A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Physicians appointed to investigate all cases of sudden or violent death.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A condition of metabolic imbalance that is caused by complications of initially feeding a severely malnourished patient too aggressively. Usually occurring within the first 5 days of refeeding, this syndrome is characterized by WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; and DIARRHEA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Dental methods involving the use of DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Abstaining from all food.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Relating to the size of solids.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A pathological condition caused by impaired blood flow in the basal regions of cerebral hemispheres (BASAL GANGLIA), such as INFARCTION; HEMORRHAGE; or ISCHEMIA in vessels of this brain region including the lateral lenticulostriate arteries. Primary clinical manifestations include involuntary movements (DYSKINESIAS) and muscle weakness (HEMIPARESIS).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Lopez then shifted concentration to his old band, Fifth to Infinity. On 28 May 2010, it was announced that Martin Lopez, ...
As time tends towards infinity, the concentrations [A]t and [B]t tend towards constant values. Let t approach infinity, that is ... with a concentration [A]0, the sum of the two concentrations, [A]t and [B]t, at time t, will be equal to [A]0. d [ A ] d t = − ... Since the concentrations do not change thereafter, they are, by definition, equilibrium concentrations. Now, the equilibrium ... The concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquid has decreased and the drink has lost some of it fizzes. Henry's law may be ...
The AUC (from zero to infinity) represents the total drug exposure across time. AUC is a useful metric when trying to determine ... AUC becomes useful for knowing the average concentration over a time interval, AUC/t. Also, AUC is referenced when talking ... This is often measured by quantifying the "AUC". In order to determine the respective AUCs, the serum concentration vs. time ... the drug concentration is measured at certain discrete points in time and the trapezoidal rule is used to estimate AUC. ...
be the concentration of A at equilibrium. Then: −. d. [. A. ]. d. t. =. k. f. [. A. ]. t. −. k. b. [. B. ]. t. −. d. x. d. t. = ... This applies even when time t is at infinity; i.e., equilibrium has been reached: [. A. ]. e. =. [. A. ]. 0. −. [. B. ]. e. {\ ... Concentration of B is related to that of C through [. B. ]. =. −. k. 1. ′. k. 2. l. n. (. 1. −. [. C. ]. [. R. ]. 0. ). {\ ... The concentration of A at time t, [. A. ]. t. {\displaystyle [{\ce {A}}]_{t}}. , is related to the concentration of B at time t ...
The meditators feel that they have touched infinity."[11] The radical Catholic theologian Eugen Drewermann developed a two- ... "If you block sensory inputs to this region, as you do during the intense concentration of meditation, you prevent the brain ...
When all small particles do this, it increases the concentration of free molecules in solution. When the free molecules in ... As time trends to infinity, the entire population of particles becomes one large spherical particle to minimize the total ...
... and the concentration profile is virtually "frozen". The concentration profile c at time t can then be extracted as a function ... 0 {\displaystyle c=c_{R}\qquad \forall x>0} Also, the alloys on both sides are assumed to stretch to infinity, which means in ... that is the concentration curve "flattens out" when approaching the limit concentration value. We can then rearrange: D ( c ... XM is the average position weighed on concentrations, and can be easily found from the concentration profile providing it is ...
"Infinity co-founder Michael Wiener has died" Archived 2009-08-08 at the Wayback Machine, Radio Business Report, August 3, 2009 ... under new regulations enacted under the Telecommunications Act of 1996 that allowed greater concentration of ownership in the ... As the company grew, both Wiener and Carrus left their day jobs to work full-time at Infinity. Wiener was the company's ... Over the next decade, Karmazin led Infinity on a buying spree and brought in shock jock Howard Stern, moving the business into ...
He later earned a Master of Divinity, with a concentration in church development, from the Alliance Theological Seminary. ... while also serving as a Democratic district leader and as the pastor of Infinity Mennonite Church. Farrell, first elected in ...
In mathematical terms this means that as n goes to infinity the estimator θ ^ {\displaystyle {\widehat {\theta \,}}} converges ... other estimators may have greater concentration around the true parameter-value. However, like other estimation methods, ... it achieves the Cramér-Rao lower bound when the sample size tends to infinity. This means that no consistent estimator has ... maximum likelihood estimation possesses a number of attractive limiting properties: As the sample size increases to infinity, ...
... represents the concentration of the ion i at a distance of infinity from the solute, z i {\displaystyle z_{i}} is the valence ... from partition coefficients of these compounds between different solutions or media using standard mole concentrations of the ...
Thus the effect of a relative change in CO2 concentration, dN/N = dn0/n0 (where n0 is the density number near ground), would be ... and the infinity here can be taken actually as the top of the tropopause. ... Huang, Y., & Bani Shahabadi, M. (2014). Why logarithmic? A note on the dependence of radiative forcing on gas concentration. ... A relative increase in the CO2 concentration means an equal relative increase in the total CO2 content of the atmosphere, dN/N ...
Milman's proof gives the optimal bound d(N) ≥ const log N. In this proof, Milman put forth the concentration of measure ... tending to infinity with N, that is arbitrarily close to being isometric to an ellipsoid. ... Milman, Vitali D. (1986). "The concentration phenomenon and linear structure of finite-dimensional normed spaces". Proceedings ...
Co is the concentration at the beginning of dialysis or the initial concentration of the substance/drug (after it has ... at time infinity (steady state) is: The above equation (10a) can be rewritten as: The above equation (10b) makes clear the ... is the first derivative of concentration with respect to time, i.e. the change in concentration with time. It is derived from a ... clearance is generally dependent on the total concentration (free + protein-bound) and not the free concentration. Most plasma ...
In probability theory, the Azuma-Hoeffding inequality (named after Kazuoki Azuma and Wassily Hoeffding) gives a concentration ... approaches 0 as n goes to infinity. A similar inequality was proved under weaker assumptions by Sergei Bernstein in 1937. ... Concentration inequality - a summary of tail-bounds on random variables. It is not a direct application of Hoeffding's lemma ...
AUC∞, (the area under the curve extrapolated to infinity) which can be used to estimate bioavailability, was 4437 +/- 948 (ng.h ... Once ingested, the substance is absorbed quite rapidly and reaches a peak plasma concentration in 1-3 hours post-administration ... have shown that chronic treatment with cinnarizine builds the drug concentrations high enough that they interfere with the ... The IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) of cinnarizine for smooth muscle contraction inhibition is 60mM and it has ...
Play media Concentration of light, especially sunlight, can burn. The word caustic, in fact, comes from the Greek καυστός, ... In ideal circumstances (including perfectly parallel rays, as if from a point source at infinity), a nephroid-shaped patch of ...
In theory the stress at the crack tip where the radius is nearly zero, would tend to infinity. This would be considered a ... In actuality, the stress concentration at the tip of a crack within real materials has been found to have a finite value but ... Rice, J. R. (1968), "A path independent integral and the approximate analysis of strain concentration by notches and cracks" ( ... with a geometry dependent region of stress concentration replacing the crack-tip singularity. ...
0 and c1 > 0. Note that, according to the first assumption, as y goes to M (during an interval), ℓ1(y) goes to infinity and ... 6). New York: The MacMillan Company.' Smit, J. C. and van der Ven, A. H. G. S. (1995). Inhibition in Speed and Concentration ... goes to infinity and this forces a transition to a state of work before the inhibition can reach zero. For a work interval ... in the Attention Concentration Test, is referred to as A. The average stationary response time E(T) may be written as E ⁡ ( T ...
One of Claman DeMelo's grandmothers spent time in a Nazi concentration camp. She was freed on a Friday the 13th, and the tattoo ... infinity management. 18 August 2015. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. "Canadian Zachary Claman DeMelo joins ...
Note that this is not the same as what happens when the concentration parameter tends towards infinity. In the former case, all ... A concentration parameter of 1 (or k, the dimension of the Dirichlet distribution, by the definition used in the topic ... Concentration parameters occur in two kinds of distribution: In the Von Mises-Fisher distribution, and in conjunction with ... The larger the value of the concentration parameter, the more evenly distributed is the resulting distribution (the more it ...
... the maximum stress approaches infinity and a stress concentration factor cannot therefore be used for a crack. Instead, the ... Stress concentrations may also occur from accidental damage such as nicks and scratches. The degree of concentration of a ... Several catalogs of stress concentration factors have been published. Perhaps most famous is Stress Concentration Design ... ESDU64001: Guide to stress concentration data. ESDU. ISBN 1-86246-279-8. Peterson, Rudolf Earl (1953). Stress Concentration ...
... approaches infinity, or limiting rate, and K m {\displaystyle K_{\mathrm {m} }} is the value of a {\displaystyle a} at half- ... and not the substrate concentration a {\displaystyle a} , so v {\displaystyle v} is the dependent variable. As a result, both ... of an enzyme-catalysed reaction as a function of the substrate concentration a {\displaystyle a} is the Michaelis-Menten ...
... a monocle-twirling Prussian general who cannot see the evil of Hitler until their adored child dies in a Jewish concentration ... An Infinity of Mirrors was the fifth and most ambitious book by the American satirist and political novelist Richard Condon. ... Condon's impetus for writing An Infinity of Mirrors is laid out in an excerpt from a letter from him that takes up the entire ... Something like this has happened to Richard Condon in An Infinity of Mirrors. A note on the dust jacket tells us that the ...
This discernment would remain purely mental in the absence of concentration on the Real through rites and prayer, i.e. without ... "A sacred work of art has a fragrance of infinity, an imprint of the absolute. In it individual talent is disciplined; it blends ... from dispersion to concentration, from egoism to detachment, from passion to serenity." The exoteric and esoteric rites of the ... mystical concentration and moral conformity, contains in the final analysis the only things that Heaven demands in an absolute ...
Indemnity Company Infinity Insurance Company Infinity Auto Insurance Company Infinity Assurance Insurance Company Infinity ... Kemper Auto is a national provider of auto insurance with a concentration on nonstandard auto insurance Kemper's Life & Health ... Infinity County Mutual Insurance Company Infinity Indemnity Insurance Company Infinity Preferred Insurance Company Infinity ... says, Former Infinity IA (2018-02-20). "Kemper Corp. Acquires Infinity Property & Casualty of Alabama for $1.4B". Insurance ...
The vast and staggering proportions of this great energy - Infinity - cannot be assimilated in a few months or even a few years ... These malpractices include prayer, concentration, affirmations, certain kinds of meditation, various other forms of self- ... a new part of this great Infinity. This, again, is a new challenge and in proportion to his knowledge and attainment, he again ... he has somehow been made subconsciously aware of this Infinity. So he longs to escape from his materialistic pit of clay and ...
... the initial concentration of P is 0. This applies even when time t is at infinity; i.e., equilibrium has been reached: [ A ] e ... The concentration of A at time t, [ A ] t {\displaystyle [{\ce {A}}]_{t}} , is related to the concentration of P at time t, [ P ... For the rate proportional to a single concentration squared, the time dependence of the concentration is given by 1 [ A ] = 1 ... is the concentration at time t and [A]0 is the initial concentration at zero time. The first-order rate law is confirmed if ln ...
Oskar Gröning, 96, German SS officer and war criminal, guard at Auschwitz concentration camp. Warren Hawksley, 74, British ... The Infinity Box, Where Late the Sweet Birds Sang). Ercan Yazgan, 71, Turkish actor, multiple organ failure. Jerry Anderson, 62 ...
Without them, our loneliness would stretch to infinity.. *. Firestone RB, West A, Kennett JP, Becker L, Bunch TE, Revay ZS, et ... While a number of human-derived factors are recognized as contributing to rising atmospheric concentrations of CH4 (methane) ... Large populations of megaherbivores have the potential to contribute greatly to the atmospheric concentration of methane, which ... Another study examined the change in the methane concentration in the atmosphere at the end of the Pleistocene epoch after the ...
is the concentration of suspended sediment at that elevation, h. {\displaystyle h}. is the flow depth, P. {\displaystyle P}. is ... by a nonlinear diffusion equation in which classic diffusion dominates for shallow slopes and erosion rates go to infinity as ... Turbulent mixing results in the net motion of particles from regions of high concentrations to low concentrations. Because ... This characterization works for the situation in which sediment concentration c. 0. {\displaystyle c_{0}}. at one particular ...
... from Infinity to Finitude, so it may be reversed from the state of Finite to that of Infinity". Kabbalah stressed the ... In Israel, the largest Hasidic concentrations are in the Ultra-Orthodox neighbourhoods of Jerusalem - including Ramot Alon, ... As even intellectuals struggled with the sublime dialectics of infinity and corporeality, there was little hope to have the ... arguing that since they linked matter with infinity, their abilities had to be associated with their own corporeal body. ...
REST reference: which is an offline computational reference at infinity where the potential is zero. REST (reference electrode ... busy or anxious thinking and active concentration. Rhythmic beta with a dominant set of frequencies is associated with various ... A method to standardize a reference of scalp EEG recordings to a point at infinity. Physiol. Meas. 22, 693-711. doi:10.1088/ ... non-zero reference to the new recordings with infinity zero as the standardized reference. A free software can be found at ( ...
Brands include AKG, Harman Kardon, Infinity, JBL, Lexicon and Mark Levinson. It ranked #386 on the 2017 Fortune 500 list with ... Stamford the largest financial district in New York Metro outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of ...
... and that a concentration of mass such as the Solar System is an "isolated, uncommon phenomenon". He also disagrees with Richard ... David Deutsch (2011). The Beginning of Infinity. ISBN 978-0-14-196969-5. .. ...
which is determined by the ratio of the concentration of ions N. {\displaystyle N}. to the concentration of molecules of the ... Infinity (1947): ... The concentration of ions in the liquid depends on the degree ... ion concentration, α. {\displaystyle \alpha }. : the coefficient of dissociation. Superconductivity[edit]. Main article: ... The conductivity of a solution of water is highly dependent on its concentration of dissolved salts, and other chemical species ...
After postulating a direct correlation between electron concentration and crystal structure in beta-phase alloys, Hume-Rothery ... "at infinity"). A plane containing a coordinate axis is translated so that it no longer contains that axis before its Miller ... demonstrates that substantial alteration of certain properties such as specific heat may be affected by small concentrations of ...
if the situation is characterized by a continuous distribution function f(k) (supported from 0 to infinity) where f(k) dk is ... Free Online Calculator computes the Gini Coefficient, plots the Lorenz curve, and computes many other measures of concentration ...
According to Jain texts, this infinity of nigodas can also be found in plant tissues, root vegetables and animal bodies.[188] ... a knowledge achieved through high levels of meditative concentration.[56] Tibetan Buddhism discusses death, bardo (an ...
Gini, C. (1909). "Concentration and dependency ratios" (in Italian). English translation in Rivista di Politica Economica, 87 ( ... Note that this formula can be applied when there are negative values if the integration is taken from minus infinity to plus ... Jasso, Guillermina (1979). "On Gini's Mean Difference and Gini's Index of Concentration". American Sociological Review. 44 (5 ... Gini, C. (1936). "On the Measure of Concentration with Special Reference to Income and Statistics", Colorado College ...
The global concentration of CO2 in our atmosphere today far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years of 180 to 300 ... Raise the payroll tax cap ($117,000 in 2014) to infinity, meaning tax all income. The Social Security actuaries estimate that ... Prevent the current dangerous concentration of risk from occurring again. Fannie & Freddie had $5 trillion in debt or ... "Human activity has been increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (mostly carbon dioxide from ...
For GABAB, [G] is the concentration of the G-protein, and Kd describes the dissociation of G in binding to the potassium gates ... it diverges to infinity in finite time.[10][11] FitzHugh-Nagumo[edit]. Main article: FitzHugh-Nagumo model ... y(t) is the input of the model and is interpreted as the neurotransmitter concentration on the cell surrounding (in most cases ... For NMDA, there is a significant effect of magnesium block that depends sigmoidally on the concentration of intracellular ...
The DPSS (discrete prolate spheroidal sequence) or Slepian window maximizes the energy concentration in the main lobe,[53] and ... Since the Gaussian function extends to infinity, it must either be truncated at the ends of the window, or itself windowed with ...
2a must be observed with a telescope set at infinity, while the fringes of Fig. 2b will be localized on the mirrors.[2]:17 ... A typical use would be in continual monitoring of the column concentration of trace gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide ...
An area with ventilation but no perfusion (and thus a V/Q undefined though approaching infinity) is termed dead space.[3] ... These two variables, V & Q, constitute the main determinants of the blood oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. ... at the base of the lung the ratio is lower but nearer to the optimal value for reaching adequate blood oxygen concentrations. ...
In the earliest stages of the universe, tiny fluctuations within the universe's density led to concentrations of dark matter ... Aristotle responded to these paradoxes by developing the notion of a potential countable infinity, as well as the infinitely ...
Fulvio Melia (2003). The Edge of Infinity. Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521 ... May 1, 1978). "Dynamical evidence for a central mass concentration in the galaxy M87". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1. 221: 731- ... only possible with a high concentration of matter in the center. Currently, the only known objects that can pack enough matter ... dispersion of the stars in the nuclear region of elliptical galaxies could only be explained by a large mass concentration at ...
"Student Poverty Concentration 2012". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2016-01-05 ... Infinity Charter School. *Sylvan Heights Science Charter School. *Capital Area School for the Arts ...
pebre Naga Viper,[6] Infinity Chilli,[7] Bhut Jolokia chili pepper[8][9] Trinidad Scorpion Butch T pepper[10] ... This identifies and measures the concentration of heat-producing chemicals. The measurements are used in a mathematical formula ... Grantham's Infinity chilli named hottest in world». BBC News, 18-02-2011. ... no vàlida; el nom «infinity» està definit diverses vegades amb contingut diferent. ...
The case of a more general Lie group G, where the stabilizer of ϕ at infinity is a maximal torus, was treated by M. K. Murray[ ... 1978). "On the concentration of relic monopoles in the universe". Phys. Lett. B79 (3): 239-41. Bibcode:1978PhLB...79..239Z. doi ... Restricting to gauge transformations that preserve the connection at infinity gives a 4k-dimensional manifold Mk, which is a ... the string just goes off to infinity. The string is unobservable, so you can put it anywhere, and by using two coordinate ...
The conductivity of a solution of water is highly dependent on its concentration of dissolved salts, and other chemical species ... Infinity (1947): ... dopant atoms increase the majority charge carrier concentration ... The value of the residual resistivity of a metal is decided by its impurity concentration. Some materials lose all electrical ... The resistivity of ionic solutions (electrolytes) varies tremendously with concentration - while distilled water is almost an ...
... and vanishes when the distance from the nucleus goes to infinity, roughly in an inverse proportion to the distance. In the ... atoms have a much higher concentration, with the density of matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) ranging from 105 to 109 ...
Diffusing material concentration as a function of space and time. Monitoring of this concentration measured at different ... Thus any solution of this equation is determined up to an additive function in the null-space and, in the case of infinity of ... In the case of a symmetric kernel, we have an infinity of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors constitute a hilbertian ... Since a finite number of data does not allow the determination of an infinity of unknowns, the original data misfit functional ...
Dehydrated water is a peculiar substance found only in areas of high magical concentration. It resembles fine sand, but can be ... the product of spending their lives overlooking a bottomless black abyss of infinity. On the Disc, the phrase "being on edge" ...
One-pointed attention helps to unify consciousness and deepen concentration. Training the mind to give full attention to one ... ISBN 978-9986-02-775-1 (236 pages) Eknath Easwaran (2008). Opt paşi spre infinit (Eight Steps to Infinity)(Antoaneta Goţea, ...
Concentration. *Froth flotation. *Jameson cell. *Panning. *Jig concentrators. *Gravity Concentration. *Magnetic separation ( ...
The potential energy of an electron in an atom is negative relative to when the distance from the nucleus goes to infinity; its ... Only such an intense concentration of charge could produce an electric field strong enough to deflect the alpha particles as ... particles have a much higher concentration, with the density of matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) ranging from 105 to 109 ...
It definitely has potential, but i feel like all the instruments are fighting to be heard and not blending as well. Choose one or two instruments to be the main focus and put everything else in the background or have come in at only certain sections. The drums could be beefed up a bit too so it gives it that jumpy feel. Just a couple things to work on to make some progress ...
Luxury 2 Level House Infinity Pool 5-min walk Playa Blanca #1 Beach Costa Rica. 4 bedroom house & joining New Apartment at ... Imagine a magical place where nature surrounds you; an alluring concentration of beauty, rainforests, beaches, landscapes, ... the infinity pool at the house is the coolest ever, but the beach is close and beautiful as well. You might want a golf cart ... The infinity pool is small, but it is really nice and unique, and the view from the pool area is great. Wade was extremely ...
goes to infinity, the quantity N. −. 1. N. goes to 1 and the Lorenz area in the case of maximum concentration approaches 1. /. ... goes to infinity, the quantity N. −. 1. N. goes to 1 and the Bonferroni area in case of maximum concentration is equal to 1. . ... The Gini Concentration Index. The Gini concentration ratio (Gini 1914), also referred to as the Gini coefficient or the Gini ... As the concentration ratio R. , the Bonferroni index B. can be completely decomposed by the sum of three terms:. B. =. B. w. + ...
Area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) [ Time Frame: Up to 4 months (1 cycle = 28 days) ]. AUC, 0-infinity ... Maximum plasma concentration [ Time Frame: Up to 4 months (1 cycle = 28 days) ]. Cmax ...
Carrier Infinity supply air temp goes up from low to high stage, suction pressure goes up - good performance at low stage) ... Building Physics Rule #3: Higher moisture concentration moves toward lower moisture concentration. ... Building Physics Rule #3: Higher moisture concentration moves toward lower moisture concentration. ... Of course that might freak out the Infinity control, but it might not, given what it has been dealing with so far. Something I ...
the distribution of the DNA concentration is. where is the DNA concentration at infinity, (no slip condition), and is the ... is the PEG concentration, is the PEG diffusion constant, and is the thermal diffusion constant. The PEG concentration gradient ... Thermophoresis depletes a PEG polymer from the hot region and builds a concentration gradient of PEG (5). As PEG concentration ... Selection of stem-loop RNA in the PEG concentration gradient. (A) Stem-loop RNA with 12-bp stem (Upper) and ssRNA poly-U of 15 ...
Abbreviations: AUC: area under the concentration-time curve; Cmax: maximum concentration; inf: infinity; IU: international ... Abbreviations: AUC: area under the concentration-time curve; Cmax: maximum concentration; inf: infinity; IU: international ... A plot of plasma rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer concentration versus time (Figure 1) demonstrated that, in both ... Figure 1: Plasma HRIG Concentrations [Mean (±SD)] at Scheduled PK Sampling Days (Semi-log Scale), Phase 2/3 Study, ...
Abbreviations: AUC: area under the concentration-time curve; Cmax: maximum concentration; inf: infinity; IU: international ... Abbreviations: AUC: area under the concentration-time curve; Cmax: maximum concentration; inf: infinity; IU: international ... A plot of plasma rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer concentration versus time (Figure 1) demonstrated that, in both ... Figure 1: Plasma HRIG Concentrations [Mean (±SD)] at Scheduled PK Sampling Days (Semi-log Scale), Phase 2/3 Study, ...
ng/mL): maximum plasma concentration; AUC: the area under the concentration time curve; : from time zero to infinity; : from ... The lowest concentration at S/N ratios of 10 with the RSD ,20% was taken as LLOQ and was found to be 0.64 ng/mL for CAMD (Table ... The mean plasma concentration-time profiles are illustrated in Figure 3 and pharmacokinetic parameters are presented in Table 3 ... Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of CAMD in rats (n = 6) after continuous oral administration of clopidogrel (30 mg/kg) ...
The subject test strips and cards find use in the detection/concentration determination of a number of different analytes, ... this infinity current value was termed iSS. ISS is approximately proportional to glucose concentration. FIGS. 5a, 5 b and 5 c ... While in principle the subject methods may be used to determine the concentration of an analyte in a variety of different ... The subject test strips and cards find use in the detection/concentration determination of a number of different analytes, ...
... the area under the serum concentration vs. time (AUC) by 8 hours; AUC0-∞, AUC by time infinity; F %0-8 hr, the absolute ... the area under the serum concentration vs. time (AUC) by 8 hours; AUC0-∞, AUC by time infinity. ... The method of any one of claims 1-8, wherein a maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of at least about 2.3 mg/L of the TNFα ... time curve by 8 days (AUC0-8 day) by the trapezoidal method and those by time infinity (AUC0-∞) from AUC0-8 day plus ...
Enhanced Brain Power: Improve Your Memory, Enhance Concentration and Achieve Higher Mental Clarity with Hypnosis. ... Narrated by: Infinity Productions * Length: 1 hr and 31 mins * Unabridged * Overall ... Enhanced Brain Power: Improve Your Memory, Enhance Concentration and Achieve Higher Mental Clarity with Hypnosis. ... Enhanced Brain Power: Improve Your Memory, Enhance Concentration and Achieve Higher Mental Clarity with Hypnosis ...
AUCinf = Area-under-the-curve to infinity. Tmax = Time-to-peak plasma concentration ... The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance of lithium was decreased by 19% during this period ... Protein binding is saturable and at concentrations ,20 μg/mL binding is non-linear. Based on oral dosing data there is an age- ... coadministration of cimetidine or ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofen serum concentrations. ...
AUC(0-infinity) [ Time Frame: 3 days ]. The AUC(0-infinity) is area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to ... The Cmax is observed maximum serum concentration, taken directly from the serum concentration-time profile ... The AUC(0-t) is area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to t. ... Bioequivalence based on Peak Plasma Concentration (Cmax) [ Time Frame: 3 days ]. ...
Characterize the PK of STRO-002 measuring the total area under the concentration versus time curve from zero to infinity ( ... Measurement of AUC to infinity (AUC inf). *Part 2: Characterize the PK of STRO-002 by measuring the clearance (CL) [ Time Frame ... Measurement of AUC to infinity (AUCinf). *Part 1: Characterize the PK of STRO-002 by measuring the clearance (CL) [ Time Frame ... Measurement of maximum plasma concentration after the administration of STRO-002. *Part 1: Characterize the PK of STRO-002 by ...
AUC0-inf indicates the AUC0-t extrapolated to infinity. Cmax indicates the maximum plasma concentration of the drug. Tmax ... The data represents the mean plasma concentration of diltiazem. The observed plasma concentration profile of FIG. 7 can be ... Solute concentration measurement device and related methods. US8685451. Jun 18, 2008. Apr 1, 2014. Osmotica Kereskedelmi s ... 7 depicts the in vivo plasma concentration profile provided by a single dose of the osmotic device of Example 1. ...
... time to achieve the maximum observed plasma concentration; AUC0-∞ = area under the curve, zero to infinity; SD=standard ... Cmax = maximum observed plasma concentration; Tmax = time to achieve the maximum observed plasma concentration; AUC0-∞ = area ... Concentration-Adverse Reaction Relationships. There is a relationship between increasing morphine plasma concentration and ... Concentration-Efficacy Relationships. The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially ...
... maximum concentration; t½=half-life; Tmax=time to maximum concentration (given as the median value with range); SD=standard ... Abbreviations: AUC0-t=area under the curve until 24 hours after administration; AUC0-inf=area under the curve to infinity; Cmax ... Concentrations of IGF-1, which may play a role in skeletal growth, are low in the serum of growth hormone-deficient pediatric ... Serum concentrations of inorganic phosphate increased in patients with growth hormone deficiency after therapy with human ...
... effects on free convective heat and mass transfer flow in a porous medium with time dependent temperature and concentration.( ... Initially the plate and the fluid are at same temperature [T.sub.[infinity]] in a stationary condition with concentration level ... infinity]] = [[eta].sub.[infinity]] + [DELTA][eta]. The maximum value of [[eta].sub.[infinity]], to each group of parameters [v ... C = concentration [c.sub.p] = specific heat at constant pressure [c.sub.s]= concentration susceptibility [D.sub.m] = mass ...
... and maintained plasma concentrations of the hormone above the human therapeutic level for one month. Further development of the ... Rats administered LNG-loaded microneedle patches exhibited LNG plasma concentrations that increased to a peak concentration (C ... and the AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-inf). The bioavailability of LNG delivered from the microneedles was calculated ... These parameters included: the observed maximum plasma concentration (Cmax); the time when Cmax was achieved (Tmax); the ...
Black Infinity Cube By Duddy Pro Desk Toy For Focus And Concentration Premium Spinner Abs. 10.77 ... LUKAS CRYL Studio Artists Paint High Pigment Concentration - 500 ml Bottle Green Earth. Item number etp-ex-B0012FE6ES ... Janod Pure Fox Bead Maze Wooden Looped Activity Center Learning Toy for Boys & Girls - Counting Concentration Shape Recognition ... LUKAS CRYL Studio Artists Paint High Pigment Concentration - 500 ml Bottle Green Earth. 15.59 ...
The concentration of CO2 at infinity is zero.. Chet Chestermiller, Nov 26, 2015 ... The diffusion equation, concentration profile and molar flux in terms of A are given by. [tex]\frac{d}{dr} \left( r^2 \frac{dx_ ...
Lopez then shifted concentration to his old band, Fifth to Infinity. On 28 May 2010, it was announced that Martin Lopez, ...
Glucose concentration was measured using Infinity Glucose Reagent (ThermoElectron). For Nile Red staining, whole flies or ... Measurement of intracellular free amino acid concentration.. Protein concentrations of plasma mixed with 5% trichloroacetic ... reduced expression of genes important in the intracellular concentration of amino acids, and thereby, reduced concentration of ... Free amino acid concentrations of the samples were analyzed using a Hitachi l-8800 amino acid analyzer (25). ...
time infinity, divided by the concentration of A at time infinity.. So we can just take this term here, divide it by this term ... We can easily also get the concentration of B at infinity.. Because if you remember the concentration of A plus B must at any ... So, therefore, we can also write that the total concentration. of A at any given time + the concentration of B at any given ... So from these two concentrations which weve worked out now at time infinity, ...
Glucose concentrations were measured using an oxidase-peroxidase assay (Sigma-Aldrich). Serum triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol ... Infinity TG or cholesterol kit; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA), and free fatty acid (FFA) (NEFA-HR [2]; Wako ... to a final concentration of 60 mg/kg. For the normal dox diet, a 600 mg/kg diet (S4107; Bio-Serv, Flemington, NJ) was used. All ...
area under the curve extrapolated to infinity. CL. clearance. CL/F. oral clearance. CL/Fm. apparent clearance of metabolite. C ... maximum observed plasma concentration. %ER. percentage of the exposure due to enterohepatic recirculation. ESI-LC/MS/MS. ... time of maximum observed plasma concentration. Varea/F. apparent volume of distribution after oral administration. Varea/Fm. ... followed by sudden increases in plasma concentrations 4 to 8 h after drug administration. These plasma concentrations resulted ...
... final concentration 100 ng/mL; system: Agilent 1290 Infinity with Agilent 6210 TOF ... Table 2. β-Glucuronidase, Sources, Forms, and Concentrations. Product. No.. Source. Form. Stock. Concentration. Final ... Analyte concentration in urine: 200 ng/mL. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Method. SPE removes excess enzyme that can interfere ... β-Glucuronidase concentration: 10 kU/mL and 50 kU/mL. Incubation Time. A rapid conversion of the glucuronide metabolite to the ...
... and enzyme concentration must be evaluated for each glucuronide metabolite to be analyzed. ... final concentration 100 ng/mL; system: Agilent 1290 Infinity with Agilent 6210 TOF ... Table 2. β-Glucuronidase, Sources, Forms, and Concentrations. Product. No.. Source. Form. Stock. Concentration. Final ... Analyte concentration in urine: 200 ng/mL. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Method. SPE removes excess enzyme that can interfere ...
do not even have a limit as N tends to infinity. On the other hand, if we let n(t) = n1(t) + n2(t) denote the total number of ... Second, the concentration of p′ around p also implies that the conditional expectation of the random variable given p tends to ... Under these conditions, Gillespie (1975) showed that if time is measured in units of N generations, then as N tends to infinity ... The next task is to evaluate the limit, as N tends to infinity, of the conditional expectation in the last line of (3). This ...
  • Bioquivalence of generic and branded products is based on two key pharmacokinetic (PK) measures: area under the concentration- time curve (AUC) and maximal concentration (C max ) ( US Food and Drug Administration ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Data from concentration-time curves allowed us to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters in two models: one- and/or two-compartment. (mdpi.com)
  • 0.05) were observed between both formulations for any of the pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated and plasma ropivacaine concentrations, considering each period of time. (scielo.br)
  • 95 percent confidence interval, 4.7 to infinity). (nih.gov)
  • The 90% confidence interval for the geometric mean ratio of maximum concentration, area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to interval t, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity were within the range of 80-125% for both fexofenadine and montelukast in the test and reference products, indicating bioequivalence between the fixed dose combination and individual components. (ijpsonline.com)
  • 12. The method of any one of claims 1- 8 , wherein a maximum serum concentration (C max ) of at least about 2.3 mg/L of the TNFα inhibitor is achieved. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • H-2 Antagonists - In studies with human volunteers, coadministration of cimetidine or ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofen serum concentrations. (drugs.com)
  • The primary PK parameters, maximum observed concentration (C max ) and area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC inf ), were calculated with the serum erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations from blood samples collected for 144 h after dosing. (dovepress.com)
  • The serum EPO concentration and the reticulocyte count were used to assess the concentration-response relationship. (dovepress.com)
  • The time-matched serum EPO concentration and PD markers presented a counterclockwise hysteresis, suggesting a time delay between the measured concentration and the response. (dovepress.com)
  • Furthermore, both formulations had a similar time-matched serum EPO concentration and erythropoietic response profile. (dovepress.com)
  • The surgeon was positive for hepatitis B e antigen and had a high serum HBV DNA concentration (15 ng per milliliter). (nih.gov)
  • The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) increases disproportionally after increased single oral doses of DTZ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • After 7 days, a twofold increase in CBD dose resulted in 1.6- and 1.9-fold increases in geometric mean C max and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over a dosing interval (AUC τ ), respectively. (springer.com)
  • Variables such as β-glucuronidase enzyme concentration, digestion pH, incubation time, and temperature all play important roles for effective hydrolysis of glucuronide metabolites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Plasma concentrations of cerivastatin, its metabolites, and gemfibrozil were measured up to 24 hours. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple plasma and urine samples were collected and concentrations of RES AGL and RES GLU were determined using an electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lotilaner blood concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method. (springer.com)
  • The rate law or rate equation for a chemical reaction is an equation that links the reaction rate with the concentrations or pressures of the reactants and constant parameters (normally rate coefficients and partial reaction orders). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, results from these experiments may be confounded because administration of glucocorticoids typically elevates plasma concentrations to maximal or even pharmacological levels (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • The authors conclude that NPs--at concentrations below those required to cause formation of intracellular free radicals--caused concentration-dependent alterations in neuronal network activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mean residence time (MRT) at last measurable concentration (MRTlast). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Compared to control, plasma concentration-time profile in CCl 4 -treated and, to a lesser extent, in cisplatin-treated rats decreased more slowly particularly in the elimination phase. (hindawi.com)
  • Diffusion-thermo and thermal-diffusion effects on free convective heat and mass transfer flow in a porous medium with time dependent temperature and concentration. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The diffusion-thermo and thermal-diffusion effects on unsteady free convection and mass transfer flow along an accelerated vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium have been studied numerically taking the plate temperature and concentration to be functions of time. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Prediction of the extent and time course of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between the mechanism-based inhibitor diltiazem (DTZ) and the CYP3A4 substrate midazolam (MDZ) is confounded by time- and concentration-dependent clearance of the inhibitor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, despite several successful predictions, these approaches either do not address the change in inhibitor concentration with time or do not consider the interaction at the gut wall. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The mean EPO concentration-time profiles were comparable between the two formulations. (dovepress.com)
  • In control-treated monkeys ( Cercopithecus aethiops ), the in vivo CZN area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC inf ) was 19.7 ± 4.5 μg μ h/ml, t 1/2 was 0.57 ± 0.07 h, and terminal disposition rate constant calculated from last three to four points on the log-linear end of the concentration versus time curve was 1.2 ± 0.2 /h. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For signal attenuation and concentration determination corneas were saturated and measured a second time by two-photon microscopy. (arvojournals.org)
  • time to maximum plasma concentration ( t max ) was approximately 4-5 h. (springer.com)
  • Box plot of the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) of telavancin in obese and nonobese subjects after a single weight-stratified fixed dose of 500 mg, 750 mg, or 1,000 mg. (asm.org)
  • Visual predictive check (VPC) plot displaying the observed telavancin concentrations (open circles) and the 5th (bottom dashed line), 50th (solid line), and 95th (top dashed line) percentile telavancin plasma concentrations versus time simulated from the final covariate model. (asm.org)
  • There are a lot of valid reasons not to like what that equation says, the principal one, in my view, being that the emissions and concentration record we have is too short to enable us to infer such a long time constant. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Within 4 to 5 h they fell to about 30 to 55% of the C max , and thereafter a terminal half-life of 11 to 14 h accounted for the major part of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). (asm.org)
  • This predicts that the rate depends only on the concentrations of the reactants, raised to the powers of their stoichiometric coefficients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactants and products are formed at such a rate that the concentration of neither changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • At steady-state concentration, renal clearance of this drug is 1.02 L/h [ 6 ] and its elimination half-life (T1/2) varies from 20 to 30 h [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Plasma and urinary concentrations were determined using validated analytical methods. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sglt2 −/− mice had glucosuria, polyuria, and increased food and fluid intake without differences in plasma glucose concentrations, GFR, or urinary excretion of other proximal tubular substrates (including amino acids) compared with WT mice. (asnjournals.org)
  • After i.v. administration, plasma concentrations of RES AGL declined with a rapid elimination half-life ( T 1/2 , 0.13 h), followed by sudden increases in plasma concentrations 4 to 8 h after drug administration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • RES AGL and RES GLU also displayed sudden increases in plasma concentrations 4 to 8 h after oral administration, with T 1/2TER of 1.48 and 1.58 h, respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Gemfibrozil greatly increases plasma concentrations of cerivastatin, cerivastatin lactone, and metabolite M-1, whereas the level of metabolite M-23 is markedly reduced by gemfibrozil. (nih.gov)
  • This relationship is written as c = K P {\displaystyle c=KP\,} where k is a temperature-dependent constant, p is the partial pressure, and c is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peak plasma concentration is reached within 1-4 h after administration [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The peak plasma concentration of topotecan was 12.82 ± 8.55 μg/mL with a plasma half-life of 6.17 ± 2.75 hours. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The subject test strips and cards find use in the detection/concentration determination of a number of different analytes, including glucose. (google.com)
  • There was a tendency towards lower blood glucose concentrations after repaglinide administration in the participants with the c.521CC genotype than in those with the c.521TT genotype. (nih.gov)
  • Glucose in urine, however, is absent or at very low concentrations in healthy adults (range 0.03 to 0.30 g/d) as a result of near complete reabsorption along the nephron segments, primarily in the proximal tubule. (asnjournals.org)
  • The concept has been developed that the low-affinity/high-capacity Na + -glucose co-transporter SGLT2 ( Slc5a2 ) mediates the bulk uptake of glucose across the apical membrane of the early proximal tubule, whereas the high-affinity/low-capacity SGLT1 ( Slc5a1 ) reduces luminal glucose concentrations to very low concentrations in further distal parts of the proximal tubule. (asnjournals.org)
  • Equilibria involving the formation of chemical complexes are also dynamic equilibria and concentrations are governed by the stability constants of complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of the AUC were calculated directly in the range of zero to infinity on the basis of Quadrature Gauss-Laguerre. (usp.br)
  • the rate is going to be proportional to the concentration of A. (coursera.org)
  • It's going to be proportional to the concentration of B. (coursera.org)
  • In this case, the equilibrium concentration of CO2 in the liquid is given by Henry's law, which states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • These plasma concentrations resulted in a significant prolongation of the terminal elimination half-life of RES AGL ( T 1/2TER , 1.31 h). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The primary PK endpoints were area under the curve (AUC), extrapolated to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ), and maximum concentration ( C max ). (nih.gov)
  • Plasma concentrations of sildenafil and N -desmethylsildenafil were determined up to 24 hours post dose by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (limit of quantification, 1 ng/ml). (anabolicminds.com)
  • The mean maximum concentrations of moxifloxacin in plasma ( C max ) ranged from 0.29 mg/liter (50-mg dose) to 4.73 mg/liter (800-mg dose) and were reached 0.5 to 4 h following drug administration. (asm.org)
  • The concentrations of moxifloxacin in plasma, urine, and saliva were determined by a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography assay with fluorescence detection. (asm.org)
  • Peak plasma concentrations are about 2-4 hours after administration. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Following oral administration in fed cats, lotilaner was readily absorbed and peak blood concentrations reached within four hours. (springer.com)
  • Following oral administration to fed dogs, lotilaner displayed a terminal half-life (T 1/2z ) of 30.7 days and maximum blood concentrations were reached within two hours. (springer.com)
  • Following the iv administration of [14C]DMP.lactate (2.5 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of DMP declined in a biexponential manner and were measurable to 48 hr. (biomedsearch.com)
  • we let the initial concentration of A be A 0. (coursera.org)
  • to be equal to the initial concentration of A ions. (coursera.org)
  • The equation may involve a fractional order , and may depend on the concentration of an intermediate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • corticosterone levels in migratory birds generally circulate at intermediate concentrations (e.g. (biologists.org)
  • where [A] and [B] express the concentration of the species A and B (usually in moles per liter ( molarity , M)). The exponents x and y are the partial orders of reaction for A and B and the overall reaction order is the sum of the exponents. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the equilibrium constant approaches infinity, the reaction tends to form 100% products. (wikibooks.org)
  • The concentration of water during the reaction is, therefore, a constant, and can be excluded from the expression for K. This gives rise to a special equilibrium constant, K a , known as the acid dissociation constant . (wikibooks.org)
  • Like the acid dissociation constant, it is defined as the equilibrium constant multiplied by the concentration of water. (wikibooks.org)
  • This equilibrium can be used to calculate the concentrations of species in the solution. (wikibooks.org)
  • but there are pockets where the groundwater contains high concentrations of fluoride due to the dissolution of minerals in the local granite . (fluoridealert.org)
  • This surprisingly short diffusional distance cannot be explained by a random distribution of Ca 2+ channels and renders the activation of BKChs insensitive to the relatively high concentrations of endogenous Ca 2+ buffers in hippocampal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Eventually you will reach a high state of concentration with all of the five hindrances gone from your mind. (dhammawiki.com)
  • 4 Lrg Private bathrooms, 2 Level home Fully furnished with Private Infinity Pool off our terrace, 70' TV and two additional TVs, Plus social area 2 large decks overlooking the Pacific Ocean. (homeaway.com)
  • Because the equilibrium is used for calculating the concentrations of weak acids, very little water actually reacts. (wikibooks.org)
  • By the Le Chatelier Principle, we can see that if the hydronium ion concentration is increased (by adding an acid), the equilibrium will move to the left and there will be a lower concentration of hydroxide. (wikibooks.org)
  • Blood samples for plasma NI-0101 concentrations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood was drawn immediately before and at regular intervals after infusions for cycles 1 and 2 to determine docetaxel and ramucirumab concentrations. (omicsonline.org)
  • HPLC with UV detection was used to quantify plasma ropivacaine concentrations. (scielo.br)
  • Consistent with the phenotypic similarities, Atf4 null mice have reduced expression of genes that regulate intracellular amino acid concentrations and lower intracellular concentration of amino acids, a key TOR input. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • however, plasma renin concentrations were modestly higher and plasma aldosterone levels were lower in Sglt2 −/− mice. (asnjournals.org)
  • In a new bottle of soda, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquid phase has a particular value. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of carbon dioxide in the liquid has decreased and the drink has lost some of it fizzes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because it simplifies to the product of hydronium and hydroxide concentration, it is sometimes called the ion product constant. (wikibooks.org)
  • A nearly constant concentration could be determined over the first 75 μm. (arvojournals.org)
  • The active extract obtained from G. glauca contains a third compound known as galphimine-E (G-E). Although G-E is not active, it is present at a higher concentrations in G. glauca [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The amount of concentration and love for her child places her into a higher plane of being, to a state of jhana. (dhammawiki.com)
  • To reach the jhanic states of the four jhanas and the five immaterial, formless realms, one must choose a meditation subject and use one-pointedness concentration. (dhammawiki.com)
  • If you block sensory inputs to this region, as you do during the intense concentration of meditation, you prevent the brain from forming the distinction between self and not-self," says Newberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • 95% of the population must have sufficient concentrations to achieve cure across a range of parasite sensitivities and baseline parasitaemia levels. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infinity Provides Update on Phase 2 Signal-Finding Clinical Study of IPI-504 in Advanced Prostate Cancer," Infinity Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Press Release, Jul. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In an aqueous solution, a PEG polymer suspension is depleted from the hot region and builds a concentration gradient. (pnas.org)
  • To determine the riboflavin concentration gradient in the anterior corneal stroma when using the Dresden protocol with different dextran solutions. (arvojournals.org)