Virus in Cell Cultures with Morpholino Oligomers". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother ...
H1N1, which caused the 1918 flu pandemic ("Spanish flu") and currently is causing seasonal human flu and the 2009 flu pandemic ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... Like all other influenza A subtypes, the H5N1 subtype is an RNA virus. It has a segmented genome of eight negative sense, ... Influenza A viruses are significant for their potential for disease and death in humans and other animals. Influenza A virus ...
Influenza B and C viruses are almost exclusively isolated from man, although influenza C virus has also been isolated from pigs ... A/H1N1 subtype. *മഹാമാരി. ഓർത്തോമിക്സോ വൈറസ് കുടുംബത്തിൽ പെട്ട പന്നിപ്പനി വൈറസ് എന്നറിയപ്പെടുന്ന സൂക്ഷ്മാണുവിനാൽ ആതിഥേയജീവിയിൽ ... Swine influenza World Health Organization 27 April 2009 *↑ "Influenza A(H1N1) frequently asked questions". ശേഖരിച്ചത് ... Epidemic influenza B and C in navy recruits, 1953-1954. II. Antigenic studies on influenza virus, type C. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol ...
H1N1. NA Virus influenza pertama yang berhasil diisolasi berasal dari unggas, saat pada tahun 1901 agen yang menimbulkan ... "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") menimbulkan flu H5N1, yang umumnya dikenal sebagai flu ... Virus influenza A subtipe H10N7. Virus influenza BSunting. Genus ini memiliki satu spesies, yaitu virus influenza B. influenza ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ...
Serotypes or Subtypes Hosts Influenza virus A Influenza A virus* H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, ... Mammalian influenza viruses tend to be labile, but can survive several hours in mucus.[55] Avian influenza virus can survive ... Avian influenza viruses can survive indefinitely when frozen.[55] Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, ... Sixteen H subtypes (or serotypes) and nine N subtypes of influenza A virus have been identified. ...
... surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses.[14] The dominant strain in January 2006 was ... Each annual flu season is normally associated with a major influenzavirus subtype. The associated subtype changes each year, ... Main article: Influenza. Three virus families, Influenzavirus A, B, and C are the main infective agents that cause influenza. ... Research done by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in 2008 found that the influenza virus has a ...
Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses. UMN CIDRAP. ... A/H1N1 subtype. *മഹാമാരി. രോഗങ്ങളുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട ഈ ലേഖനം അപൂർണ്ണമാണ്‌. ഇതു വികസിപ്പിക്കുവാൻ സഹായിക്കുക. ... Suarez, D (2003). "The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR". Avian Dis. ... 5.0 5.1 Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in the United States, April-June 2009, New England Journal of Medicine, ...
Influenza neuraminidase is a mushroom-shaped projection on the surface of the influenza virus. It has a head consisting of four ... Nine subtypes of influenza neuraminidase are known; many occur only in various species of duck and chicken. Subtypes N1 and N2 ... Recent emergence of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistant human influenza A(H1N1) H274Y has emphasized the need for suitable ... Dyason JC, Itzstein Mv (2001). "Anti-Influenza Virus Drug Design: Sialidase Inhibitors". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 54 ( ...
In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and turkey farming operations in the ... The H5N2 virus is highly infectious and deadly, meaning up to 3.8 million hens must be destroyed at Sunrise Farms near Harris ... The virus was first identified in Minnesota in early March. Prior to April 20, it affected commercial turkey farms almost ... "USDA Confirms More Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza in Five Flocks in Iowa". APHIS. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.. ...
The strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that killed up to 50 million people during the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 was ... Viruses can be classified according to the host cell they infect: animal viruses, plant viruses, fungal viruses, and ... RNA viruses (divided into positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses and the much ... Oncolytic viruses are viruses that preferably infect cancer cells. While early efforts to employ these viruses in the therapy ...
North American avian influenza, human influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and ... Swine influenza virus is a virus that is common in pigs. This type of influenza virus can also infect humans and birds. Swine ... "The Universal Virus Database, version 4: Influenza A".. *↑ "Q & A: Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) - Symptoms". ... Specialists also think that this might lead to new variations of the influenza virus.[10] Pigs can carry human influenza ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Wikinews bahasa Inggris memberitakan: Swine flu cases worldwide top 1,000. ... Virus influenza A H1N1 merupakan virus influenza A yang umumnya menyebabkan flu kepada manusia pada tahun 2009, dan virus ini ... Beberapa efek dari H1N1 adalah flu pada manusia dan menyebabkan penyakit yang mirip dengan influenza dan influenza musiman. ... Virus influenza A dikelompokkan menurut dua protein yang terdapat pada virus: hemaglutinin (H) dan neuraminidase (N). Semua ...
... was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain.[16] A vaccine ... H1N1. Main articles: H1N1 and Pandemic H1N1/09 virus. H1N1 is currently endemic in both human and pig populations. A variant of ... "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. *Hantavirus. *Infectious mononucleosis. *Marburg virus. *Neisseria meningitidis - Petechiae in ...
In virology, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. Well known outbreaks of H1N1 strains in ... The G4 virus, also known as the "G4 swine flu virus" (G4) and "G4 EA H1N1", is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... Influenza viruses that are normally found in swine are known as swine influenza viruses (SIVs). The known SIV strains include ...
Subtype H1N1 (A/California/04/2009), His Tag, Invitrogen Sino Biological 50ug Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins A ... HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, Subtype H1N1 (A/California/04/2009), His Tag, Invitrogen Sino Biological ... HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, Subtype H1N1 (A/California/04/2009), His Tag, Invitrogen Sino Biological ... of influenza A virus, subtype H1N1 (A/California/04/2009), HA (ACP41105.1) fused to a polyhistidine tag at the C-terminus ...
... subtype H1N1, (A/California/04/2009), His Tag 50µg Life Sciences:Protein Biology:Proteins:Proteins A-Z:Proteins H ... subtype H1N1, (A/California/04/2009), His Tag HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, subtype H1N1, (A/California/04/2009), ... HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Protein, subtype H1N1, (A/California/04/2009), His Tag ... HA Recombinant Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 (A/California/04/2009) Protein. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... Making preparation count: lessons from the Avian influenza outbreak in Turkey  World Health Organization. Regional Office for ...
... of swine influenza virus subtype H1N1 of A/Swine/Nebraska/(H1N1) were retrieved from protein sequence database situated at NCBI ... Diversity of Influenza Viruses in Swine and the Emergence of a Novel Human Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1). Influenza Other Respi ... The aim of this study was to analyse the mutation possibility of swine influenza virus sub-type A/Swine/Nebraska/(H1N1) from ... Amino acid sequences of NA and HA of swine influenza virus sub-type H1N1 strains were used for screening of 98-99% similar ...
T-cell expansion may be a limiting factor in development of neutralizing antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines and ... The emergence of swine-origin 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A[H1N1]pdm09) provided a unique opportunity to ... H1N1) virus subtype H1N1 vaccine J Infect Dis. 2013 Jan 15;207(2):297-305. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis684. Epub 2012 Nov 12. ... Background: The ability of influenza vaccines to elicit CD4(+) T cells and the relationship between induction of CD4(+) T cells ...
The article confirms as fact that this virus reappeared (the A-H1N1 virus) in 1977 because it had been resynthesized in a lab. ... From 1977, we have then the A-H1N1 flu virus being part of the pool or mixture of the seasonal flu viruses. ... From where did the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1) Emerge? ... One was the bird flu virus, the bird flu virus is the virus that appeared in 2005, and that caused a high mortality rate but ...
H1N1 Subtype Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017 report by GlobalData. Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype ... 144 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Influenza A Virus, ... Proportion of Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections to ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections Therapeutics, Global, Clinical Trials by Region, 2017* 7. Influenza A Virus, H1N1 ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections Therapeutics, Global, Clinical Trials by Phase, 2017* 22. Influenza A Virus, H1N1 ...
Got Some H1N1? Just wait til your kids come home. So as I go traveling to Germany, Im really not too concerned about the 8 ... But I am prepared thanks to this cartoon best practices is H1N1 Management. Oh, the random things you find on the interwebs. ... Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. ...
In virology, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. Well known outbreaks of H1N1 strains in ... The G4 virus, also known as the "G4 swine flu virus" (G4) and "G4 EA H1N1", is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... Influenza viruses that are normally found in swine are known as swine influenza viruses (SIVs). The known SIV strains include ...
... Kristien ... "Protection Against a European H1N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs Previously Infected with H1N1 And/or H3N2 Subtypes." Vaccine ... "Protection Against a European H1N2 Swine Influenza Virus in Pigs Previously Infected with H1N1 And/or H3N2 Subtypes." VACCINE ... Protection against a European H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. VACCINE, ...
storms" and haemorrhages seen in severe influenza infections.The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent ... The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx A Novel _1_.pdf. ... File Entry: Krishnasarma pathy, (2017) The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx: A Novel Immunomodulator and ... Krishnasarma pathy, (2017) The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx: A Novel Immunomodulator and Potential ...
Learn from Influenza A Virus Subtype H1 N1 experts like Marc Siegel and Arthur Albert St. Mouritz. Read Influenza A Virus ... Subtype H1 N1 books like Swine Flu and The Flu with a free trial ... Discover the best Influenza A Virus Subtype H1 N1 books and ... Influenza A Virus Subtype H1 N1. Influenza A Virus Subtype H1 N1. ... The Viral Network: A Pathography of the H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. Author Theresa MacPhail ...
Browsing by Subject "Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Workshop on Deployment of Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in a Pandemic in the Pacific, Nadi, Fiji, 19-23 October 2009 : report  ... Workshop on Deployment of Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine in a Pandemic, Manila, Philippines, 31 August - 4 September 2009 : report ... Workshops on Lessons Learnt from Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine Deployment and Vaccination, Nadi, Fiji, 25-27 August 2011 ...
... heart disease human health Hyperactivity Inflammation influenza Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 influenza vaccination influenza ... heart disease human health Hyperactivity Inflammation influenza Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 influenza vaccination influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. 5 posts Categories In the news. Comments How Deadly is the Swine Flu (H1N1)? Comments How ... Comments Does the H1N1 Vaccine Matter? Comments Does the H1N1 Vaccine Matter?. By admin on Posted on Oct 20, 2009. October 23, ...
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. ... For the H1N1/09 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic, see Pandemic H1N1/09 virus. For the 2009 pandemic Influenza ... As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3 ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ...
H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is ... H1N1, H1N1 Flu, H1N1 Swine Flu, H1N1 diagnosis, H1N1 flu, H1N1 flu virus, H1N1 infection, H1N1 influenza, H1N1 virus, H1n1, ... Influenza, Influenza A virus, Influenza A virus subtype H1N2, Influenza A virus subtype H2N2, Influenza A virus subtype H2N3, ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N1, Influenza A virus subtype H3N2, Influenza A virus subtype H3N8, Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ...
Read Various articles & tips on influenza-a-virus-subtype-h1n1. Get the latest updates on Health, Wellness and more. Start your ... Find trusted information from leading health experts on influenza-a-virus-subtype-h1n1. ... influenza a virus subtype h1n1. Articles on influenza a virus subtype h1n1. ...
Results of search for su:{Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Clinical management of adult patients with complications of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 influenza: emergency guidelines ... by World Health Organization , WHO meeting on the main operational lessons learnt from the WHO Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) ... Report of the WHO pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine deployment initiative. by World Health Organization ...
... as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses reported, 30.2% were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 69.8% were influenza A( ... Influenza virus detection by type/subtype in countries, areas or territories:. *Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: Australia, Bolivia ( ... Influenza A(H1N1) old seasonal virus: no report. *Influenza A(H3N2): Argentina, Australia, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), ... Influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were co-circulating in Asia at low levels, while A(H1N1)pdm09 virus detections were reported in ...
Influenza matrix protein 2 (M2) is highly conserved across influenza A subtypes. To evaluate its efficacy as a vaccine ... This vaccination induced antibodies that cross-reacted with divergent M2 peptide from an H5N1 subtype. A DNA vaccine expressing ... This M2 prime-boost vaccination conferred broad protection against challenge with lethal influenza A, including an H5N1 strain ... Vaccination with M2, with key sequences represented, may provide broad protection against influenza A. ...
H1N1. MSLLTEVETPIRNEWGCRCNGSSD. A/FM/1/47-MA. M2e-FM. H1N1. MSLLTEVETPTKNEWECRCNDSSD. ... Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1 Stephen Mark Tompkins*1. , Zi- ... Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions.J Virol. 1988;62: ... Consensus sequence derived from human influenza viruses of H1, H2, and H3 subtypes (9,13). ...
H1N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections ( ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018. 13 Mar 2018 , Published by: Global Markets Direct ... H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections ( ... H3N2 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype Infections ( ...
Existing Descriptor: INFLUENZA A VIRUS, H1N1 SUBTYPE. New entry term: Swine-Origin Influenza A H1N1 Virus ... INFLUENZA A VIRUS, H1N1 SUBTYPE + HUMANS An article on "swine flu of the H1N1 subtype in swine" will be indexed as: INFLUENZA A ... "Swine Influenza Virus" from the descriptor INFLUENZA A VIRUS. This referred to the classical swine flu virus which has evolved ... VIRUS, H1N1 SUBTYPE + ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS + SWINE. Since other viral subtypes besides H1N1 can cause swine flu in swine ...
Results of search for su:{Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype} and su-to:Program evaluation. ... by World Health Organization , WHO meeting on the main operational lessons learnt from the WHO Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) ... Report of the WHO pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine deployment initiative. by World Health Organization ... Main operational lessons learnt from the WHO pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine deployment initiative. ...
H1N1)pdm09 suggested multiple introductions of the virus into Madagascar, no antigenic differences between A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses ... RESULTS: Of the 2303 specimens tested, 1016 (44.1%) and 131 (5.7%) yielded A(H1N1)pdm09 and seasonal influenza virus, ... METHODS: Specimens from patients presenting with influenza-like illness were collected and shipped to the National Influenza ... Patients ,20 years old were more likely than patients ,50 years old to be infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% ...
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Nanoparticles , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Temperature , Virus Cultivation , Methods ... Effects of temperature and pH on the growth of H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy / 生物工程学 ... In the present study, we characterized H1N1 subtypes of influenza A virus strains in different conditions of pH or temperatures ... Effects of temperature and pH on the growth of H1N1 subtype of influenza A virus by surfac ...
Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Chickens , Dogs , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Physiology , Virus ... The proliferation of H1N1 subtype influenza viruses in A549 and BEAS-2B cells / 中华实验和临床病毒学杂志 ... p,,b,OBJECTIVE,/b,Analyze the proliferation of different host H1N1 subtype influenza viruses in A549 and BEAS-2B cells.,/p,,p,, ... The proliferation of H1N1 subtype influenza viruses in A549 and BEAS-2B cells ...
... Taxonomy navigation. › H1N1 subtype ... Taxonomy - Influenza A virus (A/Puerto Rico/8-CV10/1934(H1N1)) Basket 0 ... Viruses. › Riboviria. › Negarnaviricota. › Polyploviricotina. › Insthoviricetes. › Articulavirales. › Orthomyxoviridae. › ...
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype. Vaccine. Children. Adolescents. HIV-Infected. Perinatal HIV Infection. Treatment experienced. ... HIV Infections H1N1 Influenza Virus Biological: Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine Phase 2 ... Experimental: Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine All participants received two doses of the H1N1 influenza virus ... Safety of and Immune Response to an H1N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine in HIV Infected Children and Youth. The safety and scientific ...
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype. Vaccine. Children. Adolescents. HIV-Infected. Perinatal HIV Infection. Treatment experienced. ... HIV Infections H1N1 Influenza Virus Biological: Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine Phase 2 ... Experimental: Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine All participants received two doses of the H1N1 influenza virus ... The new H1N1 influenza virus seen in 2009 has been designated a pandemic by the World Health Organization, due to the sustained ...
  • The known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3. (
  • Krishnasarma pathy, (2017) The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 ,HDFx: A Novel Immunomodulator and Potential Fighter Against Cytoki Infections- Carica papaya Linn. (
  • The discovery of a new, biologic host-defense protein, "HDFx", may provide a unique way to ameliorate and prevent the "cytokine storms" and haemorrhages seen in severe influenza infections.The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) virus was predominant at low levels in some countries in Americas and Asia, and influenza B in parts of Africa. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses were co-circulating in Asia at low levels, while A(H1N1)pdm09 virus detections were reported in some countries in South-east Asia. (
  • A total of 1027 specimens were reported as positive for influenza viruses, 716 (69.7%) were typed as influenza A and 311 (30.3%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses reported, 30.2% were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 69.8% were influenza A(H3N2). (
  • H1N1, and H3N2) are currently in general circulation among people. (
  • The influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are prevalent in pig populations worldwide. (
  • These H1N2 viruses have an avian-like SIV H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) and a European H3N2 SIV-like neuraminidase (NA). (
  • H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, A (H10N8) ] have a very serious haemorrhagic component to them which complicates effective treatment. (
  • Similar processes may underlie age-specific mortality differences between seasonal H1N1 vs. H3N2 and human H5N1 vs. H7N9 infections. (
  • The H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes circulate mainly in the swine population of Mexico. (
  • Moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and low effectiveness against A(H3N2) virus among older adults during 2013-2014 influenza season in Beijing, China. (
  • In recent influenza seasons, the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines against circulating A(H3N2) virus has been lower than against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, even when circulating viruses. (
  • To provide clinical laboratories with a definitive immunofluorescence assay for the subtyping of influenza A virus isolates, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the major circulating influenza A virus subtypes using multiple inactivated H1N1, H3N2, and 2009 H1N1 strains individually as immunogens. (
  • Eleven MAbs that target hemagglutinin (HA) of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes were selected. (
  • Sixty-four samples grew virus and were subtyped as follows: 30 as H3N2, 9 as seasonal H1N1, and 25 as 2009 H1N1. (
  • Although 16 hemagglutinin (H1 to H16) and 9 neuraminidase (N1 to N9) variants have been identified, only three combinations (H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2) have been responsible for human epidemics ( 2 ). (
  • Today there are three influenza A virus subtypes circulating in humans: H3N2, seasonal H1N1, and 2009 H1N1. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), nearly all influenza A virus H1N1 isolates tested during the 2008-2009 influenza season were resistant to oseltamivir, while 100% of influenza A virus H3N2 isolates tested were resistant to amantadine ( 3 ). (
  • The fact that seasonal influenza A viruses H1N1, H3N2, and 2009 H1N1 and influenza B viruses with variable antiviral drug susceptibilities are cocirculating has driven the need for a rapid and accurate test for both typing and subtyping influenza virus isolates to establish a definitive laboratory diagnosis. (
  • From these, 46.3% were H3N2, 33.3% were H1N1, 11.1% were H1N2 and 3.7% were HxN1. (
  • AbstractNovel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. (
  • Currently circulating Influenza A subtypes in humans are H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. (
  • Examples of different influenza A virus subtypes that have infected animals to cause outbreaks include H1N1 and H3N2 virus infections of pigs, and H7N7 and H3N8 virus infections of horses. (
  • However, in 1998, H3N2 viruses from humans were introduced into the pig population and caused widespread disease among pigs. (
  • 3148 (11%) were positive for influenza viruses, of which 1759 (56%) were typed as influenza A and 1389 (44%) as influenza B. Of the sub-typed influenza A viruses, 142 (10%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and 1326 (90%) were influenza A(H3N2). (
  • Globally influenza A(H3N2) remained the predominant virus subtype detected. (
  • In Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and North America, influenza A(H3N2) activity continued to increase in some countries with localized to widespread activity reported. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated in Japan and the Republic of Korea, while influenza B predominated in China. (
  • In the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low with influenza A(H3N2) virus predominating. (
  • To date, 16 HA, and 9 NA subtypes have been detected in wild birds and poultry, of which subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 are currently circulating among humans in seasonal influenza outbreaks(3,4,5,6,7). (
  • Another influenza pandemic that occurred in 1968-1969 (Hong Kong flu), was caused by an H3N2 strain of influenza that was the result of a reassortment between circulating human H2N2 and avian H3(15) viruses and is estimated to have caused 34,000 deaths in the United States(16). (
  • Since the Hong Kong flu (H3N2) pandemic, the number of influenza-associated hospitalizations has typically been greater during seasonal influenza epidemics caused by influenza A/H3N2 viruses than during seasons in which other influenza A virus subtypes have predominated(18). (
  • Influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 are still currently circulating in the human population(25) and are included in current vaccines(11). (
  • We describe the distributions of antibody titers to subtypes 2009 H1N1 and H3N2. (
  • Using a model selection approach to fit mixture distributions, we show that 2009 H1N1 antibody titers fall into four titer subgroups and that H3N2 titers fall into three subgroups. (
  • Other main subtypes known to occur and cause influenza in pigs include H1N2 and H3N2 . (
  • The main influenza viruses circulating in U.S. pigs in recent years are H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. (
  • While H1N1 viruses have been known to circulate among pig populations since at least 1930, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza A viruses did not begin circulating among pigs in the United States until about 1998. (
  • In 2011, a new variant virus was detected that was an influenza A (H3N2) virus with genes from avian, swine and human viruses. (
  • This 2009 H1N1 M gene may allow these H3N2 viruses in swine to be more transmissible from pigs to people and possibly from person to person. (
  • Some influenza A subtypes that you may be familiar with include H1N1 and H3N2. (
  • Let's take a closer look at H3N2 influenza viruses. (
  • Flu caused by H3N2 viruses predominated during the 2017/18 flu season. (
  • When broken down by virus, it was 65 percent effective against H1N1, 25 percent effective against H3N2, and 49 percent effective against influenza B. (
  • The symptoms of flu caused by H3N2 are similar to other seasonal influenza viruses. (
  • An H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B strain are included in the trivalent vaccine, while an extra influenza B strain is included in the quadrivalent vaccine. (
  • The flu vaccine tends to offer more protection from flu that's caused by H1N1 viruses and influenza B viruses in comparison to H3N2 viruses. (
  • First, while all flu viruses mutate from year to year, H3N2 viruses tend to accrue more changes that are different from the H3N2 component of the flu vaccine. (
  • H3N2 viruses tend to adapt to growth in eggs more readily than other types of flu viruses. (
  • 2017). A structural explanation for the low effectiveness of the seasonal influenza H3N2 vaccine. (
  • Start of the 2014/15 influenza season in Europe: drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulate as dominant subtype. (
  • Of the seasonal influenza A notifications, A/H3N2 is the predominant subtype reported by most jurisdictions. (
  • This trend is consistent across all jurisdictions, except in New South Wales and the ACT where influenza A(H3N2) is circulating at higher levels. (
  • and the avian influenza H5N1, or group 2 viruses, which include the seasonal H3N2 strains. (
  • Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 ( A/H3N2 ) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). (
  • H3N2 viruses can infect birds and mammals. (
  • H3N2 is increasingly abundant in seasonal influenza . (
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the viral genus Influenzavirus A , which is an important cause of human influenza . (
  • Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). By reassortment , H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. (
  • Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1 , H3N2, H1N2 , and influenza B will proliferate in the next season. (
  • In the past ten years, H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in 2003 to 91% in 2005. (
  • An analysis of 13,000 samples of influenza A/H3N2 virus that were collected across six continents from 2002 to 2007 by the WHO's Global Influenza Surveillance Network showed the newly emerging strains of H3N2 appeared in East and Southeast Asian countries about six to 9 months earlier than anywhere else. (
  • A 2007 study reported: "In swine , three influenza A virus subtypes ( H1N1 , H3N2, and H1N2 ) are circulating throughout the world. (
  • however, since late August 1998, H3N2 subtypes have been isolated from pigs. (
  • Since the protective ability of influenza vaccines depends primarily on the closeness of the match between the vaccine virus and the epidemic virus, the presence of nonreactive H3N2 SIV variants suggests current commercial vaccines might not effectively protect pigs from infection with a majority of H3N2 viruses. (
  • Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China , and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, contributing to the emergence of new variant strains. (
  • The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift , in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. (
  • Currently, subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 are the active forms of human Type A influenza virus. (
  • The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the epidemic of 'Hong-Kong' flu in 1968. (
  • The viruses currently circulating among people worldwide causing season influenza include H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes and B virus. (
  • A(H3N2) and B/Yamagata viruses are circulating at very low levels," the CDC reports. (
  • Most (80.7%) influenza A viruses that underwent subtyping were A(H1N1)pdm09 and 19.3% were A(H3N2) viruses. (
  • Both A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses circulated widely and detection levels in primary care and hospital settings were similar to past seasons. (
  • Dominant influenza A(H3N2) and B/Yamagata virus circulation in EU/EEA, 2016/17 and 2017/18 seasons, respectively. (
  • Furthermore, macrophages have been shown to be predominantly pro-inflammatory responders to H7N9 strains in a mouse model ( 10 ), though highly pathogenic strains such as H5N1 and H7N9 display attenuated macrophage inflammation responses compared to seasonal strains such as H1N1 and H3N2 ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Hemagglutinin causes red blood cells to clump together and binds the virus to the infected cell. (
  • Hemagglutinin, Influenza A Virus (HA), recombinant human protein is supplied as a lyophilized powder. (
  • Sharma DK, Rawat AK, Srivastava S, Srivastava R, Kumar A (2010) Comparative Sequence Analysis on Different Strains of Swine Influenza Virus Sub-type H1N1 for Neuraminidase and Hemagglutinin. (
  • Our in silico analysis predicted that hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of swine influenza virus are sensitive to mutations at positions 225, 283 and 240, 451 respectively. (
  • Then some could argue that it's new because of the antigens of the A- H1N1 virus… the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N). These are surface proteins that could appear to give it the novelty nature. (
  • Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) or haemagglutininp (British English) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza viruses. (
  • The Cell Pathologic Effect (CPE) is obvious after 24 h inoculation in A549 cells by all the H1N1 influenza viruses , moreover, the peak hemagglutinin (HA) and 50% tissue culture cell infected dose (TCID50) titers was observed after 36 h of culturing in A549 cells . (
  • The purified whole-virus proteins derived from A/swine/Shanghai/1/2014 (H1N1) (SH1) were chosen to immunize BALB/c mice to prepare the monoclonal antibody (MAb) against hemagglutinin (HA) protein of a. (
  • A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. (
  • Influenza A virus is subtyped based on the antigenicity of its two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (
  • This study describes the development and validation of a TaqMan based - one-step multiplex RT-qPCR to discriminate the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the three major IAV subtypes circulating in pigs in Brazil. (
  • For example, if a pig were infected with a human influenza A virus and an avian influenza A virus at the same time, the new replicating viruses could mix existing genetic information (reassortment) and produce a new influenza A virus that had most of the genes from the human virus, but a hemagglutinin gene and/or neuraminidase gene and other genes from the avian virus. (
  • The resulting new virus might then be able to infect humans and spread easily from person to person, but it would have surface proteins (hemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase) different than those currently found in influenza viruses that infect humans. (
  • The genetic information in these viruses could reassort to create a new influenza A virus with a hemagglutinin gene from the avian virus and other genes from the human virus. (
  • Influenza A viruses with a hemagglutinin against which humans have little or no immunity that have reassorted with a human influenza virus are more likely to result in sustained human-to-human transmission and pose a major public health threat of pandemic influenza. (
  • Previously, a novel hemagglutinin (HA) for H5N1 influenza was derived from a methodology termed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigen (COBRA). (
  • Ten hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes were detected each year (i.e. (
  • Two major surface glycoproteins (proteins with a carbohydrate attached), called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), are how influenza A viruses are identified. (
  • The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins are important targets for diagnostics and used to designate the subtype of the virus. (
  • Influenza A viruses are further divided into different subtypes based on two proteins found on the surface of the virus - hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • The main antigenic determinants of Influenza A and B viruses are the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) transmembrane glycoproteins. (
  • Influenza viruses have external projections called Hemagglutinin (H) and Neuraminidase (N). There are 15 known Hemagglutinins and 9 known Neuraminidases. (
  • Two of these proteins-hemagglutinin (H), a protein that helps the virus attach to host cells in the respiratory tract) and neuraminidase (N), which releases the newly created influenza virus from host cells-are variable. (
  • Types of Influenza A virus are based on variations in the hemagglutinin (H), of which there are 15 subgroups, and neuraminidase (N), of which there are 9 subgroups. (
  • Influenza A viruses can be further distinguished in different subtypes because of amino acid differences in the surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • Well known outbreaks of H1N1 strains in humans include the 2009 swine flu pandemic, the 1977 Russian flu pandemic as well as the 1918 flu pandemic. (
  • Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of Influenza (flu). (
  • The new H1N1 influenza virus seen in 2009 has been designated a pandemic by the World Health Organization, due to the sustained community outbreaks seen in the United States and Mexico. (
  • A century after one of history's most catastrophic disease outbreaks, scientists are rethinking how to guard against another super-flu like the 1918 influenza that killed tens of millions as it swept the globe. (
  • Swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) causing outbreaks of acute, highly contagious respiratory disease in pigs also pose a potential threat to public health. (
  • More recently, H3N8 viruses from horses have crossed over and caused outbreaks in dogs. (
  • Although it is unusual for people to get influenza virus infections directly from animals, sporadic human infections and outbreaks caused by certain avian influenza A viruses and swine influenza A viruses have been reported. (
  • Influenza can occur in pandemics and epidemics, localized outbreaks, and as sporadic cases(1). (
  • Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks in pigs. (
  • Shortly after the reports of the new H1N1 virus in North America, H1N1 virus outbreaks were reported on turkey breeder farms in Virginia and California in the United States as well as in Chile, Canada, and France. (
  • There have been two major outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in the United States, one in 1924-25, reappearing in 1929, and one in 1983-84. (
  • Mildly pathogenic outbreaks of influenza in poultry occur annually in the United States. (
  • These outbreaks are the result of the virus escaping the natural or man made reservoirs and infecting poultry. (
  • Swine influenza (also called swine flu, or pig flu) is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. (
  • Epstein SL , Tumpey TM , Misplon JA , Lo CY , Cooper LA , Subbarao K , DNA vaccine expressing conserved influenza virus proteins protective against H5N1 challenge infection in mice. (
  • BACKGROUND: Madagascar was one of the first African countries to be affected by the 2009 pandemic of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm2009] infection. (
  • The age distribution of cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection suggests that children and young adults could be targeted for interventions that aim to reduce transmission during an influenza pandemic. (
  • A549 cells were susceptible to human , avian and swine H1N1 influenza viruses infection and permissively for viral replication. (
  • Children with HIV infection, then, have a compounded risk of H1N1 infection. (
  • Higher doses of influenza vaccines are associated with the development of higher levels of serum antibodies, which are needed to resist infection. (
  • For example, H7N7 and H3N8 virus infections can cause illness in horses, and H3N8 virus infection cause illness in horses and dogs. (
  • Infection of poultry with HPAI viruses can cause severe disease with high mortality. (
  • HPAI virus infection can cause disease that affects multiple internal organs with mortality up to 90% to100% in chickens, often within 48 hours. (
  • Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans has occurred, such as with Asian lineage HPAI H5N1 viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East. (
  • Human infection of H5N1 virus infections have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia and greater than 50% mortality. (
  • H7 virus infection in humans is uncommon. (
  • The most frequently identified H7 viruses associated with human infection are Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses, which were first detected in China in 2013 . (
  • To describe a possible outbreak of influenza A (H1N1)2009 in a Military Training Centre and to describe the measures adopted for transmission control of this new infection. (
  • Clinical management and viral genomic diversity analysis of a child's influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the context of a severe combined immunodeficiency. (
  • A child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) had an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection with viral excretion longer than 6 months, during 2013-2014 influenza season, despite cord blood transplant. (
  • This subtyping IFA provides clinical laboratories with a cost-effective diagnostic tool for better management of influenza virus infection and surveillance of influenza virus activity. (
  • Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. (
  • H1N1 infection was associated with severe respiratory illness and ARDS. (
  • A method for diagnosing hepatitis virus infection or a hepatitis disease condition in a subject based on hepatitis virus-associated biomarkers present on exosomes in a bodily fluid sample from the subject is disclosed. (
  • For H1N1, our interpretation is that the two highest-titer subgroups correspond to recent and historical infection, which is consistent with 2009 pandemic attack rates. (
  • We report the first fatality caused by novel influenza A (H1N1) infection despite having the diagnosis confirmed and being given antiviral treatment after hospitalisation. (
  • Recipients of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection from 1 May 2009 to 28 February 2010. (
  • This same HA protein is responsible for the attachment of the virus to the host cell and beginning the infection of the cell. (
  • The first step was to evaluate whether current U.S H1N1 swine influenza vaccines can protect pigs from infection with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus circulating in people. (
  • Sporadic cases of human infection with swine influenza virus have been reported in the United States and elsewhere. (
  • Worldwide, more than 50 human cases of swine influenza virus infection, mostly due to classical swine influenza virus, have been documented in the past 35 years, with the greatest risk of infection among people with occupational exposure to live pigs. (
  • Previously, the CDC have reported approximately one case of human infection with a swine influenza virus every one to two years. (
  • Mildly pathogenic influenza virus results in a milder disease although there may be severe disease under some conditions such as the presence of secondary bacterial infection. (
  • Flocks are routinely monitored for evidence of influenza infection. (
  • Prior to 1997 there were only three known instances of avian influenza viruses being implicated in human infection. (
  • The WHO has updated their public health risk assessment of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus which concluded that the risk has not changed since the assessment published on 28 February 2014. (
  • Influenza is an extremely contagious infection of the upper and/or lower respiratory tract and is caused by distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses. (
  • In Europe every year influenza viruses infect 10-15% of the population and account for about 100,000 cases of hospital admissions of which 20% die as either direct or indirect consequence of influenza infection, particularly the elderly and people suffering from chronic heart and respiratory diseases. (
  • Human infection from bird viruses (avian viruses) occurs only upon exposure to infected poultry, wild birds or contact with surfaces contaminated with secretion/excretions of infected animals. (
  • However, the rapid spread in wild bird species of a highly pathogenic virus subtype, H5N1, that can cause a deadly infection in man, has generated the concern that a mutated form of this virus could acquire the capability to spread in humans and cause a pandemic of catastrophic consequences. (
  • Rapid diagnosis of influenza infection is a key component of disease surveillance activity carried out by health authorities to monitor the presence of these viruses in the community. (
  • Less than 1% were associated with influenza A virus and influenza B virus co-infection and 0.3% had no influenza virus type determination. (
  • At the end of March 2013, the first case of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus was confirmed in Shanghai. (
  • From April to May 2013, 18 patients with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, and finally, 12 of them survived. (
  • From September to November 2013, 5 survivors with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection discharged from Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were admitted to Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. (
  • A previous study had revealed that the main imaging findings of HRCT during the initial stage of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection were GGOs, consolidations, air bronchograms, and interlobular septal thickening. (
  • To elucidate the cellular immune mechanisms associated with disease severity and progression, we used a ferret model to closely resemble disease outcomes in humans following influenza virus infection. (
  • One such group of viruses are strains of H7N9 influenza virus, which have caused over 1,500 cases of infection (with a ~40% mortality rate) in humans since their first detection in 2013 ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Changes in leukocyte subsets have previously been shown to correlate with more severe outcomes during AI infection, with decreases in T cell populations commonly reported in both human (H7N9 virus) and avian (H5N6 virus) hosts ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Taken together, our study indicated that PEGylated ZnO-NPs could be a novel, effective, and promising antiviral agent against H1N1 influenza virus infection, and future studies can be designed to explore the exact antiviral mechanism of these nanoparticles. (
  • The current H5N1 bird flu, also an Influenza A virus, has a similar effect. (
  • SummaryGlobal Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape.H5N1 is a type of influenza. (
  • Similarly, an "H5N1" virus has an HA 5 protein and an NA 1 protein. (
  • The new nanobiosensor can detect the strains of H5N1 and H1N1 . (
  • In 1997 in Hong Kong highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza was detected in 18 humans, 6 of whom died. (
  • Pigs can carry human influenza viruses, which can combine (i.e. exchange homologous genome subunits by genetic reassortment ) with H5N1 , passing genes and mutating into a form which can pass easily among humans. (
  • The outbreak of 'Bird' flu in Hong Kong was attributed to H5N1, however, this subtype was not shown to be transmissible form person to person (only from birds to humans). (
  • Swine influenza (also known as swine flu or pig flu) is a respiratory disease that occurs in pigs that is caused by the Influenza A virus. (
  • In 1976, a novel swine influenza A (H1N1) caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers, with one death at Fort Dix, New Jersey. (
  • The H1N1 subtype is pathogenic swine viral that has been documented to cause an outbreak of respiratory disease in both human and swine. (
  • In 1976, a novel swine influenza A (H1N1) caused severe respiratory illness in 13 soldiers with 1 death at Fort Dix, New Jersey. (
  • Clinical management of adult patients with complications of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: emergency guidelines for the management of patients with severe respiratory distress and shock in district hospitals in limited-resource settings. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of respiratory specimens positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 is consistent with a widespread transmission of the pandemic in Madagascar. (
  • This new 283-page report presents detailed analysis of the German Respiratory Diseases market, including sales forecasts and supplier shares for Adenovirus, Influenza, Legionella, Mononucleosis, Mycoplasma, Pneumonia, RSV and Tuberculosis. (
  • Swine influenza is a worldwide disease, which causes damage to the respiratory system of pigs. (
  • AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. (
  • All viruses replicated and were shed in the upper respiratory tract without prior adaptation although H1N2 viruses showed the highest shedding titers. (
  • Severe respiratory disease in an intensive care unit during influenza A(H1N1)2009 pandemia. (
  • We describe characteristics of patients admitted to our intensive care unit with severe acute respiratory illness and influenza-like syndrome during the first months of the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in Argentina. (
  • Analytical performance was assessed by processing respiratory samples spiked with H1N1/09 and seasonal influenza A virus, a set of seasonal influenza A virus subtypes, and samples containing common viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. (
  • It is a respiratory disease that results from an influenza A virus. (
  • The information was collected from the Surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections and Influenza A (H1N1) associated deaths of the insured population nationwide. (
  • To report Hong Kong's experience on the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by influenza A (H1N1). (
  • Swine influenza virus (SIV) is one of the primary causes of respiratory disease in growing pigs and can lead to major economic losses. (
  • The flu is a respiratory illness that's caused by the influenza virus. (
  • However, only influenza A and B cause the seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness that occur every year. (
  • Tissue samples from the animals' upper and lower respiratory tracts helped the investigators pinpoint the soft palate-which has surfaces facing both the mouth and nasopharyngeal region-as the key site for virus mutation. (
  • Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. (
  • Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza, for instance in 2004-2005. (
  • Transmission of the virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always lead to human influenza, often resulting only in the production of antibodies in the blood. (
  • Since there are no unique clinical symptoms to differentiate swine influenza from seasonal influenza in humans, this number is probably having a small fraction of the actual cases. (
  • These are the known flu viruses affecting humans. (
  • Therefore, it is of major importance torecord the evolution of swine influenza viruses in pigs, and in particular monitor hallmarks of adaptation to humans. (
  • During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. (
  • Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever , sore throat , muscle pains, severe headache , coughing, weakness, and general discomfort. (
  • During the recent outbreak of H1N1 influenza in humans, the term "swine flu" has become prevalent in the professional literature and especially the public media. (
  • Despite the name, the new influenza virus has been mostly isolated from infected humans, though many of its genes are derived from pig viruses. (
  • Searchers may also consider using swine flu [tw] in their strategy to retrieve articles that are about potential pandemic in humans, but do not include a substantive discussion of a specific virus or the disease in swine. (
  • We find that the resulting pandemic virus jumped directly to swine but was likely displaced in humans by ∼1922 by a reassortant with an antigenically distinct H1 HA. (
  • Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. (
  • Antigenic shift results when a new influenza A virus subtype to which most people have little or no immune protection infects humans. (
  • Therefore, careful evaluation of influenza A viruses recovered from humans who are infected with avian influenza A viruses is very important to identify reassortment if it occurs. (
  • The influenza A variant subtype H1N1 is commonly the cause of swine flu in humans. (
  • There have been infections in humans with these two variant subtypes as well. (
  • In 2009, the H1N1 variant became widespread in humans for the first time. (
  • However, any time a virus affects humans from a different source, it is a concern. (
  • Scientists developed a vaccine to protect humans from H1N1 after the 2009 outbreak. (
  • By 1908 we knew that viruses could cause diseases of plants, animals and even humans. (
  • Health organizations use the term "variant" to refer to viruses that are genetically different from what is usually isolated from humans. (
  • The majority of these viral subtypes are found in waterfowl, with only a few combinations being found in humans and swine. (
  • Pigs have long been considered a potential source for new and novel influenza viruses that infect humans, as they have receptors on their cells that bind both mammalian and avian influenza viruses, increasing the opportunity for the exchange of genetic segments of the virus. (
  • In 1959, 1979 and 1996 evidence of influenza virus was detected in humans and in each case an H7N7 was involved. (
  • Further analysis showed that several of the proteins of the virus are most similar to strains that caused mild symptoms in humans, leading virologist Wendy Barclay to suggest that the virus was unlikely to cause severe symptoms for most people. (
  • The research team that worked on this report also believed that it was "derived from several viruses circulating in swine," and that the initial transmission to humans occurred several months before recognition of the outbreak. (
  • The team concluded that "despite widespread influenza surveillance in humans, the lack of systematic swine surveillance allowed for the undetected persistence and evolution of this potentially pandemic strain for many years. (
  • In birds, humans, and pigs , the virus has mutated into many strains. (
  • Pigs can harbor influenza viruses adapted to humans and others that are adapted to birds, allowing the viruses to exchange genes and create a pandemic strain. (
  • The COA made the remarks after WHO warned that once hogs are infected with an avian-flu virus, the possibility of humans being infected will increase. (
  • Human influenza viruses are divided into two main groups, type A and type B. Type A viruses are found in ducks, chickens, pigs, whales, and humans, among other animals. (
  • Type B viruses are known to circulate only among humans. (
  • An additional form of the virus, Type C influenza, has been identified in humans, pigs and dogs, but has not yet caused serious disease or epidemics in humans. (
  • At this time, only three of the 15 H subtypes have infected humans. (
  • Humans are infected by influenza types A, B, and C viruses. (
  • In recent years cases of zoonotic strains of avian influenza (AI) causing severe disease in humans have caused significant global concern, with fears that these viruses may lead to devastating pandemic events in future ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Of most concern with the H7N9 viruses has been the ability for this virus to present as a low pathogenicity virus in its native avian hosts and yet present with severe clinical symptoms and death in humans, without obtaining virulence factors such as multi-basic cleavage sites usually required for high pathogenicity infections. (
  • While hypercytokinemia is common amongst many AI virus infections, H7N9 strains such as the human infecting A/Anhui/1/2013 virus have been associated with dampened IFN responses in humans ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • The ability of influenza vaccines to elicit CD4(+) T cells and the relationship between induction of CD4(+) T cells and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody responses has been controversial. (
  • These results indicate that CD4(+) T-cell expansion may be a limiting factor in development of neutralizing antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines and suggest that approaches to facilitate CD4(+) T-cell recruitment may increase the neutralizing antibody produced in response to vaccines against novel influenza strains. (
  • Fan J , Liang X , Horton MS , Perry HC , Citron MP , Heidecker GJ , Preclinical study of influenza virus A M2 peptide conjugate vaccines in mice, ferrets, and rhesus monkeys. (
  • One of the challenges of developing influenza A vaccines is the diversity of antigenically distinct isolates. (
  • The most effective regimens that both elicited the broadest HAI response and protected mice against a pandemic H1N1 challenge were vaccines that contained the P1 COBRA VLP and either the X3 or X6 COBRA VLP vaccine. (
  • IMPORTANCE Universal influenza vaccine approaches have the potential to be paradigm shifting for the influenza vaccine field, with the goal of replacing the current standard of care with broadly cross-protective vaccines. (
  • Present vaccination strategies for swine influenza virus (SIV) control and prevention in swine farms typically include the use of one of several bivalent SIV vaccines commercially available in the United States. (
  • ABSTRACT Information on the prevalence of influenza, circulating virus subtypes and seasonality is essential for selecting strains for annual vaccines and for planning immunization programmes. (
  • Since the viruses mutate rapidly, vaccines must be reformulated from year to year to be effective. (
  • Athens, Ga. - Researchers at the University of Georgia and Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi, announced today the development of a vaccine that protects against multiple strains of both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza in mouse models. (
  • One of the problems with current influenza vaccines is that we have to make predictions about which virus strains will be most prevalent every year and build our vaccines around those predictions," said Ted Ross, director of UGA's Center for Vaccines and Immunology and Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Infectious Diseases in the College of Veterinary Medicine. (
  • Using a technique called Computationally Optimized Broadly Reactive Antigen, or COBRA, UGA researchers Donald Carter, Christopher Darby and Bradford Lefoley, along with Ross, created nine prototype synthetic compound vaccines constructed using genetic sequences from multiple influenza virus strains. (
  • The COBRA vaccines were designed to recognize H1N1 viruses isolated within the last 100 years, but many of the experimental vaccines produced immunity against influenza strains not included in the design. (
  • GlobalData's clinical trial report, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2017" provides an overview of Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections clinical trials scenario. (
  • This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections. (
  • H1N1 strains caused a small percentage of all human flu infections in 2004-2005. (
  • Children and people infected with HIV are particularly susceptible to influenza infections. (
  • People infected with HIV were also more susceptible to severe influenza infections than those who are uninfected. (
  • SummaryGlobal Markets Direct's latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2018, provides an overview of the Epstein-Barr Virus (HHV-4) Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or human her. (
  • The most frequently identified subtypes of avian influenza that have caused human infections are H5, H7 and H9 viruses. (
  • Mixed viral infections (3.7%) and reassortant viruses (1.9%) were also detected by the test. (
  • The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. (
  • We demonstrate its usefulness for the rapid detection and surveillance of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza A virus infections. (
  • While influenza viruses almost always remain infectious only within their host species, at times infections may spread to other species. (
  • Classical swine influenza virus infections are enzootic among pigs in North America. (
  • The majority of hospital admissions have been associated with influenza A infections and the median age of cases is 43 years. (
  • They then introduced the virus into ferrets, which are typically studied to model human flu infections. (
  • Long-term Follow-up of 5 Survivors after the First Outbreak of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Shanghai, China. (
  • However, most studies have focused on their inhibitory actions on bacterial infections, and there is limited studies evaluating the interaction between ZnO-NPs and viruses. (
  • Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and assist in budding from the host cells. (
  • The H1N1 amino acid sequences of neuraminidase (GenBank Acc. (
  • Virus ini merupakan orthomiksovirus yang mengandung glikoprotein hemaglutinin dan neuraminidase . (
  • Neuraminidase merupakan salah satu jenis enzim glikosida hidrolase yang membantu pemindahan partikel virus melalui sel yang terinfeksi dan membantunya dalam proses perkembangan dari sel inang. (
  • Virus influenza A dikelompokkan menurut dua protein yang terdapat pada virus: hemaglutinin (H) dan neuraminidase (N). Semua virus influenza A mengandung hemaglutinin dan neuraminidase yang disebabkan oleh mutasi genetik yang cocok dengan genom virus tersebut. (
  • Our results suggest that the 1918 pandemic virus originated shortly before 1918 when a human H1 virus, which we infer emerged before ∼1907, acquired avian N1 neuraminidase and internal protein genes. (
  • Type A influenza viruses are subdivided on the basis of the antigenic nature of their membrane-bound surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (
  • Only three haemagglutinin subtypes (H1, H2, H3) and two neuraminidase subtypes (N1 and N2) have established stable lineages in the human population since 1918(9). (
  • All neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected during each year of the study. (
  • Presently, there are only two classes of drugs available against different influenza A strains and subtypes licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): matrix-2 (M2) protein ion channel blockers (such as amantadine and rimantadine) and neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (such as zanamivir and oseltamivir) [ 7 ]. (
  • Through the inhibition of neuraminidase, a glycoprotein on the surface of influenza viruses, the drug decreases the release of virus from infected cells , increases the formation of viral aggregates , and decreases the spread of the virus through the body. (
  • Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). (
  • Pigs can also become infected with the H4N6 and H9N2 subtypes. (
  • Pigs experimentally infected with the strain of swine flu that caused the human pandemic of 2009-10 showed clinical signs of flu within four days, and the virus spread to other uninfected pigs housed with the infected ones. (
  • All scientific data point towards swine as the key host species for new human influenza pandemics, which have been suggested to evolve in pigs from viral genes of avian, human and porcine origin. (
  • The scope of this paper was to increase the understanding of the genetics of swine influenza virus (SIV), and to investigate the importance of different viral gene markers in association with differences in pathogenicity of two viruses of H1N2 subtype in pigs. (
  • Swine influenza virus (SIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. (
  • This referred to the classical swine flu virus which has evolved since developing in pigs during the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic. (
  • Protective efficacy of a high-growth reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against the European Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus in mice and pigs. (
  • Identification and genomic characterization of influenza viruses with different origin in Mexican pigs. (
  • This multiplex RT-qPCR assay provides a fast and specific diagnostic tool for identification of different subtypes and lineages of IAV in pigs, contributing to the monitoring of influenza in swine. (
  • It has similar genetic features to the H1N1 subtype of influenza virus that causes influenza in pigs. (
  • Influenza is present at low levels in pigs throughout the world, and is monitored by the voluntary USDA Swine Influenza Surveillance Program, although it is not a reportable or regulated disease. (
  • Like human influenza viruses, there are different subtypes and strains of influenza viruses in pigs. (
  • Influenza viruses in pigs can occasionally infect people, and human influenza viruses can infect swine. (
  • This research study also evaluated whether pre-existing titers in pigs previously infected with endemic H1N1 swine influenza viruses circulating in the U.S could protect against the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • Second was to address whether meat, blood and tissue from pigs infected with the new 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Virus would be free of infectious virus. (
  • Experts believe pigs can act as a 'mixing vessel' for the reassortment of avian, swine and human influenza viruses, and might play an important role in the emergence of novel influenza viruses that could be capable of causing a human pandemic similar to the virus in the current outbreak. (
  • Between the 1930s and the 1990s, the most commonly circulating swine influenza virus among pigs-classical swine influenza A, known as H1N1-underwent little change. (
  • However, by the late 1990s, multiple strains and subtypes of triple reassortant swine influenza viruses-whose genomes include combinations of avian, human and swine influenza virus gene segments-had emerged and became predominant among North American pigs. (
  • The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus is also a triple reassortent, but its lineage is different than the H1N1 influenza viruses currently circulating in U.S. pigs. (
  • Contemporary Epidemiology of North American Lineage Triple Reassortant Influenza A Viruses in Pigs. (
  • They emphasized that there was no way to prove their hypothesis, but stated that there is no evidence that this new virus, which combines Eurasian and North American genes, has ever circulated in North American pigs, "while there is tantalizing evidence that a closely related 'sister virus' had circulated in Asia. (
  • According to the researchers, movement of live pigs between Eurasia and North America "seemed to have facilitated the mixing of diverse swine influenza viruses, leading to the multiple reassortment events associated with the genesis of the (new H1N1) strain. (
  • When it was first detected, it was called swine flu because the virus was similar to those found in pigs, but the virus now circulates as a seasonal form of influenza. (
  • In the absence of accurate pneumonia diagnostics, patients hospitalized with suspected influenza and lung infiltrates on chest radiography should receive early and aggressive treatment with antibiotics and influenza antiviral agents. (
  • Subtyping influenza A virus in the clinical laboratory has become more important, especially since the emergence of viral mutations that confer drug resistance to antiviral treatment. (
  • Flu Season Begins: Severe Influenza Illness Reported CDC urges rapid antiviral treatment of very ill and high risk suspect influenza patients without waiting for testing 2016. (
  • During the last years a number of influenza in vitro diagnostic tests have been developed because of the need to make a timely diagnosis of influenza for the optimal use of available antiviral treatments. (
  • 99%) of the influenza viruses tested this season are susceptible to the four FDA-approved influenza antiviral medications recommended for use in the US this season. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and PEGylated zinc oxide nanoparticles against H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • Oseltamivir , antiviral drug that is active against both influenza type A and influenza type B viruses . (
  • The specificity and magnitude of the CD4(+) T-cell response was evaluated using cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays in conjugation with peptide pools representing distinct influenza virus proteins. (
  • It must be said, these proteins are not providing a novelty nature to this virus. (
  • Epstein SL , Stack A , Misplon JA , Lo CY , Mostowski H , Bennink J , Vaccination with DNA encoding internal proteins of influenza virus does not require CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes: either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells can promote survival and recovery after challenge. (
  • Modified M2 proteins produce heterotypic immunity against influenza A virus. (
  • Nine prototype H1N1 COBRA HA proteins were developed and tested in mice using a virus-like particle (VLP) format for the elicitation of broadly reactive, functional antibody responses and protection against viral challenge. (
  • Four of the 9 H1N1 COBRA HA proteins (X1, X3, X6, and P1) had the broadest hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) activity against a panel of 17 H1N1 viruses. (
  • The researchers developed a novel approach for rapid and sensitive detection of surface proteins of viruses from blood samples of turkeys . (
  • The genetic makeup of swine influenza viruses is identical to other influenza A viruses and consists of 8 segments of RNA that code for different proteins. (
  • The matrix (M) protein of Influenza A virus is one of the two group-specific internal proteins of the virus. (
  • The immobilized proteins were then challenged with anti-H1N1 antibodies to assess immunosensitivity. (
  • Influenza Type B viruses are not divided into subgroups, but A viruses are categorized into subtypes based on two important proteins present on the surface of the virus. (
  • All known subtypes of influenza A viruses can infect birds, except subtypes H17N10 and H18N11, which have only been found in bats . (
  • Avian influenza (AI) viruses - influenza viruses which infect birds -have evolved into distinct genetic lineages in different geographic locations. (
  • There are genetic and antigenic differences between the influenza A virus subtypes that typically infect only birds and those that can infect birds and people. (
  • Avian influenza viruses rarely infect people. (
  • Influenza A viruses that typically infect and transmit among one animal species sometimes can cross over and cause illness in another species. (
  • The segmented genome allows influenza A viruses from different species to mix and create a new virus if influenza A viruses from two different species infect the same person or animal. (
  • Influenza A can infect multiple species and is the most virulent human pathogen of the three influenza types (A, B and C), meaning that it has the potential to cause a pandemic. (
  • Their genetic material consists of segments of single-stranded RNA that can be shuffled and exchanged whenever multiple viruses infect a single cell. (
  • Influenza viruses also infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, where all known subtypes of influenza A viruses can be found. (
  • In virology, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is a subtype of Influenza A virus. (
  • The recent association of certain influenza A virus subtypes with clinically relevant phenotypes has led to the increasing importance of subtyping by clinical virology laboratories. (
  • With the threat came the need for the virology community to rapidly characterize this emergent subtype. (
  • The predominant influenza B lineage was Victoria compared with Yamagata in the previous season. (
  • Type A influenza is the predominant seasonal influenza type reported by all jurisdictions. (
  • Nationally influenza A is the predominant influenza virus type. (
  • Nationally, influenza B/Victoria viruses are predominant, followed by A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. (
  • Predominant viruses differ by region and age group, the CDC explains. (
  • These findings help resolve several seemingly disparate observations from 20th century influenza epidemiology, seroarcheology, and immunology. (
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY: Influenza caused approximately 36,000 deaths per year in the United States between 1990 and 1999, and approximately 226,000 hospitalizations between 1979 and 2001(13,14). (
  • METHODS: Specimens from patients presenting with influenza-like illness were collected and shipped to the National Influenza Center in Madagascar for analyses, together with forms containing patient demographic and clinical information. (
  • Poultry infected with LPAI viruses may show no signs of disease or only exhibit mild illness (such as ruffled feathers and a drop in egg production) which may not be detected. (
  • On May 19, 2009, 21 cases of influenza-like illness were reported among soldiers from an Engineering Military Academy (ACING) in Hoyo de Manzanares, Spain. (
  • This is an observational study of safety and occurrence of influenza-like illness following administration of flu cell culture derived adjuvanted swine origin A (H1N1) pandemic subunit vac. (
  • We sought to estimate influenza VE against medically-attended laboratory-confirmed influenza illness among older adults during the 2013-2014 season. (
  • That said, self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) was equal. (
  • If this new influenza A virus causes illness in people and is transmitted easily from person to person in a sustained manner, an influenza pandemic can occur. (
  • The Australian Influenza Report is compiled from a number of data sources, including laboratory-confirmed notifications to NNDSS, sentinel influenza-like illness reporting from general practitioners and emergency departments, workplace absenteeism, and laboratory testing. (
  • In the setting of COVID-19, virus-related or medication-related (for example, hydroxychloroquine) myopathy can occur, along with other critical illness-associated polyneuropathy or myopathy. (
  • Depending on the pathogenicity of the virus and the susceptibility of the host, influenza can vary from a self resolving moderate disease to a life threatening illness. (
  • Most of the country is experiencing high influenza-like illness activity and 800 more deaths were reported during the last week of 2019 alone, according to the most recent report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • The percentage of outpatient healthcare provider visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) rose from 5.1% to 6.9% during the week ending December 28 (week 52). (
  • Influenza-like illness activity was high in the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and 34 states (37 jurisdictions), compared with 28 jurisdictions during the previous week. (
  • Influenza viruses with reduced in vitro sensitivity have been shown to be transmissible and to cause typical influenza illness. (
  • According to the recent estimates reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), seasonal influenza epidemics lead to about 3-5 million cases of severe illness and approximately 290.000 to 650.000 deaths annually worldwide [ 2 ]. (
  • NAME: Influenza virus type A (excluding 1918 influenza A (H1N1) strain and subtypes H5, H7 and H9). (
  • In May 2013 seventeen people died during an H1N1 outbreak in Venezuela , and a further 250 were infected. (
  • In the context of an influenza A (H1N1)2009 global alert, it was decided to investigate a possible pandemic influenza outbreak. (
  • This outbreak was the first evidence of community transmission of pandemic influenza H1N1 in Spain. (
  • The outbreak of pandemic H1N1 virus in 2009 also drew a great deal of attention to the identification of this influenza A virus subtype, which was found to be almost uniformly susceptible to oseltamivir ( 3 ). (
  • Canadian officials have placed eight farms in southern Ontario under quarantine after an avian influenza outbreak caused the sudden deaths of thousands of birds over several days. (
  • On 16 December 2016, it was confirmed that there was an outbreak of the H5N8 virus at a farm near Tetney, Louth - the first outbreak in the United Kingdom. (
  • A few days later, just over 60 km away from the first outbreak, a separate outbreak was reported in Standerton, Mpumalanga, where over 25,000 birds were culled to prevent the virus spreading. (
  • This outbreak in the country led to a cull of more than 100,000 birds at 12 locations across the country to prevent the spread of the virus. (
  • As the recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted, the threat of a pandemic event from zoonotic viruses, such as the deadly influenza A/H7N9 virus subtype, continues to be a major global health concern. (
  • We now report the development and characterization of a COBRA-based vaccine for both seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolates. (
  • In addition, several COBRA candidates were designed based on sequences of H1N1 viruses spanning the past 100 years, including modern pandemic H1N1 isolates. (
  • This is the first report describing a COBRA-based HA vaccine strategy that elicits a universal, broadly reactive, protective response against seasonal and pandemic H1N1 isolates. (
  • Nomenclature for these virus isolates indicate the influenza virus type (A or B), host species (omitted if human), geographical site, year of isolation, and the H and N subtype (example: A/California/14/2009 H1N1). (
  • Other isolates of H1N1 have not been evaluated. (
  • Amantadine inhibits the replication of influenza A virus isolates from each of the subtypes, i.e. (
  • It has very little or no activity against influenza B virus isolates. (
  • Sensitivity test results, expressed as the concentration of amantadine required to inhibit by 50% the growth of virus (ED 50 ) in tissue culture vary greatly (from 0.1μg/mL to 25.0 μg/mL) depending upon the assay protocol used, size of virus inoculum, isolates of influenza A virus strains tested, and the cell type used. (
  • Antigenic drift is a mechanism for variation in viruses that involves the accumulation of mutations within the genes that code for antibody-binding sites. (
  • Mozdzanowska K , Feng J , Eid M , Kragol G , Cudic M , Otvos JL , Induction of influenza type A virus-specific resistance by immunization of mice with a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide vaccine that contains ectodomains of matrix protein 2. (
  • Although phylogenetic analyses of A(H1N1)pdm09 suggested multiple introductions of the virus into Madagascar, no antigenic differences between A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses recovered in Madagascar and those that circulated worldwide were observed. (
  • Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Yantai, China, during the 2009-2017 influenza season. (
  • This study was performed to determine the antigenic and genetic characteristics and evaluate potential vaccine efficacy of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Yantai from August 2009 to August 2017. (
  • Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. (
  • This type of major change in the influenza A viruses is known as "antigenic shift. (
  • Antigenic alterations occur frequently in influenza HA and NA antigenic sites and are the mechanism for virus adaptation to the host and survival. (
  • Influenza pandemics may occur as a result of antigenic shifts if the mutation of the virus leads to efficient human-to-human transmission(2,8). (
  • Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in the United States during the 2016-2017 Season. (
  • Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness at primary care level, Hong Kong SAR, 2017/2018 winter. (
  • The 2017/18 winter influenza season in Hong Kong SAR started in early January 2018, predominated by influenza B/Yamagata. (
  • For the analytical specificity, 73 pig samples collected during 2017 and 2018 were analyzed, resulting in the identification of the subtype in 74.0% (62.9-82.7, CI 95%) of samples. (
  • Summary of the 2017-2018 influenza season. (
  • On 20 December 2017, the Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture (MEWA) in Saudi Arabia announced the detection of the highly pathogenic H5N8 virus among birds at a poultry market in Riyadh. (
  • Influenza Surveillance Country, Territory and Area Profiles 2017. (
  • European all-cause excess and influenza-attributable mortality in the 2017/18 season: should the burden of influenza B be reconsidered? (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in the European influenza 2015/16 season. (
  • four of these were subtyped and all four were A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. (
  • Data for the 2018/19 flu season shows that H1N1 strains have been more prevalent as of January 2019. (
  • Weekly U.S. influenza surveillance report: 2018-2019 season week 52 ending December 29, 2018. (
  • In the World Health Organization European Region, the 2018/19 influenza season started in week 49 2018, crossing 10% virus-positivity in sentinel surveillance specimens. (
  • Influenza report week 3 Season 2018-2019]. (
  • In temperate climates, epidemics of influenza typically occur during the late fall and winter seasons(2,11), whereas in tropical and subtropical regions influenza epidemics occur throughout the year(11). (
  • Type A contains lots of subtypes and has been the major culprit in epidemics and pandemics in the last 100 years. (
  • Seasonal influenza viruses flow out of overlapping epidemics in East Asia and Southeast Asia , then trickle around the globe before dying off. (
  • Since other viral subtypes besides H1N1 can cause swine flu in swine, index with other subtypes as appropriate or with INFLUENZA A VIRUS if no specific subtype is stated or implied by the article. (
  • During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, we found some people with antibodies to multiple viral subtypes,' says Lanzavecchia. (
  • Sequence comparison between the extracellular domain of M2 protein human and avian influenza A virus provides new information for bivalent influenza vaccine design. (
  • Directly from birds or from avian influenza A virus-contaminated environments to people. (
  • It is possible that the process of genetic reassortment could occur in a person who is co-infected with an avian influenza A virus and a human influenza A virus. (
  • Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions. (
  • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy technology (SERS), using gold nanoparticles as a base, was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of virus strains. (
  • One-step multiplex RT-qPCR for the detection and subtyping of influenza A virus in swine in Brazil. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection was very low, while the proportion of circulating B virus varied. (
  • The analytical performance and clinical validity of results generated with the novel Roche RealTime Ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set using the LightCycler 2.0 instrument were characterized. (
  • The novel Roche RealTime Ready Influenza A/H1N1 Detection Set can be utilized on the widely used LightCycler platform. (
  • Highly pathogenic influenza virus results in high mortality in poultry flocks and the detection of highly pathogenic influenza virus causes an emergency response that usually includes killing and disposal of infected chickens and tight quarantines until it is established that the disease agent has been eliminated. (
  • If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu or a variant virus. (
  • In the 2009 flu pandemic, the virus isolated from patients in the United States was found to be made up of genetic elements from four different flu viruses - North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe - "an unusually mongrelised mix of genetic sequences. (
  • Swine flu viruses are causing a huge amount of death to both human and swine. (
  • We tracked CD4(+) T-cell and antibody responses of human subjects vaccinated with monovalent subunit A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. (
  • Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009. (
  • Consensus sequence derived from human influenza viruses of H1, H2, and H3 subtypes ( 9 , 13 ). (
  • Such articles are often about the general probability of an upcoming human influenza pandemic and its prevention and control. (
  • Human , avain and swine three hosts of the H1N1 influenza viruses infected A549 and BEAS-2B cells and analyze the characteristics of different periods after inocubation. (
  • and CF-404, a combination of human monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of life-threatening seasonal and pandemic varieties of influenza. (
  • We infer that the virus arose via reassortment between a preexisting human H1 IAV lineage and an avian virus. (
  • A pandemic that occurred in 1957-1958 (Asian flu) was caused by influenza virus A subtype H2N2, that resulted from the reassortment of circulating human H1N1 and avian H2N2 viruses(15), and is estimated to have caused 70,000 deaths in the United States(16). (
  • Influenza A virus was chosen as the pathogen of interest as ( i ) it is an important, globally-circulating human pathogen, ( ii ) influenza is well characterized antigenically, ( iii ) a precise and repeatable serological assay was available, and ( iv ) the human population receives almost no influenza vaccination in our study location of southern Vietnam. (
  • The emergence of a novel pandemic human strain of influenza A (H1N1/09) virus in April 2009 has demonstrated the need for well-validated diagnostic tests that are broadly applicable, rapid, sensitive, and specific. (
  • It is now clear that the eight RNA gene segments of the new virus are a mixture of components from avian, pig, and human influenza viruses, presumably recombined as a result of a series of viral coinfections and gene reassortments ( 15 ). (
  • That is why we designed it so that the final colour changes based on what type of influenza it is, and it can differentiate between a human strain and a bird strain," said Neethirajan. (
  • The subtype H1N1 is human adapted while most H5 are avian oriented, Neethirajan added. (
  • We will be able to determine, almost immediately, the difference between virus sub-strains from human and avian influenza. (
  • Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically found in Asia and Europe. (
  • The virus is contagious and is believed to spread from human to human in much the same way as seasonal flu. (
  • But Antonio Lanzavecchia, an immunologist at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine in Bellinzona, Switzerland, and an author on the new study, says that observing the human immune response to influenza convinced him that it would be possible to design a vaccine that prevails over mutation. (
  • To test the cross-reactivity of influenza antibodies, the team screened B cells from eight human donors who had been infected with or immunized against different influenza strains. (
  • The Spanish flu was an unusually severe and deadly strain of H1N1 avian influenza, a viral infectious disease, that killed some 17 to 50 or more million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (
  • The Spanish flu , also known as la grippe, La Gripe Española , or La Pesadilla , was an unusually severe and deadly strain of avian influenza , a viral infectious disease , that killed some 50 to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. (
  • Some people have a higher risk of flu, including H1N1, or having severe symptoms or complications. (
  • Since reporting began, the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) has reported a total of 115 notifications of children hospitalised with severe complications of influenza. (
  • H1N1 Influenza Virus has mutated into various strains such as the Spanish Flustrain, mild humanflu strains, endemic pigstrains, and various strains found in birds. (
  • Avian influenza A viruses are designated as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) based on molecular characteristics of the virus and the ability of the virus to cause disease and mortality in chickens in a laboratory setting. (
  • The present data indicate that the established SERS protocol can be used as a rapid and reliable method to distinguish the replication rate of virus, which can be further used in clinical samples. (
  • During the height of the 2009 H1N1 swine-derived influenza pandemic, a clinical trial was conducted in which seven subjects were immunized using a monovalent, MF59®-adjuvanted vaccine, developed from. (
  • Influenza A pandemics: clinical and organizational aspects: the experience in Chile. (
  • A single center, observer-masked, randomized clinical trial is to be conducted in 6-35 months infants to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Sinovac's influenza A/H1N1 Vaccine (PANF. (
  • The clinical performance of the subtyping reagents was evaluated with 75 archived clinical samples collected between 2006 and 2009 using the D 3 Ultra DFA influenza A virus identification reagent (Diagnostic Hybrids, Inc., Athens, OH) and the influenza A virus subtyping reagents by IFA simultaneously. (
  • Clinical charts, mechanical ventilation and hemodynamic monitoring charts of patients with ARDS/API due to influenza A H1N1 admitted to the general intensive care unit (GICU) of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from May to September 2009 were reviewed. (
  • High clinical validity was demonstrated by the 99% positive agreement between seasonal influenza A viruses, 98% positive agreement between H1N1/09 viruses, and 88% agreement between negative results. (
  • The H5N8 virus manifests itself in various ways, from asymptomatic and sub-clinical to highly lethal in some populations. (
  • To describe the demographic, clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of fatal cases in pandemic influenza A(H1N1) patients reported in Colombia by July 30, 2009. (
  • A quantitative relationship between the in vitro susceptibility of influenza A virus to amantadine and the clinical response to therapy has not been established in man. (
  • Two pathotypes of virus are recognized: highly pathogenic viruses and mildly pathogenic viruses. (
  • Highly pathogenic influenza viruses have only been found in the H5 and H7 subtypes. (
  • In 1999 mildly pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses were isolated from 7 people in Hong Kong and mainland China. (
  • More recently workers in Netherlands involved in killing chickens infected with highly pathogenic influenza became infected with H7N7 and one died. (
  • H5N8 has previously been used in place of the highly pathogenic H1N1 in studies. (
  • Thus, the North American lineage of H7N9 viruses could be further broken down into the North American 'wild bird' lineage versus the North American 'poultry' lineage. (
  • H7N9 virus strains appear to exhibit greater disease severity in mammalian hosts compared to natural avian hosts, though the exact mechanisms underlying this are somewhat unclear. (
  • Based on FluNet reporting (as of 17 January 2012, 13:40 UTC) , during week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012 (25 December 2011 to 7 January 2012), National Influenza Centres (NICs) and other national influenza laboratories from 81 countries, areas or territories reported data to FluNet. (
  • Swine play an important role in the ecology of influenza A viruses because they are susceptible to viruses of both the avian and mammalian lineages. (
  • These different lineages can be distinguished by studying the genetic make-up of these viruses. (
  • Here, we reconstruct the origins of the pandemic virus and the classic swine influenza and (postpandemic) seasonal H1N1 lineages using a host-specific molecular clock approach that is demonstrably more accurate than previous methods. (
  • Phylogenetic, seroarcheological, and epidemiological evidence indicates those born earlier or later than ∼1880-1900 would have had some protection against the 1918 H1N1 virus, whereas many young adults born from ∼1880-1900 may have lacked such protection because of childhood exposure to an antigenically distinct H3N8 virus. (
  • The phylogenetic results, combined with these other lines of evidence, suggest that the high mortality in 1918 among adults aged ∼20 to ∼40 y may have been due primarily to their childhood exposure to a doubly heterosubtypic putative H3N8 virus, which we estimate circulated from ∼1889-1900. (
  • Among 52 samples tested, 31 were positive for influenza virus A/California/7/2009. (
  • For example, AI viruses circulating in birds in Asia, called Asian lineage AI viruses, can be recognized as genetically different from AI viruses that circulate among birds in North America (called North American lineage AI viruses). (
  • Since 2009, the H1N1 virus has becom e one of the common viruses that circulate each flu season . (
  • Every year, experts try to predict which flu virus strains are likely to circulate during the flu season, which usually peaks in winter. (
  • But researchers hope they're finally closing in on stronger flu shots, ways to boost much-needed protection against ordinary winter influenza and guard against future pandemics at the same time. (
  • However, a New England Journal of Medicine report stated that the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in households was lower than that seen in past pandemics. (
  • Unusually for influenza A virus (IAV), which typically kills primarily infants and the elderly, young adults aged about 20-40 y suffered extensive mortality, which peaked in 25- to 29-y-olds ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The very elderly, moreover, suffered less influenza-related mortality during the pandemic than in 1911-1917 ( 5 ). (
  • Secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza is a leading cause of mortality worldwide(12). (
  • Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling study. (
  • The Australian Influenza Surveillance Report is published on a fortnightly basis during the influenza season, typically between May and October. (
  • Oleh sebab itu, kandungan tersebut dideskripsikan sebagai H1N1, H1N2, dan seterusnya, tergantung pada jenis antigen H atau N yang dinyatakan dengan sinergi metabolisme. (
  • Subtype/strain specific-depending on antigen used. (
  • Ulmer JB , Donnelly JJ , Parker SE , Rhodes GH , Felgner PL , Dwarki VJ , Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein. (
  • Protection of mice against influenza A virus challenge by vaccination with baculovirus-expressed M2 protein. (
  • Neirynck S , Deroo T , Saelens X , Vanlandschoot P , Jou WM , Fiers W . A universal influenza A vaccine based on the extracellular domain of the M2 protein. (
  • Zharikova D , Mozdzanowska K , Feng J , Zhang M , Gerhard W . Influenza type A virus escape mutants emerge in vivo in the presence of antibodies to the ectodomain of matrix protein 2. (
  • For example, an "H7N2 virus" designates an influenza A virus subtype that has an HA 7 protein and an NA 2 protein. (
  • Virus ini diberikan satu nomor H dan satu nomor N berdasarkan bentuk dua protein tersebut. (
  • Monoclonal Antibody Against HA Protein of the European Avian-Like H1N1 Swine Influenza Virus. (
  • In this study, we investigate 20,152 general-population serum samples from southern Vietnam collected between 2009 and 2013 from which we report antibody titers to the influenza virus HA1 protein using a continuous titer measurement from a protein microarray assay. (
  • The scientists say that a small protein mimicking the part of the virus bound by the FI6 antibody might cajole the immune system into making similarly cross-reactive antibodies. (
  • Their structure shows that the FI6 antibody binds to the stem region of influenza's haemagglutinin protein. (
  • Previous work has shown that mice immunized with a small stem protein were protected against multiple influenza strains. (
  • Clones were publicly available and protein microarrays made within one month after receiving H1N1 DNA. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) figures show that worldwide more than 209 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 15174 deaths ( WHO, 5 February 2010 ). (
  • Source: Laboratory confirmed data from the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System (GISRS). (
  • In the southern hemisphere, the number of laboratory confirmed influenza detections continued to decline. (
  • A pneumonia case was defined as a hospitalized person with laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 virus and a chest radiographic report consistent with pneumonia based on agreement among 3 physicians. (
  • The 2010 influenza season was moderate overall, with more laboratory-confirmed cases than in earlier years (with the exception of 2009). (
  • During week 52 in 2011 and week 1 in 2012, laboratory confirmed influenza activity continued to increase in some countries in the northern hemisphere but in general influenza activity remained low. (
  • As at 18 July 2014, there have been 11,868 cases of laboratory confirmed influenza reported, with 2,893 notifications occurring during the report fortnight. (
  • Avian influenza-known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. (
  • A, B, C and D . Wild aquatic birds - particularly certain wild ducks, geese, swans, gulls, shorebirds and terns - are the natural hosts for most influenza type A viruses. (
  • Most H5 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI, but occasionally HPAI viruses have been detected. (
  • Most H7 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses. (
  • However, certain subtypes of influenza A virus are specific to certain species, except for birds, which are hosts to all known subtypes of influenza A viruses. (
  • Avian influenza is a viral disease of birds. (
  • Virus is excreted from the eyes, nose and mouth and in the droppings of infected birds. (
  • H5N8 is a subtype of the influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu) and is highly lethal to wild birds and poultry. (
  • In Nigeria, it was reported that the virus affected 3.5 million birds. (
  • The virus saw over 7,000 birds succumbing to the virus. (
  • As a result, the company, culled over 140,000 birds to prevent the spread of the virus. (
  • Some viruses bind better to alpha 2-6 glycan receptors, which are found primarily in mammals (including people), while others are better adapted to alpha 2-3 glycan receptors, found primarily in birds. (
  • For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc. depending on the type of H or N antigens they express with metabolic synergy. (
  • The aim of this study was to analyse the mutation possibility of swine influenza virus sub-type A/Swine/Nebraska/(H1N1) from swine of Nebraska. (
  • This term (the new flue) may lead some people to believe that the "A" type flu virus is a new virus. (
  • Well, this isn't a new type of virus. (
  • A" type viruses are part of the yearly common flu… the seasonal flu. (
  • Regarding flu viruses we have… maybe everyone's aware of this, but I always start with the basics, we have A, B and C type viruses. (
  • Therefore, every year, the seasonal flu vaccine is a mixture of "A" and "B" type virus. (
  • It was this same type of virus and it existed amongst the population until around the mid 50s. (
  • If a doctor suspects that a person may have H1N1 or another type of flu, they may recommend a test to confirm the diagnosis. (
  • A virus contains a single type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, never both. (
  • Neither Type B or Type C have any known subtypes. (
  • All avian influenza viruses are Type A. (
  • Contains a type A subtype H1N1 field isolate and is adjuvanted to enhance immunity. (
  • In general, influenza type A virus is round (although it can be elongated or irregularly shaped). (
  • Antibodies produced by the immune system that fight one type or subtype of influenza confer very limited or no protection against other types. (
  • There is evidence that the most common subtype of influenza type A virus, known as H1N1, has developed resistance to oseltamivir. (
  • These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. (
  • These broad lineage classifications can be further narrowed by genetic comparisons that allow researchers to group the most closely related viruses together. (
  • The genetic information in the DNA or RNA has the codes for producing and assembling more viruses. (
  • You could consider a virus an intracellular (within a cell) genetic parasite . (
  • Most analysed viruses clustered in a new genetic subclade 6B.1, antigenically similar to the northern hemisphere vaccine component A/California/7/2009. (
  • Scientists in Winnipeg later completed the full genetic sequencing of viruses from Mexico and Canada on May 6, 2009. (
  • To help determine genetic mutations that affect airborne transmission, the team took a 2009 H1N1 virus, which binds well to alpha 2-6 receptors, and made four mutations in its HA molecule to make it better suited to bind to alpha 2-3 receptors. (
  • Sequencing of the virus then determined that airborne transmission was associated with a single genetic change in the mutated virus's HA, and it appeared to have happened within 24 hours in the ferrets. (
  • Like all viruses, influenza viruses consist of genetic material surrounded by a protective coat. (
  • Because this vaccine is generated from the genetic sequences of multiple flu viruses, it may protect against many strains over several years, Ross said. (
  • Antibodies to Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 were measured using an HAI assay. (
  • Antibodies, which are produced by white blood cells called B cells, bind to specific target sites, inactivating viruses or flagging them for destruction by other immune cells. (
  • Most influenza antibodies bind to more accessible head region of haemagglutinin. (