An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Viruses that produce tumors.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

A simple restriction fragment length polymorphism-based strategy that can distinguish the internal genes of human H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses. (1/3680)

A simple molecular technique for rapid genotyping was developed to monitor the internal gene composition of currently circulating influenza A viruses. Sequence information from recent H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 human virus isolates was used to identify conserved regions within each internal gene, and gene-specific PCR primers capable of amplifying all three virus subtypes were designed. Subtyping was based on subtype-specific restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns within the amplified regions. The strategy was tested in a blinded fashion using 10 control viruses of each subtype (total, 30) and was found to be very effective. Once standardized, the genotyping method was used to identify the origin of the internal genes of 51 influenza A viruses isolated from humans in Hong Kong during and immediately following the 1997-1998 H5N1 outbreak. No avian-human or H1-H3 reassortants were detected. Less than 2% (6 of 486) of the RFLP analyses were inconclusive; all were due to point mutations within a restriction site. The technique was also used to characterize the internal genes of two avian H9N2 viruses isolated from children in Hong Kong during 1999.  (+info)

Infection of human airway epithelia with H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza A virus strains. (2/3680)

Three subtypes of influenza A virus cause human disease: H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2. Although all result in respiratory illness, little is known about how these subtypes infect differentiated airway epithelia. Therefore, we assayed A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Japan/305/57 (H2N2), and X31 (H3N2) influenza virus strains for binding and infection on fully differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelia isolated from human bronchus, grown on semiporous filters at an air-liquid interface. In this model system, viral infectivity was highest when virus was applied to the apical versus the basolateral surface; Japan was most infectious, followed by PR8. The X31 strain showed very low levels of infectivity. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-resonance energy transfer studies indicated that Japan virus could enter and fuse with cellular membranes, while infection with X31 virions was greatly inhibited. Japan virus could also productively infect human trachea explant tissues. These data show that influenza viruses with SAalpha2,3Gal binding specificity, like Japan, productively infect differentiated human airway epithelia from the apical surface. These data are important to consider in the development of pseudotyped recombinant viral vectors for gene transfer to human airway epithelia for gene therapy.  (+info)

Antigenic and genetic characterization of swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses isolated from pneumonia patients in The Netherlands. (3/3680)

It is generally believed that pigs can serve as an intermediate host for the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of avian-human reassortant viruses. Here we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of two influenza A (H1N1) viruses, which were isolated in The Netherlands from two patients who suffered from pneumonia. Both viruses proved to be antigenically and genetically similar to avian-like swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses which currently circulate in European pigs. It is concluded that European swine H1N1 viruses can infect humans directly, causing serious disease without the need for any reassortment event.  (+info)

Outbreak of influenza type A (H1N1) in Iporanga, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (4/3680)

From June to July 1999 an outbreak of acute respiratory illness occurred in the town of Iporanga. Out of a total of 4,837 inhabitants, 324 cases were notified to the Regional Surveillance Service. Influenza virus was isolated from 57.1% of the collected samples and 100% seroconversion to influenza A (H1N1) was obtained in 20 paired sera tested. The isolates were related to the A/Bayern/07/95 strain (H1N1). The percentages of cases notified during the outbreak were 28.4%, 29.0%, 20.7%, 6.2% and 15.7% in the age groups of 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and older than 20 years, respectively. The highest proportion of positives was observed among children younger than 14 years and no cases were notified in people older than 65 years, none of whom had been recently vaccinated against influenza. These findings suggest a significant vaccine protection against A/Bayern/7/95, the H1 component included in the 1997-98 influenza vaccine for elderly people. This viral strain is antigenically and genetically related to A/Beijing/262/95, the H1 component of the 1999 vaccine. Vaccines containing A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) stimulated post-immunization hemagglutination inhibition antibodies equivalent in frequency and titre to both A/Beijing/262/95-like and A/Bayern/7/95-like viruses. Thus, this investigation demonstrates the effectiveness of vaccination against influenza virus in the elderly.  (+info)

Antigenic and genetic diversity among swine influenza A H1N1 and H1N2 viruses in Europe. (5/3680)

Three subtypes of influenza A viruses, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2, co-evolve in pigs in Europe. H1N2 viruses isolated from pigs in France and Italy since 1997 were closely related to the H1N2 viruses which emerged in the UK in 1994. In particular, the close relationship of the neuraminidases (NAs) of these viruses to the NA of a previous UK H3N2 swine virus indicated that they had not acquired the NA from H3N2 swine viruses circulating in continental Europe. Moreover, antigenic and genetic heterogeneity among the H1N2 viruses appeared to be due in part to multiple introductions of viruses from the UK. On the other hand, comparisons of internal gene sequences indicated genetic exchange between the H1N2 viruses and co-circulating H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Most genes of the earlier (1997-1998) H1N2 isolates were more closely related to those of a contemporary French H1N1 isolate, whereas the genes of later (1999-2000) isolates, including the HAs of some H1N2 viruses, were closely related to those of a distinct H1N1 antigenic variant which emerged in France in 1999. In contrast, an H3N2 virus isolated in France in 1999 was closely related antigenically and genetically to contemporary human A/Sydney/5/97-like viruses. These studies reveal interesting parallels between genetic and antigenic drift of H1N1 viruses in pig and human populations, and provide further examples of the contribution of genetic reassortment to the antigenic and genetic diversity of swine influenza viruses and the importance of the complement of internal genes in the evolution of epizootic strains.  (+info)

Frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses during two seasons featuring cocirculation of H1N1 and H3N2. (6/3680)

In two influenza seasons during which H1N1 and H3N2 cocirculated, resistance was more frequent in H3N2 strains than in H1N1 strains after amantadine treatment. Predominant amino acid substitutions in M2 protein occurred at position 31 (serine to asparagine) in H3N2 strains and at position 27 (valine to alanine) in H1N1 strains.  (+info)

Estimating efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine (CAIV-T) against influenza A (H1N1) and B using surveillance cultures. (7/3680)

The authors report on a community-based, nonrandomized, open-label study, conducted during the 2000-2001 influenza season in Temple-Belton, Texas, of the protective effectiveness of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine (CAIV-T) in children aged 18 months-18 years. The dominant circulating strains in 2000-2001 were influenza A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) and influenza B/Sichuan/379/99. Children had access to CAIV-T during the 1998-1999, 1999-2000, and 2000-2001 influenza seasons. The vaccine included influenza A/Sydney/5/97 (H3N2) and B/Beijing/184/93-like (B/Ann Arbor/l/94) strains in all three seasons. The vaccine included A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) in 1998-1999 and 1999-2000, which was replaced by A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) in 2000-2001. When medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) was used as the outcome, the protective effectiveness for children vaccinated in 2000 was 18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 25). Based on a combination of a validation sample of surveillance cultures and the MAARI outcome, protective efficacy against combined influenza A (H1N1) and B was 79% (95% CI: 51, 91). The efficacy estimate, after accounting for missing influenza culture status, against influenza A (H1N1) alone was 92% (95% CI: 42, 99) and against a new variant of influenza B alone was 66% (95% CI: 9, 87). CAIV-T provides substantial protection against a mixture of influenza A (H1N1) and B. Results demonstrate the powerful potential of using validation sets for outcomes in vaccine field studies.  (+info)

Comparison of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with hemagglutination inhibition assay for serodiagnosis of swine influenza virus (H1N1) infection. (8/3680)

A commercial indirect swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay by testing 72 samples from experimentally infected pigs and 780 field samples of undefined SIV status. The HI assay was performed using SIV isolates A/Swine/IA/73 for H1N1 and A/Swine/IA/8548-1/98 for H3N2. The ELISA used an SIV isolated in 1988. The results showed that HI and ELISA detected an antibody in 11 and 6, respectively, of 72 serum samples collected from pigs experimentally infected with a 1992 SIV isolate (A/Swine/IA/40776/92). The presence of antibodies in these experimental samples was confirmed by HI tests in which all 72 samples were positive against the homologous virus, a more recent H1N1 SIV isolate (A/Swine/NVSL/01) supplied by National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, Iowa, and a 1999 H1N1 isolate currently used in a commercial vaccine. On testing 780 field samples, an overall agreement of 85.5% was generated between the HI and ELISA. This study demonstrated that the ELISA is a useful serodiagnostic screening test at herd level for detecting swine antibodies against SIV. However, a new SIV isolate representing current SIV strains circulating in the field is needed to replace the older isolates used in the HI and ELISA to increase the test accuracy for serodiagnosis of SIV.  (+info)

Abstract. Secondary or reactive hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is frequently related to viral infections. However, the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus associated HPS has never been reported. On October 10, 2009, a 17-year-old female child with no past medical history, complaining of severe asthenia, pneumonia, myalgia, and high fever, was admitted to our department, and H1N1 DNA was detected. Five days after her hospitalization, all signs and symptoms aggravated into HPS. After treatment for H1N1 influenza, the patient had a recovery and clearance of H1N1 infection 10 days after hospitalization. Three weeks later, the patient was discharged without any complaints, indicating the etiological role of H1N1infection in HPS.
In April 2009, novel swine-origin influenza viruses (S-OIV) were identified in patients from Mexico and the United States. The viruses were genetically characterized as a novel influenza A (H1N1) strain originating in swine, and within a very short time the S-OIV strain spread across the globe via human-to-human contact.We conducted a comprehensive computational search of all available sequences of the surface proteins of H1N1 swine influenza isolates and found that a similar strain to S-OIV appeared in Thailand in 2000. The earlier isolates caused infections in pigs but only one sequenced human case, A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza a epidemic. AU - Smith, Gavin J D. AU - Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran. AU - Bahl, Justin. AU - Lycett, Samantha J.. AU - Worobey, Michael. AU - Pybus, Oliver G.. AU - Ma, Siu Kit. AU - Cheung, Chung Lam. AU - Raghwani, Jayna. AU - Bhatt, Samir. AU - Peiris, J. S Malik. AU - Guan, Yi. AU - Rambaut, Andrew. PY - 2009/6/25. Y1 - 2009/6/25. N2 - In March and early April 2009, a new swine-origin influenza A (HlNl) virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States. During the first few weeks of surveillance, the virus spread worldwide to 30 countries (as of May 11 ) by human-to-human transmission, causing the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to level 5 of 6. This virus has the potential to develop into the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century. Here we use evolutionary analysis to estimate the timescale of the origins and the early development of the S-OIV epidemic. We show ...
This document provides interim guidance for state and local health departments, hospitals, and clinicians in regions with few or no reported cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) (S-OIV) regarding which patients to evaluate for possible infection with swine influenza A (H1N1). As of April 29 1:00 PM, there were 91 laboratory confirmed cases of S-OIV infection identified in 14 states in the United States. Human cases of S-OIV infection also have been identified internationally. Based on the rapid spread of the S-OIV thus far, public health officials believe that more cases will be identified over the next several weeks, including in regions that currently have few or no reported cases ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic. For other names see the Nomenclature section below. The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, had some degree of immunity. Children showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction to the new strain, adults aged 18 to 64 had 6-9%, and older adults 33%. Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically found in Asia and Europe. Further analysis showed that several of the proteins of the virus are most similar to strains that caused mild ...
The recent swine origin influenza pandemic (2009), new emergence of swine origin H3N2v, and delayed availability of vaccine for these agents highlight the need to test and optimize public health intervention strategies to reduce transmission of influenza. We will use a new technology for biological particle collection (U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/162,395, McDevitt et al., Aerosol Sci Technol 2013) to make fundamental observations on infectious respiratory droplets in a study of up to 200 naturally occurring seasonal influenza cases. We will collect respiratory droplets shed by participants while breathing normally, talking, and spontaneously coughing. We will characterize the size distribution of droplets containing infectious virus. We will use these basic data to examine the roles of large and small respiratory droplets and examine how the interaction of host factors and virus type impact the shedding of infectious respiratory droplets. Subjects will be recruited through a web ...
The use of monoclonal antibodies Fab28 and Fab49 for the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infections is described, the which virus is responsible for the influenza syndrome commonly known as
Vaccination Pandemrix suspension and emulsion for emulsion for injection. 1 dose (0.5 ml) contains Split influenza virus, inactivated, containing antigen 3.75 micrograms of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1)v-like strain (X-179A). * Pandemic influenza vaccine (H1N1)v (split virion, inactivated, adjuvanted) ...
Influenza A virus has been detected in the blood of some infected individuals, and may pose a safety concern for collection, handling and transport of specimens for epidemiological and public health investigations if infectious virus is present in samples. Furthermore the effect of storage on virus stability and infectivity has not been well studied. We examined the stability of novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus RNA when the virus was stored in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), plasma, or buffy coated blood at either room temperature or 4°C using a sensitive Taqman RT-PCR assay. We also investigated virus infectivity using the EID50 assay when virus was stored in PBS, plasma, or buffy coats isolated from blood at 4°C. Viral RNA stability was affected by the matrix used for storage. The recovery of viral RNA was highest when virus was stored in PBS with lower amounts being recovered from plasma and buffy coats at either room temperature or 4°C. Incubation time did not appear to be a major factor
On April 24, 2009, CDC reported eight confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection in Texas and California.1 The strain ...
Influenza A virus is a major public health threat, killing more than 30,000 people per year in the USA (1). In early 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in specimens obtained from patients in Mexico and the United States (2). The virus spread quickly around the world and on June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic (3). Influenza A virus has one of sixteen possible Hemagglutinin (HA) surface proteins and one of nine possible neuraminidase (NA) surface proteins. The Hemagglutinin protein facilitates viral attachment while neuraminidase is involved in viral release. These proteins also elicit immune responses that prevent infection or independently reduce viral replication. The genetic make-up of this swine flu virus is unlike any other: it is an H1N1 strain that combines a triple assortment first identified in 1998 including human, swine, and avian influenza with two new pig H3N2 virus genes from Eurasia, themselves of recent human origin ...
Influenza A virus is a major public health threat, killing more than 30,000 people per year in the USA (1). In early 2009, a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was identified in specimens obtained from patients in Mexico and the United States (2). The virus spread quickly around the world and on June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization declared it a pandemic (3). Influenza A virus has one of sixteen possible Hemagglutinin (HA) surface proteins and one of nine possible Neuraminidase (NA) surface proteins. The Hemagglutinin protein facilitates viral attachment while Neuraminidase is involved in viral release. These proteins also elicit immune responses that prevent infection or independently reduce viral replication. The genetic make-up of this swine flu virus is unlike any other: it is an H1N1 strain that combines a triple assortment first identified in 1998 including human, swine, and avian influenza with two new pig H3N2 virus genes from Eurasia, themselves of recent human origin ...
A pandemic novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus has emerged. Most recently the World Health Organization has announced that in a country-dependent fashion, up to 15% of cases may require hospitalization, often including respiratory support. It is now clear that healthy children and young adults are disproportionately affected, most unusually among those with severe respiratory disease without underlying conditions. One possible explanation for this case age distribution is the doctrine of Original Antigenic Sin, i.e., novel H1N1 may be antigenically similar to H1N1 viruses that circulated at an earlier time. Persons whose first exposure to influenza viruses was to such similar viruses would be relatively immune. However, this principle is not sufficient to explain the graded susceptibility between ages 20 and 60, the reduced susceptibility in children below age 10, and the unusual toxicity observed. We collected case data from 11 countries, about 60% of all cases reported through mid-July 2009. We
Feng-Cai Zhu, M.D Click here ., Hua Wang, M.D., Han-Hua Fang, M.D., Jian Guo Yang, M.D., Xiao Jun Lin, M.D., Xiao-Feng Liang, M.D., Xue-Feng Zhang, M.D., Hong-Xing Pan, M.D., Fan-Yue Meng, M.D., Yue Mei Hu, M.D., Wen-Dong Liu, M.D., Chang-Gui Li, M.D., Wei Li, M.D., Xiang Zhang, M.D., Mei Hu Jin, M.D., Wei Bing Peng, M.D., Bao Ping Yang, M.D., Pei Xi, M.D., Hua-Qing Wang, M.D., and Jing-Shan Zheng, M.D.: A Novel Influenza A Vaccine in a variety of Age Groups Recently, a novel swine-origin influenza A virus was defined as the cause of large numbers of febrile respiratory ailments in Mexico and the United States.1,2 It quickly spread to numerous countries around the world, prompting the World Health Company to declare a pandemic on June 11, 2009.3 An important technique of controlling this pandemic will be large-level immunization.. This getting contrasts with the constant observation of JC virus in urine in mere one third of people in cross-sectional studies10-13 and the observation that the ...
Swine influenza A virus (SwIV) infection has considerable economic and animal welfare consequences and, because of the zoonotic potential, can also have public health implications. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin infection is now endemic in both pigs and humans. In Europe, avian-like H1avN1, human-like H1huN2, human-like swine H3N2 and, since 2009, pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) lineage viruses and reassortants, constitute the dominant subtypes. In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an
Prior research developed Reassortment Networks to reconstruct the evolution of segmented viruses under both reassortment and mutation. We report their appl
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Patient is a male in his 40s from Bannock County. Patient is recovering at home. Patient had contact with a confirmed case.. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bannock County. Patient is recovering at home. Patient had contact to a confirmed case. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bannock County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bear Lake County. Patient is recovering at home. Patient had contact to a confirmed case.. - Patient is a male in his 80s from Bingham County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female, under the age of 18, from Bingham County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female in her 30s from Bingham County. Patient is recovering at home. Case is considered community transmission.. - Patient is a female in her 60s from Bingham County. Case is considered ...
Limitations of the study. The study has several limitations, however. For example, it isnt known what proportion of all hospitalised SARI patients were tested by each of the 41 sentinel laboratories. This proportion is expected to be lower during initial weeks of surveillance. However, with the expansion of the testing criteria to include all SARI patients, it is assumed that majority of SARI patients hospitalised in these facilities would have been tested for COVID-19, the authors say. Further, most of the sentinel hospitals which tested for COVID-1 are state-run and located in urban areas. This means that the study would not be able to pick up on community transmission in rural areas, if it is happening. Also, the fact that private labs and hospitals may not be sending their SARI samples to government-tun testing sites is a blind-spot. Finally, the authors say the study could have missed some COVID-19 positive SARI patients, because the test used, called the reverse-transcriptase real-time ...
Original text: Last week I began an essay on the current pandemic in which I tried to address what I take to be the central question that it raises: Is the massive and costly effort to contain and limit the harm that the virus will do the only choice we have? Is it no more than an obvious and unavoidable exercise of prudence undertaken to protect the most vulnerable? Or is it a disastrous effort to maintain control of what is obviously out of control, an effort which will compound the damage being done by the disease with new troubles that will reverberate far into the future? I hadnt been writing for long before I began to realize that many of the assumptions I was making were quite remote from those being expressed all around me. These assumptions had mainly come, I reflected, from my prolonged conversation with the work of Ivan Illich. What this suggested was that, before I ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Although to date the H1N1 (or swine flu) vaccine has not been released, there is already talk about it becoming mandatory. Concern among parents and others, including people who have not vaccinated before, is that this time they should.. When deciding whether to vaccinate of not, consider that even though swine flu has spread rapidly across the world, most people who had it experienced unusually mild flu symptoms. In rare cases it affects the lungs causing pneumonia, which could become life-threatening. Though I believe that the risk of these severe complications can be all but eliminated with a few natural precautions, no one can prove definitively that this is so.. Also consider that the swine flu vaccine is not just the usual flu vaccine adapted to a new strain, it is a newly engineered vaccine. Given how quickly it is being developed, it is impossible to rule out the risk of potentially severe side effects that may only become apparent after the vaccine is released in the ...
The symptoms of swine flu are similar to normal flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, headache, aching limbs, chills and fatigue. Some patients infected with swine flu have also reported loss of appetite, diarrhoea and vomiting. In very young children, the warning signs include fast or troubled breathing, a bluish skin tone, a failure to interact with others, and being highly irritable. As with seasonal flu, swine flu varies in severity, with the worst cases leading to fatal pneumonia and respiratory failure. The new strain seems to be more lethal to those in the 25 to 45 age range. This was a hallmark of the Spanish 1918 flu pandemic that killed tens of millions worldwide. Younger people were probably hit harder than the elderly by the 1918 flu virus because their immune systems overreacted. ...
WHOs done it: Swine flu scam enters $600 billion phase! Responding to pharmaceuticals business emergency, WHO phinally declares swine flu phandemic Here are some of the issues to consider: 1. Swine flu is a phandemic; its a pandemic created by the World Health Organization (WHO), for pharmaceuticals. [See background, and scam details.] 2. The recent…
WASHINGTON - A substantial portion of elderly Americans may have some immunity to the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus, a finding that may prove useful when and if a vaccine to the new flu strain becomes available. The questions of whom to target with a swine flu vaccine, and how to stretch the supply if it is limited, are among the most important issues facing public health officials over the next four months.
Source: AP. ATLANTA - Health officials are investigating a never-before-seen form of the flu that combines pig, bird and human viruses and which has infected seven people in California and Texas. All the victims recovered, but the cases are a growing medical mystery because its unclear how they caught the virus.. None of the seven people were in contact with pigs, which is how people usually catch swine flu. And only a few were in contact with each other, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Still, health officials said its not a cause for public alarm: The five in California and two in Texas have all recovered, and testing indicates some mainstream antiviral medications seem to work against the virus.. Dr. Anne Schuchat of the CDC said officials believe it can spread human-to-human, which is unusual for a swine flu virus.. The CDC is checking people who have been in contact with the seven confirmed cases, who all became ill between late March and ...
WILL THE CORONA VIRUS PANDEMIC DECIMATE THE L.T.C.I. INDUSTRY? Courtesy: By Dr. David E. Marcinko MBA I admit that I held a state insurance license. LINK: A 22 minute computer test was the barrier to entry. There arent many with both medical and insurance licenses; and even fewer who actually practiced inside a…
The last time the government embarked on a major vaccine campaign against a new swine flu, thousands filed claims contending they suffered side effects. This time, the government has already taken steps to head that off.
The best thing you can do to protect your children from swine flu (H1N1 virus) is to get them the seasonal flu vaccine. Each year, researchers determi
momof2little1s and her family Last summer, CafeMom momof2little1s personally endured a swine flu horror story at 34 weeks pregnant. Although, she and ...
Via the Globe and Mail, a report by Caroline Alphonso: Swine flu less severe than feared? Excerpt:The pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in Canada is not as severe as expected nor is it spreading quickly, the countrys top public health official...
So, news today that a new pandemic of swine flu is threatening the health and lives of the citizens of the world. The dictionary assures me that the word pandemic is an adjective which means: Widespread; general. Medicine Epidemic over a wide geographic area and affecting a large proportion of the population: pandemic influenza. Now, I…
At the beginning of the summer it looked as if we could be on the brink of a major health epidemic that could bring the country to its knees. A huge machine went to work preparing for the impending cataclysm. Six months later the swine flu epidemic has been a bit of a damp squib, and the medical profession looks as if it has been crying wolf yet again.. Millions of pounds were spent on vaccines and antivirals and a great deal of anxiety has been generated. So was this incompetence? And, are we going to point the finger of blame at someone?. The retrospectoscope is a great and wonderful tool. Looking back to the summer there was a very real threat of a new strain of a virus, which had the potential to spread rapidly across the world. Attempts at containment were unlikely to succeed. In addition, there was evidence from South America showing that this new virus had the potential to be highly virulent, and worst case scenarios suggested that up to 65,000 people could have died.. Those responsible ...
Using the finger-prick tests suitable for large scale home testing has given us clearest insight yet into the spread of the virus in the country and who has been at greatest risk. Prof Graham ...
First Minister Arlene Foster said decisions at the Executive had been taken mindful of the fact that the R number pertaining to the transmission rate of the coronavirus has risen to an estimated 1.3.. Because of the concern around the level of community transmission and the desire prioritise the reopening of our schools, we have decided that it is prudent to pause the reopening of our public houses and we have set a new indicative date of September 1, she said.. I want to acknowledge that the hospitality sector have been working very hard with us, they have been in partnership with us right throughout this issue and this is not a reflection on the hospitality sector, rather its a reflection on the fact that the R rate has risen, there is a rise in community transmission and we always said there is a need to work together to try and push that down.. Turning to mandatory face coverings, Mrs Foster said retail workers will not have to wear masks, but those entering shops will.. Its about ...
The likelihood of a third wave of pandemic H1N1 influenza appears to be declining as all indicators of swine flu activity remain low throughout the bulk of the country, according to data released
Swine flu cases continue appearing as the virus evolves, prompting a World Health Organization meeting to address decisions surrounding creation and distribution of a vaccine.
The World Health Organization said Friday that swine flu infections are declining in the Southern Hemisphere as its seasonal flu period comes to an end.
Children should be among the first people to be vaccinated against swine flu if health officials hope to temper the severity of the epidemic, a study published Thursday has found.
Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius appealed anew Wednesday for widespread inoculation against a surging swine flu threat, calling the vaccine
All this week weve been talking to CafeMoms about whether or not their family will receive the H1N1 vaccine to prevent the swine flu. AmyTuteurM...
Well after posting yestreday about definately not having it im now really really unsure. I cant believe they would let us have it but then the WHO dont agree with it so who do we believe? I cant help thinking I have come this far without getting Swine Flu that im due on 20th December so its only another 7 weeks to hold off until. Its the ladies earlier on that I feel sorry for having to make a bigger decision ...
More than half of Britons being offered vaccination against pandemic H1N1 flu are turning it down because they fear side-effects or think the virus is too mild to bother, a survey of doctors showed on Wednesday ...
A 56-year-old woman and a 50-year-old man died of swine flu here Monday - the first deaths in Orissa due to the pandemic H1N1 virus this year, a senior health official said. The woman from citys Sailashree Vihar area
Balish, A., Garten, R., Klimov, A. and Villanueva, J. (2013), Analytical detection of influenza A(H3N2)v and other A variant viruses from the USA by rapid influenza diagnostic tests. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 491-496. doi: 10.1111/irv.12017 ...
Background The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed to combat novel and resistant influenza strains. DAS181 (Fludase™) is a sialidase fusion protein in early clinical development with in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity against a variety of seasonal influenza strains and highly pathogenic avian influenza strains (A/H5N1). Here, we use in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models to evaluate the activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) viruses. Methods and Findings The activity of DAS181 against several pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus ...
Please cite this paper as: Erkoreka A. (2010) The Spanish influenza pandemic in occidental Europe (1918-1920) and victim age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(2), 81-89.. Background Studies of the Spanish Influenza pandemic (1918-1920) provide interesting information that may improve our preparation for present and future influenza pandemic threats.. Methods We studied archives from France, Italy, Spain and Portugal, obtaining high-quality data that allowed us to calculate mortality rates associated with the Spanish flu and to characterize the proportional distribution of influenza deaths by age in the capital cities of these countries.. Results French and American troops who fought in the First World War began to be affected from April 1918 onwards by a benign influenza epidemic, which hardly caused any deaths. The first occidental European country in which the pandemic spread to large sectors of the population, causing serious mortality, was Spain. The associated influenza provoked in ...
On May 18, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website ( Since April 15 and 17, 2009, when the first two cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection were identified from two southern California counties, novel influenza A (H1N1) cases have been documented throughout the world, with most cases occurring in the United States and Mexico (1--3). In the United States, early reports of illnesses associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) infection indicated the disease might be similar in severity to seasonal influenza, with the majority of patients not requiring hospitalization and only rare deaths reported, generally in persons with underlying medical conditions (2,3). As of May 17, 2009, 553 novel influenza A (H1N1) cases, including 333 confirmed and 220 probable cases, had been reported in 32 of 61 local health jurisdictions in California. Of the 553 patients, 30 have been hospitalized. No fatal cases associated with novel influenza A (H1N1) ...
It was found by the technique of molecular hybridization that the pandemic influenza virus strains of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2) evolved by reassortment of RNA segments from the foregoing pandemic strains, replacing four genes including those coding for haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) (1957) or only that coding for the haemagglutinin (1968), respectively. The earlier pandemic strains from 1918-9 (as deduced from the swine influenza strain (Hsw1N1), which is assumed to be a survivor of the Spanish influenza), from 1933-4 (H0N1), and from 1947 (H1N1) were derived from each other through a number of point mutations only. The Russian strain from 1977 (H1N1) is genetically almost identical with the FW strain from 1950 (H1N1). In contrast to the conserved genes coding for the internal viral proteins, the genes coding for the viral surface glycoproteins consist of a relatively small highly conserved part which presumably is responsible for the functional integrity of the gene products, and ...
On April 30, this report was posted as an MMWR Dispatch on the MMWR website ( In March and early April 2009, Mexico experienced outbreaks of respiratory illness and increased reports of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) in several areas of the country. On April 12, the General Directorate of Epidemiology (DGE) reported an outbreak of ILI in a small community in the state of Veracruz to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in accordance with International Health Regulations. On April 17, a case of atypical pneumonia in Oaxaca State prompted enhanced surveillance throughout Mexico. On April 23, several cases of severe respiratory illness laboratory confirmed as swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection were communicated to the PAHO. Sequence analysis revealed that the patients were infected with the same S-OIV strain detected in two children residing in California (1). This report describes the initial and ongoing investigation of the S-OIV ...
An influenza pandemic is a global epidemic caused by a new influenza virus to which there is little or no pre-existing immunity in the human population. Influenza pandemics are impossible to predict; and they may be mild, or cause severe disease or death. Severe disease may occur in certain risk groups, which may correspond to those at risk of severe disease due to seasonal influenza. However, healthy persons are also likely to experience more serious disease than that caused by seasonal influenza.. The most recent pandemic occurred in 2009 and was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. It is estimated to have caused between 100 000 and 400 000 deaths globally in the first year alone. ...
World Health body raises alert to level 6, we are entering full pandemicSwine Flu Fallout: 1000+ Deaths Suspected, 150,000+ SickenedMarine Tests Positive for Swine FluA Flu By Any Other Name Is Still DeadlySwine Flu Vaccine Could Take 6 MonthsSwine flu epidemic enters dangerous new phaseScientists say Swine Flus Movement is Impossible to Predict US Declares Public Health Emergency Over Swine Flu Outbreak. Swine Flu: Asian countries take measures against outbreak. Texas closing school indefinitely 3rd student w/swine flu. Deadly swine flu outbreak cant be contained. WHO fears swine flu pandemic imminent. More than 100 U.S. schools closed because of swine flu. India: India finally wakes up to swine flu. Suspected Swine Flu Has College Campus on Alert. Swine Flu Disease: A Prophetic Sign?. Swine Flu Is Evolution in Action. TOO MANY TO LIST!!!! ...
Phylogenetic analyses performed in this study and by others (7, 19, 24) have shown that each segment of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus clusters with an established swine influenza lineage, suggesting that the progenitors of this virus likely originated in pigs. In previously documented instances of swine influenza virus infections of people, only limited human transmission was evident (22, 23, 30). The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus has demonstrated the ability for sustained human-to-human transmission, and the results of this and an associated study (10) confirm that the virus is also capable of human-to-swine, swine-to-swine, and swine-to-human transmission.. Based on a presumed single point source of infection for this swine herd (10), it is worth noting that none of the isolates, based on the sequences obtained for the H1, N1, NP, or M gene, were identical. This is in contrast to the apparent genetic stability of pandemic H1N1 2009 viruses that have been isolated from humans, as well as ...
BackgroundIn April 2009, an outbreak of novel swine-origin influenza A (2009 H1N1 influenza) occurred at a high school in Queens, New York. We describe the outbreak and characterize the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of this novel virus.MethodsThe New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene characterized the outbreak through laboratory confirmation of the presence of the 2009 H1N1 virus in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens and through information obtained from an online survey.
Swine flu is an infection of a host animal by any one of several specific types of microscopic organisms called swine influenza virus.Basically Swine flu is a respiratory disease that infects pigs . This new killer swine flu virus is a never-before-seen virus in human beings that can cause a serious situation with pandemic potential. The symptoms of Swine Flu are similar to that of a regular seasonal flu that includes fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue.. The preventive measures are as follows:. 1. Cover your mouth and nose with tissues when you sneeze or cough and dispose them properly. Practice good personal hygiene and make sure you use surgical masks and gloves and other sanitary products when you are stepping out of your home.. 2. Those who travel abroad have to be alert about the epidemic situation. Especially those who travel to California, Kansas, New York, Ohio and Texas have to be very cautions avoiding crowded groups because confirmed human cases of ...
Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) for detection of influenza antigens from nasal or throat swabs are widely available, highly specific and produce fast results but have low sensitivity leading to high false negative results. Not all commercial RIDT can differentiate between influenza A and influenza B, and none of the available RIDT can provide information on influenza A subtypes. ...
Some important videos that one must watch to understand to remove the misconceptions about swine flu. The videos titled How I survived swine flu is the interview of two swine flu survivors. Is is basically a first hand account of two H1N1 survivors. Also Dr. Srinivasan Ramanathan Lilavati Hospital gives tips on choosing the right mask for H1N1 and precautions that we need to take to avoid swine flu. It is important to note that the fatality rate in swine flu is less than 1%. Because these symptoms are not specific to swine flu, a differential diagnosis of probable swine flu requires not only symptoms, but also a high likelihood of swine flu due to the persons recent and past medical history. For example, during the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States, the CDC advised physicians to consider swine influenza infection in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness who have either been in contact with persons with confirmed swine flu, or who were in one ...
The clinical diagnosis of influenza is often challenging, especially in young children. Thus, pediatricians often use in-office rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) to confirm clinical suspicions of influenza.
The global swine flu pandemic is now over, the WHO has said, though some groups remain at risk of severe illness from the virus.. Following a meeting of its emergency committee, the WHO announced that the world was now in a post-pandemic period.. The world is no longer in phase 6 of influenza pandemic alert, WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan said. We are now moving into the post-pandemic period. The new H1N1 virus has largely run its course.. The WHO said that a number of groups remain at increased risk of severe illness from the pandemic H1N1 virus. These include young children, pregnant women, and people with underlying respiratory or other chronic conditions, including asthma and diabetes.. Patients who have severe or deteriorating influenza should be treated as soon as possible with oseltamivir, the WHO said.. Read more at Healthcare Republic.. ...
Transmission of swine influenza virus from pigs to humans is not common and does not always cause human influenza, often only resulting in the production of antibodies in the blood. The meat of the animal poses no risk of transmitting the virus when properly cooked. If transmission does cause human influenza, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People who work with pigs, especially people with intense exposures, are at increased risk of catching swine flu. In the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, which allows accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, fifty confirmed transmissions have been recorded. Rarely, these strains of swine flu can pass from human to human. In humans, the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort. Pigs can also become infected with human influenza, and this ...
A DOCTOR IN SWEDEN HAS FOUND THE TOXIC METALS ARSENIC AND TIN IN PANDEMRIX SWINE FLU VACCINE. *DEADLY POISONS PRESENT IN SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS. *NATIONAL AUTHORITIES FAILED TO REACT TO HIS RESEARCH. *DOCTOR FEARS THE CONTAMINATION OF DRUGS WITH POISONOUS METALS COULD BE WIDESPREAD. A doctor inSwedenhas found traces of the toxic metals arsenic and tin in GlaxoSmithKline s swine flu Pandemrix vaccine.. The consultant anaesthetist at aUniversityHospitalsaid he was surprised to find quite robust amounts of colloidal or nano-sized heavy metals when he conducted an ICP analysis of GSK s swine flu vaccine.. He found the following concentration in Pandemrix: arsenic [As] = 2.421 ppm and tin [Sn] = 1.511 ppm.. There was no indication on the product details supplied by GSK that the Pandemrix vaccine with the ASO3 adjuvant contained these toxic compounds.. Colloidal or nano-sized arsenic is a strong and active haemolytic agent. In addition, both arsenic and tin are known to be carcinogenic, to disturb DNA ...
Influenza, also known as the flu, is a disease that attacks the respiratory tract (nose, throat, and lungs) in humans. Different from a viral cold, influenza usually comes on suddenly and may include fever, headache, tiredness (which may be extreme), dry cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, and body aches. Seasonal influenza is a yearly occurrence that causes minor economic impact and kills primarily persons aged 65 and older. It also provides immunity to those who are exposed, but do not succumb, to the virus.. World-wide pandemics of influenza occur when a novel (new or different) virus emerges to which the population has little immunity. During the 20th century there were three such pandemics, the most notable of which was the 1918 Spanish influenza responsible for 20 million deaths throughout the world. When influenza strains of avian or swine influenza interact with the common strains of human influenza, a mutation can occur that leads to a virus capable of human-to-human transmission, ...
Every year influenza virus causes seasonal epidemics that affect 5-10% of the world population and kill up to 500,000 people. In nature, the virus primarily infects aquatic birds which can further infect domestic chickens and pigs. Sporadically, the virus jumps the species barrier from these domestic animals to humans causing a world-wide pandemic that can infect 30-50% of the population in a single winter season. This is what may happen with the pandemic swine-origin H1N1 virus because few people have protective antibodies against it.. As with all genes, those of influenza virus need to be transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) that is subsequently translated into proteins by ribosomes. However, viruses have no metabolism of their own and must use the ribosomes of the cells they have infected. Therefore, the viral mRNA molecules must resemble cellular mRNAs otherwise the ribosomes will not recognise them. One of the characteristics of all cellular mRNAs is that they start with a molecular tag, a ...
Transmission of swine influenza virus from pigs to humans is not common. When transmitted, it does not always cause human influenza and often, the only sign of infection is the presence of antibodies which are only detectable by laboratory tests. When transmission results in influenza in a human, it is called zoonotic swine flu. People who work with pigs, especially people with intense exposures, are at risk of catching swine flu. However, only about fifty such transmissions have been recorded since the mid-20th Century, when identification of influenza subtypes became possible. Eating pork does not pose a risk of infection. Rarely, these strains of swine flu can pass from human to human. In humans, the symptoms of swine flu are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort ...
To investigate the frequency of oseltamivir resistance in circulating strains of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic virus in Scotland, 1,802 samples from 1,608 infected hospitalised patients were screened by the H275Y discriminatory RT-PCR. Among these, we identified 10 patients who developed the H275Y mutation. All of them were immunocompromised and were under treatment or had been treated previously with oseltamivir.
Diagnosis of influenza is done mainly by Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests (RIDTs), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), culture, serology, and immunofluorescence assays.
This article originally appeared on QSR on July 21, 2021.. April Mason authored an article for Quick Service Restaurant (QSR) online, published July 21, 2021, discussing franchising opportunities and challenges in the food service industry as we look forward to a post-pandemic world.. While many restaurants were hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic and unable to survive the shutdowns, others were well equipped for off-premises sales or able to quickly pivot to new offerings, which has given them sustained potential for growth through franchising. This includes those who have adapted to accommodate rising preference for curbside pick-up and delivery, as well as brands that have developed effective apps and technology to drive more sales. Another advantage for those franchises that effectively navigated the pandemic is an abundance of desirable real estate due to a spike in closures.. However, the post-pandemic era is not without challenges for restaurants looking to grow via franchising. First, the ...
Carlsbad-based Life Technologies Corp. has created a USDA-approved, real-time test to detect strains of swine flu. The Swine Influenza Virus testing kit will be sold to veterinary diagnostic labs around the world, the company said, in a statement July 12. Swine flu is a common debilitating condition mostly affecting pigs, causing fever, lethargy, breathing problems and significant weight loss - and resulting in economic loss to swine producers. In rare instances, the virus is transmitted from pigs to humans, with human symptoms similar to the regular seasonal influenza virus, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. However, Lifes test, called the VetMAXTM-Gold SIV Detection Kit, is for animal use only. The detection kit can test for various strains of swine flu, including H1N1. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25 percent of animals showing antibody evidence of infection, according to the CDC. In the U.S., ...
ECDC has published Seasonal influenza transmission in Europe. Click through to download the full report as a PDF. Excerpt from the summary: Today ECDC publishes its risk assessment on the 2012/13 seasonal influenza epidemics in Europe. Epidemics started earlier than...
Influenza A viruses can be further broken down into different strains. Current sub-types of influenza A viruses found in people are influenza A (H1N1) and influenza A (H3N2) viruses. In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged to cause illness in people. This virus was very different from the human influenza A (H1N1) viruses circulating at that time. The new virus caused the first influenza pandemic in more than 40 years. That virus (often called 2009 H1N1) has now replaced the H1N1 virus that was previously circulating in humans ...
Here, we have evaluated the cross-neutralization of pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses. Despite more than 90 years of separation between these viruses that both caused human pandemics, the 1918 SC and 2009 CA viruses raised immune responses in mice that demonstrated cross-neutralization, whereas they were both resistant to antisera directed to a relatively recent seasonal influenza virus of the same subtype. To understand the molecular basis for cross-neutralization, we examined the specificity of antibody recognition by protein competition studies, as well as by site-directed mutagenesis and protein structural modeling. The RBD-A region was defined as the target of neutralization, and we demonstrated that glycosylation sites in this region are important in allowing evasion of antibody neutralization in seasonal strains. Specifically, introduction of glycosylation sites into these strains eliminated their ability to bind neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that glycan shielding from ...
Whats your opinion on this article? ( - Top officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently reported that the United States has exceeded 1,000 deaths from the declared swine influenza pandemic and has witnessed many millions of cases since the virus first emerged six months ago. We have seen, since the beginning of the pandemic in April and May, more than 1,000 deaths from pandemic influenza and more than 20,000 hospitalizations in this country,said Thomas Frieden, director of the CDC, in a news briefing.. We have had, up until now, many millions of cases of pandemic influenza in the U.S., and the numbers continue to increase, said Mr. Frieden.. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 4,735 people have died globally from swine flu infections since the H1N1 virus was first reported in Mexico. The seasonal flu causes an estimated 36,000 deaths yearly according to the CDC.. Plans of mass vaccinations by the government are now ...
Swine flu, like the seasonal influenza virus, is a respiratory infection which can be passed from person to person as a result of the transmission of bodily fluids. Prevention of the swine flu virus is possible and there are simple steps residents can take to reduce their risk, said Cindy Powers, director of infection control at Christus Hospital - St. Elizabeth and St. Mary. t Staying in good general health by getting plenty of sleep, engaging in physical activity, managing your stress, drinking plenty of fluids and eating nutritious meals In most cases, symptoms of swine flu are identical to the influenza virus symptoms - fever, headache, fatigue, dry cough, sore throat, nasal congestion and body aches, said Powers. If you, or someone you know, live in an area where swine flu cases have been reported and become ill with the symptoms listed above, contact your health care provider who will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed.
Sustaining Indie Brands Post-pandemic will discuss a 360-degree review of strategies to emerge competitive in the post-pandemic recovery.
Background: Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 was the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Though the overall global case fatality rate of the 2009 pandemic H1N...
What is 2009 H1N1 (swine flu)? 2009 H1N1 (sometimes called swine flu) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was underway. Why is the 2009 H1N1 virus sometimes called swine flu? This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in the virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that the 2009 H1N1 is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a quadruple ...
What is 2009 H1N1 (swine flu)? 2009 H1N1 (sometimes called swine flu) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was underway. Why is the 2009 H1N1 virus sometimes called swine flu? This virus was originally referred to as swine flu because laboratory testing showed that many of the genes in the virus were very similar to influenza viruses that normally occur in pigs (swine) in North America. But further study has shown that the 2009 H1N1 is very different from what normally circulates in North American pigs. It has two genes from flu viruses that normally circulate in pigs in Europe and Asia and bird (avian) genes and human genes. Scientists call this a quadruple ...
No matter what you open, turn on, or tune into, chances are youll catch a headline about swine flu. The outbreak can be tracked at HealthMap or with their newly launched Twitter stream, which, according to Discovery News, was created in response to swine flu to enable more frequent updates than the hourly ones on the official HealthMap website.. A respiratory illness once limited to pigs, with occasional transmission to humans, the strain of swine flu that has appeared today and in cases throughout Mexico and the United States is unusual because it is capable of being spread from human to human. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this current swine flu has been sequenced and identified as part of the H1N1 family of influenza viruses. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the pandemic alert level for swine flu at phase 4, which indicates sustained human-to-human transmission. Stages 5 and 6 represent pandemic levels of widespread transmission.. Scientists are ...
The World Health Organization said Tuesday a spike in swine flu cases in Australia may push it to finally announce the first flu pandemic in 41 years. It also expressed concern about an unusual rise in severe illness from the disease in Canada. WHOs flu chief Keiji Fukuda said the agency wanted to avoid adverse effects if it announces a global outbreak of swine flu. Fukuda said people might panic or that governments might take inappropriate actions if WHO declares a pandemic. Some flu experts think the world already is in a pandemic and that WHO has caved in to country requests that a declaration be postponed. On the surface of it, I think we are in phase 6, or a pandemic, said Margaret Chan, WHOs director-general. ...
Interviews, Latest News, Local and National Resources Featured in Companion Website to PBS Flu Special that Airs Nationwide on December 14 -. WASHINGTON, D.C. - PBS NewsHour, the premiere news and public affairs website at, will launch today, Tuesday, December 8, the companion website to Anatomy of a Pandemic, a television special and on-going digital media initiative about a pandemics impact on modern society, in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus pandemic.. The Anatomy of a Pandemic website ( will feature a forum after the programs premiere to ask questions of influenza experts from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. The site will also provide the latest public media news on H1N1, as well as national and local resources Categories: Care and Treatment,International News,US News,Vaccine Updates,Video and Media. Tagged: Care and Treatment, flu, h1n1, influenza, International News, ...
Infection with the novel H1N1 influenza virus, initially popularly termed swine flu, was first reported in April 2009 and prompted the World Health Organization to raise its pandemic alert to the highest level. The World Health Organization also stated that during pregnancy both mother and baby were at increased risk when infected with either pandemic or seasonal influenza and that pregnant women should be vaccinated. 1 Because of concerns about the severity of the disease during pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented enhanced surveillance for infection with this novel virus in pregnant women and placed them in a group that merits priority vaccine administration. It was also suggested that the benefit of treatment with the antiviral medication oseltamivir outweighs any theoretical risk 2 and that confirmed H1N1 cases, with associated symptoms, particularly fever, merit immediate attention. In addition, precautions must be taken when confirmed or suspected ...
Boost your immune system with the best immune support supplement available to you.. London July 24 2009. Britain released today that England has 100,000 MORE cases of swine flu this week than they had last week. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) announced that swine flu now has developed another symptom, neurological disorders, especially in children (4 cases in Dallas TX this week). There seems to be a surge of swine flu infections that support a growing concern for a catastrophic world pandemic. The technical definition for pandemic has been reached. There is now the waiting game to determine how man will tame this invisible scourge.. Swine flu Conspiracy?. Swine flu vaccine manufacturers will make an estimated one and a half billion dollars from the vaccines and medications that have been ordered by nations all over the world (BUT NOT TAKEN YET). If there is not a STORY to keep patients requesting the swine flu shots and meds, these manufacturers stand to lose ...
Swine Flu is caused by influenza type A virus, there are regular outbreaks among herds of pigs, where the disease causes high levels of illness but is rarely fatal. It tends to spread in autumn and winter but can circulate all year round. There are many different types of swine flu and like human flu, the infection is constantly changing. Swine flu does not normally infect humans, although sporadic cases do occur usually in people who have had close contact with pigs. There have also been rare documented cases of humans passing the infection to other humans. Human to human transmission of swine flu thought to spread in the same way as seasonal flu - through coughing and sneezing. In the latest outbreak, in Mexico, it is clear that the disease is being passed from person to person. The outbreak in Mexico seems to involve a new type of swine flu that contains DNA that is typically found in avian and human viruses. The World Health Organisation has confirmed at least some of the cases are caused by ...
Swine flu - an alternative approach by Professor Gerber, Alumnus Medical Faculty. University of Berlin Germany.. Everybody has experienced common cold or even flu several times, nevertheless more and more people are getting very nervous about it in view of the current swine influenza pandemic although the virus has proven to be relatively mild with mostly moderate symptoms.. Every year, seasonal flu causes an estimated fifty thousand deaths in the European Union alone; most people die from bacterial infections and secondary illnesses. The highly variable type A is the most virulent one among the influenza viruses. Based on the antibody response these pathogens can be subdivided into different stereotypes, e.g. H5N1 that causes avian flu, or H1N1 that caused Spanish flu in 1918, and the swine flu 2009. Owing to frequent variations in their genetic pattern, every year different strains prevail and, therefore, novel vaccines have to be manufactured.. Flu vaccination may help to avoid influenza. ...
Novel H1N1 (referred to as swine flu early on) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the U.S. in April 2009. This virus is contagious and spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread (through coughing or sneezing by people with influenza). On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) signaled that a pandemic of novel H1N1 flu was underway ...
WEDNESDAY, April 15, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Trying to identify animals that are most likely to transmit viruses to humans may not help prevent future pandemics, researchers say.. Instead, the focus should be on specific types of viruses and how they spread, they suggest.. The current coronavirus pandemic is believed to have originated in bats, and most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, meaning that theyre spread from animals to humans, according to researchers from the University of Glasgow in Scotland.. This pandemic shows the serious health and economic threat that zoonotic viruses pose, so its crucial to learn more about them.. This study found little variation in the proportion of zoonotic viruses in 11 major orders of birds and mammals, and that animal orders with more species hosted more viruses overall and more zoonotic viruses.. The findings challenge the belief that certain animal reservoirs, such as bats, pose a heightened risk of spreading viruses to humans, according to ...
List of swine flu cases around the world. Swine flu outbreaks and swine flu countries are found here to show the impact of swine flu worldwide. List includes ...
Are you structured for slow in a fast world? The global pandemic has changed the axis of our universe. What was disruptive before is now massively transformative. Do you have a strategy to keep up?. History tells us that every global crisis shifts the axis of the future of our universe, and every crisis offers an opportunity to improve. In the harsh reality of our post-pandemic world, leadership strategies that worked yesterday are exposed as being irrelevant tomorrow even while they are being actively considered today.. Pre-pandemic, CEOs and organizations were dealing with a world of business model disruption, the acceleration of technology, the faster evolution of key skills, and other critical issues. Now, in the harsh light of our new world, one thing is clear - the future is even more complex than it was before. And a simple fact has emerged - there is a massive and growing gap between the speed of change and the ability of organizations to keep up. Bridging this gap is critical to future ...
The Chenango County Health Department has been notified by the New York State Department of Health that there are laboratory confirmed cases of swine origin influenza A (H1N1)...
In virology, influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is a subtype of influenza A virus. Major outbreaks of H1N1 strains in ... The G4 virus, also known as the "G4 swine flu virus" (G4) and "G4 EA H1N1", is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in ... North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to H1N1 influenza. Wikispecies has information related to H1N1 virus. Wikinews has related ...
Nakajima, K.; Desselberger, U.; Palese, P. (27 July 1978). "Recent human influenza A (H1N1) viruses are closely related ... recurrence of influenzavirus A subtype H1N1". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 56 (6): 913-918. PMC 2395678. PMID ... Emond, R T; Evans, B; Bowen, E T; Lloyd, G (27 August 1977). "A case of Ebola virus infection". British Medical Journal. 2 ( ... Kung, H. C.; Jen, K. F.; Yuan, W. C.; Tien, S. F.; Chu, C. M. (1978). "Influenza in China in 1977: ...
H5N8 has previously been used in place of the highly pathogenic H1N1 in studies. Perhaps the most known outbreak of H5N8 ... H5N8 is a subtype of the influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu) and is highly lethal to wild birds and poultry. H5N8 is ... Swain, David (25 March 2008). Avian Influenza. ISBN 9780813820477. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus from ... The virus saw over 7,000 birds succumbing to the virus. As a result, the company, culled over 140,000 birds to prevent the ...
2009 - Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 spreads around the world, becoming a global pandemic. 2014 - Ebola virus spreads in west ... 2009 flu pandemic - A worldwide outbreak of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 spread around the world forming a pandemic by June ... "Did Floyd Protests Lead to a Virus Surge? Here's What We Know". The New York Times. 1 July 2020. Archived from the original on ... Other diseases, such as SARS, COVID-19, ebola, the Zika virus and flu variations, are also causes for concern. The World Health ...
... is caused by influenza A subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H2N3, H3N1, and H3N2. In pigs, four influenza A virus subtypes ( ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) refers to any strain of the influenza family of viruses ... G4 EA H1N1, also known as the G4 swine flu virus (G4) is a swine influenza virus strain discovered in China. The virus is a ... A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ...
Payton died unexpectedly of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and meningitis on December 28, 2018. Ms. Breanna Claire Payton Alex ... Deaths from influenza, Deaths from meningitis, Neurological disease deaths in California, Infectious disease deaths in ...
Twenty were confirmed to be linked to a new strain of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. "'As many as 23,000 Mexicans were likely ... Influenza: H1N1 at Curlie Swine influenza, at the World Health Organization WHO's current Pandemic Influenza Phase Centres for ... June 2009). "Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (25): 2605-15. doi: ... "Introduction and Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus --- Kenya, June-July 2009". Morbidity and Mortality ...
His work in this area includes elucidating the origin of the influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Rabadan's work in cancer genomics ... Trifonov, V., Khiabanian, H., Greenbaum, B. & Rabadan, R. The origin of the recent swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infecting ... and origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus". N Engl J Med. 361 (2): 115-119. doi:10.1056/NEJMp0904572. PMID 19474418. ... in particular RNA viruses like influenza and coronaviruses. ... viruses and cancer. Rabadan is an expert on mathematical ...
... subtype H1N1 Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 Influenza A virus subtype H2N2 Influenza A virus subtype H2N3 ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N1 Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 Influenza A virus subtype H3N8 Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N2 Influenza A virus subtype H5N3 Influenza A virus subtype H5N6 Influenza A virus subtype H5N8 ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N9 Influenza A virus subtype H6N1 Influenza A virus subtype H6N2 Influenza A virus subtype H7N1 ...
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (swine flu) and Zika virus both disproportionately impacted pregnant women and children. During ... She moved to the Georgia Department of Public Health to help tackle the 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic. ...
The system was used to assign the host-cell receptors in SV40 and Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. 1994 American Society for ... "Receptor-binding specificity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus determined by carbohydrate microarray". Nature ... "Carbohydrate structures of the human-immunodeficiency-virus (HIV) recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120 produced in Chinese- ...
Preliminary tests have shown it to be an effective neuraminidase inhibitor against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Huang, ... "Influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis". Food Chemistry. 124 (2): 437-443. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem. ...
Kung HC, Jen KF, Yuan WC, Tien SF, Chu CM (1978). "Influenza in China in 1977: recurrence of influenzavirus A subtype H1N1". ... Klimov, AI; Ghendon, YZ (1981). "Genome analysis of H1N1 influenza virus strains isolated in the U.S.S.R. during an epidemic in ... Wertheim JO (June 2010). "The re-emergence of H1N1 influenza virus in 1977: a cautionary tale for estimating divergence times ... Zimmer SM, Burke DS (July 2009). "Historical perspective--Emergence of influenza A (H1N1) viruses". The New England Journal of ...
... and 84 novel influenza A (H1N1) viruses. All 947 influenza seasonal A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) ... Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu). H3N2 viruses can infect birds and ... H1N1) reference virus selected by WHO as a potential candidate for novel influenza A (H1N1) vaccine. Influenza B viruses ... A 2007 study reported: "In swine, three influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2) are circulating throughout the world ...
Their early work considered the development of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and H5N1 virus-like particle pandemic influenza ... In 2018 phase 2 clinical trials began on the Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 vaccine. In 2019 Neuzil and the Center for Vaccine ... The effect of influenza on hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and courses of antibiotics in children. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jan ... She has spoken about the need for the public to have an influenza vaccine (flu shot), ideally by the end of October. Alongside ...
... fears of contamination and disgust sensitivity were associated with influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Olatunji has studied the ... "Psychological predictors of anxiety in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic". Retrieved 2020-07-28.{{cite ...
The influenza viruses usually responsible for swine flu are IAV subtypes H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. Some IAVs can be transmitted via ... Influenza B virus (IBV) and Influenza C virus (ICV) primarily infect humans, and Influenza D virus (IDV) is found in cattle and ... Influenza A virus (IAV), genus Alphainfluenzavirus Influenza B virus (IBV), genus Betainfluenzavirus Influenza C virus (ICV), ... the relationship between influenza viruses and bacteria, how influenza symptoms progress, and what make some influenza viruses ...
The known subtypes of Influenza A virus that create influenza in pigs and are endemic in pigs are H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2. ... H3N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus, mostly affecting pigs. ... strains named by isolate Fujian flu strains named by typical host Bird flu Dog flu Horse flu Human flu Swine flu "Influenza in ... Subtypes of Influenza A virus). ...
H1N1 monovalent vaccines, targeting only H1N1 virus, was produced. Influenza A exists in many subtypes including H5N1, H1N1 and ... Subtypes of influenza A vaccine are classified based on the influenza A virus subtype. Influenza A virus is classified ... Different monovalent type A influenza vaccines have been developed for different subtypes of influenza A virus including H1N1 ... "CDC H1N1 Flu , Questions & Answers Novel H1N1 Influenza Vaccine". Retrieved 2022-03-15. "Use of Influenza A (H1N1 ...
... was a category 5 influenza pandemic caused by an unusually severe and deadly Influenza A virus strain of subtype H1N1. The ... Typically this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. A vaccine ... "Human influenza virus" usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only ... It is thought to be a mutation (reassortment) of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1: one endemic in humans, ...
Chu encountered the fields of public health and epidemiology through her work on Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Chu ... She then sequences the genome of influenza viruses to track the flu as it moves around the city. During the COVID-19 pandemic, ... Her research considers maternal immunization, with a focus on influenza and respiratory syncytial virus. During the COVID-19 ... She is part of Seattle Flu Study, a multi-institutional community-wide virus surveillance platform that began in 2018. ...
Another cause is infection with Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (and other subtypes of the Influenza A virus) and is then often ... Lymphocytopenia caused by Feline Leukemia Virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections is treated with ... associated with Monocytosis; H1N1 was responsible for the Spanish flu, the 2009 flu pandemic and in 2016 for the Influenza- ... Over 1,000 Deaths from H1N1 Outbreak in Brazil Archived 2016-09-11 at the Wayback Machine (article from 12 July 2016) Low, ...
... was canceled due to the WHO declaring the Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 a pandemic. A similar event occurred in the 7th ...
Viruses portal Antigenic shift Influenza A virus subtype H9N2 Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Pandemic H1N1/09 virus Influenza ... Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 (A/H7N9) is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A (avian influenza virus or bird ... Avian influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. H7 influenza infections in ... Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and ...
The 2009 flu outbreak in Malaysia was part of a larger flu pandemic involving a new type of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A ( ... The flu virus is officially designated by the WHO as "Influenza A (H1N1)", following a name change from "swine flu" to avoid ... "A (H1N1) flu: M'sia reports 3 more cases". The Star. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009. "Influenza A (H1N1) Cases Rise To Five ... "Influenza A H1N1 Deaths Leap To 14". Bernama. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009. "Malaysian PM views A/H1N1 flu a serious ...
... and Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 outbreaks in Toronto. From 2005 to 2007, Henry worked as a physician epidemiologist at the ... as well as advising the Government of Canada on the Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 epidemic. In 2015, she testified as an ... 2009: Canadian Pandemic Coordinating Committee responding to pandemic H1N1 influenza, Member Canadian Public Health Measures ... Bonnie Henry, virus hunter and healer, resolves to 'break' COVID-19". British Columbia. Archived from the original on 2020-03- ...
RCSU(A) was successful in managing a 2009 outbreak of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 at the Argonaut Army Cadet Summer Training ... "Cadets at Gagetown camp test positive for H1N1". The Daily Gleaner. 2009-07-25. Retrieved 2011-07-21. "More army cadets being ... "Cadet camp winning battle against H1N1". The Daily Gleaner. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2011-07-21. "Trident Newspaper - Volume 4, ... treated for symptoms of H1N1 flu". Telegraph-Journal. 2009-07-27. Retrieved 2011-07-21. " ...
Neuraminidase (NA) has 11 known subtypes, hence influenza virus is named as H1N1, H5N2 etc., depending on the combinations of ... These subtypes are named H1 through H18. H16 was discovered in 2004 on influenza A viruses isolated from black-headed gulls ... "Influenza Type A Viruses". Avian Influenza (Flu). CDC. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 27 August 2018. Suzuki Y (March 2005). " ... and therefore are able to achieve antiviral activity against several influenza virus subtypes. At least one fusion-inhibiting ...
... activated public health emergency structures in response to the 2009 swine flu pandemic of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1. ... prompted by increasing international concern at the time over Influenza A virus subtype H5N1). It initially met on a quarterly ... The first NPHET was convened in October 2006, to aid with planning for a possible future human influenza pandemic ( ...
Because the hemagglutinin protein of the virus is similar to that of the currently[when?] circulating A(H1N1) viruses and the ... Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 (A/H1N2) is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). It is ... The virus does not cause more severe illness than other influenza viruses, and no unusual increases in influenza activity have ... Between December 1988 and March 1989, 19 influenza H1N2 virus isolates were identified in 6 cities in China, but the virus did ...
The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1, first identified in April 2009, ... "UK National Institute for Medical Research WHO World Influenza Centre: Emergence and spread of a new influenza A (H1N1) virus, ... WHO International[dead link] Maria Zampaglione (April 29, 2009). "Press Release: A/H1N1 influenza like human illness in Mexico ... On 2 November, the Turkish Health Ministry began administering vaccines against H1N1 influenza, starting with health workers. ...
... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with 7 ... a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern ... Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into a ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
Because of similarities between the 2009 influenza A subtype H1N1 virus and the 1976 influenza A/NJ virus many countries ... Analysis by the CDC scientists showed that the measles virus type in this outbreak (B3) was identical to the virus type that ... Many viruses, including HPV, have proteins that block the immune response or simply lie low to avoid detection. Indeed, a ... The measles virus can deplete previously acquired immune memory by killing cells that make antibodies, and thus weakens the ...
... the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 from 2004, the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa and onwards. Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842- ... A significant influenza strain, H1N1, caused a further pandemic between 2009 to 2010. Known as swine flu, due to its indirect ... July 2009). "Assessing the severity of the novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic". BMJ. 339 (jul14 3): b2840. doi:10.1136/bmj.b2840. ... several strains of influenza and human papilloma virus. The long-known vaccine against Smallpox finally eradicated the disease ...
2010). "A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus". Virol. J. ... of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtypes". J. ... Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 3 (4): 151-64. doi:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2009.00083.x. PMC 4634683. PMID 19627372. ... "Validated RealTime reverse transcriptase PCR methods for the diagnosis and pathotyping of Eurasian H7 avian influenza viruses ...
Influenza A H1N1 is a subtype of flu virus that targets and infects endothelial cells of the respiratory system, such as in the ... The virus can also target the epithelium of the mucus membranes of these organ systems. Virus particles tend to exit from the ... Short, Kirsty R.; Veldhuis Kroeze, Edwin J. B.; Reperant, Leslie A.; Richard, Mathilde; Kuiken, Thijs (2014). "Influenza virus ... Once the virus is anchored to the cell surface, virus uptake typically occurs using host mechanisms such as endocytosis. One ...
The 2009 flu pandemic in Asia, part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing what has ... "Outbreak of influenza A(H1N1) virus". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Archived from the original on 16 July ... Lebanon has recorded more than 100 cases of H1N1. Malaysia detected the first case of influenza A(H1N1) on 15 May 2009 in a 21- ... virus in Asia: Deaths Confirmed cases Suspected cases No reported cases Number of confirmed deaths of A(H1N1) virus in Asia: No ...
... by Howard Stern Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 - a satirical name for the H1N1 influenza virus This disambiguation page lists ... Pig virus can refer to: Kevin Metheny - a radio executive famously named "Pig Vomit" ... articles associated with the title Pig virus. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
... she has worked on assessing the healthcare response to the 2009 flu pandemic that resulted from Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 ... "Impact of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic on Healthcare Workers at a Tertiary Care Center in New York City". Infection ... In the wake of the epidemic, Bhadelia has returned to West Africa to help set up research centers to study viruses such as ... During the Western African Ebola virus epidemic, which lasted from 2013 through 2016, Bhadelia worked with the World Health ...
... coordinated with Emory Vaccine Center of Emory University on a program of drug development for Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 ... Known for his studies on papilloma viruses, Pillai is an elected fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences, National Academy of ...
There are four receptors in which PGE2 can bind (EP1-4), with a previous study showing the EP3 subtype is what mediates the ... In the presence of an infectious agent, such as bacteria, viruses, viroids, etc., the immune response of the body is to inhibit ... Animal models have found worsened outcomes with the use of antipyretics in influenza as of 2010 but they have not been studied ... "What To Do If You Get Sick: 2009 H1N1 and Seasonal Flu". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 7 May 2009. Archived from ...
... the 1898-1900 epidemic by subtype H3, and the 1918 pandemic by subtype H1. With the confirmation of H1N1 as the cause of the ... Dowdle, W. R. (1999). "Influenza A virus recycling revisited". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health ... reanalysis of seroarcheological data suggested Influenza A subtype H3 (possibly the H3N8 subtype) as a more likely cause for ... Researchers have tried for many years to identify the subtypes of Influenza A responsible for the 1889-1890, 1898-1900 and 1918 ...
The 2009 swine flu pandemic in Canada was part of an epidemic in 2009 of a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 causing ...[permanent dead link] "H1N1 Influenza Virus - ... "Information on H1N1 Influenza Virus". Health and Community Services. Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. 4 January 2010. ... Swine Influenza International Swine influenza, at the World Health Organization WHO's Pandemic Influenza Phases Influenza ...
... influenza A virus subtype H2N2, was a recombination of avian influenza (probably from geese) and human influenza viruses. As it ... "Multiple Reassortment Events in the Evolutionary History of H1N1 Influenza A Virus Since 1918". PLOS Pathogens. 4 (2): e1000012 ... "Far East influenza virus" or "Far East strain (influenza virus)" or even "Oriental flu", though "Asian influenza" had been used ... H2N2 influenza virus continued to be transmitted until 1968, when it transformed via antigenic shift into influenza A virus ...
... which are intended to provide immunization to influenza A virus subtype H5N1. They are intended to discover pharmacological ... including highly pathogenic viruses such as the H5N1 strain and the H1N1 virus that caused the deadly 1918 pandemic. The DNA ... pandemic influenza vaccine Phase I trials meet primary objectives. On April 17, 2007 the US FDA approved "Influenza Virus ... Unlike conventional flu vaccines, which are developed by growing the influenza virus in hens' eggs and then administered as a ...
In the 2013-14 season only 1% of 2009 H1N1 viruses showed oseltamivir resistance. No other influenza viruses were resistant to ... Subgroup analyses detected higher rates among influenza A patients, especially the H1N1 subtype. It was found that a ... "WHO Guidelines for Pharmacological Management of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 and other Influenza Viruses Revised February ... a new A/H1N1 influenza virus was discovered to be spreading in North America. In June 2009, the WHO declared the A/H1N1 ...
... influenza a virus MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.214 - influenza a virus, h1n1 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.250 - influenza a ... influenza a virus, h1n1 subtype MeSH B04.909.777.545.405.400.250 - influenza a virus, h2n2 subtype MeSH B04.909.777.545.405.400 ... h2n2 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.300 - influenza a virus, h3n2 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.350 - influenza a virus, ... h3n8 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.500 - influenza a virus, h5n1 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.505 - influenza a virus, ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... Pandemic influenza preparedness: sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits: report by the ... Preparación para una gripe pandémica: intercambio de virus gripales y acceso a las vacunas y otros beneficios: informe de la ... Préparation en cas de grippe pandémique : échange des virus grippaux et accès aux vaccins et autres avantages : rapport du ...
Results of search for su:{Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... Clinical management of adult patients with complications of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 influenza: emergency guidelines ... by World Health Organization , WHO meeting on the main operational lessons learnt from the WHO Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) ... Report of the WHO pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine deployment initiative. by World Health Organization. ...
H1N1. MSLLTEVETPIRNEWGCRCNGSSD. A/FM/1/47-MA. M2e-FM. H1N1. MSLLTEVETPTKNEWECRCNDSSD. ... Matrix Protein 2 Vaccination and Protection against Influenza Viruses, Including Subtype H5N1 Stephen Mark Tompkins*1. , Zi- ... Influenza A virus M2 protein: monoclonal antibody restriction of virus growth and detection of M2 in virions.J Virol. 1988;62: ... Consensus sequence derived from human influenza viruses of H1, H2, and H3 subtypes (9,13). ...
Kelkar SD, Banerjee K. Serological evidence of infection with H1N1 subtype of influenza virus at Dibrugarh, Assam. Journal of ... Serological evidence of infection with H1N1 subtype of influenza virus at Dibrugarh, Assam. ...
influenza A virus subtype H1N1 甲型H1N1流感. *Ma de in china "f**k" in China ...
Influenza A virus subtype (H1N1). A prospective cohort study (2009) conducted during the Hajj season in Saudi Arabia found that ... were aware of the H1N1 influenza situation and 69% of participants felt susceptible to H1N1 (20). Only 31% were willing to get ... Four main vaccines were targeted to study vaccine hesitancy: influenza, COVID-19, H1N1 and HPV. Some studies focused on ... Willingness of health care workers of various nationalities to accept H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza A vaccination. Ann Saudi ...
Influenza caused by influenza A virus subtype H1N1. 442438000. Influenza caused by Influenza A virus. ... Influenza due to identified 2009 H1N1 influenza virus with pneumonia. 488.19. Influenza due to identified 2009 H1N1 influenza ... Influenza due to identified novel influenza A virus with pneumonia. 488.89. Influenza due to identified novel influenza A virus ... Influenza due to identified avian influenza virus with pneumonia. 488.09. Influenza due to identified avian influenza virus ...
Influenza in Birds. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype. en_US. ... Influenza Vaccines. en_US. dc.title. Influenza Surveillance In the WHO African Region: Epidemiological Weeks 1 to 52, 2016. en_ ... Influenza Surveillance In the WHO African Region: Epidemiological Weeks 1 to 52, 2016. World Health ...
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype [‎1]‎. Influenza in Birds [‎1]‎. Measles [‎1]‎. ...
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype * Influenza, Human / drug therapy* * Influenza, Human / immunology ... Convalescent plasma from patients who recovered from the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]) infection was fractionated ... a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial for patients with severe 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection Chest. 2013 ... Conclusions: Treatment of severe A(H1N1) infection with H-IVIG within 5 days of symptom onset was associated with a lower viral ...
... s important to inhibit the air of bacteria and viruses with nanoe™ X because we spend a lot of time indoors, sometimes in ... 5Adhered virus (Influenza virus H1N1 subtype). Testing organisation: Kitasato Research Center for Environmental Science. ... Target substance: Adhered viruses. Test result: Inhibited by at least 99.9% in 2 hours. (21_0084_1). 6Adhered viruses ( ... nanoe™ X is effective not only against certain airborne viruses, but also certain viruses attached to things you often touch, ...
H1N1 influenza; Author Keywords: Sick leave; Influenza; influenza A virus; H1N1 subtype; Vaccination; Workplace ... Paid sick leave benefits, influenza vaccination, and taking sick days due to influenza-like illness among U.S. workers. ... Methods: The public-use dataset from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS) were analyzed in 2017. Wald chi-square tests and ... Introduction: Staying home when sick can reduce the spread of influenza. The objectives of this study were to quantify the ...
Information about Transmission of Avian Influenza A Viruses Between Animals and People - CDC ... Influenza A virus subtypes currently endemic in humans are H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. Examples of different influenza A virus ... Influenza A viruses have eight separate gene segments. The segmented genome allows influenza A viruses from different species ... way that virus reassortment could occur is if a pig were infected with a human influenza A virus and an avian influenza A virus ...
... had no virus type information. Among those with influenza A subtype information, 75 were H3N2 and 15 were 2009 H1N1. The most ... CDC has antigenically characterized 369 influenza viruses [58 2009 H1N1, 263 influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and 48 influenza B ... Testing of 2009 influenza A (H1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B virus isolates for resistance to neuraminidase ... 2009 H1N1 [58]. *Fifty-six (96.6%) of the 58 viruses were characterized as A/California/7/2009-like, the influenza A (H1N1) ...
Influenza A is divided into subtypes - A (H1N1), A (H2N2), A (H3N2), A (H5N1), A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H7N9). Among these subtypes, A ... National Public Health Laboratory #influenza vaccine #Hong Kong flu #Influenza virus A #H3N2 ... H3N2) and A (H1N1)pdm09 are currently circulating in Nepal. Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 was previously known as Swine Flu, while A ... influenza virus often increases its activity during winter months and rainy season. Currently, both A and B type viruses are ...
Influenza causes significant loss of workdays, human suffering, and m... ... Influenza, one of the most common infectious diseases, is a highly contagious airborne disease that occurs in seasonal ... The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase variants are used to identify influenza A virus subtypes. For example, influenza A subtype ... In contrast to typical influenza seasons, the 2009-2010 influenza season was affected by the H1N1 ("swine flu") influenza ...
9. Comparison of Shedding Characteristics of Seasonal Influenza Virus. (Sub)Types and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; Germany, 2007- ... Influenza Virus Vaccine, Trivalent, Types A and B, Live Cold-Adapted,. Administered to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)- ... shingles and influenza can shed the virus for many weeks or months afterwards and infect the vaccinated and unvaccinated alike. ... shingles and influenza can shed the virus for many weeks or months afterwards and infect the vaccinated and unvaccinated alike. ...
Influenza-A virus H1N1 subtype. US. Oxaliplatin. APP Pharmaceuticals. Colon cancer. US. ...
Influenza is present at low levels in pigs throughout the world, and is monitored by the voluntary USDA Swine Influenza ... Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks in pigs. ... Like human influenza viruses, there are different subtypes and strains of influenza viruses in pigs. The main influenza viruses ... This virus has acquired the M gene from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. This 2009 H1N1 M gene may allow these H3N2 viruses in ...
Among the 15,749 influenza A viruses subtyped, 71% have been A(H1N1)pdm09. ... Influenza A(H3N2) was the predominant subtype this week (84% of subtyped influenza A detections); however, influenza A(H1N1) ... H1N1):. *1,532 A(H1N1) viruses characterized were antigenically similar to A/Michigan/45/2015, which is the influenza A(H1N1) ... All 449 influenza A viruses were resistant to amantadine.. Antiviral Resistance - Oseltamivir:. 1,243 influenza viruses (152 A( ...
During week 20, no influenza B viruses were reported, and both subtyped influenza A viruses were 2009 influenza A (H1N1. ... In addition, one seasonal influenza A (H1N1), 18 influenza A (H3N2), and 1 858 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus isolates have been ... H1N1), 13 influenza A (H3N2), 23 influenza B, and 1 855 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus isolates have been tested for resistance ... H1N1), 14 influenza A (H3N2), 32 influenza B, and 1 847 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses collected since September 1, 2009. ...
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype 30 * Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Influenza B virus 1 ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype (30) * Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Influenza B virus (1) ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype 31 * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype 10 ... Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype (31) * Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype (10) ...
This slide shows that for influenza A viruses we see both H3N2 viruses, which is shown in red, and H1N1 viruses shown in orange ... The types and subtypes of viruses circulating is important as viruses seem to have varied epidemiologic profiles and tend to ... Influenza A H1N1 viruses are currently the most frequently identified viruses. And we have received reports of severe disease ... associated with an influenza A H1N1 virus that occurred during week two and one death was associated with an influenza B virus ...
Detection and subtyping of swine influenza H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 viruses in clinical samples using two multiplex RT-PCR assays. J ... Currently, three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) of influenza virus are commonly found in pigs worldwide. Depending on the ... Replication of turkey isolates and swine influenza viruses in various animalsa * Table 2. Type A influenza viruses with the ... Repeated introductions of swine influenza viruses to turkeys, which may be coinfected with avian influenza viruses, provide ...
9. Comparison of Shedding Characteristics of Seasonal Influenza Virus (Sub)Types and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09; Germany, 2007-2011 ... 3. Comparison of the Safety, Vaccine Virus Shedding and Immunogenicity of Influenza Virus Vaccine, Trivalent, Types A and B, ... shingles and influenza can shed the virus for many weeks or months afterwards and infect the vaccinated and unvaccinated alike. ... Animal Models for Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission ...
  • Influenza A virus subtypes currently endemic in humans are H3N2 and H1N1 viruses. (
  • Examples of different influenza A virus subtypes currently endemic in animals include H1N1 and H3N2 in pigs (different strains than those found in humans), H3N8 in horses, H3N2 in dogs, and H5N1 in wild water birds and domestic poultry. (
  • However, in 1998, H3N2 viruses from humans were introduced into the pig population and caused widespread disease among pigs. (
  • Nationally, a low but increasing number of influenza positive specimens have been reported this season, with influenza A (H3N2) viruses being most common. (
  • CDC has antigenically characterized 369 influenza viruses [58 2009 H1N1, 263 influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and 48 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2011. (
  • Two hundred fifty-seven (97.7%) of the 263 viruses were characterized as A/Perth/16/2009-like, the influenza A (H3N2) component of the 2011-2012 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere. (
  • Influenza virus A (H3N2), commonly known as "Hong Kong Flu", was found to be responsible for this febrile outbreak. (
  • Among these subtypes, A (H3N2) and A (H1N1)pdm09 are currently circulating in Nepal. (
  • Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 was previously known as Swine Flu, while A (H3N2) is popularly known as Hong Kong Flu in Nepal. (
  • The virus has been identified as A (H3N2) and is dubbed "Australian Flu' in the UK. (
  • Similarly, type B virus known as Japanese Flu (Yamagata lineage) is also reported to be spreading together with A (H3N2) in the UK. (
  • Physicians therefore have urged the UK government to provide the vaccine that includes both A (H3N2) as well as Yamagata strains of type B virus. (
  • Samples from current epidemic areas of Nepal also show that A (H3N2) and type B virus are responsible for outbreaks and deaths. (
  • The main influenza viruses circulating in U.S. pigs in recent years are H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. (
  • While H1N1 viruses have been known to circulate among pig populations since at least 1930, H3N2 and H1N2 influenza A viruses did not begin circulating among pigs in the United States until about 1998. (
  • In 2011, a new variant virus was detected that was an influenza A (H3N2) virus with genes from avian, swine and human viruses. (
  • This 2009 H1N1 M gene may allow these H3N2 viruses in swine to be more transmissible from pigs to people and possibly from person to person. (
  • Influenza activity continues to decline overall despite ongoing circulation of influenza A(H3N2) and influenza B in many regions across the country. (
  • Influenza A(H3N2) accounted for 84% of subtyped influenza A detections. (
  • 58% of all influenza A(H3N2) detections have been reported in adults 65 years of age and older. (
  • In 1998, a novel H3N2 reassortant virus emerged in the United States swine population. (
  • All protein components of the turkey isolates had 97% to 98% sequence identity to swine H3N2 viruses, thus demonstrating interspecies transmission from pigs to turkeys. (
  • The isolation of swine-like H3N2 influenza viruses from turkeys raises new concerns for the generation of novel viruses that could affect humans. (
  • Currently, three subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) of influenza virus are commonly found in pigs worldwide. (
  • We describe the isolation and characterization of H3N2 influenza viruses from domestic turkeys in the United States. (
  • Start of the 2014/15 influenza season in Europe: drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulate as dominant subtype. (
  • Of influenza A viruses detected and subtyped this season, 78% have been influenza A(H3N2) and 22% have been influenza A(H1N1). (
  • 1957 Asian Flu pandemic (influenza A/H2N2), 1968 Hong Kong flu pandemic (influenza A/H3N2) and the 2009 (influenza A[H1N1]pdm09) resulting in far fewer deaths. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 was the most common strain early in the season, but influenza A(H3N2) predominated later in the season. (
  • Total influenza vaccine effectiveness was low during this season in part because the A(H3N2) strain was antigenically drifted from the vaccine strain. (
  • The 2018-2019 season differed from past seasons in that it was much longer, had a later peak, and the predominant strain of influenza changed from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 at the beginning of the season to influenza A(H3N2) in the middle of the season. (
  • MONDAY, July 25, 2022 (HealthDay News) -- Throughout the 2021 to 2022 influenza season, the predominant virus was influenza A(H3N2), according to research published in the July 22 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . (
  • Overall, 19,127 seasonal influenza A viruses were subtyped: 0.1 and 99.9 percent were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses and influenza A(H3N2) viruses, respectively. (
  • Of the 5861 influenza virus isolates reported to CDC, more than 99% were influenza A. Of the influenza A virus isolates subtyped, 81% were influenza A(H3N2), and 19% were influenza A(H1N1). (
  • As of April 10, 179 (99%) of the 180 influenza A(H3N2) viruses characterized at CDC resembled A/Beijing/353/89, the A(H3N2) component included in the 1991-92 influenza vaccine. (
  • In Asia, outbreaks of influenza A(H3N2) were reported in Japan, Korea, and the People's Republic of China. (
  • In these countries, the proportion of influenza A(H1N1) viruses isolated increased during the latter part of the season as influenza A(H3N2) activity declined. (
  • Flu A viruses can be broken down into subtypes depending on the genes that make up the surface proteins, like H1N1 and H3N2, and are the only influenza viruses known to cause flu pandemics. (
  • Meanwhile, the CDC says H3N2 viruses tend to change more rapidly out of all the influenza viruses that routinely circulate and cause illness in people. (
  • For both Texas and the US, influenza A (H3N2) was the predominant influenza virus detected. (
  • Resistance of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and influenza A (H3N2) viruses to the adamantanes (i.e., amantadine and rimantadine) was widespread during the 2010-11 season. (
  • For the 2021-2022 season, vaccine effectiveness against medical visits for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) related to the predominant influenza strain, A(H3N2), landed at a non-significant 16% (95% CI -16 to 39), reported Jessie Chung, MPH, of the CDC in Atlanta, and colleagues. (
  • None tested positive for influenza B. Of 178 influenza A viruses that were subtyped, 177 were A(H3N2), while only one was the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1). (
  • Thai research into several subtypes of Swine Influenza Virus (SIV) in Thailand has indicated that subtype H1N1 causes greater lung lesion scores than subtype H3N2 (Thai isolates) in weanling pigs. (
  • Based on phylogenetic analysis, haemagglutinin gene of subtype H1N1 from Thailand clustered with the classical H1 SIV sequences and neuraminidase gene clustered with virus of avian origin, whereas, both genes of H3N2 subtype clustered with H3N2 human-like SIV from the 1970s. (
  • H3N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus. (
  • Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteinson the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin(H) and neuraminidase(N). H3N2 exchanges genes for internal proteins with other influenza subtypes. (
  • H3N2 has tended to dominate in prevalence over H1N1, H1N2, and influenza B. H3N2 strain descended from H2N2by antigenic shift, in which genes from multiple subtypes re-assorted to form a new virus. (
  • During the study period of January 1998 to December 2013, we identified 44 distinct influenza epidemics, including 16 epidemics of seasonal influenza A(H3N2), 10 of A(H1N1), four of A(H1N1pdm09) and 14 of influenza B ( figure 1a -d). (
  • Weekly activity of influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI) + proxy) of a) influenza A(H3N2), b) influenza A(H1N1), c) influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and d) influenza B (black lines) along with the 44 predefined epidemics (grey bars) of these virus type and subtypes, and e) the weekly smoothed average of ozone (O 3 ) concentrations in Hong Kong from 1998 to 2013. (
  • Influenza type A viruses are divided into subtypes based on differences in two viral proteins called the hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N). The current subtypes of influenza A are designated A(H1N1) and A(H3N2). (
  • Influenza A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and influenza B strains are included in each year's influenza vaccine. (
  • During week 16, 60.5% of viruses reported by public health laboratories were influenza A and 39.5% were influenza B. Of the 17 influenza A viruses detected and subtyped during week 16, 4 were influenza A(H3N2) and 13 were influenza A(H1N1). (
  • A(H1N2) variant viruses and one human case of infection with an influenza A(H3N2) variant virus were reported officially.3 One additional human case of infection with an influenza A(H1N1)v virus was detected. (
  • Includes the two most common subtypes of flu, H1N1 (swine flu), and H3N2 and is more likely to cause widespread outbreaks. (
  • Of the 3,230 specimens tested by U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories and reported to CDC/Influenza Division, 500 (15.5%) were positive for influenza. (
  • The percentage of tests positive for influenza decreased from 14% to 11% in week 18. (
  • The percentage of tests positive for influenza B in week 18 was similar to the previous week. (
  • Nationally, the percentage of specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories is increasing. (
  • Data from clinical laboratories (the percentage of specimens tested that are positive for influenza) are used to monitor whether influenza activity is increasing or decreasing. (
  • Of the 86,351 influenza tests that were reported to NREVSS from Texas laboratories, 13,006 (15.1%) were positive for influenza virus. (
  • Of the 13,006 positive tests, 9,517 (73.2%) tests were positive for influenza A and 3,489 (26.8%) were positive for influenza B. The majority (81.3%) of the positive test results for influenza A reported through NREVSS were reported as influenza A (not subtyped) because most laboratories in Texas do not perform subtyping. (
  • Results: Of the 4796 samples tested, 822 (17%) were positive for influenza virus. (
  • Environmental samples from these stalls tested positive for influenza A(H5N6) viruses. (
  • Influenza A viruses are endemic (can infect and regularly transmit) in 6 animal species or groups (wild waterfowl, domestic poultry, swine, horses, dogs, and bats) in addition to humans. (
  • The resulting new virus might then be able to infect humans and spread easily from person to person, but it could have surface proteins (hemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase) different than those currently found in influenza viruses that routinely circulate in humans-this could make it seem like a "new" influenza virus to people, one that had not been encountered before. (
  • Antigenic shift results when a new influenza A virus subtype against which most people have little or no immune protection infects humans. (
  • While a "shift" of this kind has not occurred in relation to avian influenza viruses, such a "shift" occurred in the spring of 2009 when an H1N1 virus with genes from North American Swine, Eurasian Swine, humans and birds emerged to infect people and quickly spread, causing a pandemic. (
  • Influenza A viruses with a hemagglutinin against which humans have little or no immunity that have reassorted with a human influenza virus are more likely to result in sustained human-to-human transmission and have pandemic potential. (
  • Therefore, careful evaluation of influenza A viruses recovered from humans and animals that are infected with avian influenza A viruses is important to identify genetic reassortment if it occurs. (
  • Influenza A is known for causing large epidemics and even pandemic (beyond borders) in humans. (
  • Avian influenza (H5N1) is rare in humans in developed countries. (
  • Health organizations use the term "variant" to refer to viruses that are genetically different from what is usually isolated from humans. (
  • The data are also used to monitor evolutionary changes that continually occur in influenza viruses circulating in humans. (
  • These viruses brought huge misery and even disaster to humans. (
  • Influenza remains an important disease in humans and animals. (
  • Frequently after 2009, HA and other gene segments from H1N1pdm viruses transmitted from humans to swine, generating diverse reassortant viruses. (
  • Human influenza is caused by the influenza viruses which are classified into three main types: influenza A, B and C. Influenza A and B viruses can cause epidemic disease in humans and type C viruses usually cause a mild, cold-like illness. (
  • Avian influenza can also infect humans and the first cases of human infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1) were reported in 1997 in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. (
  • In addition to A/H5N1 an increasing number of other avian influenza A viruses are being recognised as causing sporadic infections in humans. (
  • Influenza viruses cause epidemic disease (influenza virus types A and B) and sporadic disease (type C) in humans. (
  • Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), which cause more than half of all common colds, are the most widespread respiratory viruses in humans. (
  • The infection featured a new virus variant that combined several strains of influenza virus A, subtype H1N1, occurring both in humans and pigs. (
  • Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months similar to outbreaks in humans. (
  • The 2009 flu outbreak in humans is due to a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that derives in part from human influenza, avian influenza, and two separate strains of swine influenza. (
  • It is unlikely that the Swine Flu virus was originally transmitted from pigs to humans via the consumption of pork (especially as cooking would destroy the virus), but rather, via direct contact with live, infected pigs, and/or their excreta. (
  • There is reason to believe that all forms of the influenza A virus may be avian in origin - however, generally speaking, strains of avian influenza do not replicate well in humans. (
  • As pigs can be simultaneously co-infected with avian and human strains of influenza, they may act as "mixing vessels" in which new strains of influenza A develop, with the potential to cause disease in humans. (
  • Dr. Robert Y. Goldberg, a pulmonary and critical care physician at Providence Mission Hospital in Mission Viejo, California, told VERIFY influenza viruses typically have multiple hosts, like bird hosts , that can sometimes pass the virus on to humans. (
  • The application of proper hygienic measures in farms and LBMs to control the exposure of birds and humans to the source of infection along with continuous monitoring of the circulating viruses will provide information on understanding the evolution of the viruses for vaccine studies. (
  • The only influenza categories reportable by law in Texas for the 2010-11 season included influenza-associated pediatric fatalities, outbreaks associated with influenza, and novel influenza A infections in humans (reportable as an exotic disease). (
  • Morbidity surveillance consists of reports of novel influenza A virus infections in humans, reports of patients with ILI from Texas participants in the US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) and ILI reports submitted through local and regional health departments, and reports of influenza or ILI outbreaks. (
  • Major outbreaks of influenza are associated with influenza virus type A or B. Influenza A infects birds, humans, swine, horses, seals and dogs. (
  • Influenza B viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, influenza B viruses do not cause pandemics, possibly because they primarily infect humans and seldom infect animals. (
  • The disease coordinate for H1N1 in humans is Influenza, Human. (
  • Even though small clusters of A(H5) virus infections have been reported previously including those involving healthcare workers, current epidemiological and virological evidence suggests that influenza A(H5) viruses have not acquired the ability of sustained transmission among humans, thus the likelihood is low. (
  • The likelihood of accepting vaccination was associated with previous individual acceptance of vaccine, specifically the seasonal influenza vaccine. (
  • Influenza, one of the most common infectious diseases, is a highly contagious airborne disease that occurs in seasonal epidemics and manifests as an acute febrile illness with variable degrees of systemic symptoms, ranging from mild fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (
  • The CDC documented that seasonal influenza was responsible for 24,000 to 62,000 deaths during the 2019-2020 season. (
  • The shaded area indicates weeks where the positivity rate was at least 5% and a minimum of 15 positive tests were observed, signalling the period of seasonal influenza activity . (
  • Her research includes studies on influenza vaccine effectiveness and preventing hospitalization, the use of influenza anti-viral medications in outpatient settings, and the impact of seasonal influenza on children with neurologic disorders. (
  • Risk Assessment - Seasonal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 2016. (
  • Risk assessment Seasonal influenza 2015-2016 in the EU/EEA countries 2016. (
  • Seasonal influenza activity is elevated across the country. (
  • Influenza viruses can spread rapidly around the world causing seasonal epidemics that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. (
  • In temperate climates influenza is seasonal, typically occurring every year in late autumn or winter. (
  • In tropical and subtropical regions the existence of seasonal patterns of influenza transmission are unknown and sporadic cases of influenza can occur year-round. (
  • Influenza vaccines are produced every year against seasonal influenza and offer protection for vulnerable groups in the community. (
  • Influenza viruses are highly contagious and can cause seasonal epidemics, manifesting as an acute febrile illness with variable degrees of severity, ranging from mild fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (
  • Histologic findings may include pulmonary changes with alveolar damage similar to seasonal influenza. (
  • Seasonal human influenza causes about 36,000 deaths and 226,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. (
  • This subtype has evolved into four relatively stable genetic lineages, including classical swine influenza virus lineage, seasonal human influenza virus lineage, avian influenza virus lineage and Eurasian avian-like swine influenza virus lineage. (
  • and the existence of protection provided by previous exposure to, and vaccination from, A/H1N1 pandemic or seasonal influenza/identification of susceptible groups. (
  • Once a validated haemagglutination inhibition assay has been developed (and prior to the introduction of any vaccination), cross-reactivity with previous exposure to A/H1N1 or A/H1N1 vaccination, other pandemic influenza or other seasonal influenza vaccination or exposure will be measured. (
  • Swine flu (H1N1), Bird Flu (H5N1), and the annual, seasonal flu, are all subtypes of the same species of virus: Influenza A. As the names "bird flu" and "swine flu" suggest, various strains of influenza A are capable of infecting multiple animal species, in addition to man. (
  • There are two main types of human flu viruses: types A and B. According to the CDC, flu A and B viruses are responsible for the seasonal flu each year. (
  • This years' seasonal flu shot performed abysmally for reducing medical visits for influenza, according to CDC data. (
  • Understanding the environmental drivers of influenza transmissibility would contribute to the early intervention and long-term control strategies of seasonal influenza, a serious public health problem that causes considerable morbidity and mortality each year. (
  • The burden of influenza in Cambodia is not well known, but it would be useful for understanding the impact of seasonal epidemics and pandemics and to design appropriate policies for influenza prevention and control. (
  • 1 Globally, seasonal influenza causes significant morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic costs. (
  • However, due to data quality and availability issues, the burden of seasonal influenza in low-income, lower middle-income and tropical climate countries is not well documented. (
  • The diagnosis was based on real time RT-PCR for seasonal influenza (H1, H3) and H1N1 2009. (
  • This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which determined that 1,327 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations were reported, compared with an average of 435 seasonal influenza hospitalizations during three previous influenza seasons, and 25.5% of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations resulted in severe illness (intensive-care unit [ICU] admission or death), compared with 14.0% of seasonal influenza hospitalizations. (
  • Pandemic hospitalizations were compared with confirmed and probable seasonal influenza-associated hospitalizations reported during three previous influenza seasons (2005--06, 2006--07, and 2007--08). (
  • Chi-square tests were used to assess the significance of differences between 2009 H1N1 and seasonal hospitalizations by illness severity, race/ethnicity, county of residence, age group, and comorbid conditions and to assess the differences between spring and fall waves of 2009 H1N1 hospitalizations by illness severity, race/ethnicity, county of residence, and age group. (
  • Seasonal influenza activity remains low nationally. (
  • Annual influenza strains are likely to contain unique seasonal variations of these two types, which, combined with antigenic drift-in which HA and/or NA mutations occur over the course of 2-3 seasons-contributes to immunologic failure of vaccines, particularly among the elderly. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Serological evidence of infection with H1N1 subtype of influenza virus at Dibrugarh, Assam. (
  • Epstein SL , Tumpey TM , Misplon JA , Lo CY , Cooper LA , Subbarao K , DNA vaccine expressing conserved influenza virus proteins protective against H5N1 challenge infection in mice. (
  • Convalescent plasma from patients who recovered from the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (A[H1N1]) infection was fractionated to hyperimmune IV immunoglobulin (H-IVIG) by CSL Biotherapies (now BioCSL). (
  • Patients with severe A(H1N1) infection on standard antiviral treatment requiring intensive care and ventilatory support were randomized to receive H-IVIG or normal IV immunoglobulin manufactured before 2009 as control. (
  • Treatment of severe A(H1N1) infection with H-IVIG within 5 days of symptom onset was associated with a lower viral load and reduced mortality. (
  • People with close or prolonged unprotected contact (not wearing respiratory and eye protection) with infected birds or places that sick birds or their mucous, saliva, or feces have contaminated, might be at greater risk of bird flu virus infection. (
  • Symptoms usually develop one to three days after the virus infection and last usually up to 10 days. (
  • Three influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and were associated with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. (
  • This event is concerning, considering the reassortment capacity of this virus and the susceptibility of turkey to infection by avian influenza viruses. (
  • We estimated a mean of about 1·6-1·7 days with a standard deviation of 2 days for the incubation time distribution in those who became symptomatic after infection with the A(H1N1v) virus strain. (
  • Influenza infection is transmitted through respiratory droplets or contact and is clinically indistinguishable from other respiratory viral diseases without laboratory confirmation. (
  • Using photo-activated electrophile generating probes, we successfully revealed under-represented host cell response factors using an avian influenza virus infection model. (
  • However, recent research hints that this bothersome - though usually mild - infection may be a hidden ally in the fight against pandemic viruses such as influenza and SARS-CoV-2. (
  • However, in cells also infected with HRV, the number of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles declined rapidly until they were undetectable just 48 hours after the initial infection. (
  • Here, we assessed the induction of protective immunity to these viruses by infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in a newly developed guinea pig model. (
  • By day 7, only viral antigen positive cells were found after H7N9 virus infection in the nasal turbinates and the lungs of unprimed controls. (
  • Thus infection with H1N1pdm09 virus induced partially protective heterosubtypic immunity to H7N9 virus in (isogenic) guinea pigs that could not be attributed to cross-reactive virus neutralizing antibodies. (
  • confirmed influenza A (H7N9) virus infection, Shanghai, China. (
  • The Respiratory Viruses Network (RespVir) collects infection data, primarily from German university hospitals, for a high diversity of infections by respiratory pathogens. (
  • We calculated the prevalence of 17 respiratory viruses, analysed their seasonality patterns using information-theoretic measures and agglomerative clustering, and analysed their propensity for dual infection using a new metric dubbed average coinfection exclusion score (ACES). (
  • the most prevalent coinfection was rhinovirus/bocavirus and most of the virus pairs had a positive ACES indicating a tendency to exclude each other regarding infection. (
  • Stratification across years shows biennial seasonality patterns for some viruses, indicating infection peaks every other season. (
  • Owing to their weakened immune system, patients with cancer are at high risk for infection with flu and pneumonia viruses, which can be lethal in these individuals. (
  • This constant changing enables the virus to evade the immune system of its host, so that people are susceptible to influenza virus infection throughout life. (
  • as the virus changes, the "older" antibody no longer recognizes the "newer" virus, and reinfection can occur The older antibody can, however, provide partial protection against re-infection. (
  • Influenza vaccination is the most effective method for preventing influenza virus infection and its complications, which may be severe. (
  • c WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Australia. (
  • The results of this study indicate that the highest burden of severe influenza infection is borne by the younger age groups. (
  • Influenza is a contagious, acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses. (
  • Clinical symptoms of patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 and influenza B infection were compared. (
  • CI 1.3, 3.3) were more common in influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 infection than in influenza B cases. (
  • All confirmed and probable influenza-associated hospitalizations* reported by infection-prevention programs and laboratories in the state from April 27, 2009, to May 21, 2010, were analyzed by the Utah Department of Health. (
  • Since the last risk assessment on 21 May 2021, one new laboratory-confirmed human case of influenza A(H5N6) virus infection was reported from China to WHO on 30 May 2021. (
  • 1. What is the likelihood that additional human cases of infection with avian influenza A(H5) viruses will occur? (
  • Corona virus Disease-2019 is a new strain of Coronaviruses (COVID-19) causing an infection which has rapidly spread all over the Globe, where the primary pathways of infection spreading reported to be through large respiratory droplets and the disease severity has varied from mild self-limiting flu like illness to acute pneumonia, respiratory collapse and death. (
  • Clinical management of adult patients with complications of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: emergency guidelines for the management of patients with severe respiratory distress and shock in district hospitals in limited-resource settings. (
  • The "Combined" category is created by adding emergency department patient visits with diagnosed COVID-19 to those visits with diagnosed influenza and those visits with diagnosed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) for the given week. (
  • Variability in testing practices for different viruses and in different age groups may lead to under-ascertainment of respiratory infections in electronic healthcare data, including emergency department visits. (
  • WHO and NREVSS collaborating laboratories located in all 50 states report to CDC the number of respiratory specimens tested for influenza and the number positive by influenza type and subtype. (
  • Influenza, commonly known as "flu", is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by viruses. (
  • Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that regularly cause outbreaks in pigs. (
  • For more detailed weekly and cumulative influenza data, see the text descriptions for Figures 2 and 3 or the Respiratory Virus Detections in Canada Report . (
  • Dr. Havers is a Medical Officer for the Influenza Prevention and Control Team within CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (
  • Influenza is an acute viral respiratory disease that is often characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, sore throat and cough. (
  • Influenza is one of the most significant causes of acute upper respiratory tract infections worldwide. (
  • Influenza viruses cause a broad array of respiratory illnesses responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in children. (
  • To find out, the researchers infected cultures of human respiratory cells in the lab with either SARS-CoV-2, an HRV, or both viruses at the same time. (
  • Our research shows that human rhinovirus triggers an innate immune response in human respiratory epithelial cells, which blocks the replication of the COVID-19 virus, SARS-CoV-2," says senior author Prof. Pablo Murcia . (
  • The resulting disease, dubbed "Swine Flu", is a contagious respiratory illness that can be spread from human to human, by coughing, sneezing, and coming into contact with virus-covered surfaces. (
  • The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • We aimed to characterize AIVs circulating on commercial farms and in live bird markets (LBMs) during the winters of 2015 and 2016 in the study area and to identify H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in respiratory patients. (
  • Viral influenza surveillance at the state level consists of influenza test results reported by Texas laboratories in the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) and specimens sent to the DSHS Austin Laboratory and the Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories for influenza surveillance testing. (
  • Although there are many respiratory viruses, diagnostic efforts are focused mainly on influenza. (
  • The analysis of respiratory viruses dynamics in monoinfection and coinfection contributes to the prevention, diagnostic, treatment, and development of new therapeutics. (
  • While SARS-CoV-2 infections are currently extensively recorded and analysed, future studies must encompass the full breadth of respiratory viruses as has been done in the past. (
  • In 2009 the Respiratory Viruses Network (RespVir ) was founded as an initiative of a Clinical Virology group within the German Virology Society (GfV). (
  • Over 12 years, RespVir has analysed more than 280,000 samples with respect to 25 respiratory pathogens (17 viruses and 8 bacteria). (
  • Independent of the diagnostic hypothesis of the clinician, each sample was tested in a multiplex manner covering a maximum of 17 respiratory viruses, depending on test availability of each laboratory. (
  • We observed that 48.64% of all reported respiratory infections are caused by influenza virus. (
  • The term 'flu' is often used for any febrile respiratory illness with systemic symptoms that may be caused be a myriad of bacterial or viral agents as well as influenza viruses. (
  • Nearly all adults have been infected with influenza C virus, which causes mild upper respiratory tract illness. (
  • Influenza viruses are divided into three types, designated A, B, and C. Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter and are often associated with increased rates for hospitalization and death. (
  • Background: Influenza virus is the major cause of respiratory illness, especially in young and older age groups. (
  • To identify viral respiratory pathogens other than influenza viruses causing morbidity. (
  • To develop capabilities for in-country surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses. (
  • Individuals with FARI were assessed clinically by nurses and respiratory samples collected and tested for influenza viruses by real time RT-PCR from November 2009 to August 2010. (
  • CDC is also tracking the impact of other respiratory viruses, including COVID-19. (
  • RESP-NET and NSSP's Emergency Department Visits for COVID-19, Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus . (
  • Corona virus Disease-2019 is a new strain of Coronaviruses caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. (
  • More recently, H5N1 viruses from birds have caused sporadic infections in wild foxes in the U.S. and in other countries. (
  • The FDA has approved a vaccine for H5N1 influenza. (
  • There are two main types of this strain of influenza: avian flu and swine flu, including the highly pathogenic H5N1, H7N9 and H1N1 strains. (
  • People can get infected with avian and swine influenza viruses, such as bird flu subtypes A(H5N1) and A(H7N9) and swine flu subtypes such as A(H1N1). (
  • In total, 159 samples were collected from ducks, pigeons and quails on farms ( n = 59) and in LBMs ( n = 100) and screened by real-time RT-PCR for H5N1 and H9N2 subtypes. (
  • Our results indicated the circulation of the endemic H5N1 and H9N2 viruses among poultry in 2015 and 2016. (
  • The genetic information in these viruses could reassort to create a new influenza A virus with a hemagglutinin and/or neuraminidase gene from the avian virus and other genes from the human virus. (
  • The genome of influenza A viruses consists of eight single-stranded RNA segments, and the viral particle has two major glycoproteins on its surface: hemagglutinin and neuraminidase ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • With at least 15 different hemagglutinin and 9 different neuraminidase subtypes, there is considerable antigenic variation among influenza viruses. (
  • Inserted into the lipid membrane are the viral glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). Influenza A virions have three membrane proteins (H, N and M2), while Influenza B virions have four (H, N, NB and BM2). (
  • Neuraminidase digests sialic acid (neuraminic acid) on the surface of target cells, promoting entry of the virus into the cell. (
  • Inefficient proofreading by influenza viral RNA polymerase results in a high incidence of transcription errors and amino acid substitutions in hemagglutinin or neuraminidase, allowing new variants to evade preexisting humoral immunity and cause influenza outbreaks. (
  • A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. (
  • Since 1918, many subtypes, defined by hemagglutinine (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), have caused global infections or pandemics. (
  • A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. (
  • The HA (with 18 known subtypes) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins (with 11 subtypes) comprise the 2 type A viruses most frequently linked to human influenza outbreaks. (
  • Fan J , Liang X , Horton MS , Perry HC , Citron MP , Heidecker GJ , Preclinical study of influenza virus A M2 peptide conjugate vaccines in mice, ferrets, and rhesus monkeys. (
  • Traditionally, the vaccine was trivalent (ie, designed to provide protection against three viral subtypes, generally an A-H1, an A-H3, and a B). The first quadrivalent vaccines, which provide coverage against an additional influenza B subtype, were approved in 2012 and were made available for the 2013-2014 flu season. (
  • Scientific evidence demonstrates that individuals vaccinated with live virus vaccines such as MMR (measles, mumps and rubella), rotavirus, chicken pox, shingles and influenza can shed the virus for many weeks or months afterwards and infect the vaccinated and unvaccinated alike. (
  • Vaccine failure and failure to acknowledge that live virus vaccines can spread disease have resulted in an increase in outbreaks of infectious disease in both vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, says Manookian, CDC should instruct physicians who administer vaccinations to inform their patients about the risks posed to others by those who ve been recently vaccinated. (
  • These data are used to compare how similar the currently circulating influenza viruses are to the reference viruses representing viruses contained in the current influenza vaccines. (
  • Increasing the availability of new antiviral drugs and developing superior vaccines will provide us with better approaches to control influenza and to have a positive impact on disease load. (
  • Exclusive Interview: CDC Head Virus Sleuth - A ScienceInsider interview with virologist Ruben Donis, chief of the molecular virology and vaccines branch at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, who spoke about the swine flu virus causing the outbreak. (
  • The data and findings in this report reinforce the importance of the use of up-to-date multivalent influenza vaccines that protect against several different specific virus strains that may become common in the coming influenza season. (
  • The memory B cells chosen already had a high affinity to hemagglutinin (HA), a primary target for the development of vaccines that neutralize several types of group 1 and group 2 influenza A viruses. (
  • The high binding affinity of bnAbs for multiple type A subtypes, particularly those from group 2, may have important clinical implications for the potential creation of vaccines drawn from memory B cells as opposed to those developed traditionally from long-lived plasma cells that produce neutralizing antibodies in response to original virus. (
  • Like human influenza viruses, there are different subtypes and strains of influenza viruses in pigs. (
  • In collaboration with state and local health departments, CDC conducts surveillance to monitor influenza activity and to detect antigenic changes in the circulating strains of influenza virus. (
  • Researchers have discovered a germline gene in memory B cells that appear to resist multiple strains of influenza A virus. (
  • Researchers at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Massachusetts, and the Centers for Disease Control have identified a germline gene in human memory B cells that appear to resist multiple strains of influenza A virus, and more importantly, that can evolve to protect against changes in the viral strains that become active in any given year. (
  • Epstein SL , Stack A , Misplon JA , Lo CY , Mostowski H , Bennink J , Vaccination with DNA encoding internal proteins of influenza virus does not require CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes: either CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells can promote survival and recovery after challenge. (
  • Protection of mice against influenza A virus challenge by vaccination with baculovirus-expressed M2 protein. (
  • Paid sick leave benefits, influenza vaccination, and taking sick days due to influenza-like illness among U.S. workers. (
  • The objectives of this study were to quantify the percentage of workers who had paid sick leave (PSL) benefits, examine sociodemographic characteristics that may be associated with having these benefits, and examine the association between having PSL benefits and use of sick days and influenza vaccination status. (
  • Logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with having PSL benefits and the association between having PSL benefits and influenza vaccination status. (
  • Not having PSL benefits was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving an influenza vaccination and visiting a health professional when sick with ILI. (
  • Offering PSL benefits along with promoting influenza vaccination and encouraging employees with ILI to stay home can increase influenza vaccination coverage and help control the spread of influenza. (
  • Influenza vaccination should not be delayed to procure a specific vaccine preparation if an appropriate one is already available. (
  • Numerous scientific studies indicate that children who receive a live virus vaccination can shed the disease and infect others for weeks or even months afterwards. (
  • Please note that questions are limited to clinicians who would like information on CDC's current influenza recommendations for vaccination and anti-viral medications. (
  • The most important strategy for preventing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality is vaccination of persons in high-risk groups with vaccine closely matched to circulating strains. (
  • BACKGROUND: After the introduction of any new pandemic influenza, population-level surveillance and rapid assessment of the effectiveness of a new vaccination will be required to ensure that it is targeted to those at increased risk of serious illness or death from influenza. (
  • INTERVENTIONS: Future available pandemic influenza vaccination and antivirals will be evaluated. (
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To build a reporting platform tailored towards the evaluation of pandemic influenza vaccination. (
  • For most people with cancer, vaccination for influenza is not only safe, but also a crucial part of staying as healthy as possible. (
  • 5,6 In recent years, there has been a growing recognition among oncologists and other cancer care professionals of the importance of vaccination against influenza in patients with cancer. (
  • The CDC updated its recommendations regarding who should receive influenza vaccination in 2008. (
  • In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the CDC expanded its recommendations for influenza vaccination for school-aged children. (
  • 1,7 The ACIP-CDC now recommends that all children aged six months to 18 years receive annual influenza vaccination, beginning in 2008 if feasible, but beginning no later than during the 2009-2010 influenza season. (
  • Ulmer JB , Donnelly JJ , Parker SE , Rhodes GH , Felgner PL , Dwarki VJ , Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein. (
  • The gold standard for diagnosing influenza A and B is a viral culture of nasopharyngeal samples or throat samples. (
  • At the conclusion of today's session the participant will be able to describe the current status of influenza activity in the United States, discuss the circulating influenza strains seen this season and the implications for clinicians, discuss the use of influenza diagnostic tests and the role in clinical care and discuss anti-viral treatment implications for patients evaluation treatment and testing. (
  • Her current primary research focuses on influenza anti-viral treatment as well as influenza vaccine effectiveness. (
  • In return, the virus keeps more severe and potentially lethal viral infections at bay. (
  • Cases of Swine Influenza A (H1N1) viral infections have been confirmed across the United States, and around the world. (
  • The three main Texas influenza surveillance components are viral, morbidity, and mortality surveillance. (
  • Within the influenza A or B virion are eight segments of viral RNA that carry the all the genetic information needed to synthesize new virus particles. (
  • The major influenza C virus envelope glycoprotein is called HEF (hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion) because it has the functions of both the H and N. A minor viral envelope protein is CM2, which functions as an ion channel. (
  • Wald chi-square tests and t-tests were used to test for associations between having PSL benefits and sociodemographic characteristics and industry and occupation groups, the associations between having PSL benefits and seeking treatment when sick with influenza-like illness (ILI), and taking days off work when sick with ILI. (
  • Influenza A viruses that typically are endemic in one animal species sometimes can cause illness in another species. (
  • If this new influenza A virus causes illness in people and is transmitted easily from person to person in a sustained manner, an influenza pandemic can occur. (
  • People with influenza like illness (ILI) must go through laboratory testing for the confirmation of virus. (
  • However, it is always better to visit the hospital to identify virus using PCR testing within 3 days of the onset of illness. (
  • Flu Season Begins: Severe Influenza Illness Reported CDC urges rapid antiviral treatment of very ill and high risk suspect influenza patients without waiting for testing 2016. (
  • Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pigs. (
  • During that year, over 275,000 cases of influenza and influenza-like illness were reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) (legacy agency Texas Department of Health). (
  • Influenza activity is difficult to predict, and strategies to prevent influenza illness remain important to reduce strain on health care services," wrote Chung and coauthors. (
  • Results: One thousand two hundreds and twelve specimens of patients with influenza like illness were tested using real time RT-PCR detection. (
  • Influenza-associated hospitalizations have been a reportable condition in Utah since 2005, and surveillance for influenza hospitalizations has been a valuable tool for identifying and tracking the population impact of serious influenza illness. (
  • During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Utah public health officials used comparisons with hospitalization data from three previous influenza seasons to rapidly assess the impact of 2009 H1N1 and enable public health authorities to target persons at greatest risk for severe illness. (
  • Surveillance for influenza hospitalizations can provide essential data to public health authorities that will help them identify those populations at greatest risk for severe illness. (
  • Mozdzanowska K , Feng J , Eid M , Kragol G , Cudic M , Otvos JL , Induction of influenza type A virus-specific resistance by immunization of mice with a synthetic multiple antigenic peptide vaccine that contains ectodomains of matrix protein 2. (
  • This type of major change in the influenza A viruses is known as " antigenic shift . (
  • CDC performs genetic and antigenic characterization of U.S. viruses submitted from state and local public health laboratories according to the Right Size Roadmap submission guidance. (
  • In contrast to measles, smallpox and poliomyelitis, influenza is caused by viruses that undergo continuous antigenic change and that possess an animal reservoir. (
  • 2 Each influenza season is different because of antigenic drift in the circulating influenza subtypes, the degree of match between vaccine subtypes and circulating subtypes, and vaccine coverage of the population. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1) viruses were characterized by moderate antigenic heterogeneity. (
  • Flu B viruses generally change more slowly in terms of their genetic and antigenic properties than flu A viruses, according to the CDC. (
  • The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic coinciding with a period of low incidence and low antigenic diversity, coupled with prolonged use of a well-matched influenza vaccine, may have enabled massive suppression of B/Yamagata during the pandemic," the researchers wrote. (
  • H and N exhibit more antigenic variation than the internal proteins and are the major determinants of Influenza A subtype and strain-specificity. (
  • Antigenic drifts are associated with localized outbreaks, while antigenic shifts are associated with epidemics and pandemics of influenza A. (
  • influenza type B viruses change only by the more gradual process of antigenic drift. (
  • The national influenza reporting period begins in early October [Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) week 40] and continues through late May (MMWR week 20). (
  • These VE [vaccine effectiveness] estimates underscore the need for ongoing diagnostic testing for influenza, influenza antiviral treatment and prophylaxis when indicated, and everyday preventive measures," the authors wrote in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . (
  • Experience from influenza pandemics suggested that convalescent plasma treatment given within 4 to 5 days of symptom onset might be beneficial. (
  • Influenza A is responsible for frequent, usually annual outbreaks or epidemics of varying intensity, and occasional pandemics, whereas influenza B causes outbreaks every two to four years. (
  • In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology associated with the 1918 virus and its predilection for the young and healthy, the rise of influenza therapeutic research following the pandemic, and, finally, our level of preparedness for future pandemics. (
  • Moreover, influenza pandemics arise sporadically due to the introduction of an antigenically-distinct influenza A virus within a population, which can result in devastating effects on global public health and healthcare networks. (
  • These results confirm the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was relatively low compared with past pandemics. (
  • There are four types of influenza viruses called A, B, C and D. Of these, flu A and B are commonly known to cause human illnesses and large epidemics in almost every season. (
  • The H1N1 subtype influenza viruses (H1N1) have been causing persistent epidemics in human, swine and poultry populations since 1918. (
  • Influenza epidemics occur every year in the United States, typically beginning in the late fall or winter and concluding during the spring. (
  • it does not cause epidemics and does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do. (
  • The Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity (AHDRA) system was implemented on August 30, 2009, and replaced the weekly report of laboratory confirmed 2009 H1N1-related hospitalizations and deaths that began in April 2009. (
  • Ambulatory data for influenza-like illnesses (ILIs), influenza hospitalization data, and lab data for influenza-confirmed cases were used for the surveillance. (
  • We estimated age-specific influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates in three sentinel sites in Svay Rieng, Siem Reap and Kampong Cham provinces. (
  • A national influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rate was calculated using the pooled influenza-associated SARI hospitalizations for all sites as a numerator and the pooled catchment population of all sites as denominator. (
  • National influenza-associated SARI case counts were estimated by applying hospitalization rates to the national population. (
  • We present national estimates of influenza-associated SARI hospitalization rates for Cambodia based on sentinel surveillance data from three sites. (
  • Specifically, reconstruction of the genes of the 1918 pandemic virus and studies on their contribution to virulence will be important steps toward understanding the biological capabilities of this lethal virus. (
  • Perhaps the most recent use of homeopathy in a major epidemic was during the Influenza Pandemic of 1918. (
  • El subtipo H1N1 fue el responsable de la pandemia de gripe española de 1918. (
  • The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. (
  • The 1918 H1N1 pandemic virus spread across Europe, North America, and Asia over a 12-month period resulting in an estimated 500 million infections and 50-100 million deaths worldwide, of which ~ 50% of these occurred within the fall of 1918 (Emerg Infect Dis 12:15-22, 2006, Bull Hist Med 76:105-115, 2002). (
  • However, the molecular factors that contributed to the emergence of, and subsequent public health catastrophe associated with, the 1918 pandemic virus remained largely unknown until 2005, when the characterization of the reconstructed pandemic virus was announced heralding a new era of advanced molecular investigations (Science 310:77-80, 2005). (
  • In the century following the emergence of the 1918 pandemic virus we have landed on the Moon, developed the electronic computer (and a global internet), and have eradicated smallpox. (
  • Here, we reflect on the 1918 influenza pandemic, including its emergence and subsequent rapid global spread. (
  • Pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge from swine, an intermediate host that supports adaptation of human-preferred receptor-binding specificity by the hemagglutinin (HA) surface antigen. (
  • In approximately 1999, gamma viruses split into two branches: swine gamma (1A.3.3.3) and swine viruses that later contributed the hemagglutinin (HA) gene to the 2009 human pandemic virus (1A.3.3.2). (
  • 1. A human monoclonal antibody directed against influenza A virus hemagglutinin antigen, characterized in that it is capable of binding to and neutralizing a plurality of subtypes of the influenza A virus, wherein said plurality of subtypes comprises at least one influenza A virus subtype containing hemagglutinin H1 and at least one influenza A virus subtype containing hemagglutinin H3. (
  • Influenza A is divided into subtypes according to their hemagglutinin (H) and neuramidase (N) proteins. (
  • This cross-protective effect has not yet been demonstrated to the newly emerging avian influenza A viruses of the H7N9 subtype. (
  • To this end, ten female 12-16 week old strain 2 guinea pigs were inoculated intratracheally with either A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus or PBS (unprimed controls) followed 4 weeks later with an A/H7N9 influenza virus challenge. (
  • Nasal swabs were taken daily and animals from both groups were sacrificed on days 2 and 7 post inoculation (p.i.) with A/H7N9 virus and full necropsies were performed. (
  • Modified M2 proteins produce heterotypic immunity against influenza A virus. (
  • Hydroxyl radicals denature virus proteins. (
  • For swine influenza viruses isolated in 2009-2016, gamma-clade viruses had less stable HA proteins (activation pH 5.5-5.9) than pandemic clade (pH 5.0-5.5). (
  • Antigens on the internal proteins M1 and NP are type-specific and used to determine if a particular influenza virus is type A, B or C. Both M1and NP proteins of all members of each type exhibit cross reactivity. (
  • however, human infections can happen when enough virus gets into a person's eyes, nose, or mouth, or is inhaled. (
  • Although it is unusual for people to get influenza A virus infections directly from animals, sporadic human infections and outbreaks caused by certain avian influenza A viruses and swine influenza A viruses have been reported. (
  • While influenza viruses almost always remain infectious only within their host species, at times infections may spread to other species. (
  • In theory, infections with the common cold virus could inhibit the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among members of a population and reduce the severity of infections. (
  • This finding led scientists at the MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research in the United Kingdom to speculate whether HRVs could help combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and limit the severity of infections. (
  • This means that the immune response caused by mild, common cold virus infections could provide some level of transient protection against SARS-CoV-2, potentially blocking transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and reducing the severity of COVID-19," Prof. Murcia adds. (
  • In their paper, the researchers speculate that mild HRV infections might be mutually beneficial for the virus and its human hosts. (
  • Although it is likely that a common cold virus, such as rhinovirus, would induce a strong innate immune response that could block SARS-CoV-2 infections, it would still require both infections to occur at a similar time. (
  • Despite decreasing influenza activity in recent weeks, maintaining vigilance for influenza virus infections throughout the summer is important," the authors write. (
  • Eleven tested positive for both influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 infections. (
  • We found that Influenza viruses were reported for almost the half of all infections and that they exhibited the highest degree of seasonality. (
  • We combined information on influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in the community and laboratory surveillance data to estimate weekly incidence rates of influenza virus infections in the community, referred to as ILI + rates [ 4 ]. (
  • As a testament to the significant toll posed by influenza on public health and healthcare systems, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that from 2010 to 2015, influenza infections resulted in 9.23-35.6 million illnesses and 139,000-707,000 hospitalizations annually in the US alone [ 9 ]. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Clinical differences between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 & influenza B infections identified through active community surveillance in north India. (
  • Clinical differences between influenza A (H1N1) pdm 09 and influenza B virus infections have importance for community-based public health surveillance. (
  • Of these, 443 (54%) were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09, 373 (45%) were influenza B and six were other subtypes/mixed infections. (
  • Conclusion: Our findings show that the differences in the clinical presentation of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B infections are not likely to be of clinical or public health significance. (
  • Human infections with viruses of animal origin are expected at the human-animal interface wherever these viruses circulate in animals. (
  • All human infections caused by a new influenza subtype are required to be reported under the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005).4 This includes any influenza A virus that has demonstrated the capacity to infect a human and its haemagglutinin gene (or protein) is not a mutated form of those, i.e. (
  • Dr. Havers completed the epidemic intelligence service training in the influenza division at CDC and is board certified to practice internal medicine and infectious diseases. (
  • Influenza A virus is a highly infectious pathogen of a limited number of birds and mammals. (
  • A concern is that the imposition of new rules for working with infectious influenza viruses under high security and high containment conditions will stifle scientific progress. (
  • Infectious virus was recovered from nasal turbinates, trachea and lung of all animals at day 2 p.i., but titers were lower for H1N1pdm09-primed animals, especially in the nasal turbinates. (
  • By day 7 p.i., relatively high virus titers were found in the nasal turbinates of all unprimed control animals but infectious virus was isolated from the nose of only one of four H1N1pdm09-primed animals. (
  • However, true influenza is an acute infectious disease caused by a member of the orthomyxovirus family, which includes influenza virus A, B and C. Influenza outbreaks usually occur in the winter in temperate climates. (
  • Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. (
  • Directly from infected birds or from avian influenza A virus-contaminated environments. (
  • Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals. (
  • birds are the predominant hosts for the other subtype strains. (
  • The natural reservoir of influenza viruses are aquatic birds and influenza can cause disease in a range of mammalian species including pigs, seals and horses. (
  • So how does the virus make the species jump from birds to people? (
  • Birds on farms and in LBMs are reservoirs playing a role in the dissemination of the virus and producing a public health risk. (
  • Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for all subtypes of influenza A virus. (
  • The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). (
  • A(H5) subtypes continue to be detected in birds in Africa, Europe and Asia. (
  • The detection of influenza A(H5) virus in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal samples collected from individuals in close contact with infected poultry or other birds, whether the individuals are symptomatic or not, is not unexpected. (
  • Serological studies of influenza A virus, immunogen for antibody production.Tested with anti-influenza A monoclonal antibodies in ELISA. (
  • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the epidemic threshold. (
  • During the 11 influenza seasons from 1977 through 1988, more than 10,000 excess deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) were reported during each of seven seasons, and approximately 45,000 deaths were reported during each of two seasons (CDC, unpublished data, 1992). (
  • and hospitalisation and death from influenza and pneumonia. (
  • In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly. (
  • An estimated 5,000 to 14,000 deaths have been attributed to influenza since October 2021. (
  • Jurisdictions report to CDC the number of hospitalizations and deaths resulting from all types or subtypes of influenza, not just those associated with 2009 H1N1. (
  • From August 30, 2009 - April 3, 2010, 41 914 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations and 2 125 laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths were reported to CDC. (
  • Reporting of influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths through AHDRA was discontinued during the week ending April 3, 2010 (week 13). (
  • Five influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported this week, for a total of 12 pediatric flu deaths reported so far this season. (
  • Because there is no current reporting requirement for the majority of influenza illnesses, it is unclear how many influenza-related illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths occur each year in Texas residents. (
  • The goals of influenza surveillance are to determine when and where influenza viruses are circulating, if the circulating viruses match the vaccine strains, what changes are occurring in the viruses, what impact influenza is having on hospitalizations and deaths, and the severity of influenza activity. (
  • Mortality surveillance consists of reports of influenza-associated deaths in children under 18 years of age and reports of influenza-associated deaths in pregnant or postpartum women. (
  • there were also fewer influenza-associated pediatric deaths. (
  • 1,2 According to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), influenza has caused roughly 36,000 deaths and 226,000 hospitalizations annually. (
  • Two influenza-associated pediatric deaths that occurred during the 2022-2023 season were reported this week, for a total of 145 pediatric flu deaths reported so far this season. (
  • Subtyping results for the majority of specimens in this category were inconclusive because of low virus titers. (
  • The researchers found that 4.5 percent of these specimens tested positive: 98.6 and 1.4 percent for influenza A and B, respectively. (
  • Public health laboratories tested 877,928 specimens, of which 2.8 percent tested positive: 99.5 and 0.5 percent for influenza A and B, respectively. (
  • In fact, this latest strain of H1N1 has been determined to be a genetic mix of four different flu viruses: two porcine, one avian, and one human. (
  • Allantoic fluid of 10 days old embryonated eggs, inoculated with influenza A virus, strain A/Kiev/301/94 like /Johannesburg/33/94. (
  • In fact, government or private laboratories in Nepal do not further elaborate this virus to identify its lineage. (
  • Until 1998, the classic H1N1 lineage was the only influenza virus circulating widely in the swine population in the United States ( 6 ). (
  • The predominant influenza B lineage was Victoria compared with Yamagata in the previous season. (
  • Data from public health laboratories are used to monitor the proportion of circulating viruses that belong to each influenza subtype/lineage. (
  • Influenza B lineage information was available for 41 influenza B viruses: 97.6 and 2.4 percent were B/Victoria lineage viruses and B/Yamagata lineage viruses, respectively. (
  • The segmented genome allows influenza A viruses from different species to mix genes (reassortment) and create a new virus if influenza A viruses from two different species infect the same person or animal at the same time. (
  • One possible way that virus reassortment could occur is if a pig were infected with a human influenza A virus and an avian influenza A virus at the same time, the new replicating viruses could reassort and produce a new influenza A virus that had some genes from the human virus and some genes from the avian virus. (
  • Consensus sequence derived from human influenza viruses of H1, H2, and H3 subtypes ( 9 , 13 ). (
  • Sequence comparison between the extracellular domain of M2 protein human and avian influenza A virus provides new information for bivalent influenza vaccine design. (
  • It is also possible that the process of genetic reassortment could occur in a person who is co-infected with an avian influenza A virus and a human influenza A virus. (
  • Influenza causes significant loss of workdays, human suffering, and mortality. (
  • Influenza viruses in pigs can occasionally infect people, and human influenza viruses can infect swine. (
  • Researchers have suggested that human tracheal epithelial cells lack receptors for the attachment of avian influenza viruses and that avian tracheal epithelial cells lack the appropriate receptors for human viruses ( 1 ). (
  • Influenza A/H1N1 is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of severe human influenza in 2009. (
  • Although it is not clear whether a new pandemic is imminent, it would be prudent to take into account the lessons we have learned from studying different human and animal influenza viruses. (
  • The complex questions of what makes an influenza virus transmissible from one human to another and from one species to another, as well as how the immune system interacts with the virus, will require the active collaboration and unencumbered work of many scientific groups. (
  • Data describing seasonality, epidemiology, transmission patterns and disease burden from human influenza in the African Region is limited. (
  • The discovery of these mutations when the virus has not still acquired an ability to transmit from human to human gives us all, the entire world, time to prepare for possible mutations and react in an adequate and timely fashion," Popova said. (
  • Influenza experts admitted today that they have been startled by the discovery this season of an unexpectedly high number of human flu viruses that appear to be naturally resistant to Tamiflu , the drug that countries around the world are stockpiling for use in the next flu pandemic. (
  • At the Los Alamos sequence database, there are 1030 N1 sequences from H1N1 human isolates . (
  • Pork industry is blurring the science of swine flu virus - is a story published April 30, 2009 in New Scientist which details efforts on the part of world human and animal health organizations to protect the pork industry from swine flu fallout. (
  • Therefore, the theory is simple: if the world didn't eat as much pork, then there would be less demand to breed pigs in such large quantities, reducing the number of "mixing vessels", thus slowing the rate of emergence of new influenza viruses capable of harming human health. (
  • Unfortunately, at this stage of the epidemic, the swine flu virus is traveling through the population via direct human-to-human transmission, i.e., one sick person passing the virus onto others. (
  • Materials and methods: The first two human cases infected by this S-OIV subtype H1N1 or H1N1 2009 in Thailand have been reported in May 12, 2009 by the Ministry of Public Health. (
  • The overall public health risk from currently known influenza viruses at the human-animal interface has not changed, and the likelihood of sustained human-to-human transmission of these viruses remains low. (
  • Information from these notifications is critical to inform risk assessments for influenza at the human-animal interface. (
  • Most human cases were exposed to A(H5) viruses through contact with infected poultry or contaminated environments, including live poultry markets. (
  • Since the viruses continue to be detected in animals and environments, further human cases can be expected. (
  • 2. What is the likelihood of human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A(H5) viruses? (
  • The qPCR Kit for Human influenza A virus subtype (H1) genomes is designed for the in vitro quantification of H1 genomes. (
  • Affinity Groups and discuss a concept supported both by animal and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention into the spinal can you buy zyloprim cord and causes limb weakness, especially during the preceding 4 weeks later and a hurricane prone area. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in the European influenza 2015/16 season. (
  • The first weekly influenza surveillance report of the 2010-2011 season (week 40, week ending October 9, 2010) will be published on October 15, 2010. (
  • Influenza is present at low levels in pigs throughout the world, and is monitored by the voluntary USDA Swine Influenza Surveillance Program, although it is not a reportable or regulated disease. (
  • A description of the CDC influenza surveillance system, including methodology and detailed descriptions of each data component is available on the surveillance methods page. (
  • Additional information on the current and previous influenza seasons for each surveillance component are available on FluView Interactive . (
  • Surveillance data about influenza disease inform the planning and strategy for efforts to reduce the future impact of influenza on the health and medical readiness of the Armed Forces. (
  • The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch conducts weekly surveillance of influenza activity among Department of Defense (DOD) populations each influenza season. (
  • Continued weekly surveillance of influenza among DOD populations is crucial to track increases in activity each season and the potential emergence of new and/or severe influenza subtypes. (
  • As such, it is important to conduct annual surveillance of each influenza season to identify the onset and patterns of activity, emergence of drifted or shifted subtypes, and severity of the season. (
  • The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch of the Defense Health Agency utilizes electronic sources of ambulatory medical encounters, hospitalizations, and laboratory data to conduct annual influenza surveillance among all Department of Defense (DOD) beneficiaries across the world. (
  • Weekly reports are generated to provide near real-time influenza surveillance data for each of the DOD Combatant Commands. (
  • This report provides a summary of DOD influenza surveillance data for the 2018-2019 influenza season. (
  • This report summarizes surveillance for influenza in the United States and worldwide during the 1991-92 season and describes the composition of the 1992-93 influenza vaccine. (
  • A small number of influenza cases are reported voluntarily through sentinel surveillance networks composed of laboratories, hospitals, physicians, nurses, schools, and universities located throughout the state. (
  • Additional resources include web-based influenza and ILI reporting systems, as well as local and regional health departments that gather data from surveillance participants in their jurisdictions. (
  • Data from all sources are reported to the DSHS Central Office in Austin, compiled, and presented weekly in the Texas Influenza Surveillance Report. (
  • Influenza surveillance in Texas continues year-round, although in reduced capacity during the summer months. (
  • Surveillance for the latter mortality component was initiated during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic and was discontinued as of May 21, 2011. (
  • We estimated the daily effective reproduction number ( R t ), a real-time measure of transmissibility, for each influenza type/subtype using data from the subtropical city of Hong Kong, which has excellent influenza surveillance data, near year-round circulation of influenza, and considerable variations in environmental factors and pollutant levels. (
  • We used influenza-associated SARI surveillance data for one year to estimate the numerator and hospital admission surveys to estimate the population denominator for each site. (
  • Robust vital statistics and civil registration, well-functioning surveillance systems, hospital discharge databases and the expansion of influenza molecular testing have allowed more countries to complete influenza burden estimations. (
  • The influenza surveillance program in Egypt is part of the influenza surveillance network being established in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). (
  • An active community surveillance at the time of emergence of pandemic influenza provided us with an opportunity to compare the clinical features among patients infected with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus and those with influenza B virus co-circulating in an active community-based weekly surveillance in three villages in Faridabad, Haryana, north India. (
  • Pigs, however, possess receptors for both avian and mammalian viruses and are postulated to be the host in which influenza viruses of different origins can genetically reassort ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Genetic and serologic characterization showed that these viruses have high homology to each other and to swine influenza viruses recently circulating among pigs in North America. (
  • However, there is a theory that the large-scale breeding of pigs to satiate the ever-growing demands of pork-eating empires, both in the East and the West, may have a significant role to play in the development of new, disease-causing, influenza viruses. (
  • The objective of the study was to investigate the pathogenesis of these two virus subtypes in 22-day-old Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) pigs. (
  • The severity of the diseases, however, with regards to lung lesions both gross and microscopic lesions was greater in the H1N1-infected pigs. (
  • The turkey isolates were better adapted to avian hosts than were their closest swine counterparts, which suggests that the viruses had already begun to evolve in the new host. (
  • Clade 1 viruses appear to be 15 to 30 times more sensitive to oseltamivir than clade 2 isolates from Indonesia and Turkey ,56,57 although the possible clinical relevance of such differences in oseltamivir susceptibility remains to be determined. (
  • Influenza A(H1N1) viruses were isolated most frequently in the mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions and accounted for 30% and 52% of influenza A isolates, respectively. (
  • Although influenza A(H1N1) viruses were isolated less frequently worldwide, Belgium and Japan reported that A(H1N1) viruses constituted the majority of isolates and were isolated from outbreaks. (
  • Recently, a number of countries in the region (please see the table) have reported increasing trend of severe influenza cases caused by influenza A(H1N1) pdm09. (
  • 77(36), 46.7% ] sponsible for majority of severe infec- the circulating viruses as any change tions in these countries. (
  • While in Northern hemisphere countries, the pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm) was introduced outside of the typical influenza season, Southern hemisphere countries experienced a single wave of transmission during their 2009 winter season. (
  • CDC genetically characterized 589 influenza viruses collected since May 1, 2022. (
  • Viruses 2022 v.14 no.2 pp. (
  • Angiezel Merced-Morales, M.P.H., from the CDC in Atlanta, and colleagues summarized influenza activity during the period of Oct. 3, 2021, to June 11, 2022, in the United States. (
  • Two distinct waves were seen in influenza activity: a first wave that peaked in mid-December 2021 and a second wave with peaks ranging from mid-March to May 2022. (
  • For their interim report for the 2021-2022 season, the researchers examined data on 3,636 children and adults seeking care for ARIs enrolled in the U.S Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network from Oct. 4, 2021 to Feb. 12, 2022. (
  • Among the positive tests, 41% had received the 2021-2022 influenza vaccine, versus 50% of those who tested negative. (
  • There are different subtypes of avian influenza viruses. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: A new sentinel system, capable of rapidly determining the estimated incidence of pandemic influenza, and pandemic influenza vaccine and antiviral uptake and effectiveness in preventing influenza and influenza-related clinical outcomes, has been created. (
  • To explore the role of demography in explaining differences in transmission intensity, we then fitted a dynamic age-structured model of influenza transmission to available incidence data for each country independently, and for all the countries simultaneously. (
  • While at CDC Dr. Havers research interests have focused on the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of influenza. (
  • Objective: To describe and attempt to predict the epidemiology of the novel H1N1 2009 in Bangkok and to evaluate the effects of school closures during the outbreaks. (
  • Diagnostic codes and clinical terms were used to create definitions for diagnosed COVID-19, influenza, and RSV. (
  • Influenza traditionally has been diagnosed on the basis of clinical criteria, but rapid diagnostic tests, which have a high degree of specificity but only moderate sensitivity, are becoming more widely used. (
  • I am delighted to welcome you to today's COCA call: 2015 to 2016 Influenza Activity and Clinical Recommendations. (
  • See Clinical Presentation for more detailed information on the signs and symptoms of pediatric influenza. (
  • See Clinical Presentation and Workup for more detailed information on the diagnosis of pediatric influenza. (
  • Background & objectives: Most studies on the clinical presentation with influenza viruses have been conducted in outpatient or inpatient medical facilities with only a few studies in community settings. (
  • Risk assessment of the 2015-2016 influenza season in the WHO European Region, week 40/2015 to week 04/2016 2016. (
  • the U.S. Virgin Islands reported no influenza activity, and Puerto Rico did not report. (
  • The District of Columbia and 34 states reported no influenza activity, and the U.S. Virgin Islands and two states did not report. (
  • Estimates of the incubation distribution for the pandemic influenza were derived through parametric time-to-event analyses of data on onset of symptoms and exposure dates, accounting for interval censoring. (
  • A detail guide on cause and symptoms of Swine Flu or H1N1 influenza with homeopathic medicine for Swine Flu or H1N1 Influenza. (
  • By comparison, an average of 435 influenza hospitalizations (range: 281--511) (15.8 cases per 100,000) were reported during three previous influenza seasons (Figure). (
  • We characterized this distribution for a generic group of symptomatic cases using laboratory-confirmed swine influenza case-information. (
  • Influenza and influenza-like illnesses (ILI) were last reportable by law in any county in Texas in 1993 ( 1 ). (