Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Mice, Inbred C57BLDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Neurogenic Inflammation: Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Mice, Inbred BALB CDermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Turpentine: The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Ileitis: Inflammation of any segment of the ILEUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.ArthritisCyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid: A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Lipoxins: Trihydroxy derivatives of eicosanoic acids. They are primarily derived from arachidonic acid, however eicosapentaenoic acid derivatives also exist. Many of them are naturally occurring mediators of immune regulation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Pleurisy: INFLAMMATION of PLEURA, the lining of the LUNG. When PARIETAL PLEURA is involved, there is pleuritic CHEST PAIN.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Rats, Inbred LewNitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Chemokine CXCL2: A CXC chemokine that is synthesized by activated MONOCYTES and NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Chemokine CXCL1: A CXC chemokine with specificity for CXCR2 RECEPTORS. It has growth factor activities and is implicated as a oncogenic factor in several tumor types.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Colitis, Ulcerative: Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.ZymosanCrohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Toll-Like Receptors: A family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR and the DROSOPHILA toll protein. Following pathogen recognition, toll-like receptors recruit and activate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (1/26264)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Inflammatory cell-mediated tumour progression and minisatellite mutation correlate with the decrease of antioxidative enzymes in murine fibrosarcoma cells. (2/26264)

We isolated six clones of weakly tumorigenic fibrosarcoma (QR) from the tumorigenic clone BMT-11 cl-9. The QR clones were unable to grow in normal C57BL/6 mice when injected s.c. (1x10(5) cells). However, they formed aggressive tumours upon co-implantation with a 'foreign body', i.e. a gelatin sponge, and the rate of tumour take ranged from 8% to 58% among QR clones. The enhanced tumorigenicity was due to host cell-mediated reaction to the gelatin sponge (inflammation). Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activity assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of tumour formation by QR clones and the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, P<0.005) and glutathione peroxidase (GPchi, P<0.01) in the respective tumour clones. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide-scavenging ability of cell lysates of the QR clone with high level of Mn-SOD was significantly higher than that with low level of the antioxidative enzyme in the presence of potassium cyanide, an inhibitor for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (P<0.001). Minisatellite mutation (MSM) induced by the inflammatory cells in tumour cells were investigated by DNA fingerprint analysis after QR clones had been co-cultured with gelatin-sponge-reactive cells. The MSM rate was significantly higher in the subclones with low levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi (P<0.05) than in the subclones with high levels of both enzymes. The MSM of the subclones with low levels of both enzymes was inhibited in the presence of mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger. The content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by which the cellular DNA damage caused by active oxygen species can be assessed was significantly low in the tumours arising from the QR clone with high levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi even if the clone had been co-implanted with gelatin sponge, compared with the arising tumour from the QR clone with low levels of those antioxidative enzymes (P<0.001). In contrast, CuZn-SOD and catalase levels in the six QR clones did not have any correlation with tumour progression parameters. These results suggest that tumour progression is accelerated by inflammation-induced active oxygen species particularly accompanied with declined levels of intracellular antioxidative enzymes in tumour cells.  (+info)

Mechanisms of prostaglandin E2 release by intact cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2: evidence for a 'two-component' model. (3/26264)

Prostaglandin (PG) release in cells expressing constitutive cyclooxygenase-1 is known to be regulated by liberation of arachidonic acid by phospholipase A2 followed by metabolism by cyclooxygenase. However, the relative contribution of phospholipase A2 to the release of PGs in cells expressing cyclooxygenase-2 is not clear. We addressed this question by using radioimmunoassay to measure PGE2 release by human cells (A549) induced to express cyclooxygenase-2 (measured by Western blot analysis) by interleukin-1beta. Cells were either unstimulated or stimulated with agents known to activate phospholipase A2 (bradykinin, Des-Arg10-kallidin, or the calcium ionophore A23187) or treated with exogenous arachidonic acid. When cells were treated to express cyclooxygenase-2, the levels of PGE2 released over 15 min were undetectable; however, in the same cells stimulated with bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid, large amounts of prostanoid were produced. Using selective inhibitors/antagonists, we found that the effects of bradykinin were mediated by B2 receptor activation and that prostanoid release was due to cyclooxygenase-2, and not cyclooxygenase-1, activity. In addition, we show that the release of PGE2 stimulated by either bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid was inhibited by the phospholipase A2 inhibitor arachidonate trifluoromethyl ketone. Hence, we have demonstrated that PGE2 is released by two components: induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and supply of substrate, probably via activation of phospholipase A2. This is illustrated in A549 cells by a clear synergy between the cytokine interleukin-1beta and the kinin bradykinin.  (+info)

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome without systemic inflammation in acutely ill patients admitted to hospital in a medical emergency. (4/26264)

Criteria of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are known to include patients without systemic inflammation. Our aim was to explore additional markers of inflammation that would distinguish SIRS patients with systemic inflammation from patients without inflammation. The study included 100 acutely ill patients with SIRS. Peripheral blood neutrophil and monocyte CD11b expression, serum interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein were determined, and severity of inflammation was evaluated by systemic inflammation composite score based on CD11b expression, C-reactive protein and cytokine levels. Levels of CD11b expression, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were higher in sepsis patients than in SIRS patients who met two criteria (SIRS2 group) or three criteria of SIRS (SIRS3 group). The systemic inflammation composite score of SIRS2 patients (median 1.5; range 0-8, n=56) was lower than that of SIRS3 patients (3.5; range 0-9, n=14, P=0.013) and that of sepsis patients (5.0; range 3-10, n=19, P<0.001). The systemic inflammation composite score was 0 in 13/94 patients. In 81 patients in whom systemic inflammation composite scores exceeded 1, interleukin-6 was increased in 64 (79.0%), C-reactive protein in 59 (72.8%) and CD11b in 50 (61.7%). None of these markers, when used alone, identified all patients but at least one marker was positive in each patient. Quantifying phagocyte CD11b expression and serum interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein concurrently provides a means to discriminate SIRS patients with systemic inflammation from patients without systemic inflammation.  (+info)

5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. I. Synthesis and degradation in resident and inflammatory populations. (5/26264)

Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages display sufficient 5'-nucleotidase activity to hydrolyze 58 nm AMP/min per cell protein. This activity increases approximately 163 nm AMP/min per mg after 72 h in culture. The enzyme is renewed in unstimulated cells with a half-time of 13.9 h. The activity is not reduced by treatment of intact cells with a variety of proteolytic enzymes, including trypsin, pronase, urokinase, and plasmin. Cells obtained from an inflammatory exudate have diminished or absent levels of enzyme activity. Endotoxin-elicited cells display enzyme activitiy of 20.9 nm AMP/min per mg, while thioglycollate-stimulated macrophages have no detectable activity. The reduced level of activity in endotoxin-stimulated cells is due to their elevated rate of enzyme degradation, with a half-time of 6.9 h. Their rate of enzyme synthesis is essentially normal. No evidence for latent enzyme activity could be obtained in thioglycollate-stimulated cells, nor do these cells produce any inhibition of normal cell enzyme activity. Serum deprivation reduces the enzyme activity of resident cells to about 45% of control activity. These conditions do not significantly affect the rate of enzyme synthesis, but again are explainable by an increase in the rate of enzyme degradation. Pinocytic rate is elevated in endotoxin-stimulated cells which show a more rapid rate of enzyme degradation than unstimulated cells do. However, in serum-free conditions, the rate of enzyme degradation is doubled with no change in the pinocytic rate of the cells.  (+info)

5'-Nucleotidase activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages. II. Cellular distribution and effects of endocytosis. (6/26264)

The diazonium salt of sulfanilic acid (DASA) can inactivate about 80% of the total 5'-nucleotidase of viable macrophages. The remaining 20% can be inactivated if the cells are first lysed in detergent, and presumably represents an intracellular pool of 5'-nucleotidase. The bulk of this pool may represent cytoplasmic vesicles derived from plasma membrane by endocytosis. This internal compartment is expanded up to threefold immediately after the cells have ingested a large latex load. This is consistent with previous observations on the internalization of 5'-nucleotidase in latex phagosomes. In latex-filled cells this intracellular pool of enzyme is inactivated over a few hours, and the cells then slowly increase their enzyme activity to nearly normal levels. However, 24 h after latex ingestion the metabolism of 5'-nucleotidase in these recovered cells is abnormal, as the rate of enzyme degradation is about twice the normal rate, and the DASA-insensitive enzyme pool in these cells is strikingly diminished. This may reflect effects of the accumulated indigestible particles on the fate of incoming pinocytic vesicles or on newly synthesized plasma membrane precursor. Another endocytic stimulus, concanavalin A, also reduces the total cell 5'-nucleotidase activity. This effect, which is time and temperature dependent, can be prevented by the competitive sugar alpha-methyl mannose. The concanavalin A inhibition can be reversed in the absence of new protein synthesis or in cells cultivated in serum-free conditions. It is not known whether the effect of concanavalin A on 5'-nucleotidase depends upon the interiorizaiton of plasma membrane or is strictly associated with events at the cell surface.  (+info)

Mechanism-based cancer prevention approaches: targets, examples, and the use of transgenic mice. (7/26264)

Humans are exposed to a wide variety of carcinogenic insults, including endogenous and man-made chemicals, radiation, physical agents, and viruses. The ultimate goal of carcinogenesis research is to elucidate the processes involved in the induction of human cancer so that interventions may be developed to prevent the disease, either in the general population or in susceptible subpopulations. Progress to date in the carcinogenesis field, particularly regarding the mechanisms of chemically induced cancer, has revealed several points along the carcinogenesis pathway that may be amenable to mechanism-based prevention strategies. The purpose of this review is to examine the basic mechanisms and stages of chemical carcinogenesis, with an emphasis on ways in which preventive interventions can modify those processes. Possible ways of interfering with tumor initiation events include the following: i) modifying carcinogen activation by inhibiting enzymes responsible for that activation or by direct scavenging of DNA-reactive electrophiles and free radicals; ii) enhancing carcinogen detoxification processes by altering the activity of the detoxifying enzymes; and iii) modulating certain DNA repair processes. Possible ways of blocking the processes involved in the promotion and progression stages of carcinogenesis include the following: i) scavenging of reactive oxygen species; ii) altering the expression of genes involved in cell signaling, particularly those regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation; and iii) decreasing inflammation. In addition, the utility for mechanism-based cancer prevention research of new animal models that are based on the overexpression or inactivation of specific cancer-related genes is examined.  (+info)

Matrix valency regulates integrin-mediated lymphoid adhesion via Syk kinase. (8/26264)

Lymphocytes accumulate within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumor, wound, or inflammatory tissues. These tissues are largely comprised of polymerized adhesion proteins such as fibrin and fibronectin or their fragments. Nonactivated lymphoid cells attach preferentially to polymerized ECM proteins yet are unable to attach to monomeric forms or fragments of these proteins without previous activation. This adhesion event depends on the appropriate spacing of integrin adhesion sites. Adhesion of nonactivated lymphoid cells to polymeric ECM components results in activation of the antigen receptor-associated Syk kinase that accumulates in adhesion-promoting podosomes. In fact, activation of Syk by antigen or agonists, as well as expression of an activated Syk mutant in lymphoid cells, facilitates their adhesion to monomeric ECM proteins or their fragments. These results reveal a cooperative interaction between signals emanating from integrins and antigen receptors that can serve to regulate stable lymphoid cell adhesion and retention within a remodeling ECM.  (+info)

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Cellular inflammation or The Silent Killer article from the Time Magazine discusses the growth of medical studies about inflammation and the effects of silent inflammation on the whole body.
Inflammation can be categorized as two types, chronic and acute. When the body is exposed to harmful stimuli, such as an injury, bacteria or a foreign body, the immune system is triggered resulting in inflammation. This kind of immune response typically lasts for a short period of time and is known as acute inflammation. It is part of the bodys immune response and is a healthy reaction. Inflammation becomes a health problem when it transforms into a long-term, ongoing condition known as chronic inflammation. 2. Chronic Inflammation. Chronic inflammation can exist for a long time in a persons body without any noticeable symptoms. The process can be the result of three possible causes. Some types of chronic inflammation begin as a bout of acute inflammation after which the immune response does not shut off. Another cause of chronic inflammation is when the immune system launches an attack on healthy tissue by mistaking it for a pathogen. Lastly, chronic inflammation can result from the ...
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Statins Lower Cardiovascular Disease by Lowering Inflammation (LDL Not Important). The JUPITER study showed that the statin Crestor was effective in lowering heart disease, because it lowered inflammation. Individuals with chronic inflammation responded to Crestor by lowering inflammation. Lowering of LDL levels, however, was not related to decreasing disease. Elevated LDL levels may reflect inflammation.. Relating the JUPITER results to the AHA conclusions suggests that LA and AA may reduce inflammation and as a consequence also reduce serum LDL.. Inflammation Is the Cellular and Tissue Response to Many Stresses. The list of pathogens that trigger inflammation is long and includes specific signals from viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Pathogen-caused damage, as well as physical trauma, cause inflammation. Disruption of cellular metabolism and energy flow by vitamin, mineral, amino acid, or fatty acid deficiencies or excesses all produce inflammation. One of the difficulties of diagnosis ...
Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Inflamm-aging, the age-related increase in low-grade chronic inflammation, may be a common link in age-related diseases. This review summarizes recent published data on potential cellular and molecular mechanisms of the age-related increase in inflammation, and how these contribute to decreased humoral immune responses in aged mice and humans. Briefly, we cover how aging and related inflammation decrease antibody responses in mice and humans, and how obesity contributes to the mechanisms for aging through increased inflammation. We also report data in the literature showing adipose tissue infiltration with immune cells and how these cells are recruited and contribute to local and systemic inflammation. We show that several types of immune cells infiltrate the adipose tissue and these include macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), eosinophils, T cells, B1 and B2 cells. Our main focus is how the adipose tissue
Abstract Age-associated chronic inflammation is characterized by unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation with multivariable low-grade, chronic and systemic responses that exacerbate the aging process and age-related chronic diseases. Currently, there are two major hypotheses related to the involvement of chronic inflammation in the aging process: molecular inflammation of aging and inflammaging. However, neither of these hypotheses satisfactorily addresses age-related chronic inflammation, considering the recent advances that have been made in inflammation research. A more comprehensive view of age-related inflammation, that has a scope beyond the conventional view, is therefore required. In this review, we discuss newly emerging data on multi-phase inflammatory networks and proinflammatory pathways as they relate to aging. We describe the age-related upregulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling, cytokines/chemokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammasome, and lipid accumulation. ...
The present investigation is the first to prospectively evaluate, in apparently healthy adults, the relationship between the development of an extensive array of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation on the one hand and arterial stiffness on the other. The study had 3 main findings. First, biomarker scores for endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation were associated with greater arterial stiffness over a 6-year period. The biomarker score for endothelial dysfunction was associated with greater femoral artery stiffness, whereas the biomarker score for low-grade inflammation was associated with both greater carotid and femoral artery stiffness. However, both the biomarker scores for endothelial dysfunction and low-grade inflammation were not associated with stiffness of the carotid-femoral segment. Endothelial dysfunction and/or low-grade inflammation may, thus, affect arterial stiffening in a way that depends on the arterial territory under study.34 Second, ...
Although inflammation is one of the bodys first responses to infection, overactive immune responses can cause chronic inflammatory diseases. Long-term low-grade inflammation has also been identified as a risk factor for other diseases. Diet, immunity and inflammation provides a comprehensive introduction to immunity and inflammation and the role that diet and nutrition play with regard to this key bodily response. Part one, an introductory section, discusses innate and adaptive immunity, mucosal immunity in a healthy gut and chronic inflammatory diseases and low grade inflammation. Chapters in part two highlight the role of micronutrients, including zinc, selenium, iron, vitamin A and vitamin D, in inflammation and immunity. Part three explores other dietary constituents and includes chapters on intestinal bacteria and probiotics, the impacts of prebiotics on the immune system and inflammation, and antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of food bioactive proteins and ...
Excess inflammation can cause major issues in our bodies and might destroy our efforts toward getting beautiful skin and a fit physique. Our 24/7 workweeks, lack of sleep, and high stress levels can dramatically increase inflammation in the body and leave us looking and feeling completely worn out.. Inflammation isnt always a bad thing. Its part of the bodys immune response and its initially beneficial in the healing process. It helps heal wounds and protects the body from environmental factors. Additionally, an inflammatory response takes place during exercise to help the body adapt.. Inflammation becomes a problem when we are overtaxed and acute inflammation (healthy, necessary) leads to chronic inflammation (where all the problems take place). Chronic inflammation is caused by our lifestyles. If we overexercise, overeat, dont get enough sleep, and live stressful lives, we most likely have excess inflammation. This alone could be sabotaging our health goals. Our first goal should be to ...
One of the amazing things your body does is to protect itself against disease. When bacteria or viruses invade your body, or you cut yourself, your white blood cells and the substances they produce will protect you, and start healing the damage. The affected area swells up and hurts. This process is called inflammation.. However, when something goes wrong and a body cant turn off the inflammation response, or it turns on at the wrong time, inflammation can cause arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, and can even lead to cancer.. The signal that turns inflammation on or off in a cell is controlled by a complex network of proteins. That signal is passed between the proteins one step at a time.. Professor Catherine Day, Dr Adam Middleton, and their colleagues in the Otago Department of Biochemistry are very interested in one of the key proteins involved, TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6).. A cell first learns that it needs to turn on inflammation through a sensor (receptor) on its ...
Hello! This week I thought Id share how to treat low-grade inflammation. Ive written previously some general information about low-grade inflammation HERE and promised then to return with tips how to treat this condition. So here you have it, the post how to treat low-grade inflammation with lifestyle choices like diet and training etc. Ill divide this post to two parts as its going to be way too long otherwise. In the first part Ill write down the general guidelines and ideas to follow when treating low-grade inflammation. In the second part Ill sketch a day of a person who wants to treat low-grade inflammation. Good news is that treating this condition isnt really rocket science. Common sense and healthy lifestyle give a lot of lever. Actually anyone interested in optimizing their health would benefit from these tips.. Vegetables: Think of vegetables and fruits as the base of your diet. Vibrantly colored vegetables are the best as they contain the biggest amounts of vitamins and ...
Question - Does Toradol IV for intestinal inflammation cause side effects on vagina and anal area ?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Toradol, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
A potential new strategy to developing new drugs to control inflammation without serious side effects has been found by Georgia State University researchers and international colleagues.. Jian-Dong Li, director of Georgia States Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and his team discovered that blocking a certain pathway involved in the biological process of inflammation will suppress it.. Inhibiting a molecule called phosphodiesterase 4B, or PDE4B, suppresses inflammation by affecting a key gene called CLYD, a gene that serves as a brake on inflammation.. The research was published in the journal Nature Communications.. Li explained the process of overactive inflammation using a "police" analogy.. When a pathogen - such as bacteria or viruses -- infects a patient, he said, it triggers an "alarm" to which the "police" of immune system respond. In turn, it triggers neutrophil attractant called cytokines to respond, leading to inflammation that serves to help rid the body of the ...
My point here is that all of the so-called lifestyle diseases are also based on inflammation. I checked the research literature for studies of the response of each of these diseases to diets supplemented with omega-3 fish oils. Studies had been performed in each case. Reduction of inflammation by fish oil treatment was uniformly effective in reducing symptoms of all of the degenerative diseases. Other diseases that can be added to the inflammatory list are spinal disc problems and hypertension. It is interesting that disc dislocations are associated with coeliac, an inflammatory/autoimmune disease. It is also interesting that acne and depression are listed. Acne is indirectly associated with diet, but if sufferers shift to an anti-inflammatory diet, acne symptoms disappear. Depression associated with childbirth is particularly responsive to anti-inflammatory drugs, diet and exercise. Most of the symptoms associated with aging are just due to inflammation and are similarly responsive to ...
Countless people have a hard time each day with the pain of joint inflammation, along with no comfort in sight. Joint inflammation confines flexibility as well as often results in discomfort or even soreness. Thankfully, the suggestions within this short article is actually meant that can help you adapt with joint inflammation.. Presuming positive thoughts could aid you to deal along with joint inflammation discomfort. That could sound absurd, yet a strong mind/body link carries out exist. This is actually complicated for your physical body to really feel bad if your thoughts assumes favorable. Load your life along with happiness as well as you may merely locate that your discomfort quickly decreases.. Look at participating in a joint inflammation self-help group. Buddies as well as loved one who do not deal with joint inflammation might have a difficult opportunity recognizing precisely what you are going with as well as the amount of that impacts your lifestyle. Attaching with various other ...
Inflammation not only occurs when we do something like twist an ankle or wrist or land wrong on a knee or elbow, it can also occur if we are unhealthy.. In a recent study, researchers found that overweight men are at greater risk of inflammation than men of the same age who are more fit. This was largely due to unfit men having a higher white blood cell count than healthier men. For women, inflammation drops when they lose weight. A different study found that obese women who lost more than 5% of their body weight had lower levels of inflammation markers.. While inflammation can help a body heal, it has a time and place. That means if we are unhealthy and causing our bodies to become inflamed regularly, we can be at risk for several types of cancer and even heart disease.. Perhaps most shocking, if inflammation is occurring so often that it becomes a part of your every day life, it can lead to hyperactive healing that can damage tissues and even result in chronic inflammation. If inflammation ...
Hi there. New Zealand naturopath, Eric Bakker, author of Candida Crusher. Formulator of the Canxida range of products. Were going to talk about the connection between inflammation and Candida today. Its quite a well-known connection between different kinds of infections and inflammation, but lets first talk a little bit about what inflammation really is.. Inflammation itself is not really that bad, in fact, its a necessary response from the body to heal itself. So when you get a cut or a bite or a wound or a sting, inflammation is normal and an acute inflammatory response will occur by way of the immune system. This is how we heal. Acute bronchitis, a mosquito bite, a cut to a finger when youre cutting up something in the kitchen. Inflammation is normal. It can cause a bit of pain, a bit of redness, a bit of swelling, and this will usually subside in a few days or a week and it will be gone. Thats an acute inflammatory response.. A chronic inflammatory response, however, can go on and on ...
However, chronic inflammation is something that we are seeing all too often and is not a good thing. Our body can become chronically inflamed when ongoing stress, poor diet and unhealthy lifestyles put increasing amounts of pressure on our body and we begin to react to things that shouldnt trigger an inflammatory response, or at least not an ongoing one. Autoimmune disease is a consequence of chronic inflammation- in autoimmune disease our body decides its own healthy cells are invaders, and so mounts an immune response to them. Examples of autoimmune disease include coeliac disease, Hashimotos and Rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation puts our body into a state of disharmony and imbalance, and research is now suggesting that chronic inflammation is potentially the root cause of various diseases, including depression, fibromyalgia, endometriosis, migraines, diabetes and insulin resistance to name a few. Some common signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation include headaches, joint pain, chronic ...
The inflammatory process.. Image: BloodJournal. Acute inflammation and chronic inflammation are different. Acute inflammation starts the minute we drop a hammer on our toe or cut a finger, or even come into contact with a virus. Its a good, natural thing.. Chronic inflammation can last for months or even years - meaning that our cells are constantly under attack. We age faster, we get sick more easily, and we can start to deteriorate because the body is fighting us instead of a real disease or injury.. The amazing reality is that we can stop chronic inflammation and allow the body to go about healing us from just about everything - from the cells to entire sets of muscle, neural tissue, and joints, by halting chronic inflammation. Lets start with herbal remedies.. You can heal inflammation with the following powerful, anti-inflammatory herbs and spices:. ...
I find myself talking a lot about inflammation, purchase as a result of diet and exercise. Its usually questions I receive from non-CrossFitters like: what is inflammation, and why is it bad? Does it matter?. Inflammation is actually a good, essential part of life; the response our body gets from exercise, a bump, a cut are forms of acute inflammation. What were trying to halt is chronic inflammation. Im not crazy about my answers, so Im going to do some research on inflammation. Heres some of my early reading.. What is Inflammation. How to Tell If Youre Inflamed. The Relationship Between Exercise and Inflammation.. ...
Chronic inflammation is the fire behind many chronic pathologies. However, it does not have outward signs like a rash swelling. Because of this we must use various approaches to unmask the presence of chronic inflammation. By looking at foods we eat and our sensitivity to them, or toxic levels, lower levels of nutrients and markers of chronic inflammation we can find out how much inflammation is causing stress on our genetics and causing signs and symptoms to become worse. By doing detective work early, we can prevent many conditions from even occurring in the first place.. Low-grade, chronic inflammation- lasting for months or even years- is associated with a wide range of health conditions. Metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, Alzheimers, and heart disease can all be linked back to inflammation (and often NOT the causes people originally thought, like eating healthy fats or cholestrol).. This type of inflammation is caused by an excessive stress load ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic inflammation in COPD in relation to smoking status. AU - Serapinas, Danielius. AU - Narbekovas, Andrius. AU - Juškevicius, Jonas. AU - Sakalauskas, Raimundas. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Background and aims: Smoking is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has been recently defined as a systemic pulmonary inflammatory disease. However, the impact of smoking itself on systemic inflammation in COPD patients has not yet been well established. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between inflammatory markers and smoking status. Material and methods: We compared 202 current smokers, 61 ex-smokers and 57 never-smokers, all COPD patients. Assessments included medical history, spirometry, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) genotyping, serum AAT, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- &αλπηα;, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR)-1 and sTNFR-2 concentrations. Results: AAT and CRP ...
Heart health and inflammation - you might not have thought that these two are all that connected to each other. But scientists have learned that long-term, persistent inflammation in the body can actually lead to heart disease (and potentially fatal coronary events such as heart attacks).
Complement Inhibition Promotes Endogenous Neurogenesis and Sustained Anti-Inflammatory Neuroprotection following Reperfused Stroke. Ducruet, Andrew F.; Zacharia, Brad E.; Sosunov, Sergey A.; Gigante, Paul R.; Yeh, Mason L.; Gorski, Justin W.; Otten, Marc L.; Hwang, Richard Y.; DeRosa, Peter A.; Hickman, Zachary L.; Sergot, Paulina; Sander Connolly, Jr., E. // PLoS ONE;Jun2012, Vol. 7 Issue 6, p1 Background and Purpose: The restoration of blood-flow following cerebral ischemia incites a series of deleterious cascades that exacerbate neuronal injury. Pharmacologic inhibition of the C3a-receptor ameliorates cerebral injury by attenuating post-ischemic inflammation. Recent reports also... ...
Inflammation is the bodys healthy immune response to infections, injury or illness. Once the body finishes healing itself then the inflammation should stop Yet sometimes it doesnt. When inflammation flares up and burns out of control, this is when trouble occurs This could possibly take a toll on the rest of the body
Inflammation is a protective process that the body engages in response to harmful stimuli (like damaged cells or something the body comes into contact with that causes disease). Inflammation is necessary for maintaining good health and without it wounds and infections would never heal. However, persistent and constant inflammation can damage tissue and organs, and lead to diseases.. Feinstein Institute researchers are studying a variety of diseases associated with inflammation. These include autoimmune diseases (when the immune system attacks normal body components) such as Lupus and Arthritis, septic shock (caused by excessive inflammation), cancer and several conditions caused by inflammation induced damage of organs like the heart, the lungs and the spinal cord.. Feinstein Institute investigators conducting inflammation research include Yousef Al-Abed; Ona E. Bloom; Vincent R. Bonagura; Nicholas Chiorazzi; Anne Davidson; Betty Diamond; Richard Alan Furie; Daniel A. Grande; Peter K. Gregersen; ...
Inflammation? Forget about the immune system… It is all about the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway!. It is not the immune system what tells the immune cells what to do…. It is actually impossible because immune cells are the part of the immune system so how could part of (something) immune system could tell itself what to do?. Sure, immune cells cooperate and communicate but they must have and do have some "boss" - it is the nervous system.. Nervous system controls the development of all organs and parts of the body. Subsequently during our lives it is the nervous system which often lacks as a result of stress, bad diet, malnutrition and infections.. These negative effects of environment are the underlying cause of various health problems and symptoms. Virtually all chronic health problems are accompanied by inflammation and actually the "Inflammation Causes The Symptoms We Call Diseases".. Yes, it is mostly the inflammation what hurts us not the underlying problem itself.. Before you ...
Other factors such as genetics, overall health, lifestyle, amount of sleep and more play a role as well, but nevertheless, chronic joint inflammation can be a significant contributing factor.. Because it is how our bodies obtain the nutrients they need to thrive and be healthy, diet can be linked to an increased likelihood of developing any of the conditions or diseases above. But diet isnt the only common thread here-chronic joint inflammation can actually be viewed as a precursor to these other conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and the others.. That does not necessarily mean that every person with chronic joint inflammation will develop these other illnesses or conditions, but it does increase the chances.. Unfortunately, outward symptoms of joint inflammation can take years and years to develop, meaning that many people are not even aware of the fact that their joints are inflamed until it becomes painful and inhibits mobility. Luckily though, measuring C-reactive protein (CRP) ...
Omega 3 is the name given to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids; which the body needs but cannot manufacture itself. Omega 3 fats are used as the building blocks for fat derived hormones such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The hormones with an Omega 3 base tend to reduce inflammation, while those that have an Omega 6 base increase inflammation. In the cell membrane the competition between these two essential fats has a direct bearing on the type of local hormone produced and the level of inflammation in the cell.. The omega 6 to omega 3 ratio in the cell membranes is the key to the development of the inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and heart disease. It is also believed that too much inflammation in the body may affect general physical and mental performance in those who are well. Diets low in oily fish and high in grains will promote inflammation and affect good health. The ratio of Omega 6 to 3 in the West is around 15 to 1; i.e. promoting cellular inflammation. ...
Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory disease. Mice with reduced PGE2 synthesis develop systemic inflammation, associated with translocation of gut bacteria, which can be prevented by treatment with EP4 agonists. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGE2-EP4 signaling acts directly on type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), promoting their homeostasis and driving them to produce interleukin-22 (IL-22). Disruption of the ILC-IL-22 axis impairs PGE2-mediated inhibition of systemic inflammation. Hence, the ILC-IL-22 axis is essential in protecting against gut barrier dysfunction, enabling PGE2-EP4 signaling to impede systemic inflammation. ...
British Journal of Nutrition. 2011;106(Suppl 3):S5-78. Low grade inflammation is a characteristic of the obese state, and adipose tissue releases many inflammatory mediators. The source of these mediators within adipose tissue is not clear, but infiltrating macrophages seem to be especially important, although adipocytes themselves play a role. Obese people have higher circulating concentrations of many inflammatory markers than lean people do and these are believed to play a role in causing insulin resistance and other metabolic disturbances. Blood concentrations of inflammatory markers are lowered following weight loss. In the hours following the consumption of a meal there is an elevation in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the bloodstream which is exaggerated in obese subjects and in type 2 diabetics. Both high glucose and high fat meals may induce post-prandial inflammation and this is exaggerated by a high meal content of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs) and partly ...
If a cut on your skin swells up, turns purple, and hurts, these signs are indications of acute, or quick-lived, inflammation. Feeling hot or dropping operate may well be indications of inflammation from other damage to your body. Some inflammation that occurs in your bodys cells or tissues may well not have outward signs.. Inflammation is a ordinary element of the bodys protection to damage or infection, and, in this way, it is beneficial. But inflammation is detrimental when it occurs in healthful tissues or lasts as well very long. Regarded as continual inflammation, it may well persist for months or several years.. Inflammation may well result from a lot of components, this kind of as:. ...
Inflammation is the bodys own crucial defense mechanism against infections, environmental toxins, injury and stress; inflammation helps to protect and repair damaged tissue from these contributing factors. While in comparison, chronic on-going whole-body inflammation causes a whole myriad of long-term health problems such as arthritis, stiffness, reduced mobility, heart disease, cancer, skin conditions, fatigue, diabetes, Alzheimers disease and more. Learn more on what inflammation really does to our bodies and what lifestyle factors increase inflammation.. Eating plenty of anti-inflammatory foods can have a large impact on reducing our circulating inflammatory cytokines to help reduce systemic inflammation and keep our bodies in good health.. As I love to mention, one of the most astounding results I see in Guided Reboots is the level of pain and fatigue reduction and overall wellness that comes from juice because of its ability to reduce inflammation throughout the entire body quickly. ...
The Center for Mucosal Inflammation and Cancer (CMIC) endeavors to position Vanderbilt as the leader in the areas of inflammation and cancer. The CMIC exists to expand the research on the inflammation to cancer sequence, thereby functioning as the central hub for investigators interested in this sequence. Many cancers have their root in chronic inflammation, and this is especially noted in the GI tract. The benchmark for this association is the Helicobacter pylori-induced cascade from gastritis to intestinal metaplasia to dysplasia to carcinoma. Other examples where inflammation is directly implicated in carcinogenesis include esophageal carcinoma, colitis-associated carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic cancer. With the explosion of new insights related to the microbiome and the metabolome, we are at a crossroads. With expertise in microbiology, immunology, inflammation, and carcinogenesis, pertaining to Helicobacter pylori-induced immune dysregulation and gastric
British Journal of Nutrition. 2013;109(Suppl 1):S1-S34. To monitor inflammation in a meaningful way, the markers used must be valid: they must reflect the inflammatory process under study and they must be predictive of future health status. The overall aim of this article is to attempt to identify robust and predictive markers, or patterns or clusters of markers, which can be used to assess inflammation in human nutrition studies in the general population. Inflammation is a normal process and there are a number of cells and mediators involved. These include several blood cell types and numerous peptides, and proteins and lipid mediators that circulate in the bloodstream. These markers are involved in, or are produced as a result of, the inflammatory process irrespective of its trigger and its location. They are common to all inflammatory diseases, to acute and chronic inflammatory responses, and to both high-grade and low-grade inflammation. Currently, there is no consensus as to which markers ...
Inflammation and atherosclerosis share a similar pathophysiologic pathway, and treatments that lower systemic inflammatory markers show a beneficial effect on atherosclerotic complications.18 However, this observation is confounded by the fact that reductions in inflammatory markers are also often accompanied by improvement in "traditional" risk factors such as atherogenic cholesterol levels. For example, the JUPITER trial4 showed a remarkable reduction in cardiovascular mortality in patients with "normal" LDL levels, presumably related to rosuvastatins effect on inflammation, but the LDL levels in rosuvastatin‐treated patients also dropped dramatically, providing an alternate explanation for the reduced cardiac mortality. In this study, we attempted to isolate the anti‐inflammatory effect from the anti‐cholesterol effect by evaluating an anti‐inflammatory treatment that, in fact, worsens the atherogenic lipid profile, and tested its effect on endothelial function in a population with ...
Vasculitis is the name for a whole group of relatively rare diseases that are characterized by inflammation of blood vessels. The totality of all blood vessels in the body to form the vascular system. Blood vessels are generally divided into arteries that deliver to tissues and organs of blood rich in oxygen and veins that carry back to the lungs impoverished oxygen blood from the tissues. The word vasculitis comes from the Latin vasculum (blood vessel) and the suffix IT meaning inflammation. Vasculitis is synonymous with the term angiitis. When inflammation affects the arterial vessels, the condition is also called arteritis, and when they are affected veins - venulit.. Vasculitis disease causes inflammation and damage to the wall of each of the relevant blood vessels. Inflammation can be transient (acute) or be available for a long period of time (chronic). The inflammatory process can vary in severity. In cases expressed the damage to the blood vessel wall violates supply of organs with ...
Inflammation is a self-protecting immune response of the body against harmful stimuli in an attempt to eliminate the stimuli and initiate the healing cascade. Inflammation is essentially a beneficial response that normally resolves with the restoration of normal tissue homeostasis. However, when inflammation persists and becomes chronic inflammation, it can cause tissue damage and loss of function.. Non-resolving inflammation contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, including atherosclerosis, obesity, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, neurodegenerative disease, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Dysregulated inflammatory response leads to non-resolving chronic wounds, which represent a major and increasing socioeconomic threat affecting more than 6.5 million people in the United States, costing in excess of US $25 billion annually.. The primary focus of the inflammation research group at IU School of ...
Most allergy and asthma sufferers are all too familiar with inflammation, but you may not realize that inflammation also plays a key role in arthritis, diabetes, heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and many others. Over the past few decades, scientists have realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different diseases, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases.Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research. Just last month, researchers at U.C. San Diego found a link between inflammation and cancer in the form of a specific protein. In a seperate study last month, psychiatrists at Kings College in London found that people who were physically or sexually abused as children are twice as likely to have inflammatory proteins in their blood. And in yet another study released last month in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, researchers found that men who
Inflammation is acknowledged as a risk factor for the onset and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This has led some to hypothesize that inflammation is a possible mechanism that may mediate, in part, the relation of CVD to factors associated with increased CVD risk-hostility, anger, and depression. This chapter reviews the empirical evidence of the associations between biomarkers of inflammation and hostility, anger and depression, alone and in combination. Before doing so, I present a brief description and review of the role of inflammation in disease development and the methods used to measure inflammation at point-of-care and in research laboratories. Lastly, I review preliminary data suggesting that gender and adiposity may potentially mediate and moderate the relationship between depression and inflammation. ...
For decades, epidemiologic studies have reported a connection between obesity and inflammation. For example, proinflammatory gene expression and blood levels of inflammation-associated proteins-including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein-are elevated among obese subjects. The inflammatory milieu is thought to induce a state of local and systemic insulin resistance, contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. Despite the abundance of epidemiologic evidence, the biological processes linking obesity to the activation of inflammatory pathways are unclear.. The Fas receptor has been well characterized as a regulator of programmed cell death. Now, Wueest et al. propose that Fas may also play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-induced metabolic dysregulation. The authors showed that Fas expression is elevated in the adipose tissue of obese and type 2 diabetic patients relative to lean individuals, as well as in mouse models of obesity and ...
There are natural, healthy foods you can choose which may help reduce and even prevent inflammation. Inflammation is your bodys natural response to injury or infection. Chronic inflammation, also known as internal inflammation is a continuous, system-wide inflammation characterized by constant tearing down then healing of tissues and internal organs. Chronic inflammation may be triggered […]. ...
There are natural, healthy foods you can choose which may help reduce and even prevent inflammation. Inflammation is your bodys natural response to injury or infection. Chronic inflammation, also known as internal inflammation is a continuous, system-wide inflammation characterized by constant tearing down then healing of tissues and internal organs. Chronic inflammation may be triggered […]. ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that affects nowadays millions of people worldwide. In adults, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for the majority of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. The course of the T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance and a progressive loss of ß-cell mass. DM is associated with a number of related complications, among which cardiovascular complications and atherosclerosis are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients suffering from the disease. DM is acknowledged as a low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by the over-secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, which reinforce inflammatory signals thus contributing to the development of complications. In this context, the pharmacological approaches to treat diabetes should not only correct hyperglycaemia, but also attenuate inflammation and prevent the development of metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Over the last years, novel biological drugs
Historically, the defining features of inflammation include: rubor (redness), calor (warmth), tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain), and there is a distinction between acute and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation compromises the early response to an injurious agent and is a defensive response that fosters repair of the damaged site. Chronic inflammation results from stimuli that are persistently damaging to tissues. Inflammation is a way that the body reacts to infection, irritation, or other injury and is considered a nonspecific immune response. The inflammatory response directs immune cells to the site of injury or infection and is manifested by an increased blood supply coupled with vascular permeability. Microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi) are then engulfed by neutrophils and macrophages (types of white blood cell) in an attempt to contain the infection to a smaller tissue space ...
A new perspective on the link between inflammation and cancer. Inflammation is the human bodys normal biological response to threats in the modern world, as well as a defense against the harmful influence of pathogens, the environment, and poor nutrition. But what happens when the inflammatory response is triggered repeatedly and sustained for long periods of time? Cancer and Inflammation Mechanisms: Chemical, Biological, and Clinical Aspects discusses the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation can lead to cancer, the various causative agents, and possible prevention methods.. A compilation of the latest information coming out of the various fields of cancer research, this book provides a detailed look at inflammation-related carcinogenesis from the perspective of researchers at the forefront of the field. It takes an interdisciplinary approach to the topic, and provides comprehensive information about the major factors at work in inflammation, cancer, and the intersection of the two ...
Inflammation is a natural physical response to infection or injury. Its an important step in your immune systems healing response. However, chronic inflammation (or inflammation that persists for weeks… even years) is not healthy, and it can pose a number of long-term problems.. There are a number of autoimmune disorders associated with chronic inflammation, including arthritis, celiac disease, fibromyalgia, graves disease, psoriasis, IBS, allergies and even cancer. So, how do you know if youre at risk of an inflammation caused complication? Thankfully, theres a straightforward solution. Ask your doctor for this simple blood test to find out exactly how much inflammation you have in your body.. ...
It has come to my attention that many people, including several of my patients, didnt know certain foods can cause inflammation and other foods can help decrease inflammation. Today I will talk about foods to avoid at times you have an acute injury, have stress,and to prevent inflammation at all times. First of all, many…
When eaten on a regular basis, foods with anti-inflammatory properties can help reduce inflammation in the body, helping to prevent the long-term health consequences associated with it - but only if you also eliminate the foods that cause inflammation. When inflammation is under control, not only will you have more energy and feel better overall, but youll also find that weight loss and reduction of belly fat both become easier! Try adding anti-inflammatory foods into your meal plan on a daily basis. The more often you eat these foods, the less inflammation that will be present in your body. The following foods and nutrients can fight inflammation: 1. Fruits and vegetables 2. Green tea 3. Monounsaturated fats 4. Omega-3 fatty acids 5. Spices 6. Water 7. Whole grains
Our long term goal is to understand the mechanisms that lead to chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation is a healthy response to infection or trauma. In contrast, chronic inflammation leads to, or exacerbates, most disease states. The process of acute inflammation has a initiation, maintainence and resolution phase. Either persitent initiation, or lack of resolution of acute inflammation can lead to a chronic activation of the immune system. To understand the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors we use both mouse models and human studies employing both computational and laboratory tools. Osteoimmunology: Osteoimmunology is the emerging field of the crosstalk between the immune and skelatal systems. Osteoclasts are bone resorbing cells, derived from the myeloid cell lineage, that play a key role in remodeling and maintaining bone density. We discovered that osteoclasts produce chemokines that recruit T-cells and act as antigen-presenting cells to the CD8 T-cells. Cross-presentation of ...
July 27th - Inflammation: What is it? Why it matters? How food-as-medicine can help? 6:30pm - Upstairs in the Cookshop at 3701 Travis St. Join integrative functional medicine dietitian of Naturally Nourished, Ali Miller, as she walks you through a food-as-medicine dining experience prepared and created by chef Monica Pope of Sparrow Bar + Cookshop. It seems these days Inflammation is all the buzz...From joint pain, to cancer, to heart health, to autoimmune conditions, hormonal imbalance, and diabetes...inflammation is the root cause of many chronic illnesses. Join integrative dietitian, Ali Miller, RD, LD, CDE of Naturally Nourished as she navigates an anti-inflammatory menu created by chef Monica Pope. You will learn about the process of inflammation, foods that cause inflammation, how to reset your system for balance, and anti-inflammatory foods that can be included in your daily diet! Event includes lecture, educational materials, and dinner at $65/person. This event
CHAPEL HILL, N.C. - Inflammatory response plays a major role in both health protection and disease generation. While the symptoms of disease-related inflammatory response have been know, scientists have not understood the mechanisms that underlie it.. In a paper published in Cell Reports Feb. 21, a team lead by Xian Chen, associate professor of biochemistry and biophysics and member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, mapped the complex interactions of proteins that control inflammation at the molecular level.. The inflammatory response acts as a first line of defense for the immune system. Cytokines are generated to contain infection, preventing the occurrence or spread of diseases, including cancerous tumors. An overproduction or underproduction of these cytokines during disease-related inflammatory responses can lead to a variety of disease such as arthritis, asthma and some kinds of cancer.. The team found that chronic inflammatory response is mediated by the interaction of ...
For controlling inflammation, use the cold compress. This is a local application using a cloth that has been wrung out in cold water. The cloth should.
Eating to reduce inflammation is not a one-size-fits-all prescription. For instance, the relationship between alcohol consumption and inflammation seems to be gender-linked. In other words, men and women tend to have somewhat different inflammatory responses to drinking.. Men and women also have different hormonal environments that can affect inflammation. Women tend to have more auto-immune diseases than men, but oestrogen seems to help protect women against chronic inflammatory metabolic diseases (at least during their reproductive years).. We also know there are genetic and ethnic differences in inflammation, and in our response to particular foods, which, again, can raise or lower our levels of inflammation. For example, data on whether coffee worsens inflammation has been mixed; in part, this may be due to genetic variations in caffeine processing, or perhaps varying responses to the dozens of other chemically active compounds in coffee.. ...
Food and inflammation are related because foods can cause inflammation and result in pain more than we realize. The right foods can also decrease inflammation and pain.
Urgency. Available literature data suggest that cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in patients with IHD. However mechanisms underlying development of the inflammation response are not studied in detail; peculiarities of interrelations between components of the immune system are not established; and whether immune disorders are primary or secondary to the CHF pathogenesis in IHD is not known. Aim. Investigation of correlation of proinflammatory factors levels and CHF signs intensity in IHD patients. Materials and methods. Markers of endothelial and left ventricular function and immune activation were studied in 43 patients (41 men (95%) and 2 women (5%)) with I-IIb stage IHD and I-IV FC (NYHA) CHF. Age of patients ranged from 33 to 64 years. Blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM), sIL-2R, IL-8, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10, IFN-γ, NT-proBNP, endothelin (ET), and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. EchoCG was recorded ...
Inflammation is the bodys appropriate and healthy immune response to an injury or infection. Pull a muscle, catch a cold, or get a bee sting and your body responds with pain and swelling and a healing process begins. But if the immune system goes awry and fails to shut off, inflammation may become chronic and cause permanent damage to the body. Chronic inflammation refers to a maladaptive process that is believed to contribute to a variety of medical conditions including heart disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimers disease. This kind of inflammation may not be so readily apparent, but can be detected by high levels of certain established biomarkers like C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the blood. Reducing levels of these biomarkers has been a target for a number of nutrition studies. Omega-3s, L-carnitine, lycopene, astaxanthin, folic acid, CoQ10, resveratrol, and vitamins C and D are a few nutrients that are gaining attention as natural ...
We stress that the sample size of this study is very small and designed to generate new hypotheses and inform a larger study. While age and BMI were controlled for (Additional file 10), and inclusion/exclusion criteria were strictly adhered to for recruitment of subjects (Additional file 11), some factors that may influence cytokine profiles were not considered. For example, PD subjects taking a stable dose of PD medication (amantadine, dopamine agonists, L-DOPA, and/or MAO-B inhibitors) for 4 weeks prior were included, and drug dose and drug type were not controlled. Dopaminergic drugs increase inflammation in PD and PD models [45-48], and increased inflammation after long-term L-DOPA treatment may contribute to the development of dyskinesia [46, 47]. However, there is some evidence that DA drugs decrease inflammation [49] or do not change circulating inflammation at all [50]. Our concerns about the potential confounding effects of dopaminergic therapy are lessened given that dopaminergic drugs ...
Chronic inflammation has been linked to a wide range of serious health conditions and diseases. What are the causes and effects of this on our health. And how can we prevent it from occurring?
How many of you suffer from inflammation?" This is the first question asked to students of the class, Inflammation be Gone. There are over 100 different types of inflammation, including the most common inflammatory arthritis. Since we all have different reactions to outside influences such as food, and different triggers to pain, its hard for current medical practices to solve our problems. Therefore, we must become our own experiments, using our bodies to test possible solutions. I have studied inflammation for years, specifically from issues associated with my work, and repetitive stress injuries; much with good results. I have a lot to share.. Inflammation can occur when our immune system recognizes something foreign, such as chemicals, microbes, pollen and food, and then releases chemicals to combat the invasion that increase blood flow, white blood cells, and fluid. The result can be swelling, redness, itching and pain. Class begins with a list of foods that can hurt and help this process ...
Inflammation is something youre undoubtedly familiar with-the skin redness that comes from a bee sting or the swelling that results from twisting your ankle. In these and other acute cases, you should feel thankful it is around-its your immune systems natural fix-it response, after all. Inflammation comes, it protects, it heals and then-poof-it disappears. At least thats when things happen as they should.. You see, inflammation has a darker side, too. When chronic and low-grade, it can be much more silent and insidious than this. "Your immune system can become chronically locked and loaded, trying to fight problems that dont exist," says Mark Liponis, M.D., Chief Medical Officer of Canyon Ranch. "Its as if our white blood cells are being sent to attack, but there is no specific infection. This kind of inflammation can cause damage to your heart, brain, blood vessels, kidneys…everything." Even very low levels of inflammation have been linked with significantly increased risk for heart ...
We have shown that performance of highly repetitive tasks is associated with increased serum levels of IL-1alpha and increased activated macrophages in musculoskeletal tissues. Our purpose was to examine expression patterns of genes related to bone mineralization and inflammation in flexor forelimb muscles from young adult and aged (16 months) rats performing a repetitive reaching and grasping tas
The correlation between obesity, inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation is well recognized; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for obesity induced insulin resistance is not well understood. The investigators will focus on lipotoxicity and inflammation as the link between obesity and insulin resistance. The factors leading to inflammation and ectopic lipid accumulation in obesity and the best intervention to reverse this pathophysiology are not clear. In this study, the investigators will examine inflammation in adipose tissue and muscle lipid mechanism in response to Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPAR) and ligands have synergistic anti-inflammatory effects in adipose tissue and activation of PPAR and decrease muscle lipid oxidation and redistribution of lipid from muscle to adipocytes respectively. The combination of both medications will be particularly effective in reducing inflammation and muscle lipid accumulation.. In this study, IGT subjects will be randomized to ...
If you or someone you know has experienced the pain and discomfort of inflammation, then you likely know how beneficial reducing these painful symptoms can be. Many suffer on a daily basis from muscle, joint and respiratory inflammation. Some even experience painful and debilitating widespread body inflammation.. The pain and discomfort associated with inflammation can be addressed in numerous ways, but if you prefer an all natural approach, then you may want to try the delicious wellness drink, Nopalea for yourself. Nopalea is a beverage that contains a special ingredient that has existed throughout history.. The Nopal cactus is a food source among people native to where it grows, but the plant has also been used for centuries because of its health promoting benefits and ability to aid the body in reducing inflammation of virtually any type. The Nopal cactus has been extensively researched and contains clinically proven antioxidants that assist the bodys own anti-inflammatory ...
The problem with all of these things is that they create chronic inflammation, which is really the problem that we are all facing. With less chronic inflammation we will obviously have many fewer problems.. Acute inflammation, which is something that comes up when we go to the gym and workout, is good. This is the kind of inflammation that brings nutrients and other essential elements to a single place so that we can more adequately feed our muscles, joints, and prepare for the recovery that we need.. This is one of the reasons why some scientists believe eating vitamin C or other antioxidant and anti-inflammation supplements is actually not useful after a workout and can hurt your chances of recovery.. ...
Health & Wellness column: - Recent studies are pointing to chronic inflammation as being a major risk factor for heart disease. Because inflammation can be painless and frequently goes undetected, its relationship to disease has been overlooked. If you have several diseases caused by inflammation, you may have a low-level chronic inflammatory process that could eventually lead to heart disease.
It is widely accepted that many cancers express features of inflammation, driven by both microenvironmental cells and factors, and the intrinsic production of inflammation-associated mediators from malignant cells themselves. Inflammation results in intracellular oxidative stress, with the ultimate biochemical oxidants composed of reactive nitrogens and oxygens. Although the role of inflammation in carcinogensis is well accepted, we now present data that inflammatory processes are also active in the maintenance phase of many aggressive forms of cancer. The oxidative stress of inflammation is proposed to drive a continuous process of DNA adducts and crosslinks, as well as posttranslational modifications to lipids and proteins that we argue support growth and survival. In this Perspective we introduce data on the emerging science of inflammation-driven posttranslational modifications on proteins responsible for driving growth, angiogenesis, immunosuppression, and inhibition of apoptosis. Examples ...
Its easy to recognize when your body is stiff and achy. This usually means that inflammation has gotten out of control leading to pain. Inflammation, in moderation, is normal. Its part of the healing process, for example, after an injury. However, long-term chronic inflammation puts a huge strain on us and is far from ideal. What you may not have considered is that the brain also experiences inflammation! Brain inflammation impacts a number of crucial processes such as brain communication and circulation in the brain. Healthy circulation carries nutrients throughout the body and brain. Poor brain circulation feels like your brain is in a fog, which makes it difficult to think clearly or make decisions because mental speed is slow. It can be difficult to concentrate for very long because the brain is fatigued. ...
Acute or chronic inflammation responses have different inflammation symptoms and how long theyre experienced. Treatment usually involves anti-inflammatories.
Look at the diet of Americans and you will find these foods that cause inflammation, arthritis and weight gain that they think are healthy.
If you are overweight, you have silent inflammation (caused by stretched, leaky fat cells) which inhibits the action of leptin, the master weight control hormone. In optimally healthy people, leptin automatically maintains weight at a healthy level.
One of the most recognized consequences of aging is a decline in immune function, illustrated by vulnerability to dying from the flu and poor response to vaccinations. But, about 20 years ago, a paper was published showing that the immune cells of 80-year-olds produced significantly more pro-inflammatory signals. This suggests the worst of both worlds-a decline in the part of the immune system that fights specific infections and an aggravation of nonspecific overreactions that can lead to inflammation. This has since been formalized in a concept referred to as "inflamm-aging," a chronic low-grade inflammation we now know is typical of aging, which may be responsible for the decline and the onset of disease in the elderly.. So, what can we do about it? Inflamm-aging appears to be a major consequence of growing old. Can it be prevented or cured? "The key to successful aging and longevity is to decrease chronic inflammation without compromising an acute response when exposed to pathogens." How do ...
Click the player below to listen to this episode of Health Talk What are the Major Causes Inflammation? In this episode of a health Talk, courtesy of Dr. Adam
Could be key to developing therapies to reduce risk of heart disease and stroke Inflammation is a cellular defense mechanism that involves immune cells of the human immune system and is necessary to protect against infection or penetrating tissue injury. Inflammation must be carefully controlled however, because chronic inflammation due to errors in this defense mechanism can lead to numerous diseases, including heart disease and stroke.
TUESDAY, Sept. 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Tamping down inflammation is a must for people with a chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. But you can be exposed to damaging inflammation without having a specific medical condition.. Inflammation prevents the body from adequately reacting to stressors and puts the aging process on an unwanted fast track, increasing the likelihood of problems like heart disease. The negative effects of inflammation can be so significant that leading researchers from the University of Bologna in Italy coined the phrase inflamm-aging. So making anti-inflammation lifestyle choices is good for everyone.. How to Avoid Inflamm-aging. ...
Inflammation is a protective response by the body towards cell injury. Cell injury may be due to; necrotic cells or tissue, the introduction of microbes (such as viruses or bacteria), toxins, hypoxia, etc. Inflammation is therefore the bodys way of attempting to remove the primary cause of inflammation and any damage that may have occurred as a result (Healing and repair). However if inflammation did not occur, then the body would be unable to deal with wounds and infections letting them go unchecked and progressively destroy the tissue. All injured organs would therefore be unable to regain function, eventually leading to mortality.. Inflammation is a complicated series of biological reactions, only taking place in vascularised tissue, simply however it works by attempting to remove, dilute or barricade the injurious/pathogenic agent or tissue. Its secondary role is to induce the healing and the repair of the damaged tissue. The result of this is an accumulation of leukocytes and fluid in the ...
Your brain is actually the first part of the body to suffer when you are chronically inflamed. This is because your brain is sensitive to inflammation anywhere in the body. It doesnt matter if the source of inflammation is your heart, stomach, or left pinky toe-if any part of your body is inflamed, it will release chemicals called cytokines that negatively impact your brain. I didnt realize for a long time that the muffin top around my waist mirrored the muffin top in my brain.. Inflammation is at the core of most age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of Alzheimers disease, inflammation kills off neurons, causing memory loss and other cognitive problems,3 although there are clearly other mitochondria-related parts of the disease, too. The prefrontal cortex (your human brain) is even more sensitive to inflammation than the rest of your brain, which is why even "normal" aging is associated with decreased cognitive function and forgetfulness. These symptoms, which are commonly ...
Since people started taking HIV medications, illnesses related to AIDS have decreased, but other serious illnesses like heart disease (heart attacks) and certain kinds of cancer have increased. Studies show that HIV causes changes in the lining of the arteries and also causes inflammation (irritation) inside the body that may play a role in diseases like heart attacks and strokes. The levels of inflammation and artery lining health can also affect how well your brain works. These changes cannot be felt, but can be measured. Artery lining health can be looked at with a test that uses a blood pressure cuff on your arm to see how the artery responds when air is let in and out of the cuff. An ultrasound (machine that uses sound waves) is used to look at the artery during the test. This test is called Flow Mediated Dilation or FMD for short. Inflammation can be checked with blood tests (blood tests that measure this irritation inside the body that you cannot feel). HIV medications can improve the ...
In an analysis of deaths occurring during a large international trial of treatments for HIV-positive patients, researchers have found a strong association between markers of inflammation and coagulation and increased risk ...
Acute inflammation is a healthy part of your bodys defense system. You need it to manage injury, infection, and the healing process. On the other hand, excess, long-term, or chronic inflammation is a major cause of disease in the modern world.. Modern health science pays careful attention to signs that your body is in an inflammatory state. There are key mediators, or "biomarkers," that you can find in the blood that accurately measure how well youre aging and whether or not youre developing the common diseases of the elderly.. Inflammation is not only linked to cancer and heart disease, but diabetes, arthritis, hypertension, autoimmune disease, and aging, itself.. These markers of inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines that can be found in your blood can really tell you a whole lot about your present and your future. They are:. ...
Biological aging is associated with progressive damage accumulation, loss of organ reserves, and systemic inflammation (inflammaging), which predispose for a wide spectrum of chronic diseases, including several types of cancer. In contrast, aerobic exercise training (AET) reduces inflammation, lowers all-cause mortality, and enhances both health and lifespan. In this study, we examined the benefits of early-onset, lifelong AET on predictors of health, inflammation, and cancer incidence in a naturally aging mouse model. Lifelong, voluntary wheel-running (O-AET; 26-month-old) prevented age-related declines in aerobic fitness and motor coordination vs. age-matched, sedentary controls (O-SED). AET also provided partial protection against sarcopenia, dynapenia, testicular atrophy, and overall organ pathology, hence augmenting the physiologic reserve of lifelong runners. Systemic inflammation, as evidenced by a chronic elevation in 17 of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, was ...
Our findings demonstrate that a lack of cryptochrome activates these proinflammatory molecules, indicating a potential role for cryptochrome in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression," says Satchidananda Panda, an associate professor in Salks Regulatory Biology Laboratory and one of the senior authors of the study. In addition, the researchers found that a lack of CRY activated the NF-kB pathway, a molecular signaling conduit that controls many genes involved in inflammation. NF-kB is a protein complex in a cells cytoplasm, "just happily doing nothing," says Verma. In response to stimuli, it is transferred to the cells nucleus, where it binds to inflammation genes and turns them on. The regulation of these genes is tightly controlled, but NF-kB does not completely shut off their expression. This lingering expression causes inflammation ...
Health,A new study shows that women who report high levels of stress and low ...These inflammatory immune system responses involve increases in tw...Stress affects levels of serum cytokines across pregnancy found... The study which appears in the latest issue of the journal Brain... Preeclampsia symptoms of which include sudden increases in blood...,Stress,Increases,Inflammation,in,Pregnancy,,Putting,Women,at,Risk,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Low-level inflammation causes millions to die every year. This type of inflammation can easily be identified with a simple blood test. Usually, it can easily be treated with a combination of all herbs and nutrients. In years to come it
Inflammation is the bodys natural response to infection and injury. While initial inflammation is necessary for healthy healing, prolonged inflammation can actually decrease the bodys immunity and prevent tissues from repairing. Here are some tips to reduce chronic inflammation without the need for over the counter medication.. ...
In our last post, we talked about the connection between hormone changes and oral health. Today wed like to talk about another connection between oral and overall health. In this case, it has to do with the impact that stress can have.. Today, more than at any other point, our culture is driven by work and by staying plugged in. Regardless of where your stress comes from, though, it can contribute to inflammation in the body, including in your smile.. Inflammation is one of the bodys immune responses. As a natural response, it can do good work. But too much stress can interfere with the bodys ability to properly regulate inflammation. As a result, inflammation can actually become like a weapon the body uses against itself. That has consequences for your overall health, which includes your oral health. In 2012, the ADG reported that a definite link between stress and dental health exists. In their research, they point to problems with the immune system as a cause.. What this means for our ...
Redness, swelling, heat, pain…they may not be fun but they are vital reactions to a healthy inflammatory response.. Ongoing stress, fatigue, pain, suffering and disease on the other hand, are not healthy. They signify chronic inflammation and symptoms of a distressed system.. Unfortunately, they seem to be prominent components of the average American lifestyle…. As a Fitness and Nutrition Therapist I knew that I had powerful tools to fight chronic inflammation. I began to explore the healing power of food, which led to the development of my creative and delicious anti-inflammatory recipes! I have a great one for you below. But first…. Here are 5 of the Best Foods to Fight Inflammation:. Cherries: (Along with any other red, purple or blue fruit) The presence of phytonutrients called anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, can help relieve pain by neutralizing free radicals that contribute to inflammation and also by blocking the enzymes that cause tissue ...
... Inflammation can be described as redness, pain, heat and swelling in the body, due to injury or disease. Its your bodys red-flag reaction to harmful germs, bacteria and viruses. And new evidence is now suggesting that inflammation in the body is a common trigger of heart attacks, even when there is minimal clogging of the arteries. Several studies are also proposing that inflammation is more significant than cholesterol at causing heart attacks.
Low prices on Inflammation! Find natural relief for body aches and pains*. Excessive, chronic joint inflammation causes swelling, pain and reduced flexibility and range of motion. A healthy diet and regular exercise can help manage these symptoms. Nutritional supplements can also support joint comfort, mobility and flexibility.
Low prices on Inflammation! Find natural relief for body aches and pains*. Excessive, chronic joint inflammation causes swelling, pain and reduced flexibility and range of motion. A healthy diet and regular exercise can help manage these symptoms. Nutritional supplements can also support joint comfort, mobility and flexibility.
Inflammation is a normal body response that results in swelling when you have a cut or injury and a fever when you have an infection. It is a healthy reaction because it means your immune system is ...
University of Illinois researchers have found that exercise can aid in decreasing the inflammation of damaged skin, helping to heal wounds.
Sure, the keto diet can help you lose weight, but thats not the only way it targets belly fat. Dr. Phinney told POPSUGAR that it can help fight inflammation.
A newly published study from Yale University details the critical role IL-10 plays in controlling inflammation and the possible implications for preventing or treating cell damage that often occurs with aging.. In patients with colitis, a serious condition affecting the gut, the immune system turns against the bodys own microbes, causing inflammation. To combat this inflammation, researchers have focused in on a chemical signal known as IL-10. While its understood that IL-10 plays a critical role in controlling inflammation and preventing colitis, its not clear how.. In a new study published in Science, immunobiologist and senior author Ruslan Medzhitov led a research team that examined the inflammatory response in mice and people lacking the IL-10 signal. They found that IL-10 works by blocking the metabolism of immune cells that are part of the inflammatory response. They also noted that IL-10 clears damaged mitochondria - the power generators within cells. The accumulation of this cellular ...
Homeostasis in mammalian tissues is achieved by the complex orchestration of activatory and inhibitory signals. These signals control the balanced turnover and functional properties of epithelial and immune cells which ensures protection of host cells against exogenous and endogenous dangers. Part of this balancing act are signaling pathways that can ... read more be activated rapidly and transiently (such as in systemic inflammation) or constitutively on the background (such as anti-proliferative pathways in the gut). We investigated the anti-inflammatory response in the sterile circulation in the context of systemic inflammation caused by open heart surgery. We established that post-operative patient plasma represents an immunosuppressive environment for monocytes. This was mediated by an interleukin (IL)-10/STAT3 signaling axis and disappeared after the first post-operative day. Thus, on pump cardiac surgery induced a rapid but transient immunoregulatory response. This response was found to ...
A team of international scientists, including Duquesne University Professor of Biological Sciences Dr. Philip Auron, has studied metabolic and immune systems, how they contribute to fighting diseases and how cancer can use inflammation responses to overtake the body.. In a paper published in Nature this spring, the team determined that macrophages, the bodys disease-fighter cells, switch operational systems-much like a hybrid car does.. Normally, macrophages operate on a steady metabolism, the high efficiency side of the hybrid system. They split sugars through glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, efficiently producing usable energy at a slow but constant rate.. The team unexpectedly discovered that when the immune system is under fire, macrophages switch operating systems to be like a turbocharged gas engine. This system is designed to be quick but inefficient, producing energy faster, but with greater waste-and requiring less oxygen.. In switching to the "race" cycle, which is 20 times less ...
The blood that circulates throughout the body performs a number of critical functions. It delivers oxygen, removes carbon dioxide, and carries life-sustaining nutrients. By acting as the vehicle for long-distance messengers (such as hormones), blood helps the various parts of the body communicate with each other. This is carried out by blood cells, working in partnership with the liquid part of the blood (plasma).
Figure 3: The anti-inflammatory mechanism of omentin. Omentin activates AMPK, which further blocks E-selection and reduces endothelial inflammation. AMPK also activates eNOS, which has vasodilation effect and blocks JNK signaling. JNK activates inflammation through TNFα mediated COX2 effect. Moreover, omentin inhibits NF-κB signaling pathway and thus inhibits inflammation. Under obese state, the production of omentin is lower which is associated with worse proinflammation and possible lung injury ...
Your veterinarian will want a complete medical history to determine the underlying cause of the skin allergies, including a physical examination of the cat. Serologic allergy testing may be performed, but it does not always have reliable results. The quality of this kind of testing often depends on the laboratory which analyzes the results. Intradermal testing, whereby small amounts of test allergens are injected in the skin and wheal (a red bump) response is measured, may also used to identify the cause of your pets allergic reaction.. ...
The potential value of multiplexed positron emission tomography (PET) tracers in mice with turpentine-induced inflammation was evaluated and compared with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) for glucose metabolism imaging. These PET tracers included [18F]fluoromethylcholine ([18F]FCH) for choline metabolism imaging, (S-[11C]methyl)-D-cysteine ([11C]DMCYS) for amino acid metabolism imaging, [11C]bis(zinc(II)-dipicolylamine) ([11C]DPA-Zn2+) for apoptosis imaging, 2-(4-N-[11C]-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([11C]PIB) for β amyloid binding imaging, and [18F]fluoride (18F−) for bone metabolism imaging. In mice with turpentine-induced inflammation mice, the biodistribution of all the tracers mentioned above at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postinjection was determined. Also, the time-course curves of the tracer uptake ratios for inflammatory thigh muscle (IM) to normal uninflammatory thigh muscle (NM), IM to blood (BL), IM to brain (BR), and IM to liver (LI) were acquired, respectively.
Purpose: Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a clinical problem associated with both surgical and non-surgical settings. Innate immune-dominated inflammation drives the pathogenesis of liver injuries. Although the activation of liver inflammation by IR have been studied extensively, few has been focused on the inflammation resolution in the disease process.. *Methods: In a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, we characterized the inflammation resolution during IR at histological, cellular and molecular levels. The role of Kupffer cells (KCs) was determined by clodronate-liposome (CL)-mediated depletion, and their functional mechanisms were explored by the inhibition of KC efferocytosis via TIM-4 blocking Abs, during the recovery stage of liver IRI (three doses at 24h, day 3 and day5 post reperfusion).. *Results: The restoration of liver homeostasis from a 90 min ischemia lasts for 7 days, as defined by: (i) repair of hepatocellular damage, (ii) clearance of infiltrating ...
The invention relates to medicine, namely to traumatology, orthopedics and rehabilitation, to methods of prevention of inflammatory complications in trauma and orthopaedic patients using culture autologous lymphocytes, and can be used for the prevention of inflammatory complications in patients in surgical, trauma and other hospitals.. There is a method of treatment of purulent-inflammatory complications in trauma and orthopaedic patients using culture autologous lymphocytes, including the blood of the patient, the cultivation of lymphocytes and intravenous their patient (see Gagasan and other Remodeling protective properties of the body with extensive operational interventions in traumatology and orthopedics. Medical Bulletin of Erebuni, the national Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan, 2006, №3 (27), p.140-141).. However, the known method when its use has the following disadvantages:. - does not provide reliable treatment and prevention of inflammatory complications in trauma and ...
Low-grade chronic adipose tissue inflammation contributes to the onset and development of aging-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the current study, α-mangostin, a xanthone isolated from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), was identified to ameliorate lipopolysaccharides-induced acute adipose tissue inflammation in mice, by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In a cohort of young (3 months) and old (18–20 months) mice, α-mangostin mitigated aging-associated adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. Further study showed that α-mangostin alleviated aging-related adipose tissue inflammation by reducing macrophage content and shifting pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. Moreover, α-mangostin protected the old mice against liver injury through suppressing the secretion of microRNA-155-5p from macrophages. The above results demonstrated that α-mangostin represents a new scaffold to alleviate adipose
misc{7862195, abstract = {Acute or chronic inflammation in the prostate is implicated in pathogenesis of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) as well as development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Chronic prostatitis (inflammation in the prostate) is associated with high morbidity and negatively impacts life quality. Macrophages are critical regulators of inflammatory processes and are early immune cells responders. Among macrophage-associated genes, the stress-induced enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which degrades heme to carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron, has strong immunomodulatory effects in in vitro and in vivo disease models. In this study, we investigated the specific role of HO-1 in macrophages on modulation of prostate inflammation. We established a mouse model of bacterial prostatitis in wild type mice, and evaluated the role of HO-1 in pathogen-induced prostate inflammation by using mice with conditional deletion of HO-1 in myeloid cells ...
Patients with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) suffer from recurrent upper and lower airway infections due to defects in the cilia present on the respiratory epithelium. Since chronic inflammatory conditions can cause changes in innate immune responses, we investigated whether monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of pediatric PCD patients respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, compared to monocytes from healthy children and adults. The receptor for C5a (C5aR) was upregulated in PCD, whereas expression levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, BLT1 and FPR1 on PCD monocytes were similar to those on monocytes from healthy individuals. Also in vitro migration of PCD monocytes towards the ligands of those receptors (CCL2, fMLP, C5a and LTB4) was normal. Compared to healthy children, PCD patients had a higher percentage of the non-classic monocyte subset (CD14+CD16++) in circulation. Finally, PCD monocytes produced higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines ...
Title:Thalidomide Controls Adipose Tissue Inflammation Associated with High- Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Patricia Z Nakamitsu, Cecilia M. Compri, Livia de Fraia Pinto, Erica M.F. Gotardo, Caroline C. de Oliveira, Marcelo L. Ribeiro, Jose Pedrazzoli and Alessandra Gambero. Affiliation:Clinical Pharmacology and Gastroenterology Unit, Sao Francisco University Medical School, Av. Sao Francisco de Assis 218, 12916-900, Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil.. Keywords:3T3-L1 cells, adipokines, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, immunosuppressant, macrophage, obesity.. Abstract:Introduction: Immunosuppressant agents modulate the activity of the immune system and control adipose tissue inflammatory responses associated with obesity. Controlling adipose tissue inflammation represents an interesting option for inhibiting the low-grade inflammatory state in obese subjects and for preventing obesity-associated pathologies. In this work, we assessed the effects of thalidomide on the ...
Introduction: Diminished NO production and altered NO bioavailability promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) controls cellular NO balance by degrading S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which is a major source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. GSNOR inhibition increases protein S-nitrosylation and potentiates NO action. The role of GSNOR in vascular inflammation is undefined, and the purpose of our investigation was to determine if GSNOR targeting dampens inflammation and reduces atherosclerosis.. Methods and results: We evaluated vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis in wild type (WT) and GSNOR-deficient (GSNOR-/-) mice. TNF-induced NFκB activation was reduced by 40% (p,0.05) in endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from GSNOR-/- compared to WT mice, which was accompanied by attenuated expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 (,34% reduction, p,0.05). Decreased EC adhesion molecule expression led to a 45% reduction in leukocyte rolling in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associations between maternal inflammation during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes in the Seychelles Child Development Study. T2 - Journal of Reproductive Immunology. AU - Yeates, Alison J.. AU - McSorley, Emeir M.. AU - Mulhern, Maria S. AU - Spence, Toni. AU - Crowe, William. AU - Grzesik, Katherine AU - Thurston, Sally. AU - Watson, Gene. AU - Myers, Gary. AU - Davidson, Philip. AU - Shamlaye, Conrad. AU - Edwin, van Wijngaarden. AU - Strain, Sean. PY - 2019/10/23. Y1 - 2019/10/23. N2 - Problem: Markers of maternal inflammation may determine infant birth outcomes. Method of study: Maternal serum samples were collected at 28 weeks gestation (n = 1418) in the Seychelles Child Development Study Nutrition Cohort 2 and analyzed for immune markers by MSD multiplex assay, including cytokines from the Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) subsets, with IL-6, MCP-1, TARC, sFlt-1 and VEGF-D. Associations of log-transformed immune markers with birthweight, ...
Inflammation[edit]. Aspirin is used as an anti-inflammatory agent for both acute and long-term inflammation,[37] as well as for ... Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.[4] Specific ... pain and inflammation in the mid-eighteenth century.[162] By the nineteenth century pharmacists were experimenting with and ... and inflammation. Thromboxanes are responsible for the aggregation of platelets that form blood clots. Heart attacks are caused ...
Inflammation[edit]. Main article: Esophagitis. Inflammation of the esophagus is known as esophagitis. Reflux of gastric acids ...
Oxidation and inflammation[edit]. Free radicals and pro-oxidants in cigarettes damage blood vessels and oxidize LDL cholesterol ... The usage of tobacco has also been linked to Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) the acute inflammation and ... Roughly half of periodontitis or inflammation around the teeth cases are attributed to current or former smoking. Smokeless ... The carcinogen acrolein and its derivatives also contribute to the chronic inflammation present in COPD.[60] ...
Role in inflammation[edit]. Inflammation is a protective attempt by an organism to restore a homeostatic state, following ... Caspases also have a role in inflammation, whereby it directly processes pro-inflammatory cytokines such as pro-IL1β. These are ... and inflammation. They are named caspases due to their specific cysteine protease activity - a cysteine in its active site ... but it appears that the principal role of this enzyme is to mediate inflammation rather than cell death. ...
Tissue damaged by inflammation[edit]. After inflammation has damaged tissue (when combatting bacterial infection for example) ... Inflammation phase[edit]. In the inflammatory phase, macrophages and other phagocytic cells kill bacteria, debride damaged ... Failure to remove all of the damaged cells and pathogens may retrigger inflammation. The two subsets of macrophage M1 & M2 ... In the recall phase the adrenal glands increase production of cortisol which shuts down eicosanoid production and inflammation ...
Inflammation[edit]. Inflammation resulting from infection may impair the function of any of the cranial nerves. Inflammation of ...
Inflammation[edit]. Main article: Thyroiditis. Inflammation of the thyroid is called thyroiditis. Inflamed thyroids may cause ... The inflammation usually resolves without treatment, although thyroid hormone replacement may be needed during the period of ... There are other disorders that cause inflammation of the thyroid, and these include subacute thyroiditis, acute thyroiditis, ... Functional disorders can cause inflammation as can some other forms of thyroiditis. Functional disorders can result in the ...
Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland. There are primarily four different forms of prostatitis, each with different ...
Inflammation. Apart from demyelination, the other sign of the disease is inflammation. Fitting with an immunological ... The cerebrospinal fluid is tested for oligoclonal bands of IgG on electrophoresis, which are inflammation markers found in 75- ... Cholesterol crystals are believed to both impair myelin repair and aggravate inflammation.[42][43] MS is believed to be an ... Inflammation can potentially reduce transmission of information between neurons in at least three ways.[5] The soluble factors ...
Inflammation and allergy[edit]. 12-HHT stimulates chemotactic responses in mouse bone marrow mast cells, which naturally ... A new therapeutic target in inflammation and immunological disorders". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (3): 421-32. ... a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with cutaneous inflammation, in response to UVB radiation.[29] These results suggest ... that the 12-HHT/BLT2 axis can act to suppress inflammation by promoting the orderly death of damaged cells and blocking IL-6 ...
... see Inflammation#Inflammatory disorders); c) allergy and allergic inflammation reactions such as allergic rhinitis, ... Inflammation[edit]. Studies implicate ALOX5 in contributing to innate immunity by contributing to the mounting inflammatory ... Qu Q, Xuan W, Fan GH (2015). "Roles of resolvins in the resolution of acute inflammation". Cell Biology International. 39 (1): ... Barden AE, Mas E, Mori TA (2016). "n-3 Fatty acid supplementation and proresolving mediators of inflammation". Current Opinion ...
Inflammations[edit]. *Bursitis of the knee *Prepatellar bursitis - Housemaid's knee (most common) ...
Inflammation[edit]. An inflammation of the epididymis is called epididymitis. It is much more common than testicular ... inflammation, termed orchitis. Surgical removal[edit]. Epididymotomy is the placing of an incision into the epididymis and is ...
Inflammation[edit]. Main article: Epiglottitis. Inflammation of the epiglottis is known as epiglottitis. Epiglottitis is mainly ...
Inflammation[edit]. A 2013 systematic review found tentative evidence of benefit for lowering inflammation levels in healthy ... Robinson LE, Mazurak VC (April 2013). "N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: relationship to inflammation in healthy adults and ... This link to inflammation regulation has been supported in both in vivo studies and in a meta-analysis.[35] ... was demonstrated to be similar to that of fish oil on blood lipid levels and markers of inflammation in healthy humans.[119] ...
However, chronic inflammation from exogenous toxins and excessive exercise should not be confused with acute inflammation from ... Dietary arachidonic acid and inflammation[edit]. Increased consumption of arachidonic acid will not cause inflammation during ... Arachidonic acid does still play a central role in inflammation related to injury and many diseased states. How it is ... One study reported a significant reduction in resting inflammation (via marker IL-6) in young men supplementing 1,000 mg/day of ...
Inflammation[edit]. Platelets are rapidly deployed to sites of injury or infection, and potentially modulate inflammatory ... Some drugs used to treat inflammation have the unwanted side effect of suppressing normal platelet function. These are the non- ... Wagner DD, Burger PC (December 2003). "Platelets in inflammation and thrombosis". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular ... Jenne CN, Urrutia R, Kubes P (June 2013). "Platelets: bridging hemostasis, inflammation, and immunity". International Journal ...
Cartilage inflammation[edit]. Cartilage inflammation (technically known as chondritis) that is relapsing is very characteristic ... Inflammation of the cartilage of the ear is a specific symptom of the disease and affects most people.[3] It is present in ... The inflammation of the cartilage of the nose involves the bridge of the nose and is often less marked than the ears.[3] ... Diseases and inflammation of tendons have been reported in small numbers of people with RP.[3] During the course of the disease ...
The modern Latin word for "bladder" - cystis - appears in associated terms such as cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). ...
Role in inflammation[edit]. Since antiquity, the cardinal signs of inflammation have been known as: calor (warmth), dolor (pain ... inflammation; fever; pain perception; allodynia; parturition. NSAIDs inhibit its production to reduce inflammation, fever, and ... Qu Q, Xuan W, Fan GH (2015). "Roles of resolvins in the resolution of acute inflammation". Cell Biology International. 39 (1): ... In general, the eicosanoids derived from AA promote inflammation, and those from EPA and from GLA (via DGLA) are less ...
Inflammation. *Phlebitis. Venous thrombosis /. Thrombophlebitis. *primarily lower limb *Deep vein thrombosis. *abdomen *Hepatic ...
Inflammation. *Phlebitis. Venous thrombosis /. Thrombophlebitis. *primarily lower limb *Deep vein thrombosis. *abdomen *Hepatic ...
Inflammation. Brain. *Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis ...
Inflammation. Brain. *Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis ...
Inflammation. Brain. *Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis ...
Inflammation. Brain. *Encephalitis *Viral encephalitis. *Herpesviral encephalitis. *Limbic encephalitis. *Encephalitis ...
Aerobic Exercise Reverses Arterial Inflammation with Aging in Mice.. Lesniewski LA, Durrant JR, Connell ML, Henson GD, Black AD ... Research: Aerobic Exercise Reverses Arterial Inflammation with Aging mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 May 27. [Epub ... Short-term voluntary wheel running started late in life reverses arterial inflammation with aging in mice possibly via "outside ... We tested the hypothesis that regular aerobic exercise reverses arterial inflammation with aging. Compared with young controls ...
Inflammation is a normal part of the body's healing process. The inflammation tends to occur as a defense against viruses ... CTD involves joint pain and inflammation. The inflammation may also occur in other tissues, including the skin, muscles, lungs ... The word arthritis means joint inflammation, but inflammation may also affect the tendons and ligaments surrounding the ... Persistent inflammation in the synovia leads to the degeneration of cartilage and bone. This can then lead to joint deformity, ...
Welcome to the Institute of Inflammation and Ageing. We are the only centre in the UK to have brought together, under the same ... From basic science to clinical trials, we cover every aspect of research into inflammation, the role it plays in human ageing ... Our research focuses on understanding the drivers of age-related inflammation, how this contributes to age-related disease and ... Director of the Institute of Inflammation and Ageing and the MRC-Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing ...
Chronic inflammation refers to a response by your immune system that sticks around long after an infection, injury, or exposure ... How is chronic inflammation treated?. Inflammation is a natural part of the healing process. But when it becomes chronic, its ... What is inflammation?. Inflammation refers to your bodys process of fighting against things that harm it, such as infections, ... How does chronic inflammation impact the body?. When you have chronic inflammation, your bodys inflammatory response can ...
Your daily choices are at the root of inflammation. Find out what you can do to ensure youre making the best choices for your ... What Is Inflammation?. Acute inflammation is your bodys natural and helpful immune response to tissue damage. When you fall ... Some Causes of Chronic Inflammation. Chronic inflammation is triggered by numerous factors, but most of them are within your ... The Results of Chronic Inflammation. Over time, chronic inflammation wears out your immune system, leading to chronic diseases ...
Inflammation. Dermatitis. Dermatitis, Atopic. Eczema. Pathologic Processes. Skin Diseases. Skin Diseases, Genetic. Genetic ... Allergic inflammation is central to allergy-related diseases and disorders, such as asthma, food allergies, and atopic ... Allergic inflammation is central to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic ... Utilizing the resources of the LAD and the NIH Clinical Center, we will advance our understanding of allergic inflammation and ...
New research suggests that a short session of moderate physical activity can reduce inflammation by activating a response at ... Inflammation is a necessary part of the body's immune response, but too much inflammation can lead to disease. Chronic ... Just 20 minutes of exercise enough to reduce inflammation, study finds. Written by Ana Sandoiu on January 16, 2017 ... Chronic stress leads to brain inflammation and memory loss. Stress caused by an aggressive alpha intruder caused memory loss in ...
Neurogenic inflammation is inflammation arising from the local release by afferent neurons of inflammatory mediators such as ... Neurogenic inflammation appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including migraine,[6][1][7] ... In a 2012 article[31] in Nature Neuroscience Chiu et al. discuss the development of science related to neurogenic inflammation ... "Neurogenic inflammation and the peripheral nervous system in host defense and immunopathology". Nat Neurosci. 15: 1063-7. doi: ...
... also known as Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation is a form of acute and chronic inflammation characterized by an exuberant ... Xanthogranulomatous inflammation". Pathol. Res. Pract. 183 (4): 395-402. doi:10.1016/S0344-0338(88)80085-2. PMID 3054826. Snoj ... The xanthogranulomatous type of inflammation is most-commonly seen in pyelonephritis and cholecystitis, although it has more ... large content of histiocytes and foamy macrophages could be traced back at least in part to a xanthogranulomatous inflammation ...
This site uses cookies. More info Close By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Find out more here Close ...
inflammation. Tag archives for inflammation. Obesity, Inflammation, and Diabetes. Posted by Kevin Bonham on December 21, 2011 ... Weekend Review: Sterile Inflammation. Posted by Kevin Bonham on November 28, 2010 ... Clinically, inflammation is the redness, swelling, heat and pain thats associated with injury. From an immunologists ... If youve ever rolled your ankle (as I have many times), you have a visceral knowledge of inflammation. ...
And poor diet is the consistent benefactor of inflammation. It causes digestive inflammation; it causes brain cell inflammation ... And poor diet is the consistent benefactor of inflammation. It causes digestive inflammation; it causes brain cell inflammation ... And yet, inflammation is... More , meant to be the ultimate healer. The inflammation sectors of ones body are meant to heal, ... And yet, inflammation is... More , meant to be the ultimate healer. The inflammation sectors of ones body are meant to heal, ...
But inflammation is so powerful and so potentially destructive that it must stay where it is supposed to be and end when it is ... Inflammation is the cornerstone of the bodys healing response. It is the process by which the immune system delivers more ... How to control inappropriate inflammation is a big subject, but dietary choices are perhaps the most important way to keep ... The anti-inflammatory food pyramid consists of foods that can help control inflammation, as well as provide the vitamins, ...
Inflammation. Inflammation - Pathophysiology - Congresses. Inflammation/ Pathophysiology/ Congresses. Medical / Cardiology. ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Allergy_and_inflammation.html?id=oN1rAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-share ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Allergy_and_inflammation.html?id=oN1rAAAAMAAJ ...
"inflammation"[MeSH Terms] OR "inflammation"[All Fields]) AND ("cannabidiol"[MeSH Terms] OR "cannabidiol"[All Fields]). Search. ... Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. Hammell DC et al. Eur J ... Cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogs: a review of their effects on inflammation. Burstein S et al. Bioorg Med Chem. (2015) ... Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. Philpott HT et al ...
... inflammation of a synovial bursa, the lubricating sac located around joints or between tendons and muscles or bones. Bursitis ... Bursitis, inflammation of a synovial bursa, the lubricating sac located around joints or between tendons and muscles or bones. ... inflammation of the joints and its effects. Arthritis. is a general term, derived from the Greek words arthro-. , meaning " ... Inflammation of a synovial bursa, the lubricating sac located over a joint or between tendons and muscles or bones, is called ...
... about ways to live healthy and to avoid inflammation. Click here for more information about Kelli. ... The author of "Martinis & Menopause", Kelli Jaecks talked with Tra about ways to live healthy and to avoid inflammation. Click ...
... cell biology and pharmacology of inflammation, including acute/chronic inflammation, mediators of inflammation, as well as ... International Journal of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review ... Cardiovascular Inflammation. Guest Editors: Masanori Aikawa, Ichiro Manabe, Adrian Chester, and Elena Aikawa *Cardiovascular ... Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Heart Disease: Do Antioxidants Have a Role in Treatment and/or Prevention?, Fredric J. ...
One area to explore is inhibition of CMPK2 during inflammation, and other parts of the pathway that the authors uncovered are ... Newly made mitochondrial DNA drives inflammation. Activation of the inflammasome protein complex in immune cells is a key step ... Zhong and colleagues studied mice to assess whether the availability of this mitochondrial DNA might regulate inflammation. The ...
These macrophages become laden with cholesterol and start proliferating in plaques, thereby increasing inflammation. This lipid ... "Nanotherapeutically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation is possible and we can effectively apply it to treat inflammation ... by first rapidly reducing plaque inflammation and then continuously keeping it suppressed. ... that a nanotherapeutic medicine can halt the growth of artery plaque cells resulting in the fast reduction of the inflammation ...
Particular focus is put on platelets as a link between haemostasis and inflammation contributing to both. Last but not least ... platelets haemostasis inflammation cardiovascular disease immunologic mechanisms inflammatory cells immune modulation novel ... In the Heat of the Artery: Inflammation as Trigger and Target of Atherosclerosis ...
Inflammation in anxiety.. Salim S1, Chugh G, Asghar M.. Author information. 1. Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical ...
A Daily Anti-Inflammation Eating Plan Cant figure out to get all these anti-inflammatory foods into your meals? Try the menu ... Top 10 food_against inflammation * 1. Return to Article By Jill Weisenberger, M.S., R.D., C.D.E., Lifescript Nutrition Expert ... Ongoing inflammation can trigger heart disease, cancer and diabetes, but it also can exacerbate asthma, acne and obesity - even ... 2. Grass-fed beef Humans are at the top of the food chain and the diet your food eats affects your inflammation levels. Today, ...
... The Henning Walczak Lab. Professor Henning Walczak, PhD. Scientific Director of the Cancer ... Research in the Walczak Laboratory is focused on cell death and ubiquitin in inflammation, cancer and immunity. The lab is ... Group Leader: Cell Death, Cancer and Inflammation Research Group. Research focus. ... cancer-related inflammation and immunity. The research aims are to develop novel cancer therapies by specifically inducing ...
Case studies inCase studies in Inflammation-1Inflammation-1 Dr.CSBR.Prasad, M.D., Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College Kolar-563101 ... Case studies in inflammation-1 * 1. Case studies inCase studies in Inflammation-1Inflammation-1 Dr.CSBR.Prasad, M.D., Sri ... Case-12 Name the microscopic feature of acute inflammation shown in the image Dec-2016-CSBRP ...
  • From basic science to clinical trials, we cover every aspect of research into inflammation, the role it plays in human ageing and age-related inflammatory disease as well as the response to trauma. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • When you have chronic inflammation, your body's inflammatory response can eventually start damaging healthy cells, tissues, and organs. (healthline.com)
  • Several spices may also help with chronic inflammation and inflammatory disease, including ginger, garlic, and cayenne. (healthline.com)
  • Neurogenic inflammation is inflammation arising from the local release by afferent neurons of inflammatory mediators such as Substance P , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) , neurokinin A (NKA), and endothelin-3 (ET-3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have theorized that since substance P which appears at day five of induced magnesium deficiency, is known to stimulate in turn the production of other inflammatory cytokines including IL-1 , Interleukin 6 (IL-6) , and TNF-alpha (TNFα) , which begin a sharp rise at day 12, substance P is a key in the path from magnesium deficiency to the subsequent cascade of neuro-inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xanthogranulomatous Process (XP), also known as Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation is a form of acute and chronic inflammation characterized by an exuberant clustering of foamy macrophages among other inflammatory cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason I find the cytokine hypothesis of depression so compelling is that it fits right in with my belief that doing everything we can to contain unnecessary inflammation -- by adhering to an anti-inflammatory diet, for example -- is the best overall strategy for attaining optimum health. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The anti-inflammatory food pyramid consists of foods that can help control inflammation, as well as provide the vitamins, minerals and fiber required for optimal health. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • When the body doesn't turn off the inflammation response -- when all those inflammatory chemicals stay in the system for a long time -- it ends up destroying the very tissues and organs it was meant to protect. (prweb.com)
  • It turns out that inflammation is spread by the release of tiny sacks filled with inflammatory chemicals from immune cells in the brain. (livescience.com)
  • Serhan told New Scientist that one day it may be possible to control chronic inflammatory disease by making drugs that promote the natural signals that turn inflammation off. (newscientist.com)
  • I think this provides reason to believe that if we can target inflammation, people with bipolar depression who exhibit inflammation - either by history or biochemical evidence - can benefit from an anti-inflammatory approach, especially if they have a history of childhood maltreatment," said McIntyre, who is also director of the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. (medscape.com)
  • Previous research has "well-documented the inflammatory state created by trauma and, along with growing interest in the role of inflammation in subserving symptoms of bipolar disorder, depression, and cognition, provided interest in conducting a study looking at people with bipolar illness, especially those with elevated inflammation," he added. (medscape.com)
  • An inflammatory response that lasts only a few days is called acute inflammation, while a response of longer duration is referred to as chronic inflammation. (britannica.com)
  • This volume provides an overview of the fields of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation through the discussion of topics ranging from the molecular biology of activated endothelial cells to the endothelium in inflammatory disease and therapeutic approaches targeting endothelial dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • Topics include: - Heterogeneity of the endothelium during inflammation - Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction - Biology and regulation of nitric oxide in inflammatory pathologies - Endothelial dysfunction in inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis - Clinical methods used to assess endothelial function This book brings together basic and clinical research to assist the reader in bridging connections from bench-to-bedside. (springer.com)
  • So, if you start eating a diet full of foods with possible anti-inflammatory compounds, and low in those with pro-inflammatory effects, can you expect to see a general improvement in your inflammation levels? (foxnews.com)
  • It's a bit technical, but the bottom line is that both too much or too little zinc can have an adverse effect on inflammatory responses, so that modifying zinc intake can be one strategy for coping with unwelcome inflammation. (google.com)
  • Several examples of increased resting inflammation in depressed patients already exist in the literature, but this is the first time anyone has shown evidence to suggest that the inflammatory response to stress may be greater in depressed people," says Dr. Miller. (psychcentral.com)
  • Zyflamend can naturally and safely promote healthy inflammation levels, without sending the body into imbalance as many anti-inflammatory drugs can do. (selfgrowth.com)
  • While Kupffer cells are the resident macrophage in the liver, inflammatory cells such as infiltrating macrophages, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and DCs all contribute to liver inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Here we review the initiation of inflammation in the liver, the liver inflammatory cells, and their crosstalk with myofibroblasts. (jci.org)
  • In this Review we discuss initiation of inflammation in the liver, inflammatory cells, and their crosstalk with myofibroblasts. (jci.org)
  • Nuclear swelling recruits leukocytes, and cell swelling directly induces inflammation, but how cells convert changes in volume into inflammatory signals is unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • At regular intervals along the edge, distinct clusters of T lymphocytes and macrophages (not shown) occurred, suggesting inflammatory cell clustering at the site of stent struts ( Figures 2B and 2 C). These immunohistochemical images illustrate a stent-strut- induced inflammation of an in-stent restenotic lesion retrieved by DCA. (ahajournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a model of λ-carrageenan secondary chronic inflammation in rats. (medworm.com)
  • Elevated biomarkers of inflammation, including inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, have been found in depressed patients, and administration of inflammatory stimuli has been associated with the development of depressive symptoms. (mercola.com)
  • Psychosocial stress, diet, obesity, a leaky gut and an imbalance between regulatory and pro-inflammatory T cells also contribute to inflammation and may serve as a focus for preventative strategies relevant to both the development of depression and its recurrence. (mercola.com)
  • These inflammatory responses are usually localised to the brain, but over time, they may compromise the blood-brain-barrier and lead to systemic inflammation. (news-medical.net)
  • It has anti-inflammatory properties and anti-oxidant properties that help to reduce inflammation. (selfgrowth.com)
  • This tree's bark has such substances which have proven to be anti-inflammatory in health issues like IBS, arthritis , cough and other disorders which cause inflammation. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The focus of our research was to study whether iron accumulation in these three different pathologic conditions causes macrophage inflammation and the production of inflammatory molecules and analyze the consequences. (prnewswire.com)
  • It turns out inflammation is a key player in a wide range of chronic diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. (harvard.edu)
  • Besides medicines, the guide reveals 10 powerful anti-inflammatory "influencers"-such as eating fruits, vegetables, and nuts, minimizing stress, getting more sleep, and quitting smoking-which can help you take charge of chronic inflammation and prevent or reduce its damaging effects. (harvard.edu)
  • In addition, low-grade chronic inflammation, as indicated by levels of the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein, prospectively defines risk of atherosclerotic complications, thus adding to prognostic information provided by traditional risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our laboratory aims at understanding the different immune signatures of chronic inflammatory human diseases (with focus on liver diseases) and how those trigger liver damage and liver cancer using relevant mouse models - with the final aim to generate models of chronic inflammation potentially used for pre-clinical research. (dkfz.de)
  • The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, and initiate tissue repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's been shown to inhibit compounds that promote inflammation. (aarp.org)
  • This study shows for the first time how a substance made by the body to promote inflammation can cause an aggressive form of leukemia. (redorbit.com)
  • A hormone-like substance produced by the body to promote inflammation can cause an aggressive form of leukemia when present at high levels, according to a new study by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC - James). (redorbit.com)
  • Moreover, in order to lower inflammation through diet, it is also important to stay away from foods that can promote inflammation, such as sugar, she said. (foxnews.com)
  • With the development of Alzheimer's, inflammation plays a role and also makes it progress faster. (prweb.com)
  • But when it gets out of control (and sticks around longer than needed), chronic inflammation has been linked to numerous conditions, including heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and some cancers. (aarp.org)
  • These results provide further evidence that inflammation plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease," said study author Zaldy Tan, MD, MPH, of Harvard Medical School in Boston. (psychcentral.com)
  • UCLA professor Greg Cole has been looking at how to control inflammation and possibly prevent Alzheimer's disease with food substances such as curcumin, fruit flavonoids, omega-3 fatty acids and reservatrol. (draxe.com)
  • Inflammation can also lead to the creation of damaging proteins linked to Alzheimer's. (harvard.edu)
  • You already know that having a strong social network can help keep your brain sharp , but new research shows that it can also prevent inflammation. (aarp.org)
  • Flavonoids, Inflammation and Cancer presents an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms by which flavonoids are thought to prevent inflammation and the development of GI and steroid-responsive cancers. (google.com)
  • Did you try taking essential fatty acids, so necessary to prevent inflammation? (google.com)
  • A research team showed that a nanotherapeutic medicine can halt the growth of artery plaque cells resulting in the fast reduction of the inflammation that may cause a heart attack, according to a study led by researchers from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published April 3 in Science Advances. (prweb.com)
  • Cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins are also effective at reducing inflammation of the blood vessels, which can lead to heart disease, US researchers have reported. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Inflammation can lead to serious complications such as heart attack and stroke, and high levels of CRP [an inflammation-related protein] can predict these risks years before they actually occur," commented Dr Christie Ballantyne, one of the researchers involved. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Now, in a new study done in mice, researchers have identified a way that this inflammation can spread. (livescience.com)
  • Finally, the researchers injected microparticles into the brains of healthy mice, and found that they caused inflammation in the brain , both near the site of the injection and elsewhere in the brain. (livescience.com)
  • When immune cells die, they transform into "sponges" that soak up the molecules responsible for causing inflammation, researchers have discovered. (newscientist.com)
  • Written by expert researchers in the fields of endothelial biology, inflammation research and clinical science, it serves as a useful reference for academic and industrial researchers, clinicians, and trainees in the medical profession. (springer.com)
  • Researchers have also found that fructose causes inflammation within the endothelial cells that line your blood vessels. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Kentucky, along with CIRT (Cardiovascular Inflammation Reduction Trial), are inviting you to participate in a study that will examine if a new study drug will reduce inflammation and decrease the risk for heart attacks, strokes, and death. (centerwatch.com)
  • A link between stress, inflammation and disease has been established by researchers at Emory University School of Medicine. (psychcentral.com)
  • Researchers are in the process of finding out whether inflammation in the body is a consequence of or contributor to major depression. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers have found that adding Lactobacillus to the diets of mice with lupus-induced kidney inflammation - also known as lupus nephritis - led to improvements in kidney function and increased their survival, but only in female mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While further studies are needed to confirm the possible benefits of Lactobacillus , the researchers believe that their findings indicate that women with lupus and kidney inflammation may benefit from taking probiotics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the study by the Hopkins researchers--which explored the association between inflammation of the prostate and prostate cancer--a total of about 400 patients (191 prostate cancer cases and 209 controls) from the placebo group were considered. (forbes.com)
  • What the researchers found was that 78.2% of controls had inflammation upon biopsy in at least one core, compared to 86.2% of overall prostate cancer cases. (forbes.com)
  • Nanotherapeutically inhibiting local macrophage proliferation is possible and we can effectively apply it to treat inflammation inside arteries. (prweb.com)
  • Cell culture, mouse, rat and dog studies identified a RORγT inverse agonist that could help treat inflammation. (biocentury.com)
  • Building upon a recent discovery by their Massachusetts General Hospital research collaborators that macrophage proliferation dictates atherosclerosis-related vessel wall inflammation, the Mount Sinai research team applied a nanomedicine strategy with a molecule of "good cholesterol," or high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a naturally occurring shuttle that travels from the liver to arteries. (prweb.com)
  • The inflammation of the aorta and its branch arteries can lead to poor blood supply to tissues of the body in patients with Takayasu disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • In cortisone-resistant patients, stronger medications which suppress the immune system (immunosuppressive drugs ), thereby further decreasing active inflammation of the arteries, have been used. (medicinenet.com)
  • Heart disease is inflammation of the arteries. (draxe.com)
  • He added that clinical trials are ongoing to see if other medications might lower inflammation in arteries and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. (heart.org)
  • Inflammation is your immune system's way of protecting you from physical trauma or foreign invaders, such as viruses and bacteria. (prweb.com)
  • When you get a splinter, inflammation makes sure that immune cells arrive at the scene of the injury to kill any bacteria or viruses that may have entered the broken skin. (prweb.com)
  • Infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria are some of the most common stimuli of inflammation. (britannica.com)
  • bacteria release substances called endotoxins that can initiate inflammation. (britannica.com)
  • A "friendly" bacteria found in yogurt, kefir, and many other dairy products could help to reduce kidney inflammation in women with lupus, a new study suggests. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Retroperitoneal inflammation can happen when harmful bacteria come in contact with your abdominal wall. (healthline.com)
  • To combat the bacteria, your dog's body produces histamines and other chemicals that may lead to irritation and inflammation. (vetinfo.com)
  • Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Heart Disease: Do Antioxidants Have a Role in Treatment and/or Prevention? (hindawi.com)
  • Ongoing inflammation can trigger heart disease, cancer and diabetes, but it also can exacerbate asthma, acne and obesity - even ruin your mood, says California-based registered dietitian Evelyn Tribole, author of The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet (McGraw-Hill). (slideshare.net)
  • Inflammation is increasingly being seen as an important marker of the development and progression of coronary heart disease. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • An increase in inflammation could lead to health problems like heart disease down the line, he said. (reuters.com)
  • One of the "common denominators" in many ills like cancer and heart disease is inflammation, he told Reuters Health. (reuters.com)
  • We propose a general model in which the reduction in lifelong levels of infections and inflammation reduced and delayed the atherosclerotic process and mortality due to heart disease and allowed increased height ( Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Stress, obesity and poor diet trigger persistent inflammation, which can lead to heart disease and depression. (newscientist.com)
  • In addition, medical research over the last decade has shown that runaway inflammation may play a role in a number of disorders, including heart disease, cancer , and diabetes, all of which have been associated with depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • Inflammation is associated with many diabetes-related complications, such as heart disease . (medicinenet.com)
  • Endotoxins are bacterial fragments that enter the bloodstream from the gut and are associated with inflammation and heart disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Although it is not proven that inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be a sign or atherogenic response. (heart.org)
  • There is abundant evidence [that foods can help lower inflammation], and it is not as if this is something we are not sure about in science,' said Kristin Kirkpatrick, a registered dietitian at the Cleveland Clinic. (foxnews.com)
  • Chronic inflammation happens when this response lingers, leaving your body in a constant state of alert. (healthline.com)
  • How does chronic inflammation impact the body? (healthline.com)
  • Chronic inflammation decreased and my body started working with me to heal and rebuild. (chopra.com)
  • environmental toxins, smokin', booz- in', and even a couch-potato lifestyle can create a fiery cascade of inflammation in your body. (chopra.com)
  • Inflammation is a necessary part of the body's immune response, but too much inflammation can lead to disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, inflammation can strike anywhere in your body. (prweb.com)
  • Unfortunately, the body doesn't turn off the inflammation switch and it ends up destroying the very tissues and organs it was meant to protect. (prweb.com)
  • According to a new study, the physical consequences might be explained by an increase in low-grade inflammation throughout the body. (reuters.com)
  • They measured the level of C-reactive protein, a marker often used to gauge body-wide inflammation levels, in the blood samples. (reuters.com)
  • Here are 8 food ingredients that may trigger more inflammation in your body. (arthritis.org)
  • The diagnosis is supported by the blood tests, such as a sedimentation rate (sed rate), that suggest inflammation in the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • If you're overweight , your body is likely in a state of chronic inflammation. (aarp.org)
  • Inflammation that originates in the gut can have surprising consequences throughout the body. (aarp.org)
  • Inflammation is characterised by a red, painful swelling around a wound caused by blood fluids, proteins and immune cells flooding into an area of the body in response to germs or damage. (newscientist.com)
  • If you follow a very sound diet that has plenty of produce, plenty of plant-based foods like nuts and whole grains - that really helps in general to reduce overall inflammation throughout the entire body,' Kirkpatrick told Live Science. (foxnews.com)
  • Interestingly, the foods you eat can have a major effect on inflammation in your body. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Patients will undergo 3 FDG-PET/CT scans during the study to assess inflammation of the large vessels in the body and the effects of secukinumab on this inflammation. (centerwatch.com)
  • These findings suggest that, by this measure, depression is more likely to contribute to inflammation in the body as opposed to arise as a consequence of inflammation in the body.The highest levels of CRP were found in those who had endured the wear and tear of multiple depressive episodes. (medindia.net)
  • Thus the finding that repeated episodes of depression contribute to inflammation in the body highlights a potentially important role for untreated depression as a contributor to a range of serious medical problems," commented Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry. (medindia.net)
  • Instead of taking a medication to reduce joint pain or lower cholesterol, we would be better served by reducing inflammation in the body. (draxe.com)
  • It's a great way to really help with inflammation in the body. (prlog.org)
  • Nutritional ketosis drives down inflammation in your body far more effectively than drugs. (mercola.com)
  • Reversing the process of inflammation means follow what your body has to say. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Inflammation is therefore normally closely regulated by the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes (especially granulocytes) from the blood into the injured tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • These and other data suggest that deficient dietary magnesium intake, even at levels not uncommon in humans, may trigger neurogenic inflammation and lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In just one week our novel cell proliferation-specific approach successfully suppressed atherosclerotic plaque growth and inflammation in mice engineered to mimic human vascular disease," says lead study author Jun Tang, MS, a PhD student at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (prweb.com)
  • Rarely, severe infections can lead to inflammation of the brain or meningitis. (dictionary.com)
  • One of the reasons that added sugars are harmful is increased inflammation that can lead to disease. (theepochtimes.com)
  • Consuming a diet high in sugar and high-fructose corn syrup drives inflammation that can lead to disease. (theepochtimes.com)
  • RIPK2 works in conjunction with NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain) proteins in controlling responses by the immune system that lead to this inflammation process. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dairy products, corn oil, excessively salty foods and items containing too many preservatives can also lead to inflammation. (reference.com)
  • But, as De Marzo explained, investigators are trying to understand the factors responsible for prostate inflammation, specifically how it may lead to prostate cancer, and ultimately if it can be prevented. (forbes.com)
  • While acute inflammation is an essential part of the healing process, chronic inflammation can lead to many of the health conditions plaguing people today. (harvard.edu)
  • how allergies can lead to inflammation. (harvard.edu)
  • Arnett said it's critical to control the risk factors (cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and LDL [bad] cholesterol) that can lead to inflammation. (heart.org)
  • Injuries can lead to inflammation. (vetinfo.com)
  • A 2015 study at the University of Arizona found that curcumin suppressed inflammation and prevented tumor formation in mice with colitis-associated colon cancer. (aarp.org)
  • But curcumin alleviates inflammation without causing harm to any other organ. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Men with at least one biopsy showing signs of chronic inflammation had 1.78 times higher risk for having prostate cancer, and 2.24 times higher risk of having an aggressive cancer, according to their results. (forbes.com)
  • Inflammation refers to your body's process of fighting against things that harm it, such as infections, injuries, and toxins, in an attempt to heal itself. (healthline.com)
  • We hypothesize that both the decline in old-age mortality and the increase in height were promoted by the reduced burden of infections and inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • We add the reduction in lifelong exposure to inflammation to these explanations and develop in more detail the physiological mechanisms linking lifetime exposure to infections and late life health outcomes. (pnas.org)
  • Iron also plays key roles in inflammation and infections: on the one hand, iron is needed for a proper function of the immune system but, on the other, too much iron promotes the growth of microorganisms. (prnewswire.com)
  • Some research suggests that chronic inflammation could also play a role in a range of conditions, from cancer to asthma. (healthline.com)
  • Research in the Walczak Laboratory is focused on cell death and ubiquitin in inflammation, cancer and immunity. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The lab is particularly interested in unravelling the mechanisms on how different death receptor-ligand systems such as the TNF and TRAIL systems are regulated and how they impact cancer cell survival, cancer-related inflammation and immunity. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The research aims are to develop novel cancer therapies by specifically inducing cancer cell death and by therapeutically directing the type of death induced in cancer cells to convert cancer-related inflammation from being immune-regulatory to enabling the immune system to recognise and kill cancer cells. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Chronic, low-grade inflammation greatly increases your risk of developing cancer. (prweb.com)
  • A 2015 study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that a sugar molecule derived from red meat promotes inflammation and cancer progression. (aarp.org)
  • This book provides the latest information on cancer metastasis from the standpoint of inflammation, especially innate immune reactions caused by endogenous mediators but not exogenous pathogens, with ideas on how to understand the complicated mechanisms of metastasis as well as to interpret therapeutic targets. (worldcat.org)
  • It is proposed that inflammation forms a functional triangle with angiogenesis and coagulation, in the center of which cancer is located. (worldcat.org)
  • In another study, published in October 2011 in the journal Cancer Prevention Research, the authors found that taking ginger root extract appeared to reduce markers of colon inflammation. (foxnews.com)
  • Is There A Link Between Prostate Cancer And Chronic Inflammation? (forbes.com)
  • Based on data from a new study at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, men who demonstrate evidence of chronic inflammation seen in prostate biopsies stemming from chronic prostatitis may have close to twice the risk of developing prostate cancer compared to those without inflammation. (forbes.com)
  • The link between developing cancer and having chronic inflammation was even more striking for men with aggressive or high-grade prostate cancer, reflected in a Gleason score between 7 and 10. (forbes.com)
  • Platz explained that previous research has evaluated potential links between inflammation and prostate cancer. (forbes.com)
  • Our study was designed to rule out the bias that would ordinarily exist between the way we detect prostate cancer and the presence of inflammation. (forbes.com)
  • We knew going into this research that inflammation in the prostate is very common in men who have biopsies because of the higher PSA levels and other indicators of prostate cancer, but we did not anticipate the high prevalence of prostate inflammation in men who didn't have an indication for biopsy," explained DeMarzo. (forbes.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/954054898 Title: Inflammation and metastasis Author: Yoshiro Maru Publisher: Japan : Springer, 2016. (worldcat.org)
  • We envision our S-HDL nanomedicine therapy could be translated quickly to human clinical trials as a short-term infusion therapy for heart attack and stroke patients to rapidly suppress plaque inflammation, which can be sustained using current standard of care oral statin medication," says Zahi Fayad, PhD, Professor of Radiology and Director of the Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (prweb.com)
  • It is now clear that obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-level inflammation. (jci.org)
  • In this article, we discuss the molecular and cellular underpinnings of obesity-induced inflammation and the signaling pathways at the intersection of metabolism and inflammation that contribute to diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Physicians have long relied on blood cholesterol as a key indicator of cardiovascular risk, but recent research suggests that high risk patients who achieved a low inflammation level combined with a low cholesterol levels have the fewest cardiovascular events. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Chronic inflammation can adversely affect not only joint health but also brain, breast, prostate, cardiovascular health and can quicken the aging process. (selfgrowth.com)
  • these reduce pain, but have no effect on inflammation . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • these reduce both pain and inflammation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2014). "TRPA1 channels mediate acute neurogenic inflammation and pain produced by bacterial endotoxins" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Cannabinoid Delivery Systems for Pain and Inflammation Treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Reduce pain, relieve inflammation, encourage blood circulation and speed healing. (healthy.net)
  • Avoiding certain types of beverages and food can help to heal the inflammation, reduce your pain, and reduce the amount of time you suffer. (wikihow.com)
  • Although acute inflammation is usually beneficial , it often causes unpleasant sensations, such as the pain of a sore throat or the itching of an insect bite. (britannica.com)
  • Pain from inflammation of the gallbladder is usually enough to convince most people to phone their physicians. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Gout occurs when uric acid accumulates in the joints, causing inflammation and pain, explains Healthline. (reference.com)
  • Apply ice initially to ease pain and inflammation. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • But understanding this natural chemokine-soaking mechanism is vital to learning more about how inflammation and autoimmune disorders progress, the team says. (newscientist.com)
  • Examples include allergic , or hypersensitivity , reactions, in which an environmental agent such as pollen, which normally poses no threat to the individual, stimulates inflammation, and autoimmune reactions , in which chronic inflammation is triggered by the body's immune response against its own tissues. (britannica.com)
  • The idea that bad things happening to you leads to inflammation has been what we are beginning to think may be the link between bad events early in life and bad health outcomes later," said Miller, who wasn't involved in the new study. (reuters.com)
  • To alleviate inflammation and boost the body's immune system, doctors recommend eating plenty of fruits and vegetables rather than fried meats and prepared frozen meals. (reference.com)
  • Our research focuses on understanding the drivers of age-related inflammation, how this contributes to age-related disease and developing innovative ways to improve health in old age. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • I've written about chronic inflammation in all of my books because it's such a huge piece of our health challenges today. (chopra.com)
  • Inflammation might explain the connection between bullying and physical health, Copeland told Reuters Health. (reuters.com)
  • However, Kirkpatrick stressed that adding just one specific food to your diet is unlikely to work wonders for lowering inflammation, or for improving health in general. (foxnews.com)
  • Retrieved on July 08, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Nephritis-Inflammation-of-the-Kidneys.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Our results support a pathway from childhood depression to increased levels of CRP, even after accounting for other health-related behaviors that are known to influence inflammation. (medindia.net)
  • Inflammation has been found to be associated with just about every health condition. (draxe.com)
  • While other factors may also be involved, inflammation can have a profound impact on your mental health. (mercola.com)
  • If you're experiencing chronic illness (or might be), you owe it to yourself to get the facts about inflammation and what it's doing to your health. (harvard.edu)
  • Ready to protect your health from the risks of chronic inflammation? (harvard.edu)
  • Protect your pet's health by keeping a watchful eye out for any signs of inflammation. (vetinfo.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, atorvastatin attenuates inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG) PET. (centerwatch.com)
  • Inflammation is part of the immune system's response to danger … If it is too high, it causes damage. (mercola.com)
  • A 2018 study found that participants following this diet had lower markers of inflammation. (healthline.com)
  • In a study just published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, subjects given 2.7 grams per day of DHA for 10 weeks showed fewer markers for inflammation than those given 2.7 grams of EPA or a placebo. (aarp.org)
  • Elevation in markers of inflammation predicts outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes, independently of myocardial damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • discuss the development of science related to neurogenic inflammation and provide a graphic illustrating key discoveries leading toward the current understanding of neurogenic inflammation, its mechanisms, and the conditions caused by its disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are simple to get, so you don't have to worry too much about trying to peruse the store for one, but the green machine juice is full of antioxidant rich fruits and inflammation fighting leafy greens. (prlog.org)
  • It's also the type of inflammation we're focusing on in today's post. (chopra.com)