Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
Methods for assessing the patency of the fallopian tubes.
A variation from the normal set of chromosomes characteristic of a species.
Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A scientific or medical discipline concerning the study of male reproductive biology, diseases of the male genital organs, and male infertility. Major areas of interest include ENDOCRINOLOGY; SPERMATOGENESIS; semen analysis; FERTILIZATION; CONTRACEPTION; and CRYOPRESERVATION.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Centers for acquiring and storing semen.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.
Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The state of estrangement individuals feel in cultural settings that they view as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.
The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)
A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.
Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Mystical, religious, or spiritual practices performed for health benefit.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Inflammation of the uterine salpinx, the trumpet-shaped FALLOPIAN TUBES, usually caused by ascending infections of organisms from the lower reproductive tract. Salpingitis can lead to tubal scarring, hydrosalpinx, tubal occlusion, INFERTILITY, and ectopic pregnancy (PREGNANCY, ECTOPIC)
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A common inhabitant of the vagina and cervix and a potential human pathogen, causing infections of the male and female reproductive tracts. It has also been associated with respiratory disease and pharyngitis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
A method of providing future reproductive opportunities before a medical treatment with known risk of loss of fertility. Typically reproductive organs or tissues (e.g., sperm, egg, embryos and ovarian or testicular tissues) are cryopreserved for future use before the medical treatment (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) begins.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A benign neoplasm of muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.
Absence of menstruation.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Surgery performed on the male genitalia.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.
Personal care items for women.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a triad of DEXTROCARDIA; INFERTILITY; and SINUSITIS. The syndrome is caused by mutations of DYNEIN genes encoding motility proteins which are components of sperm tails, and CILIA in the respiratory and the reproductive tracts.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Pathological processes involving the PERITONEUM.
A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
The premature cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) when the last menstrual period occurs in a woman under the age of 40. It is due to the depletion of OVARIAN FOLLICLES. Premature MENOPAUSE can be caused by diseases; OVARIECTOMY; RADIATION; chemicals; and chromosomal abnormalities.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)

Sonographic evidence for the involvement of the utero-ovarian counter-current system in the ovarian control of directed uterine sperm transport. (1/2696)

Sperm transport from the cervix into the tube is an important uterine function within the process of reproduction. This function is exerted by uterine peristalsis and is controlled by the dominant ovarian structure via a cascade of endocrine events. The uterine peristaltic activity involves only the stratum subvasculare of the myometrium, which exhibits a predominantly circular arrangement of muscular fibres that separate at the fundal level into the fibres of the cornua and continue into the circular muscles of the respective tubes. Since spermatozoa are transported preferentially into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, this asymmetric uterine function may be controlled by the ovary via direct effects utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system, in addition to the systemic circulation. To test this possibility the sonographic characteristics of the uterine vascular bed were studied during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vaginal sonography with the measurement of Doppler flow characteristics of both uterine arteries and of the arterial anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries (junctional vessels) in the cornual region of both sides of the uterus during the menstrual phase of regular-cycling women demonstrated significant lower resistance indices of the junctional vessels ipsilateral to the side of the dominant ovarian structure as compared with the corresponding arteries contralaterally. By the use of the perfusion mode technique, it could be observed that vascular perfusion of the fundal myometrium was significantly increased ipsilateral to the dominant follicle during the late follicular phase of the cycle. These results show that the endocrine control of the dominant ovarian structure over uterine function is not only exerted via the systemic circulation but also directly, most probably utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system.  (+info)

Risk of testicular cancer in subfertile men: case-control study. (2/2696)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between subfertility in men and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: The Danish population. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry; controls were randomly selected from the Danish population with the computerised Danish Central Population Register. Men were interviewed by telephone; 514 men with cancer and 720 controls participated. OUTCOME MEASURE: Occurrence of testicular cancer. RESULTS: A reduced risk of testicular cancer was associated with paternity (relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.85). In men who before the diagnosis of testicular cancer had a lower number of children than expected on the basis of their age, the relative risk was 1.98 (1.43 to 2.75). There was no corresponding protective effect associated with a higher number of children than expected. The associations were similar for seminoma and non-seminoma and were not influenced by adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that male subfertility and testicular cancer share important aetiological factors.  (+info)

Molecular analysis of the cystic fibrosis gene reveals a high frequency of the intron 8 splice variant 5T in Egyptian males with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. (3/2696)

It has previously been shown that defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are largely responsible for the condition of congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD), without associated renal abnormalities, in Caucasian populations. To assess the involvement of the CFTR in CBAVD in a population with presumed low cystic fibrosis (CF) frequency, we have analysed 20 CBAVD males from Egypt for the presence of 12 common Caucasian CFTR mutations and the intron 8 5T splice variant, IVS-5T, known to be a major cause of CBAVD in Caucasian patients. In 16 of the males without associated renal abnormalities only one deltaF508 carrier was identified, but an exceptionally high frequency of the IVS-5T variant was found (14 of 32 alleles or 43.7%), confirming that this variant is involved in many cases of CBAVD, even in populations where CF is rare. CFTR mutations or the IVS-5T variant were found neither in the remaining four patients with associated renal abnormalities nor in the spouses of the 20 CBAVD patients. However, one patient was homozygous for a leucine to proline substitution at amino acid position 541 (L541P) of the CFTR. It is as yet not clear whether this change is involved in CBAVD in this male.  (+info)

Expression of CD44 in human cumulus and mural granulosa cells of individual patients in in-vitro fertilization programmes. (4/2696)

CD44 is a polymorphic and polyfunctional transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in many types of cells. Here, the expression of this protein on human membrana granulosa was studied by two techniques. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with the mouse monoclonal antibody to human CD44 (clone G44-26), cells immunoreactive for CD44 were observed in both cumulus and mural granulosa cell masses. On the other hand, using monoclonal antibody to human CD44v9, goat polyclonal antibody to human CD44v3-10 and the clone G44-26, no immunoreactivity for CD44v9 and/or CD44v3-10 was observed in either cell group by flow cytometry. In the flow cytometric analysis of 32 patients, the incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells (62.6+/-1.3%) was significantly higher than that in mural granulosa cells (38.5+/-3.2%) (P<0.0001). In the comparison of CD44 expression by flow cytometry according to the maturation of each cumulus-oocyte complex, the incidence of CD44 expression of cumulus cells was significantly higher in the mature group than in the immature group (P<0.05). In a flow cytometric analysis, patients with endometriosis showed a significantly lower incidence of CD44 expression in cumulus cells compared to the infertility of unknown origin group (P<0.05), and compared to both the male infertility group and the unknown origin group in mural granulosa cells (P<0.01). These findings suggest that the standard form of CD44 is expressed in human membrana granulosa with polarity and may play an important role in oocyte maturation.  (+info)

Y chromosome and male infertility. (5/2696)

Recent genome analysis of the Y chromosome has increased the number of genes found on this chromosome markedly. Many of these genes in the part of the Y chromosome that does not undergo recombination with the X chromosome are members of gene families. Evolutionary considerations imply that genes on the Y chromosome will degenerate unless they have male advantageous or female deleterious functions. Spermatogenesis is an example of a male advantageous function and genes in three regions of the human Y chromosome have been promoted as candidate male fertility factors.  (+info)

Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa. (6/2696)

The molecular basis of many forms of male infertility is poorly defined. One area of research that has been studied intensely is the integrity of the DNA in the nucleus of mature ejaculated spermatozoa. It has been shown that, in men with abnormal sperm parameters, the DNA is more likely to possess strand breaks. However, how and why this DNA damage originates in certain males and how it may influence the genetic project of a mature spermatozoon is unknown. Two theories have been proposed to describe the origin of this DNA damage in mature spermatozoa. The first arises from studies performed in animal models and is linked to the unique manner in which mammalian sperm chromatin is packaged, while the second attributes the nuclear DNA damage in mature spermatozoa to apoptosis. One of the factors implicated in sperm apoptosis is the cell surface protein, Fas. In this review, we discuss the possible origins of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa, how these spermatozoa arrive in the ejaculate of some men, and what consequences they may have if they succeed in their genetic project.  (+info)

Mouse MutS-like protein Msh5 is required for proper chromosome synapsis in male and female meiosis. (7/2696)

Members of the mammalian mismatch repair protein family of MutS and MutL homologs have been implicated in postreplicative mismatch correction and chromosome interactions during meiotic recombination. Here we demonstrate that mice carrying a disruption in MutS homolog Msh5 show a meiotic defect, leading to male and female sterility. Histological and cytological examination of prophase I stages in both sexes revealed an extended zygotene stage, characterized by impaired and aberrant chromosome synapsis, that was followed by apoptotic cell death. Thus, murine Msh5 promotes synapsis of homologous chromosomes in meiotic prophase I.  (+info)

Varicocele and infertility in men. (8/2696)

Varicocele is an important cause of infertility in men. The exact mechanism by which varicocele depresses spermatogenesis is unknown but probably the retrograde flow of blood rich in catecholamines into the testes plays a major role. Because subfertile semen qualities are present in a large percentage of men with varicocele and because the response to surgical procedures is very good, high ligation of the left internal spermatic vein is recommended in men with varicocele and infertility.  (+info)

Infertility is a reproductive health disorder defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person's capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with their partner. It can be caused by various factors in both men and women, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities, genetic issues, infections, age, lifestyle factors, and others. Infertility can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on individuals and couples experiencing it, and medical intervention may be necessary to help them conceive.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Female infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to conceive after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or the inability to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. The causes of female infertility can be multifactorial and may include issues with ovulation, damage to the fallopian tubes or uterus, endometriosis, hormonal imbalances, age-related factors, and other medical conditions.

Some common causes of female infertility include:

1. Ovulation disorders: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, premature ovarian failure, and hyperprolactinemia can affect ovulation and lead to infertility.
2. Damage to the fallopian tubes: Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or previous surgeries can cause scarring and blockages in the fallopian tubes, preventing the egg and sperm from meeting.
3. Uterine abnormalities: Structural issues with the uterus, such as fibroids, polyps, or congenital defects, can interfere with implantation and pregnancy.
4. Age-related factors: As women age, their fertility declines due to a decrease in the number and quality of eggs.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, celiac disease, and autoimmune disorders, can contribute to infertility.

In some cases, female infertility can be treated with medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). A thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are medical procedures that involve the handling of human sperm and ova to establish a pregnancy. These techniques are used when other methods of achieving pregnancy have failed or are not available. Examples of ART include in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT). These procedures may be used to treat infertility, prevent genetic disorders, or to help same-sex couples or single people have children. It is important to note that the use of ART can involve significant physical, emotional, and financial costs, and it may not always result in a successful pregnancy.

Fallopian tube diseases refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the Fallopian tubes, which are a pair of narrow tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus during ovulation and provide a pathway for sperm to reach the egg for fertilization. Some common Fallopian tube diseases include:

1. Salpingitis: This is an inflammation of the Fallopian tubes, usually caused by an infection. The infection can be bacterial, viral, or fungal in origin and can lead to scarring, blockage, or damage to the Fallopian tubes.
2. Hydrosalpinx: This is a condition where one or both of the Fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to swelling and distension of the tube. The cause of hydrosalpinx can be infection, endometriosis, or previous surgery.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition where the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, including on the Fallopian tubes. This can lead to scarring, adhesions, and blockage of the tubes.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, usually in the Fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy can cause the Fallopian tube to rupture, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Tubal ligation: This is a surgical procedure that involves blocking or cutting the Fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy. In some cases, tubal ligation can lead to complications such as ectopic pregnancy or tubal sterilization syndrome, which is a condition where the fallopian tubes reconnect and allow for pregnancy to occur.

These conditions can cause infertility, chronic pain, and other health problems, and may require medical or surgical treatment.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Azoospermia is a medical condition where there is no measurable level of sperm in the semen. This means that during ejaculation, the seminal fluid does not contain any sperm cells. Azoospermia can be caused by various factors including problems with testicular function, obstruction of the genital tract, or hormonal imbalances. It is an important cause of male infertility and may require further medical evaluation and treatment to determine the underlying cause and explore potential options for fertility.

There are two types of azoospermia: obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia. Obstructive azoospermia is caused by blockages or obstructions in the genital tract that prevent sperm from being released into the semen, while non-obstructive azoospermia is due to problems with sperm production in the testicles.

In some cases, men with azoospermia may still be able to father children through assisted reproductive technologies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg for fertilization. However, this will depend on the underlying cause of the azoospermia and whether or not there are viable sperm available for extraction.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Oligospermia is a medical term used to describe a condition in which the semen contains a lower than normal number of sperm. Generally, a sperm count of less than 15 million sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen is considered to be below the normal range.

Oligospermia can make it more difficult for a couple to conceive naturally and may require medical intervention such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The condition can result from various factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, varicocele, environmental factors, and certain medications.

It's important to note that oligospermia is not the same as azoospermia, which is a condition where there is no sperm present in the semen at all.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the pelvic peritoneum. This misplaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus, thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle. However, because it is outside the uterus, this blood and tissue have no way to exit the body and can lead to inflammation, scarring, and the formation of adhesions (tissue bands that bind organs together).

The symptoms of endometriosis may include pelvic pain, heavy menstrual periods, painful intercourse, and infertility. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories have been proposed, including retrograde menstruation (the backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity), genetic factors, and immune system dysfunction.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of methods, such as medical history, physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI, and laparoscopic surgery with tissue biopsy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapies, and surgical intervention to remove the misplaced endometrial tissue. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, but this is typically considered a last resort due to its impact on fertility and quality of life.

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that involves the use of fluoroscopy and a contrast medium to examine the internal structure of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It is primarily used to diagnose abnormalities related to the shape and size of the uterus, endometrial lining, and fallopian tubes, including blockages or scarring that may affect fertility.

During the procedure, a thin catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and a contrast medium is injected. The radiologist then takes X-ray images as the contrast fills the uterine cavity and flows through the fallopian tubes. This allows for the visualization of any abnormalities such as blockages, scarring, or structural issues that may be impacting fertility or menstrual function.

HSG is typically performed in a radiology department or outpatient clinic by a trained radiologist or gynecologist. It is usually recommended for women who are experiencing infertility, recurrent miscarriages, or abnormal menstrual bleeding, and may be used as part of an evaluation prior to fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

A varicocele is defined as an abnormal dilation and tortuosity (twisting or coiling) of the pampiniform plexus, which is a network of veins that surrounds the spermatic cord in the scrotum. This condition is most commonly found on the left side, and it's more prevalent in men of reproductive age.

The dilation of these veins can cause a decrease in the temperature around the testicle, leading to impaired sperm production, reduced sperm quality, and, in some cases, pain or discomfort. Varicoceles are often asymptomatic but may present as a scrotal mass, discomfort, or infertility issues. In severe cases or when accompanied by symptoms, treatment options include surgical ligation (tying off) or embolization of the affected veins to improve testicular function and alleviate symptoms.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that evaluates various characteristics of semen, the fluid that is released during ejaculation. These characteristics include:

1. Volume: The amount of semen produced in one ejaculation.
2. Liquefaction time: The time it takes for the semen to change from a gel-like consistency to a liquid state.
3. pH: The acidity or alkalinity of the semen.
4. Sperm concentration: The number of sperm present in each milliliter of semen.
5. Total sperm count: The total number of sperm in the entire ejaculate.
6. Motility: The percentage of sperm that are moving and their forward progression.
7. Morphology: The shape and size of the sperm.
8. Vitality: The percentage of live sperm in the sample.
9. White blood cell count: The presence of white blood cells, which can indicate an infection.

Semen analysis is often used to help diagnose male infertility, as well as to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for infertility. It may also be used to detect abnormalities in the reproductive system or to evaluate the effects of certain medications on sperm production and quality.

Reproductive techniques refer to various methods and procedures used to assist individuals or couples in achieving pregnancy, carrying a pregnancy to term, or preserving fertility. These techniques can be broadly categorized into assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility preservation.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes procedures such as:

1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): A process where an egg is fertilized by sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish, and then the resulting embryo is transferred to a woman's uterus.
2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): A procedure where a single sperm is directly injected into an egg to facilitate fertilization.
3. Embryo culture and cryopreservation: The process of growing embryos in a laboratory for a few days before freezing them for later use.
4. Donor gametes: Using eggs, sperm, or embryos from a known or anonymous donor to achieve pregnancy.
5. Gestational surrogacy: A method where a woman carries and gives birth to a baby for another individual or couple who cannot carry a pregnancy themselves.

Fertility preservation techniques include:

1. Sperm banking: The process of freezing and storing sperm for future use in artificial reproduction.
2. Egg (oocyte) freezing: A procedure where a woman's eggs are extracted, frozen, and stored for later use in fertility treatments.
3. Embryo freezing: The cryopreservation of embryos created through IVF for future use.
4. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation: The freezing and storage of ovarian tissue to restore fertility after cancer treatment or other conditions that may affect fertility.
5. Testicular tissue cryopreservation: The collection and storage of testicular tissue in prepubertal boys undergoing cancer treatment to preserve their future fertility potential.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Clomiphene is a medication that is primarily used to treat infertility in women. It is an ovulatory stimulant, which means that it works by stimulating the development and release of mature eggs from the ovaries (a process known as ovulation). Clomiphene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), which means that it binds to estrogen receptors in the body and blocks the effects of estrogen in certain tissues, while enhancing the effects of estrogen in others.

In the ovary, clomiphene works by blocking the negative feedback effect of estrogen on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, which results in an increase in the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones stimulate the growth and development of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles grow and mature, they produce increasing amounts of estrogen, which eventually triggers a surge in LH that leads to ovulation.

Clomiphene is typically taken orally for 5 days, starting on the 3rd, 4th, or 5th day of the menstrual cycle. The dosage may be adjusted based on the patient's response to treatment. Common side effects of clomiphene include hot flashes, mood changes, breast tenderness, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which is a potentially serious complication characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.

It's important to note that clomiphene may not be suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider. Women with certain medical conditions, such as liver disease, thyroid disorders, or uterine fibroids, may not be able to take clomiphene. Additionally, women who become pregnant while taking clomiphene have an increased risk of multiple pregnancies (e.g., twins or triplets), which can pose additional risks to both the mother and the fetuses.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

Asthenozoospermia is a term used in the field of andrology, which is the study of male reproductive health. It refers to a condition where the majority of sperm in a semen sample have reduced motility, meaning they do not move normally or efficiently. This can make it more difficult for the sperm to reach and fertilize an egg, potentially leading to infertility issues.

To be more specific, asthenozoospermia is defined as having less than 40% of sperm with progressive motility, which means they move forward in a straight line or in a large circle. The condition can be caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities, environmental toxins, infections, and structural issues with the sperm themselves.

It's worth noting that asthenozoospermia is often diagnosed through a semen analysis, which is a routine test used to assess male fertility. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with this condition, it may be helpful to consult with a reproductive endocrinologist or andrologist who can provide more information and guidance on potential treatment options.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of reproductive health disorders, including infertility, sexual dysfunction, and other reproductive system-related issues. It involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining expertise from various medical specialties such as obstetrics, gynecology, endocrinology, urology, and genetics.

Reproductive medicine encompasses several areas of focus, including:

1. Infertility treatment: Utilizing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and other techniques to help individuals or couples conceive.
2. Contraception: Providing various methods for family planning, including hormonal contraceptives, barrier methods, and permanent sterilization procedures.
3. Sexual dysfunction: Addressing issues related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain through medical interventions, counseling, or surgical treatments.
4. Reproductive endocrinology: Managing hormonal imbalances affecting reproductive health, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and hypogonadism.
5. Genetic counseling and testing: Assessing the risk of inheritable genetic disorders and providing guidance on family planning options.
6. Menopause management: Offering treatments for symptoms associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes.
7. Fertility preservation: Providing options for individuals facing cancer treatment or other medical conditions that may impact their future fertility, including egg, sperm, and embryo freezing.
8. Adolescent reproductive health: Addressing the unique needs of adolescents related to sexual and reproductive health, including education, counseling, and preventative care.
9. Andrology: Focusing on male reproductive health, including issues related to sperm production, function, and genital abnormalities.

Human Y chromosomes are one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the X chromosome). They are found in the 23rd pair of human chromosomes and are significantly smaller than the X chromosome.

The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son through the paternal line, and it plays a crucial role in male sex determination. The SRY gene (sex-determining region Y) on the Y chromosome initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

In addition to the SRY gene, the human Y chromosome contains several other genes that are essential for sperm production and male fertility. However, the Y chromosome has a much lower gene density compared to other chromosomes, with only about 80 protein-coding genes, making it one of the most gene-poor chromosomes in the human genome.

Because of its small size and low gene density, the Y chromosome is particularly susceptible to genetic mutations and deletions, which can lead to various genetic disorders and male infertility. Nonetheless, the Y chromosome remains a critical component of human genetics and evolution, providing valuable insights into sex determination, inheritance patterns, and human diversity.

Female fertility agents are medications or treatments that are used to enhance or restore female fertility. They can work in various ways such as stimulating ovulation, improving the quality of eggs, facilitating the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or addressing issues related to the reproductive system.

Some examples of female fertility agents include:

1. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene): This medication stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
2. Gonadotropins: These are hormonal medications that contain FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Letrozole (Femara): This medication is an aromatase inhibitor that can be used off-label to stimulate ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate.
4. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it can also improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by regulating insulin levels and promoting ovulation.
5. Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medication is used to treat infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia, a condition characterized by high levels of prolactin in the blood.
6. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): These include procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). They involve manipulating eggs and sperm outside the body to facilitate fertilization and implantation.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider or reproductive endocrinologist to determine the most appropriate fertility agent for individual needs, as these medications can have side effects and potential risks.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Artificial insemination, homologous is a medical procedure where sperm from a woman's partner (the husband or male partner in a heterosexual relationship) is collected, processed and then inserted into the woman's reproductive tract through various methods to achieve fertilization and pregnancy. This method is often used when the male partner has issues with infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or when there are physical barriers that prevent natural conception from occurring. It is a type of artificial insemination that utilizes sperm from a genetically related source, as opposed to artificial insemination with donor (AID) sperm, which uses sperm from an anonymous or known donor.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Orchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of one or both testicles, usually caused by an infection. The most common cause of orchitis is a bacterial infection that spreads from the epididymis, resulting in a condition known as epididymo-orchitis. However, viral infections such as mumps can also lead to orchitis. Symptoms may include sudden and severe pain in the testicle(s), swelling, warmth, redness of the overlying skin, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections and supportive care for symptom relief. If left untreated, orchitis can lead to complications such as infertility or testicular atrophy.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

Uterine diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the reproductive organ in females where fetal development occurs. These diseases can be categorized into structural abnormalities, infectious diseases, and functional disorders. Here are some examples:

1. Structural abnormalities: These include congenital malformations such as septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, as well as acquired conditions like endometrial polyps, fibroids (benign tumors of the muscular wall), and adenomyosis (where the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular wall).

2. Infectious diseases: The uterus can be affected by various infections, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic agents. Examples include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tuberculosis, and candidiasis.

3. Functional disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal functioning of the uterus without any apparent structural abnormalities or infections. Examples include dysmenorrhea (painful periods), menorrhagia (heavy periods), and endometriosis (where the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus).

4. Malignant diseases: Uterine cancer, including endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, are significant health concerns for women.

5. Other conditions: Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility can also be considered as uterine diseases since they involve the abnormal functioning or structural issues of the uterus.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the reproductive organs in women, specifically the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is often caused by an infection that ascends from the cervix or vagina into the upper genital tract. The infectious agents are usually sexually transmitted bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, but other organisms can also be responsible.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual bleeding, vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, fever, painful sexual intercourse, or pain in the lower back. However, some women with PID may not experience any symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Diagnosis of PID is typically based on a combination of clinical findings, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection and may also include pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more intensive treatment or if complications arise.

Seminal plasma proteins are a group of proteins that are present in the seminal fluid, which is the liquid component of semen. These proteins originate primarily from the accessory sex glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands, and play various roles in the maintenance of sperm function and fertility.

Some of the key functions of seminal plasma proteins include:

1. Nutrition: Seminal plasma proteins provide energy sources and essential nutrients to support sperm survival and motility during their journey through the female reproductive tract.
2. Protection: These proteins help protect sperm from oxidative stress, immune attack, and other environmental factors that could negatively impact sperm function or viability.
3. Lubrication: Seminal plasma proteins contribute to the formation of a fluid medium that facilitates the ejaculation and transport of sperm through the female reproductive tract.
4. Coagulation and liquefaction: Some seminal plasma proteins are involved in the initial coagulation and subsequent liquefaction of semen, which helps ensure proper sperm release and distribution during ejaculation.
5. Interaction with female reproductive system: Seminal plasma proteins can interact with components of the female reproductive tract to modulate immune responses, promote implantation, and support early embryonic development.

Examples of seminal plasma proteins include prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), and semenogelins. Abnormal levels or dysfunctions in these proteins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, prostatitis, and prostate cancer.

Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSDs) related to sex chromosomes are conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. These disorders are caused by differences in the number or structure of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). Some examples of DSDs related to sex chromosomes include:

1. Turner Syndrome (45,X): This condition occurs when an individual has only one X chromosome instead of the typical pair. Affected individuals typically have female physical characteristics but may have short stature, webbed neck, and other features. They usually have underdeveloped ovaries and are unable to menstruate or bear children without medical intervention.

2. Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY): This condition occurs when an individual has an extra X chromosome, resulting in a total of 3 sex chromosomes (XXY). Affected individuals typically have male physical characteristics but may have reduced fertility, breast development, and other features.

3. Triple X Syndrome (47,XXX): This condition occurs when an individual has an extra X chromosome, resulting in a total of 3 sex chromosomes (XXX). Affected individuals typically have normal female physical characteristics but may have learning disabilities and other developmental delays.

4. Jacobs Syndrome (47,XYY): This condition occurs when an individual has an extra Y chromosome, resulting in a total of 3 sex chromosomes (XYY). Affected individuals typically have normal male physical characteristics but may have learning disabilities and other developmental delays.

5. Other variations such as 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or 46,XX/46,XY true hermaphroditism can also occur, leading to a range of physical and developmental characteristics that may not fit typical definitions of male or female.

It's important to note that individuals with DSDs should receive comprehensive medical care from a team of specialists who can provide individualized treatment plans based on their specific needs and circumstances.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and many other animals, along with the X chromosome. The Y chromosome contains the genetic information that helps to determine an individual's sex as male. It is significantly smaller than the X chromosome and contains fewer genes.

The Y chromosome is present in males, who inherit it from their father. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome includes a gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y), which initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

It is worth noting that the Y chromosome has a relatively high rate of genetic mutation and degeneration compared to other chromosomes, leading to concerns about its long-term viability in human evolution. However, current evidence suggests that the Y chromosome has been stable for at least the past 25 million years.

Fallopian tube patency tests are medical procedures used to determine whether the fallopian tubes, which are the pair of narrow tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus in females, are open and functioning properly. The tests typically involve introducing a dye or gas into the uterus and observing whether it flows freely through the fallopian tubes and spills out of the ends.

There are several types of Fallopian tube patency tests, including:

1. Hysterosalpingogram (HSG): This is a radiologic procedure that involves injecting a dye into the uterus through the cervix while taking X-rays to observe the flow of the dye through the fallopian tubes.
2. Sonohysterography: This is an ultrasound procedure that involves injecting a sterile saline solution into the uterus through the cervix and observing the flow of the fluid through the fallopian tubes using ultrasound imaging.
3. Falloposcopy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a thin, flexible tube with a camera into the uterus and fallopian tubes to directly visualize their patency and any abnormalities.
4. Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy): This is an ultrasound procedure that involves injecting a contrast medium into the uterus through the cervix while observing the flow of the contrast through the fallopian tubes using ultrasound imaging.

These tests are often performed as part of an infertility evaluation to determine whether blocked or damaged fallopian tubes may be contributing to difficulty conceiving.

An abnormal karyotype refers to an abnormal number or structure of chromosomes in a person's cells. A karyotype is a visual representation of a person's chromosomes, arranged in pairs according to their size, shape, and banding pattern. In a normal karyotype, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

An abnormal karyotype can result from an extra chromosome (as in trisomy 21 or Down syndrome), missing chromosomes (as in monosomy X or Turner syndrome), rearrangements of chromosome parts (translocations, deletions, duplications), or mosaicism (a mixture of cells with different karyotypes).

Abnormal karyotypes can be associated with various genetic disorders, developmental abnormalities, intellectual disabilities, and increased risks for certain medical conditions. They are typically detected through a procedure called chromosome analysis or karyotyping, which involves staining and visualizing the chromosomes under a microscope.

Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI), also known as Premature Ovarian Failure, is a condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in decreased estrogen production and loss of fertility. It is often associated with menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation). The exact cause can vary, including genetic factors, autoimmune diseases, toxins, and iatrogenic causes such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Polycyctic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of hyperandrogenism (excess male hormones), ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The Rotterdam criteria are commonly used for diagnosis, which require at least two of the following three features:

1. Oligo- or anovulation (irregular menstrual cycles)
2. Clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (e.g., hirsutism, acne, or high levels of androgens in the blood)
3. Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination (presence of 12 or more follicles measuring 2-9 mm in diameter, or increased ovarian volume >10 mL)

The exact cause of PCOS remains unclear, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Insulin resistance and obesity are common findings in women with PCOS, which can contribute to the development of metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Management of PCOS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss), medications to regulate menstrual cycles and reduce hyperandrogenism (e.g., oral contraceptives, metformin, anti-androgens), and fertility treatments if desired. Regular monitoring of metabolic parameters and long-term follow-up are essential for optimal management and prevention of complications.

Andrology is a branch of medical science that deals with the male reproductive system and male sexual concerns. It involves the study, diagnosis, and treatment of various conditions related to male infertility, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation disorders, prostate diseases, testicular cancer, and other issues affecting the male reproductive and sexual health.

Andrologists are medical professionals who specialize in this field, often working closely with urologists to provide comprehensive care for their patients. They may also collaborate with reproductive endocrinologists to address fertility concerns and offer treatments such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or hormone therapy.

In addition to clinical practice, andrology research focuses on understanding the physiology of male reproduction and sexual function, developing new diagnostic tools and therapies, and improving existing treatments for various conditions affecting men's health.

Testicular diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the testicles, the male reproductive organs located in the scrotum. These diseases can affect either one or both testicles and may cause pain, swelling, or impact fertility. Here are some examples of testicular diseases:

1. Testicular cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the testicle. It is a relatively rare cancer but is highly treatable if detected early.
2. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency that occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, cutting off the blood flow.
3. Epididymitis: An infection or inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube that stores and carries sperm from the testicle.
4. Orchitis: An infection or inflammation of the testicle itself. It can occur on its own or as a complication of mumps.
5. Hydrocele: A fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle, causing swelling.
6. Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause pain and affect fertility.
7. Inguinal hernia: A condition where a portion of the intestine or fat protrudes through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge in the groin or scrotum.
8. Testicular trauma: Injury to the testicle, which can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other causes.
9. Undescended testicles: A condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth.

It is essential for men to perform regular self-examinations to check for any unusual lumps, swelling, or pain in the testicles and seek medical attention if they notice any changes.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Chlamydia infections are caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and can affect multiple body sites, including the genitals, eyes, and respiratory system. The most common type of chlamydia infection is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the genitals.

In women, chlamydia infections can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and pain in the lower abdomen. In men, symptoms may include discharge from the penis, painful urination, and testicular pain or swelling. However, many people with chlamydia infections do not experience any symptoms at all.

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In men, chlamydia infections can cause epididymitis, an inflammation of the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, which can also lead to infertility.

Chlamydia infections are diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swabs taken from the affected area. Once diagnosed, chlamydia infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. It is important to note that treatment only clears the infection and does not repair any damage caused by the infection.

Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, getting regular STI screenings, and avoiding sharing towels or other personal items that may come into contact with infected bodily fluids.

Fertility agents, also known as fertility drugs or medications, are substances that are used to enhance or restore fertility in individuals who are having difficulty conceiving a child. These agents work by affecting various aspects of the reproductive system, such as stimulating ovulation, enhancing sperm production, or improving the quality and quantity of eggs produced by the ovaries.

There are several types of fertility agents available, including:

1. Ovulation Inducers: These medications are used to stimulate ovulation in women who do not ovulate regularly or at all. Examples include clomiphene citrate (Clomid) and letrozole (Femara).
2. Gonadotropins: These hormones are administered to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs during a single menstrual cycle. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).
3. Inhibins: These medications are used to prevent premature ovulation and improve the quality of eggs produced by the ovaries. Examples include ganirelix acetate and cetrorelix acetate.
4. Sperm Motility Enhancers: These medications are used to improve sperm motility in men with low sperm count or poor sperm movement. Examples include pentoxifylline and caffeine.
5. Fertility Preservation Medications: These medications are used to preserve fertility in individuals who are undergoing treatments that may affect their reproductive system, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Examples include gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) and cryopreservation of sperm, eggs, or embryos.

It is important to note that fertility agents can have side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. It is also essential to discuss any underlying medical conditions, allergies, and potential risks before starting any fertility treatment.

Ovarian diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and health of the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs (oocytes) and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These diseases can be categorized into functional disorders, infectious and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases, and other conditions that impact ovarian function. Here's a brief overview of some common ovarian diseases:

1. Functional Disorders: These are conditions where the ovaries experience hormonal imbalances or abnormal functioning, leading to issues such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A condition characterized by hormonal imbalances that can cause irregular periods, cysts in the ovaries, and symptoms like acne, weight gain, and infertility.
* Functional Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary, usually as a result of normal ovulation (follicular or corpus luteum cysts). They're typically harmless and resolve on their own within a few weeks or months.
2. Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases: These conditions are caused by infections or inflammation affecting the ovaries, such as:
* Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection that spreads to the reproductive organs, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. It's often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
* Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that can spread to the ovaries and cause inflammation, abscesses, or scarring.
3. Neoplastic Diseases: These are conditions where abnormal growths or tumors develop in the ovaries, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Examples include:
* Ovarian Cysts: While some cysts are functional and harmless, others can be neoplastic. Benign tumors like fibromas, dermoids, or cystadenomas can grow significantly larger and cause symptoms like pain or bloating. Malignant tumors include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
4. Other Conditions: Various other conditions can affect the ovaries, such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with small cysts. It's associated with irregular periods, infertility, and increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
* Premature Ovarian Failure (POF): Also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, it occurs when the ovaries stop functioning before age 40, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and early onset of menopause.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any symptoms related to your reproductive system or suspect an issue with your ovaries. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for many conditions affecting the ovaries.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' is a species of bacterium that is the causative agent of several infectious diseases in humans. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen, meaning it can only survive and reproduce inside host cells. The bacteria are transmitted through sexual contact, and can cause a range of genital tract infections, including urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and epididymitis. In women, chlamydial infection can also lead to serious complications such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

In addition to genital infections, 'Chlamydia trachomatis' is also responsible for two other diseases: trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, affecting mostly children in developing countries. It is spread through contact with contaminated hands, clothing, or eye secretions. LGV is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause inflammation of the lymph nodes, rectum, and genitals.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' infections are often asymptomatic, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they can be detected through laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. Prevention measures include safe sex practices, regular screening for STIs, and good hygiene.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Multiple pregnancy is a type of gestation where more than one fetus is carried simultaneously in the uterus. The most common forms of multiple pregnancies are twins (two fetuses), triplets (three fetuses), and quadruplets (four fetuses). Multiple pregnancies can occur when a single fertilized egg splits into two or more embryos (monozygotic) or when more than one egg is released and gets fertilized during ovulation (dizygotic). The risk of multiple pregnancies increases with the use of assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization. Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher risks for both the mother and the fetuses, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and other complications.

The medical definition of "Habitual Abortion" refers to a woman who has three or more consecutive pregnancies that end in spontaneous miscarriages before 20 weeks of gestation. The cause of habitual abortions can be difficult to determine and may involve genetic, anatomical, hormonal, or immune system factors. Treatment is often aimed at addressing any underlying issues that may be contributing to the recurrent miscarriages. It's important to note that the terminology has changed over time and the term "recurrent pregnancy loss" is now more commonly used in place of "habitual abortion".

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is a specific form of tuberculosis (TB) that affects the female reproductive organs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

In FGTB, the bacteria typically infect the fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, and/or the cervix, leading to various gynecological symptoms. The infection can cause scarring, blockage of the fallopian tubes, and damage to the reproductive organs, which may result in infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain.

FGTB is often asymptomatic or has non-specific symptoms, making it difficult to diagnose. Common symptoms include irregular menstrual bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, vaginal discharge, and pelvic pain. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scan), and laboratory tests (such as endometrial biopsy, PCR, or culture).

FGTB is usually treated with a standard anti-tuberculosis drug regimen that includes isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. In some cases, surgery may be required to manage complications such as hydrosalpinx or chronic pelvic pain. Preventing the spread of pulmonary TB through early detection and treatment is crucial in preventing FGTB.

A sperm bank is a facility that collects, stores, and distributes semen from donors for the purpose of artificial insemination. The sperm samples are typically collected through masturbation and then frozen in liquid nitrogen to preserve them for long-term storage. Potential donors undergo rigorous screening processes, including medical examinations, genetic testing, and background checks, to ensure that their sperm is healthy and free from infectious diseases.

Sperm banks may be used by individuals or couples who are unable to conceive naturally due to male infertility, same-sex female couples, single women, or those with genetic disorders who wish to avoid passing on certain genetic conditions to their offspring. Recipients can choose a donor based on various factors such as physical characteristics, ethnicity, education level, and personality traits.

It is important to note that the regulations governing sperm banks vary by country and even by state or province within countries. Therefore, it is essential to research and understand the specific laws and guidelines that apply in your location before using a sperm bank.

Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows healthcare professionals to examine the interior of the uterus (hyster(o)- and -scopy from Greek "womb" + "examination"). It is performed using a hysteroscope, which is a thin, lighted tube with a camera attached to its end. The hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterus, enabling the visualization of the uterine cavity and the detection of any abnormalities, such as polyps, fibroids, or structural issues like a septum.

Hysteroscopy can be performed in a doctor's office or an outpatient surgical center under local, regional, or general anesthesia depending on the situation and patient comfort. The procedure may also be used for minor surgical interventions, such as removing polyps or fibroids, or to assist with other procedures like laparoscopy.

In summary, hysteroscopy is a medical examination of the uterine cavity using a thin, lighted tube called a hysteroscope, which can aid in diagnosing and treating various conditions affecting the uterus.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Immunologic contraception refers to the use of the immune system to prevent pregnancy. This is achieved by stimulating the production of antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that are essential for fertilization and implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. The most well-known example of immunologic contraception is the development of a vaccine that would induce an immune response against human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By neutralizing hCG, the immune system could prevent the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. However, this approach is still in the experimental stage and has not yet been approved for use in humans.

Tissue adhesions, also known as scar tissue adhesions, are abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that form between two or more internal organs, or between organs and the walls of the chest or abdominal cavity. These adhesions can develop after surgery, infection, injury, radiation, or prolonged inflammation. The fibrous bands can cause pain, restrict movement of the organs, and potentially lead to complications such as bowel obstruction. Treatment options for tissue adhesions may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention to remove the adhesions.

Sertoli cells, also known as sustentacular cells or nurse cells, are specialized cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis in mammals. They play a crucial role in supporting and nurturing the development of sperm cells (spermatogenesis). Sertoli cells create a microenvironment within the seminiferous tubules that facilitates the differentiation, maturation, and survival of germ cells.

These cells have several essential functions:

1. Blood-testis barrier formation: Sertoli cells form tight junctions with each other, creating a physical barrier called the blood-testis barrier, which separates the seminiferous tubules into basal and adluminal compartments. This barrier protects the developing sperm cells from the immune system and provides an isolated environment for their maturation.
2. Nutrition and support: Sertoli cells provide essential nutrients and growth factors to germ cells, ensuring their proper development and survival. They also engulf and digest residual bodies, which are byproducts of spermatid differentiation.
3. Phagocytosis: Sertoli cells have phagocytic properties, allowing them to remove debris and dead cells within the seminiferous tubules.
4. Hormone metabolism: Sertoli cells express receptors for various hormones, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and estradiol. They play a role in regulating hormonal signaling within the testis by metabolizing these hormones or producing inhibins, which modulate FSH secretion from the pituitary gland.
5. Regulation of spermatogenesis: Sertoli cells produce and secrete various proteins and growth factors that influence germ cell development and proliferation. They also control the release of mature sperm cells into the epididymis through a process called spermiation.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

"Social alienation" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the same way that a term like "hypertension" or "diabetes" does. However, it is often used in a psychological or sociological context to describe a state of feeling disconnected or isolated from society, including feelings of loneliness, estrangement, and rejection.

In some cases, social alienation may be associated with mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, or schizophrenia. For example, a person with social anxiety disorder may experience social alienation due to their fear of social interactions and avoidance of social situations. Similarly, a person with schizophrenia may experience social alienation due to the stigma associated with their condition and difficulties with communication and social cues.

However, it's important to note that social alienation can also occur in people without any underlying mental health conditions. Factors such as discrimination, poverty, migration, and social upheaval can all contribute to feelings of social alienation.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Reproductive behavior, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the actions or behaviors associated with an organism's reproduction. This can include various aspects such as:

1. Mating rituals or courtship behaviors that individuals of a species engage in to attract mates.
2. Copulation or actual mating process.
3. Parental care, which is the behavior of parents towards their offspring, including protection, feeding, and teaching necessary skills.
4. In some cases, it may also include aggressive behaviors related to territory defense for breeding.

These behaviors are influenced by hormonal changes, genetic factors, environmental conditions, and individual experiences. They vary widely among different species, with some displaying complex rituals while others have more straightforward processes.

In humans, reproductive behavior includes sexual activities associated with procreation, contraceptive use, family planning, and sometimes abstinence. It's important to note that human reproductive behavior can also be influenced by cultural, psychological, and social factors, making it quite complex compared to many other species.

Klinefelter Syndrome: A genetic disorder in males, caused by the presence of one or more extra X chromosomes, typically resulting in XXY karyotype. It is characterized by small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (breast enlargement), tall stature, and often mild to moderate intellectual disability. The symptoms can vary greatly among individuals with Klinefelter Syndrome. Some men may not experience any significant health problems and may never be diagnosed, while others may have serious medical or developmental issues that require treatment. It is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, affecting about 1 in every 500-1,000 newborn males.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Spermatids are immature sperm cells that are produced during the process of spermatogenesis in the male testes. They are the product of the final stage of meiosis, where a diploid spermatocyte divides into four haploid spermatids. Each spermatid then undergoes a series of changes, including the development of a tail for motility and the condensation of its nucleus to form a head containing the genetic material. Once this process is complete, the spermatids are considered mature spermatozoa and are capable of fertilizing an egg.

Vasovasostomy is a surgical procedure that reconnects the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra, after they have been cut or blocked during a vasectomy. This allows for the restoration of fertility and the possibility of natural conception. The success rate of this procedure can vary depending on several factors, including the time since the vasectomy was performed and the skill of the surgeon.

Seminiferous tubules are the long, convoluted tubes within the testicles that are responsible for producing sperm in males. They are lined with specialized epithelial cells called Sertoli cells, which provide structural support and nourishment to developing sperm cells. The seminiferous tubules also contain germ cells, which divide and differentiate into spermatozoa (sperm) through the process of spermatogenesis.

The seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a thin layer of smooth muscle called the tunica albuginea, which helps to maintain the structure and integrity of the testicle. The tubules are connected to the rete testis, a network of channels that transport sperm to the epididymis for further maturation and storage before ejaculation.

Damage or dysfunction of the seminiferous tubules can lead to male infertility, as well as other reproductive health issues.

Sperm-ovum interactions, also known as sperm-egg interactions, refer to the specific series of events that occur between a spermatozoon (sperm) and an oocyte (egg or ovum) during fertilization in sexual reproduction.

The process begins with the sperm's attachment to the zona pellucida, a glycoprotein layer surrounding the oocyte. This interaction is mediated by specific proteins on the surface of both the sperm and the zona pellucida. Following attachment, the sperm undergoes the acrosome reaction, during which enzymes are released from the sperm's head to help digest and penetrate the zona pellucida.

Once the sperm has successfully traversed the zona pellucida, it makes contact with the oocyte's plasma membrane, triggering the fusion of the sperm and egg membranes. This results in the release of the sperm's genetic material into the oocyte's cytoplasm and the initiation of a series of intracellular signaling events within the oocyte that ultimately lead to its completion of meiosis II and formation of a zygote, marking the beginning of embryonic development.

Proper sperm-ovum interactions are crucial for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development, and any disruptions in these processes can result in infertility or early pregnancy loss.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Menotropins are a preparation of natural follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) derived from the urine of postmenopausal women. They are used in infertility treatment to stimulate the development of multiple follicles in the ovaries, leading to an increased chance of pregnancy through assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Menotropins contain a mixture of FSH and LH in a ratio that is similar to the natural hormone levels found in the human body. The FSH component stimulates the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries, while the LH component triggers ovulation when the follicles have matured.

Menotropins are typically administered by subcutaneous injection and are available under various brand names, such as Menopur and Repronex. The use of menotropins requires careful medical supervision to monitor the response of the ovaries and to minimize the risk of complications such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS).

The "sperm tail" is also known as the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure that enables the sperm to move or swim through fluid. The human sperm tail is made up of nine microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules, which are surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath that provides energy for its movement. This complex structure allows the sperm to navigate through the female reproductive tract in order to reach and fertilize an egg.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Oocyte donation is a medical procedure in which mature oocytes (or immature oocytes that are matured in the lab) are donated by one woman to another woman for the purpose of assisted reproduction. The recipient woman typically receives hormonal treatments to prepare her uterus for embryo implantation. The donated oocytes are then fertilized with sperm from the recipient's partner or a sperm donor in a laboratory, and the resulting embryos are transferred into the recipient's uterus.

Oocyte donation is often recommended for women who have poor ovarian function or who have a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. It is also used in cases where previous attempts at in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the woman's own eggs have been unsuccessful.

The process of oocyte donation involves rigorous screening and evaluation of both the donor and recipient, including medical, psychological, and genetic evaluations, to ensure the safety and success of the procedure. The donor's ovaries are stimulated with hormonal medications to produce multiple mature oocytes, which are then retrieved through a minor surgical procedure.

Overall, oocyte donation is a complex and emotionally charged process that requires careful consideration and counseling for both the donor and recipient. It offers hope for many women who would otherwise be unable to conceive a biological child.

Time-to-Pregnancy (TTP) is a measure used in reproductive medicine and epidemiology to assess fertility. It refers to the length of time it takes for a sexually active couple to conceive from the start of trying to become pregnant, typically measured in menstrual cycles. A shorter TTP indicates higher fertility, while a longer TTP may suggest decreased fertility or potential underlying fertility issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines TTP of 12 months or more as a useful cut-off point for identifying couples who may require further evaluation and medical intervention to address infertility concerns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Oceania" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the region comprising of numerous countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean. This includes Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome, also known as Del Castillo Syndrome, is a rare condition characterized by the presence of only Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. These are specialized cells that normally provide support and nourishment to the developing sperm cells. However, in this syndrome, there is an absence of germ cells, which are necessary for sperm production.

The condition can be unilateral or bilateral, meaning it can affect one or both testes. It's important to note that while men with Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome do not produce sperm, they still produce testosterone, so their secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass develop normally.

The syndrome is often detected during infertility investigations. While it's associated with infertility, it doesn't necessarily indicate a problem with the person's overall health. However, some studies suggest that men with this condition may have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer, so regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended.

Diagnostic techniques in obstetrics and gynecology refer to the various methods used by healthcare professionals to diagnose and monitor conditions related to the female reproductive system and pregnancy. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Physical examination: A thorough physical exam, including a pelvic exam, can help identify any abnormalities in the reproductive organs.
2. Medical history: A detailed medical history, including information about menstrual cycles, sexual activity, and family health, can provide valuable clues to diagnose various conditions.
3. Imaging tests: Ultrasound, CT scans, and MRIs can help healthcare professionals visualize the reproductive organs and detect any abnormalities.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests, urine tests, and cultures can help identify infections, hormonal imbalances, and other conditions.
5. Biopsy: A small sample of tissue is taken from the affected area and examined under a microscope to diagnose conditions such as cancer.
6. Colposcopy: This procedure involves using a special magnifying device to examine the cervix and vagina for signs of abnormalities.
7. Hysterosalpingography: This is an X-ray procedure that involves injecting a dye into the uterus and fallopian tubes to detect any blockages or other abnormalities.
8. Sonohysterography: This is an ultrasound procedure that involves injecting a fluid into the uterus to help visualize its interior and detect any abnormalities.
9. Minimally invasive surgery: Procedures such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy can help healthcare professionals diagnose and treat various conditions related to the reproductive organs.

These diagnostic techniques can help healthcare professionals identify and manage a wide range of conditions, including infertility, pregnancy complications, infections, hormonal imbalances, and cancer.

Gonadal disorders refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the gonads, which are the primary reproductive organs. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, and in males, they are the testes. These disorders can result in issues related to sexual development, reproduction, and hormone production.

Examples of gonadal disorders include:

1. Ovarian dysfunction: This includes conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and ovarian insufficiency, which can affect menstruation, fertility, and hormone levels.
2. Testicular disorders: These include conditions such as undescended testes, Klinefelter syndrome, and varicocele, which can impact sperm production, male secondary sexual characteristics, and hormone levels.
3. Gonadal dysgenesis: This is a condition where the gonads do not develop properly during fetal development, leading to ambiguous genitalia or sex chromosome abnormalities.
4. Cancer of the gonads: Both ovarian and testicular cancers can affect gonadal function and require prompt medical attention.
5. Gonadal injury or trauma: Injuries to the gonads can impact their function, leading to fertility issues or hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for gonadal disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or assisted reproductive technologies.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Oocyte retrieval is a medical procedure that is performed to obtain mature eggs (oocytes) from the ovaries of a female patient, typically for the purpose of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

During the procedure, which is usually done under sedation or anesthesia, a thin needle is inserted through the vaginal wall and guided into the ovarian follicles using ultrasound imaging. The mature eggs are then gently aspirated from the follicles and collected in a test tube.

Oocyte retrieval is typically performed after several days of hormonal stimulation, which helps to promote the development and maturation of multiple eggs within the ovaries. After the procedure, the eggs are examined for maturity and quality before being fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred to the uterus or frozen for future use.

It's important to note that oocyte retrieval carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to surrounding organs. However, these complications are generally rare and can be minimized with careful monitoring and skilled medical care.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. In humans, FSH plays a crucial role in the reproductive system. Specifically, in females, it stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary and the production of estrogen. In males, FSH promotes the formation of sperm within the testes' seminiferous tubules. The human FSH is a heterodimer, consisting of two noncovalently associated subunits: α (alpha) and β (beta). The alpha subunit is common to several pituitary hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the beta subunit is unique to FSH and determines its biological specificity. The regulation of FSH secretion is primarily controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, involving complex feedback mechanisms with gonadal steroid hormones and inhibins.

Spiritual therapies are a type of complementary and alternative medicine that aim to treat the spirit or soul rather than the body. They are based on the belief that illness has a spiritual cause or a spiritual component, and that healing can be achieved by addressing this aspect of a person's experience. Spiritual therapies can take many forms, including prayer, meditation, guided imagery, spiritual counseling, and energy healing.

It is important to note that while some people find spiritual therapies helpful in managing their health and well-being, these approaches are not typically considered mainstream medical treatments. They should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care, but rather as a complement to it. As with any therapy, it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks of spiritual therapies with a qualified healthcare provider before beginning treatment.

Artificial insemination, heterologous (also known as donor insemination) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm from a donor into a woman's reproductive tract with the aim of achieving pregnancy. The sperm used in this procedure comes from a donor who is not the woman's sexual partner. This method may be used when the male partner has severe fertility problems, such as azoospermia (absence of sperm in the ejaculate), or when the couple has a high risk of passing on genetic disorders to their offspring. The donor sperm can be injected into the woman's uterus through intrauterine insemination (IUI) or placed directly into the cervix through intracervical insemination (ICI).

Zona pellucida is a term used in the field of reproductive biology and it refers to the glycoprotein membrane that surrounds mammalian oocytes (immature egg cells). This membrane plays a crucial role in the fertilization process. It has receptors for sperm, and upon binding with the sperm, it undergoes changes that prevent other sperm from entering, a process known as the zona reaction. This membrane is also involved in the early development of the embryo.

Salpingitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which are the pair of narrow tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus during ovulation. This condition can occur due to various reasons, including bacterial infections (such as chlamydia or gonorrhea), pelvic inflammatory disease, or complications following surgical procedures.

Acute salpingitis is characterized by symptoms like lower abdominal pain, fever, vaginal discharge, and irregular menstrual bleeding. Chronic salpingitis may not present any noticeable symptoms, but it can lead to complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or fallopian tube damage if left untreated. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and, in severe cases, surgery to remove or repair damaged tissues.

Insemination, in a medical context, refers to the introduction of semen into the reproductive system of a female for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This can be done through various methods including intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical insemination involves placing the semen at the cervix, the opening to the uterus. Intrauterine insemination involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. In vitro fertilization is a more complex process where the egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus.

Insemination is often used in cases of infertility, either because of male or female factors, or unexplained infertility. It can also be used for those who wish to become pregnant but do not have a partner, such as single women and same-sex female couples.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) is a type of assisted reproductive technology (ART) that involves the transfer of both sperm and eggs directly into a woman's fallopian tubes through a surgical procedure. This process allows for fertilization to occur naturally within the woman's body, increasing the chances of successful implantation and pregnancy.

In GIFT, mature eggs are collected from the woman's ovaries through a minor surgical procedure called follicular aspiration. These eggs are then mixed with prepared sperm from the partner or a donor in the laboratory. The mixture of eggs and sperm is then transferred into the fallopian tubes using a thin catheter, which is inserted through a small incision made in the woman's abdomen.

GIFT is typically recommended for couples who have unexplained infertility or mild to moderate male factor infertility and for whom other fertility treatments, such as intrauterine insemination (IUI), have been unsuccessful. However, due to the invasive nature of the procedure and the need for general anesthesia, GIFT is less commonly used than other ART procedures, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Sperm retrieval is a medical procedure that involves obtaining sperm from a male patient, usually for the purpose of assisted reproduction. This can be indicated in cases where the man has obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia (absence of sperm in the semen), ejaculatory dysfunction, or other conditions that prevent the successful collection of sperm through conventional means, such as masturbation.

There are several methods for sperm retrieval, including:

1. Testicular sperm aspiration (TESA): A procedure where a fine needle is inserted into the testicle to aspirate (or draw out) sperm.
2. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA): Similar to TESA, but the needle is inserted into the epididymis, a small structure that stores and transports sperm from the testicle.
3. Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA): A more invasive procedure where an incision is made in the scrotum to directly visualize the epididymis with a surgical microscope, allowing for the careful removal of sperm.
4. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE): Involves making a small incision in the testicle and removing a piece of tissue containing sperm-producing tubules. The tissue is then processed to extract viable sperm.
5. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE): A refined version of TESE, where a surgical microscope is used to identify and isolate individual seminiferous tubules containing sperm in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

The retrieved sperm can then be used for various assisted reproductive techniques, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to facilitate fertilization.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Protamines are small, arginine-rich proteins that are found in the sperm cells of many organisms. They play a crucial role in the process of sperm maturation, also known as spermiogenesis. During this process, the DNA in the sperm cell is tightly packed and compacted by the protamines, which helps to protect the genetic material during its journey to fertilize an egg.

Protamines are typically composed of around 50-100 amino acids and have a high proportion of positively charged arginine residues, which allow them to interact strongly with the negatively charged DNA molecule. This interaction results in the formation of highly condensed chromatin structures that are resistant to enzymatic digestion and other forms of damage.

In addition to their role in sperm maturation, protamines have also been studied for their potential use in drug delivery and gene therapy applications. Their ability to bind strongly to DNA makes them attractive candidates for delivering drugs or genetic material directly to the nucleus of a cell. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks associated with these applications.

Sex chromosome disorders are genetic conditions that occur due to an atypical number or structure of the sex chromosomes, which are X and Y. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). However, in sex chromosome disorders, there is a variation in the number or composition of these chromosomes.

The most common sex chromosome disorders include:

1. Turner syndrome (Monosomy X): Occurs when a female has only one X chromosome (45,X). This condition affects about 1 in every 2,500 female births and can lead to short stature, infertility, heart defects, and learning disabilities.
2. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY): Occurs when a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY). This condition affects about 1 in every 500-1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, infertility, breast development, and learning disabilities.
3. Jacobs syndrome (XYY): Occurs when a male has an extra Y chromosome (47,XYY). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
4. Triple X syndrome (XXX): Occurs when a female has an extra X chromosome (47,XXX). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 female births and can lead to mild developmental delays and learning disabilities.
5. Other rare sex chromosome disorders: These include conditions like 48,XXXX, 49,XXXXY, and mosaicism (a mixture of cells with different chromosome compositions).

Sex chromosome disorders can have varying degrees of impact on an individual's physical and cognitive development. While some individuals may experience significant challenges, others may have only mild or no symptoms at all. Early diagnosis and appropriate interventions can help improve outcomes for those affected by sex chromosome disorders.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Mycoplasma hominis is a species of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are among the smallest free-living organisms. They are commonly found as part of the normal flora in the genitourinary tract of humans, particularly in the urethra, cervix, and vagina. However, they can also cause various infections, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems or in the presence of other risk factors.

M. hominis has been associated with several types of infections, including:

1. Genital tract infections: M. hominis can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis in women. In men, it may lead to urethritis and prostatitis.
2. Postpartum and post-abortion fever: M. hominis can contribute to febrile morbidity following delivery or abortion.
3. Respiratory tract infections: While rare, M. hominis has been implicated in some cases of respiratory tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals.
4. Joint and soft tissue infections: M. hominis can cause septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and other soft tissue infections, especially in patients with underlying joint diseases or compromised immune systems.
5. Central nervous system (CNS) infections: Although uncommon, M. hominis has been associated with CNS infections such as meningitis and brain abscesses, primarily in immunocompromised individuals.
6. Bloodstream infections: Bacteremia due to M. hominis is rare but can occur in immunocompromised patients or those with indwelling catheters.

Diagnosis of M. hominis infections typically involves the detection of the organism through various laboratory methods, such as culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or serological tests. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that target mycoplasmas, such as macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) or tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline). However, resistance to certain antibiotics has been reported in some M. hominis strains.

Sperm maturation is the process by which spermatids, immature sperm cells produced in meiosis, transform into fully developed spermatozoa capable of fertilization. This complex process occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and includes several stages:

1. **Golfi formation:** The first step involves the spermatids reorganizing their cytoplasm and forming a cap-like structure called the acrosome, which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg's outer layers during fertilization.
2. **Flagellum development:** The spermatid also develops a tail (flagellum), enabling it to move independently. This is achieved through the assembly of microtubules and other associated proteins.
3. **Nuclear condensation and elongation:** The sperm's DNA undergoes significant compaction, making the nucleus smaller and more compact. Concurrently, the nucleus elongates and aligns with the flagellum.
4. **Mitochondrial positioning:** Mitochondria, which provide energy for sperm motility, migrate to the midpiece of the sperm, close to the base of the flagellum.
5. **Chromatin packaging:** Histones, proteins that help package DNA in non-sperm cells, are replaced by transition proteins and then protamines, which further compact and protect the sperm's DNA.
6. **Sperm release (spermiation):** The mature sperm is finally released from the supporting Sertoli cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule, where it mixes with fluid secreted by the testicular tissue to form seminal plasma.

This entire process takes approximately 64 days in humans.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rwanda" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

A chromosome deletion is a type of genetic abnormality that occurs when a portion of a chromosome is missing or deleted. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain our genetic material, which is organized into genes.

Chromosome deletions can occur spontaneously during the formation of reproductive cells (eggs or sperm) or can be inherited from a parent. They can affect any chromosome and can vary in size, from a small segment to a large portion of the chromosome.

The severity of the symptoms associated with a chromosome deletion depends on the size and location of the deleted segment. In some cases, the deletion may be so small that it does not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, larger deletions can lead to developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, physical abnormalities, and various medical conditions.

Chromosome deletions are typically detected through a genetic test called karyotyping, which involves analyzing the number and structure of an individual's chromosomes. Other more precise tests, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the specific location and size of the deletion.

Adoption is a legal process in which the rights and responsibilities of being a parent are transferred from one person or couple to another. It permanently gives adoptive parents custody of the child and makes them legally responsible for the child's care and well-being. The birth parents' legal rights and responsibilities are typically terminated as part of the adoption process, although in some cases they may retain certain rights or have ongoing contact with the child. Adoption can involve infants, older children, or siblings, and can be arranged through private agencies, foster care systems, or international channels.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

The ejaculatory ducts are a pair of small tubes in the male reproductive system that transport sperm from the vas deferens to the urethra, which runs through the penis and carries both semen and urine. Each duct is formed by the joining of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicle, and they pass through the prostate gland before opening into the urethra. The ejaculatory ducts are important for the proper functioning of the male reproductive system as they allow sperm to mix with other fluids from the seminal vesicles and prostate gland to create semen, which is necessary for fertilization.

A sperm head is the anterior (front) part of a spermatozoon, which contains the genetic material (DNA). It is covered by a protein layer called the acrosome, which plays a crucial role in fertilization. The sperm head is followed by the midpiece and the tail, which provide mobility to the sperm for its journey towards the egg.

Fertility preservation is a medical procedure or treatment that is aimed at protecting and preserving the reproductive function and potential of an individual, typically before undergoing medical treatments that can potentially compromise their fertility. This may involve the cryopreservation (freezing) and storage of gametes (sperm or eggs), embryos, or reproductive tissues, such as ovarian or testicular tissue, for future use.

Fertility preservation is often recommended for individuals who are facing medical treatments that can have a negative impact on their fertility, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgical removal of reproductive organs. It may also be considered for individuals with conditions that can affect their fertility, such as certain genetic disorders or autoimmune diseases.

The goal of fertility preservation is to allow individuals to have biological children in the future, even if their fertility is compromised by medical treatments or conditions. The success of fertility preservation depends on several factors, including the age and health of the individual at the time of preservation, the type and duration of the medical treatment, and the quality of the preserved gametes or tissues.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A surrogate mother is a woman who carries and gives birth to a child for another person or couple, called the intended parents. This can occur through traditional surrogacy, in which the surrogate mother is artificially inseminated with the intended father's sperm and she is genetically related to the child, or gestational surrogacy, in which the embryo created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) using the eggs and sperm of the intended parents or donors is transferred to the surrogate mother's uterus. Surrogacy arrangements are complex and involve legal, ethical, and emotional considerations. It is important for all parties involved to have a clear understanding of the process and to work with experienced professionals in order to ensure a successful outcome.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Spermatogonia are a type of diploid germ cells found in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. They are the stem cells responsible for sperm production (spermatogenesis) in males. There are two types of spermatogonia: A-dark (Ad) and A-pale (Ap). The Ad spermatogonia function as reserve stem cells, while the Ap spermatogonia serve as the progenitor cells that divide to produce type B spermatogonia. Type B spermatogonia then differentiate into primary spermatocytes, which undergo meiosis to form haploid spermatozoa.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

A myoma, also known as a leiomyoma or fibroid, is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that originates from the smooth muscle cells in the wall of a visceral organ. The term "myoma" is often used to describe these growths when they occur in the uterus, where they are typically referred to as uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids can vary in size, shape, and location within the uterine wall. They are quite common, especially among women of reproductive age, and may not always cause symptoms. However, in some cases, they can lead to issues such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or infertility. Myomas can also occur in other organs, like the gastrointestinal tract, but they are most frequently found in the uterus.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

The acrosome is a specialized structure located on the anterior part of the sperm head in many species of animals, including humans. It contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the outer covering of the egg (zona pellucida) during fertilization. The acrosome reaction is the process by which the acrosome releases its enzymes, allowing the sperm to digest a path through the zona pellucida and reach the egg plasma membrane for fusion and fertilization.

The acrosome is formed during spermatogenesis, the process of sperm production in the testis, from the Golgi apparatus, a cellular organelle involved in protein trafficking and modification. The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes such as hyaluronidase, acrosin, and proteases that are activated during the acrosome reaction to facilitate sperm-egg fusion.

Abnormalities in acrosome formation or function can lead to infertility in males.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) refer to infections that are localized in the reproductive organs, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and prostate gland. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

RTIs can lead to a range of complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and increased risk of HIV transmission. They can also cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding, and lower abdominal pain.

RTIs are often sexually transmitted but can also be caused by other factors such as poor hygiene, use of intrauterine devices (IUDs), and invasive gynecological procedures. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, good personal hygiene, and timely treatment of infections.

Germ cells are the reproductive cells, also known as sex cells, that combine to form offspring in sexual reproduction. In females, germ cells are called ova or egg cells, and in males, they are called spermatozoa or sperm cells. These cells are unique because they carry half the genetic material necessary for creating new life. They are produced through a process called meiosis, which reduces their chromosome number by half, ensuring that when two germ cells combine during fertilization, the normal diploid number of chromosomes is restored.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Leiomyoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that originates from the smooth muscle cells. It most commonly occurs in the uterus, where it is also known as a fibroid, but can also develop in other parts of the body such as the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary system. Leiomyomas are typically slow-growing and often cause no symptoms, although they can lead to various complications depending on their size and location. Treatment options for leiomyomas include surveillance, medication, or surgical removal.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Spermatocytes are a type of cell that is involved in the process of spermatogenesis, which is the formation of sperm in the testes. Specifically, spermatocytes are the cells that undergo meiosis, a special type of cell division that results in the production of four haploid daughter cells, each containing half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

There are two types of spermatocytes: primary and secondary. Primary spermatocytes are diploid cells that contain 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). During meiosis I, these cells undergo a process called crossing over, in which genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes. After crossing over, the primary spermatocytes divide into two secondary spermatocytes, each containing 23 chromosomes (but still with 23 pairs).

Secondary spermatocytes then undergo meiosis II, which results in the formation of four haploid spermatids. Each spermatid contains 23 single chromosomes and will eventually develop into a mature sperm cell through a process called spermiogenesis.

It's worth noting that spermatocytes are only found in males, as they are specific to the male reproductive system.

Oligomenorrhea is a medical term used to describe infrequent menstrual periods, where the cycle length is more than 35 days but less than 68 days. It's considered a menstrual disorder and can affect people of reproductive age. The causes of oligomenorrhea are varied, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, excessive exercise, significant weight loss or gain, and stress. In some cases, it may not cause any other symptoms, but in others, it can be associated with infertility, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, or obesity. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, hormonal medications, or surgery in rare cases.

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the uterus, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from different types of cells within the uterus, leading to various types of uterine neoplasms. The two main categories of uterine neoplasms are endometrial neoplasms and uterine sarcomas.

Endometrial neoplasms develop from the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. Most endometrial neoplasms are classified as endometrioid adenocarcinomas, arising from glandular cells in the endometrium. Other types include serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma.

Uterine sarcomas, on the other hand, are less common and originate from the connective tissue (stroma) or muscle (myometrium) of the uterus. Uterine sarcomas can be further divided into several subtypes, such as leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.

Uterine neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating or having bowel movements. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of imaging tests (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and tissue biopsies to determine the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and patient's overall health but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

Testicular neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors in the testicle that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They are a type of genitourinary cancer, which affects the reproductive and urinary systems. Testicular neoplasms can occur in men of any age but are most commonly found in young adults between the ages of 15 and 40.

Testicular neoplasms can be classified into two main categories: germ cell tumors and non-germ cell tumors. Germ cell tumors, which arise from the cells that give rise to sperm, are further divided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Seminomas are typically slow-growing and have a good prognosis, while non-seminomas tend to grow more quickly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Non-germ cell tumors are less common than germ cell tumors and include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and lymphomas. These tumors can have a variety of clinical behaviors, ranging from benign to malignant.

Testicular neoplasms often present as a painless mass or swelling in the testicle. Other symptoms may include a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, and breast enlargement (gynecomastia).

Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to detect tumor markers. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities. Regular self-examinations of the testicles are recommended for early detection and improved outcomes.

Central Africa is a geographical region that broadly includes the countries that lie near the equator and are found in the interior of the African continent. The United Nations defines Central Africa as consisting of the following countries: Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and Sao Tome and Principe.

The region is characterized by diverse cultures, languages, and landscapes, ranging from dense rainforests to vast savannas. Central Africa is home to many important rivers, including the Congo River, which is the second longest river in Africa and the deepest river in the world. The region also contains numerous national parks and wildlife reserves that protect a diverse array of plant and animal species, including several endangered species such as mountain gorillas, chimpanzees, and forest elephants.

Central Africa faces many challenges, including political instability, poverty, and environmental degradation. The region has been plagued by conflicts and civil wars, which have resulted in significant loss of life, displacement of people, and destruction of infrastructure. Climate change and deforestation are also major concerns, as they threaten the region's biodiversity and contribute to global warming.

In terms of healthcare, Central Africa faces many challenges, including a high burden of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola. Access to healthcare is limited in many areas, particularly in rural communities, and there is a shortage of healthcare workers and medical facilities. In addition, the region has been affected by conflicts and humanitarian crises, which have further strained healthcare systems and made it difficult to provide adequate care to those in need.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

The Douglas pouch, also known as the recto-uterine pouch or cul-de-sac of Douglas, is a potential space within the female pelvic cavity. It is located between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum. This space can be examined during a gynecological examination, such as a transvaginal ultrasound or during surgery, to assess for any abnormalities or pathologies that may be present in this area.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Urologic surgical procedures in males refer to various surgical operations performed on the male urinary system and reproductive organs. These may include:

1. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP): A procedure used to treat an enlarged prostate, where excess tissue is removed through the urethra using a specialized instrument.
2. Radical Prostatectomy: The surgical removal of the entire prostate gland and some surrounding tissues, usually performed as a treatment for prostate cancer.
3. Cystectomy: Surgical removal of the bladder, often due to bladder cancer. In males, this procedure may also involve removing the prostate and seminal vesicles.
4. Nephrectomy: The surgical removal of a kidney, usually performed due to kidney disease or cancer.
5. Pyeloplasty: A procedure to correct a blockage in the renal pelvis, the part of the kidney where urine collects before flowing into the ureter.
6. Ureterostomy: A surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ureter to the outside of the body, often performed when a portion of the urinary system needs to be bypassed or drained.
7. Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles, often performed as a treatment for testicular cancer.
8. Vasectomy: A minor surgical procedure for male sterilization, where the vas deferens are cut and sealed to prevent sperm from reaching the semen.
9. Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE): A surgical procedure used to extract sperm directly from the testicles, often performed as part of assisted reproductive techniques for infertile couples.

These procedures may be performed using open surgery, laparoscopy, or robotic-assisted surgery, depending on the specific circumstances and patient factors.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

Semen preservation is the process of collecting, liquefying, testing, and storing semen samples for future use in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The semen sample is usually collected through masturbation, and then it is mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to prevent damage during the freezing and thawing process. After that, the sample is divided into straws or vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen tanks at temperatures below -196°C. Properly preserved semen can be stored for many years without significant loss of quality or fertility potential. Semen preservation is often recommended for men who are about to undergo medical treatments that may affect their sperm production or fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or for those who wish to postpone fatherhood for personal or medical reasons.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Microinjection is a medical technique that involves the use of a fine, precise needle to inject small amounts of liquid or chemicals into microscopic structures, cells, or tissues. This procedure is often used in research settings to introduce specific substances into individual cells for study purposes, such as introducing DNA or RNA into cell nuclei to manipulate gene expression.

In clinical settings, microinjections may be used in various medical and cosmetic procedures, including:

1. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): A type of assisted reproductive technology where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to increase the chances of fertilization during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments.
2. Botulinum Toxin Injections: Microinjections of botulinum toxin (Botox, Dysport, or Xeomin) are used for cosmetic purposes to reduce wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing the muscles responsible for their formation. They can also be used medically to treat various neuromuscular disorders, such as migraines, muscle spasticity, and excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).
3. Drug Delivery: Microinjections may be used to deliver drugs directly into specific tissues or organs, bypassing the systemic circulation and potentially reducing side effects. This technique can be particularly useful in treating localized pain, delivering growth factors for tissue regeneration, or administering chemotherapy agents directly into tumors.
4. Gene Therapy: Microinjections of genetic material (DNA or RNA) can be used to introduce therapeutic genes into cells to treat various genetic disorders or diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, or cancer.

Overall, microinjection is a highly specialized and precise technique that allows for the targeted delivery of substances into small structures, cells, or tissues, with potential applications in research, medical diagnostics, and therapeutic interventions.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small, bacteria that lack a cell wall and can be found in the urinary and genital tracts of humans. It's known to cause several urogenital infections, such as urethritis in men and cervicitis in women. In some cases, it may also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and complications like infertility or ectopic pregnancy in women. Mycoplasma genitalium can be sexually transmitted and is often associated with HIV transmission. Due to its small size and atypical growth requirements, it can be challenging to culture and diagnose using standard microbiological methods. Molecular tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), are commonly used for detection in clinical settings.

Feminine hygiene products are personal care items specifically designed for women to manage menstruation and maintain cleanliness and freshness of the female genital area. The most common types of feminine hygiene products include:

1. Sanitary napkins or pads: These are rectangular-shaped absorbent pads worn inside underwear to absorb menstrual flow. They come in various sizes, absorbencies, and designs, including wings to secure the pad in place.
2. Tampons: A tampon is a cylindrical-shaped, compact piece of soft, absorbent material inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual flow. They come with applicators or without, and in different absorbencies.
3. Menstrual cups: These are flexible, funnel-shaped cups made from silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina to collect menstrual flow. They can be reused after cleaning and are considered a more eco-friendly alternative to single-use pads and tampons.
4. Liners: Thinner and smaller than sanitary napkins, liners are used for light discharge or spotting between periods, after sexual intercourse, or during postpartum recovery.
5. Intimate wipes: These are pre-moistened towelettes designed for cleaning the external genital area. They can be useful for freshening up throughout the day, especially during menstruation, exercise, or travel.
6. Douches: A douche is a device used to introduce a stream of water or a medicated solution into the vagina to cleanse it. However, douching is not generally recommended by medical professionals as it can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and potentially lead to infections.

It's essential to choose feminine hygiene products that are comfortable, reliable, and safe for personal use. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions for proper usage and disposal, and consult a healthcare provider if you have any concerns or questions about your menstrual health or feminine hygiene.

Kartagener Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is characterized by the triad of chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis (damage and widening of the airways in the lungs), and situs inversus totalis - a condition where the major visceral organs are mirrored or reversed from their normal positions.

In Kartagener Syndrome, the cilia (tiny hair-like structures) lining the respiratory tract are abnormal or dysfunctional, which impairs their ability to clear mucus and other particles. This leads to recurrent respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, and ultimately, progressive lung damage.

The condition is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the defective gene - one from each parent - to develop the syndrome. Kartagener Syndrome is a subtype of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a group of disorders affecting ciliary structure and function.

The acrosome reaction is a crucial event in the fertilization process of many species, including humans. It occurs when the sperm makes contact with and binds to the zona pellucida, the glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix that surrounds the egg. This interaction triggers a series of molecular events leading to the exocytosis of the acrosome, a membrane-bound organelle located at the tip of the sperm head.

The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes that help the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and reach the egg's plasma membrane. During the acrosome reaction, the outer acrosomal membrane fuses with the sperm plasma membrane, releasing these enzymes and causing the release of the inner acrosomal membrane, which then reorganizes to form a structure called the acrosomal cap.

The acrosome reaction exposes new proteins on the sperm surface that can interact with the egg's plasma membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two membranes and the entry of the sperm into the egg. This event is essential for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development.

Aneuploidy is a medical term that refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of genes.

In humans, the normal number of chromosomes in a cell is 46, arranged in 23 pairs. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an extra or missing chromosome in one or more of these pairs. For example, Down syndrome is a condition that results from an extra copy of chromosome 21, also known as trisomy 21.

Aneuploidy can arise during the formation of gametes (sperm or egg cells) due to errors in the process of cell division called meiosis. These errors can result in eggs or sperm with an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can then lead to aneuploidy in the resulting embryo.

Aneuploidy is a significant cause of birth defects and miscarriages. The severity of the condition depends on which chromosomes are affected and the extent of the abnormality. In some cases, aneuploidy may have no noticeable effects, while in others it can lead to serious health problems or developmental delays.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Extramarital relations, also known as infidelity or cheating, refer to sexual or emotional relationships that occur outside of a committed marriage or long-term relationship. These relations are considered to be contrary to the explicit or implicit marital agreement between two partners and can involve various forms of sexual contact or intimate communication with someone other than one's spouse or partner.

Extramarital relations can have serious consequences for both individuals and relationships, including damage to trust, emotional distress, and even divorce. It is important to note that the definition and ethical implications of extramarital relations may vary depending on cultural, religious, and personal beliefs.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Endometritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the endometrium, which is the innermost layer of the uterus. It is often caused by infections, such as bacterial or fungal infections, that enter the uterus through various routes, including childbirth, miscarriage, or surgical procedures.

The symptoms of endometritis may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, fever, and abdominal cramping. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or sepsis. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to clear the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and promote healing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of endometritis, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women in areas where hair growth is typically androgen-dependent, such as the face, chest, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. This hair growth is often thick, dark, and coarse, resembling male-pattern hair growth. Hirsutism can be caused by various factors, including hormonal imbalances, certain medications, and genetic conditions. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience excessive or unwanted hair growth to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Peritoneal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the peritoneum, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the organs within it. The peritoneum has several functions, including providing protection and support to the abdominal organs, producing and absorbing fluids, and serving as a site for the immune system's response to infections and other foreign substances.

Peritoneal diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: infectious and non-infectious. Infectious peritoneal diseases are caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections that spread to the peritoneum from other parts of the body or through contaminated food, water, or medical devices. Non-infectious peritoneal diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by infections but rather by other factors such as autoimmune disorders, cancer, or chemical irritants.

Some examples of peritoneal diseases include:

1. Peritonitis: Inflammation of the peritoneum due to bacterial or fungal infections, often caused by a ruptured appendix, perforated ulcer, or other abdominal injuries or conditions.
2. Tuberculous peritonitis: A form of peritonitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB).
3. Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: Infection of the peritoneum in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease.
4. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: A rare and aggressive form of cancer that affects the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum, often caused by exposure to asbestos.
5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation and scarring of the peritoneum.
6. Peritoneal carcinomatosis: The spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body to the peritoneum, often seen in patients with advanced ovarian or colorectal cancer.
7. Cirrhotic ascites: Fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity due to liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
8. Meigs' syndrome: A rare condition characterized by the presence of a benign ovarian tumor, ascites, and pleural effusion.

Ornidazole is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria and protozoan parasites. Ornidazole works by disrupting the DNA of these microorganisms, leading to their death.

Common indications for its use include the treatment of various types of bacterial infections such as skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, and gynecological infections. It is also used to treat certain protozoan infections, including amebiasis and giardiasis.

Ornidazole is available in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and its use should be based on the specific infection being treated and the patient's individual medical history. As with any medication, it can have side effects, and its use should be monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure its safe and effective use.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Reproductive history is a term used in medicine to describe the past experiences related to reproduction for an individual. This can include information about pregnancies, including the number of pregnancies, outcomes (such as live births, miscarriages, or stillbirths), and any complications that arose during pregnancy or childbirth. It may also include details about contraceptive use, menstrual history, sexually transmitted infections, and any reproductive health issues or surgeries.

This information is often collected by healthcare providers to help assess fertility, plan for future pregnancies, identify potential risks, and provide appropriate care and management of reproductive health conditions. It's also used in research and public health to understand trends and disparities in reproductive outcomes.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Pelvic pain is defined as discomfort or unpleasant sensation in the lower abdominal region, below the belly button, and between the hips. It can be acute (sudden and lasting for a short time) or chronic (persisting for months or even years), and it may be steady or intermittent, mild or severe. The pain can have various causes, including musculoskeletal issues, nerve irritation, infection, inflammation, or organic diseases in the reproductive, urinary, or gastrointestinal systems. Accurate diagnosis often requires a thorough medical evaluation to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Sequence Tagged Sites (STSs) are specific, defined DNA sequences that are mapped to a unique location in the human genome. They were developed as part of a physical mapping strategy for the Human Genome Project and serve as landmarks for identifying and locating genetic markers, genes, and other features within the genome. STSs are typically short (around 200-500 base pairs) and contain unique sequences that can be amplified by PCR, allowing for their detection and identification in DNA samples. The use of STSs enables researchers to construct physical maps of large genomes with high resolution and accuracy, facilitating the study of genome organization, variation, and function.

A contraceptive vaccine is a type of immunocontraception that uses the immune system to prevent pregnancy. It is a relatively new field of research and development, and there are currently no licensed contraceptive vaccines available on the market. However, several experimental vaccines are in various stages of preclinical and clinical testing.

Contraceptive vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones that play a critical role in reproduction. By neutralizing these targets, the vaccine can prevent fertilization or inhibit the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

For example, one approach is to develop vaccines that target the zona pellucida (ZP), a glycoprotein layer surrounding mammalian eggs. Antibodies generated against ZP proteins can prevent sperm from binding and fertilizing the egg. Another strategy is to create vaccines that generate antibodies against hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy. By blocking hCG, the vaccine can prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and induce a miscarriage.

While contraceptive vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies, several challenges remain before they can be widely adopted. These include issues related to safety, efficacy, duration of protection, and public acceptance. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for accidental cross-reactivity with other proteins or hormones, leading to unintended side effects.

Overall, contraceptive vaccines represent a promising area of research that could provide long-acting, reversible, and user-friendly contraception options in the future. However, further studies are needed to address the remaining challenges and ensure their safe and effective use.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Gynecologic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the female reproductive system and related organs. These surgeries can be either minimally invasive or open procedures, depending on the condition and the patient's health status.

The indications for gynecologic surgical procedures may include but are not limited to:

1. Diagnosis and treatment of various benign and malignant conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and cancers of the reproductive organs.
2. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility.
3. Treatment of ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
4. Pelvic organ prolapse repair.
5. Sterilization procedures such as tubal ligation.
6. Investigation and treatment of suspicious lesions or abnormal Pap smears.

Some common gynecologic surgical procedures include hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), oophorectomy (removal of the ovary), salpingectomy (removal of the fallopian tube), cystectomy (removal of a cyst), myomectomy (removal of fibroids while preserving the uterus), and endometrial ablation (destruction of the lining of the uterus).

Minimally invasive surgical techniques such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy have gained popularity in recent years due to their advantages over traditional open surgeries, including smaller incisions, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery times, and reduced risk of complications.

Sexuality is a multidimensional aspect of human life, which includes biological, psychological, social, and cultural dimensions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexuality is "a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction." It involves a person's capacity for sexual feelings, their emotional and romantic attraction to other people, and their self-concept as a sexual being. Sexuality can also refer to a person's sense of identity based on their sex and gender, as well as their engagement in sexual activity or behavior.

It is important to note that sexuality is a normal and natural part of human development and experience, and it is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Everyone has the right to explore and express their sexuality in a responsible and consensual manner, free from coercion, discrimination, and violence.

The vas deferens is a muscular tube that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra during ejaculation in males. It is a part of the male reproductive system and is often targeted in surgical procedures like vasectomy, which is a form of permanent birth control.

Salpingostomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening in the fallopian tube (salpinx). This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as to remove a blockage or to drain fluid from the tube. It's often used to treat conditions like ectopic pregnancy, where a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. The procedure allows the surgeon to access the tube and remove the embryo, preventing further growth that could cause the tube to rupture and bleed.

In some cases, salpingostomy can also be done as a part of fertility treatments to help women conceive, although this is less common. Like any surgical procedure, salpingostomy carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues. Therefore, it's typically reserved for situations where other treatment options are not feasible or have been unsuccessful.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

Premature menopause, also known as premature ovarian insufficiency, is a medical condition characterized by the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 40. This results in the absence of menstrual periods and decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone, which can have significant impacts on a woman's health and fertility.

The symptoms of premature menopause are similar to those experienced during natural menopause and may include hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido. However, because of the early age of onset, women with premature menopause have an increased risk of developing certain health conditions such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive decline.

The causes of premature menopause are varied and can include genetic factors, autoimmune disorders, surgical removal of the ovaries, chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and exposure to environmental toxins. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment for premature menopause typically involves hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of long-term health complications. However, HRT carries its own risks and benefits, and individualized treatment plans should be developed in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Sterilization reversal, also known as sterilization reversion or de-sterilization, refers to the surgical procedure aimed at restoring fertility after a voluntary surgical sterilization. The most common methods of sterilization in women are tubal ligation (cutting, tying, or blocking the fallopian tubes) and in men is vasectomy (cutting and sealing the vas deferens).

The reversal procedure for women typically involves microsurgery to reconnect the severed ends of the fallopian tubes (tubal anastomosis), allowing the egg to travel from the ovaries to the uterus and enabling fertilization. The success rate depends on various factors, such as the type and location of the original sterilization, the age and fertility status of the woman before sterilization, and the skill of the surgeon.

For men, a vasectomy reversal (vasovasostomy) aims to reconnect the severed ends of the vas deferens, restoring the passage of sperm into the semen. The success rate for this procedure is generally higher than that of tubal ligation reversals and also depends on factors like the time elapsed since the original vasectomy and the skill of the surgeon.

It's important to note that while sterilization reversals can be successful in some cases, they are not always guaranteed to restore fertility. Moreover, these procedures can be expensive, invasive, and may carry risks such as infection, bleeding, or damage to surrounding tissues. Therefore, it is essential for individuals considering a sterilization reversal to consult with a qualified healthcare professional to discuss the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives thoroughly.

Embryo disposition is the term used to describe the process of determining what will be done with embryos that were created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) and are no longer needed or wanted by the individuals who produced them. This can include options such as donating them to other couples or individuals who are trying to conceive, donating them for research purposes, storing them for potential future use, or discarding them. The decision about embryo disposition is often a complex and emotional one, and it may involve ethical, legal, and religious considerations. It is typically made by the individuals who produced the embryos, in consultation with their healthcare provider and/or a mental health professional. In some cases, courts or other legal authorities may become involved in the decision-making process.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Y-linked genes are a type of sex-limited gene that is located on the Y chromosome. These genes are only present in males because they are passed from father to son through the paternal Y chromosome during reproduction. They are not paired with any corresponding genes on the X chromosome, and therefore, they do not have a counterpart to complement their function.

Y-linked genes play an essential role in sex determination and male development. For example, the SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome, encodes a protein that triggers testis development during embryonic development. Other Y-linked genes are involved in spermatogenesis, the process of producing sperm cells.

Since Y-linked genes are not present in females, they do not have any direct impact on female traits or characteristics. However, mutations in Y-linked genes can cause various genetic disorders that affect male fertility and development, such as Klinefelter syndrome, XYY syndrome, and other sex chromosome aneuploidies.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a medical condition characterized by the enlargement of the ovaries and the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, which can occur as a complication of fertility treatments that involve the use of medications to stimulate ovulation.

In OHSS, the ovaries become swollen and may contain multiple follicles (small sacs containing eggs) that have developed in response to the hormonal stimulation. This can lead to the release of large amounts of vasoactive substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can cause increased blood flow to the ovaries and fluid leakage from the blood vessels into the abdominal cavity.

Mild cases of OHSS may cause symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain or discomfort, nausea, and diarrhea. More severe cases can lead to more serious complications, including blood clots, kidney failure, and respiratory distress. In extreme cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the symptoms of OHSS and prevent further complications.

OHSS is typically managed by monitoring the patient's symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management. In severe cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to drain excess fluid from the abdominal cavity. Preventive measures, such as adjusting the dosage of fertility medications or canceling treatment cycles, may also be taken to reduce the risk of OHSS in high-risk patients.

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

Egg proteins, also known as egg white proteins or ovalbumin, refer to the proteins found in egg whites. There are several different types of proteins found in egg whites, including:

1. Ovalbumin (54%): This is the major protein found in egg whites and is responsible for their white color. It has various functions such as providing nutrition, maintaining the structural integrity of the egg, and protecting the egg from bacteria.
2. Conalbumin (13%): Also known as ovotransferrin, this protein plays a role in the defense against microorganisms by binding to iron and making it unavailable for bacterial growth.
3. Ovomucoid (11%): This protein is resistant to digestion and helps protect the egg from being broken down by enzymes in the digestive tract of predators.
4. Lysozyme (3.5%): This protein has antibacterial properties and helps protect the egg from bacterial infection.
5. Globulins (4%): These are a group of simple proteins found in egg whites that have various functions such as providing nutrition, maintaining the structural integrity of the egg, and protecting the egg from bacteria.
6. Avidin (0.05%): This protein binds to biotin, a vitamin, making it unavailable for use by the body. However, cooking denatures avidin and makes the biotin available again.

Egg proteins are highly nutritious and contain all nine essential amino acids, making them a complete source of protein. They are also low in fat and cholesterol, making them a popular choice for those following a healthy diet.

A chromosome is a thread-like structure that contains genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of a cell. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each cell of the body, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for various functions in the body, including some related to sexual development and reproduction.

Humans inherit one X chromosome from their mother and either an X or a Y chromosome from their father. In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome. This process, known as X-inactivation, helps to ensure that females have roughly equal levels of gene expression from the X chromosome, despite having two copies.

Abnormalities in the number or structure of the X chromosome can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (X0), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and fragile X syndrome (an X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene).

Physiological sexual dysfunction refers to any issues or problems that an individual experiences in their sexual response cycle, which can be broken down into four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. These difficulties may include a lack of desire or interest in sex (low libido), difficulty becoming aroused (erectile dysfunction in men or inadequate lubrication in women), challenges reaching orgasm, or pain during sexual activity (dyspareunia).

Physiological sexual dysfunctions can be caused by a variety of factors, including medical conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, neurological disorders, or hormonal imbalances), medications (including some antidepressants and blood pressure drugs), substance abuse, surgical procedures, or aging. Psychological factors, such as stress, anxiety, depression, relationship issues, or past traumatic experiences, can also contribute to sexual dysfunction.

It is important to note that sexual dysfunctions are common and nothing to be ashamed of. If you are experiencing symptoms of sexual dysfunction, it is recommended that you consult a healthcare professional for an evaluation and appropriate treatment options.

Sperm capacitation is a complex process that occurs in the female reproductive tract and prepares sperm for fertilization. It involves a series of biochemical modifications to the sperm's membrane and motility, which enable it to undergo the acrosome reaction and penetrate the zona pellucida surrounding the egg.

The capacitation process typically takes several hours and requires the sperm to be exposed to specific factors in the female reproductive tract, including bicarbonate ions, calcium ions, and certain proteins. During capacitation, cholesterol is removed from the sperm's plasma membrane, which leads to an increase in membrane fluidity and the exposure of receptors that are necessary for binding to the egg.

Capacitation is a critical step in the fertilization process, as it ensures that only sperm that have undergone this process can successfully fertilize the egg. Abnormalities in sperm capacitation have been linked to infertility and other reproductive disorders.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

A hysteroscope is a thin, lighted tube with a camera that is used to examine the inside of the uterus. It is inserted through the vagina and cervix, allowing the healthcare provider to view the lining of the uterus and the openings of the fallopian tubes on a video screen. Hysteroscopy can be used to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the uterus, such as abnormal bleeding, fibroids, polyps, and adhesions (scar tissue). It is typically performed as an outpatient procedure in a doctor's office or clinic.

Ovulation detection refers to the process of identifying the time period during which an ovary releases an oocyte (mature egg) from its follicle, ready for fertilization. This is a crucial aspect of reproductive health and assisted reproduction technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

There are several methods to detect ovulation, including:

1. Ovulation Predictor Kits (OPKs): These are home-use test kits that detect the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine, which occurs 24-36 hours prior to ovulation.
2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting: This involves tracking and recording daily basal body temperature (the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest), as it tends to rise slightly after ovulation due to increased progesterone levels.
3. Hormonal Monitoring: Blood tests can be used to measure hormone levels, such as estrogen and progesterone, throughout a menstrual cycle to detect ovulation.
4. Transvaginal Ultrasound: This imaging technique is often used in clinical settings to monitor follicular development and determine the exact time of ovulation by observing changes in the ovarian follicle and endometrial lining.
5. Saliva Ferning Tests: A microscope is used to examine the patterns formed by dried saliva, which can indicate increased estrogen levels prior to ovulation.

Accurate ovulation detection helps individuals or couples trying to conceive optimize their chances of success and provides valuable information for healthcare providers in managing reproductive health issues.

Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body. This can lead to various symptoms such as hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility in women. It can be caused by conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and tumors in the ovaries or adrenal glands. Proper diagnosis and management of hyperandrogenism is important to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that carry genetic information in the form of genes. A chromosome is made up of one long DNA molecule coiled tightly with proteins called histones to form a compact structure. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes in every cell of the body, except for the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes each.

Chromosome structures can be described by their number, shape, size, and banding pattern. The number of chromosomes in a cell is usually constant for a species, but can vary between species. Chromosomes come in different shapes, including rod-shaped, V-shaped, or J-shaped, depending on the position of the centromere, which is the constricted region where the chromatids (the two copies of chromosome) are joined together.

The size of chromosomes also varies, with some being much larger than others. Chromosomes can be classified into several groups based on their size and banding pattern, which is a series of light and dark bands that appear when chromosomes are stained with certain dyes. The banding pattern is unique to each chromosome and can be used to identify specific regions or genes on the chromosome.

Chromosome structures can also be affected by genetic changes, such as mutations, deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations, which can lead to genetic disorders and diseases. Understanding the structure and function of chromosomes is essential for diagnosing and treating genetic conditions, as well as for advancing our knowledge of genetics and human health.

Korean traditional medicine (KTM) is a system of medicine that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years. It is also known as Hanbang medicine or Han-ui. KTM is based on the principles of Daoism and the concept of Yin and Yang, and it emphasizes the balance and harmony between the body, mind, and environment.

Korean traditional medicine includes a variety of treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion, cupping, and dietary therapy. The use of herbs is a major component of KTM, with thousands of different herbs being used to treat various health conditions. These herbs can be taken in the form of teas, powders, pills, or decoctions.

Acupuncture is also an important part of KTM and involves the insertion of fine needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of Qi (vital energy) and restore balance. Moxibustion involves burning herbs near the skin to warm the area and promote healing, while cupping uses suction cups to increase circulation and relieve pain.

Korean traditional medicine places great emphasis on prevention and encourages individuals to maintain a healthy lifestyle through proper diet, exercise, stress management, and other self-care practices. Practitioners of KTM undergo rigorous training and must pass national exams in order to become licensed.

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

Mycoplasmataceae is a family of bacteria that lack a cell wall and are characterized by their small size. They are among the smallest self-replicating organisms, with some species measuring only 0.15 microns in diameter. Mycoplasmataceae are unique because they possess a membrane-anchored lipoprotein instead of a cell wall, which makes them resistant to many antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis.

Members of this family are commonly found as commensals or opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. They can cause a variety of diseases, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and arthritis. Mycoplasmataceae are also known to contaminate cell cultures and can interfere with research experiments.

Some notable genera within the family Mycoplasmataceae include Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, and Acholeplasma.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

Ureaplasma infections refer to conditions caused by the colonization or infection with the bacterial species Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, which are commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans. These bacteria are part of the normal flora but can cause infections under certain circumstances, such as in immunocompromised individuals or when they ascend to sterile sites like the upper respiratory tract or the amniotic fluid during pregnancy.

Ureaplasma infections can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, including urethritis, cystitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and respiratory tract infections in newborns. However, it is important to note that the causative role of Ureaplasma spp. in many of these conditions is still a subject of debate, as they can also be found in asymptomatic individuals.

Diagnosis of Ureaplasma infections typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture-based methods to detect the presence of the bacteria in clinical samples. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that target the bacterial species, such as macrolides or fluoroquinolones, although the development of antimicrobial resistance is a growing concern.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

Danazol is a synthetic, orally active androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties. It is used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol works by suppressing the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn inhibits the growth of ovarian tissue and reduces the production of estrogen and progesterone. This leads to a decrease in the symptoms associated with endometriosis and fibrocystic breast disease. In the case of hereditary angioedema, danazol helps prevent attacks by increasing the levels of a protein called C1 esterase inhibitor, which is necessary for regulating the immune system and preventing inflammation.

The common side effects of danazol include weight gain, acne, oily skin, increased hair growth, changes in menstrual cycle, decreased breast size, deepening of the voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, blood clots, and adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to its potential virilizing effects on the fetus. It should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

The medical definition of danazol can be summarized as follows:

Danazol (dan-a-zole)

A synthetic androgenic steroid with antigonadotropic properties, used primarily in the treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease, and hereditary angioedema. Danazol suppresses the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gland, inhibiting ovarian tissue growth and reducing estrogen and progesterone production. In hereditary angioedema, danazol increases C1 esterase inhibitor levels to prevent attacks. Common side effects include weight gain, acne, increased hair growth, menstrual changes, decreased breast size, deepened voice, and emotional lability. Rare but serious side effects may involve liver damage, blood clots, or adrenal gland problems. Danazol is contraindicated in pregnancy due to potential virilizing effects on the fetus and should be used with caution in individuals with a history of liver disease, heart disease, or seizure disorders.

Ureaplasma urealyticum is a type of bacteria that belongs to the genus Ureaplasma and the family Mycoplasmataceae. It is a non-motile, non-spore forming, microaerophilic organism, which means it requires reduced oxygen levels for growth.

Ureaplasma urealyticum is unique because it can hydrolyze urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, which helps create a more favorable environment for its growth. This bacterium is commonly found in the genitourinary tract of humans and other primates. It can be part of the normal flora but may also cause infections under certain circumstances.

Infections caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum are often associated with the respiratory and urogenital tracts, particularly in premature infants, immunocompromised individuals, or those with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, meningitis, and urethritis. However, it is important to note that asymptomatic carriage of Ureaplasma urealyticum is also common, making the interpretation of its clinical significance challenging at times.

Diagnosis typically involves nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, to detect the bacterium's genetic material in clinical samples. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that target mycoplasmas, like macrolides or tetracyclines, but the choice and duration of therapy depend on the patient's age, immune status, and underlying medical conditions.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions and processes in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

The major endocrine glands include:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands' functions. It produces and releases several hormones that regulate growth, development, and reproduction.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of the kidneys, they produce hormones that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located in the abdomen, it produces hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.
6. Sex glands (ovaries and testes): they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate sexual development and reproduction.
7. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.

The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis or balance in the body's internal environment. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a response. Disorders of the endocrine system can result from overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to various health problems such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, growth disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

Family leave is a type of employment-related benefit that allows employees to take time off from work to attend to personal or family matters. The specific details of family leave policies can vary, but they generally allow an employee to take a certain amount of time off, often with the continuation of health insurance and other benefits, to care for a new child (such as through birth, adoption, or foster placement), to care for a family member with a serious health condition, or to manage their own serious health condition.

In the United States, the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a federal law that requires certain employers to provide up to 12 weeks of unpaid family leave to eligible employees during a 12-month period for specified family and medical reasons. Some states have their own family leave laws that may offer additional protections or benefits.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Ciliary motility disorders are a group of rare genetic conditions that affect the function of cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures on the surface of cells in the body. Cilia play an important role in moving fluids and particles across the cell surface, including the movement of mucus and other substances in the respiratory system, the movement of eggs and sperm in the reproductive system, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear.

Ciliary motility disorders are caused by mutations in genes that are responsible for the proper functioning of cilia. These mutations can lead to abnormalities in the structure or function of cilia, which can result in a range of symptoms depending on the specific disorder and the parts of the body that are affected.

Some common symptoms of ciliary motility disorders include recurrent respiratory infections, chronic sinusitis, hearing loss, infertility, and situs inversus, a condition in which the major organs are reversed or mirrored from their normal positions. There are several different types of ciliary motility disorders, including primary ciliary dyskinesia, Kartagener syndrome, and immotile cilia syndrome.

Treatment for ciliary motility disorders typically involves addressing the specific symptoms and underlying causes of the disorder. This may include antibiotics to treat respiratory infections, surgery to correct structural abnormalities, or assisted reproductive technologies to help with infertility.

Gravidity is a medical term that refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, regardless of the outcome of the pregnancies. It's a way to quantify a woman's childbearing experience and is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to assess potential risks and complications during pregnancy and childbirth.

For example, a woman who has been pregnant once before would have a gravidity of 1, while a woman who has been pregnant twice would have a gravidity of 2. This term is distinct from parity, which refers to the number of pregnancies that have reached a viable gestational age and resulted in a live birth.

Submarine Medicine is a specialized field of medicine that deals with the health and well-being of military personnel who serve on submarines. This includes preventing, diagnosing, and treating medical conditions that can occur in the unique environment of a submarine, such as changes in pressure, exposure to carbon monoxide and other gases, and isolation from medical resources on land. Submarine medicine also involves developing procedures and protocols for emergency medical situations that may arise while at sea, as well as ensuring the overall fitness of submariners to perform their duties. Additionally, submarine medicine specialists may provide guidance on issues related to nutrition, sleep, and mental health in order to maintain the optimal health and performance of submarine crews during prolonged submerged operations.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

Oogenesis is the biological process of formation and maturation of female gametes, or ova or egg cells, in the ovary. It begins during fetal development and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. The process involves the division and differentiation of a germ cell (oogonium) into an immature ovum (oocyte), which then undergoes meiotic division to form a mature ovum capable of being fertilized by sperm.

The main steps in oogenesis include:

1. Multiplication phase: The oogonia divide mitotically to increase their number.
2. Growth phase: One of the oogonia becomes primary oocyte and starts to grow, accumulating nutrients and organelles required for future development.
3. First meiotic division: The primary oocyte undergoes an incomplete first meiotic division, resulting in two haploid cells - a secondary oocyte and a smaller cell called the first polar body. This division is arrested in prophase I until puberty.
4. Second meiotic division: At ovulation or just before fertilization, the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division, producing another small cell, the second polar body, and a mature ovum (egg) with 23 chromosomes.
5. Fertilization: The mature ovum can be fertilized by a sperm, restoring the normal diploid number of chromosomes in the resulting zygote.

Oogenesis is a complex and highly regulated process that involves various hormonal signals and cellular interactions to ensure proper development and maturation of female gametes for successful reproduction.

Preimplantation Diagnosis (PID) is a genetic testing procedure performed on embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), before they are implanted in the uterus. The purpose of PID is to identify genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities in the embryos, allowing only those free of such issues to be transferred to the uterus, thereby reducing the risk of passing on genetic diseases to offspring. It involves biopsying one or more cells from an embryo and analyzing its DNA for specific genetic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities. PID is often recommended for couples with a known history of genetic disorders or those who have experienced multiple miscarriages or failed IVF cycles.

Ovarian function tests are a series of diagnostic exams used to assess the health and functionality of the ovaries. These tests can help determine the remaining egg supply (ovarian reserve), evaluate hormone production, and identify any structural abnormalities. Commonly used ovarian function tests include:

1. Hormonal assays: Measuring levels of hormones such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the blood can provide information about ovarian function and egg supply.

2. Transvaginal ultrasound: This imaging technique is used to visualize the ovaries and assess their size, shape, and follicle development, which can indicate ovarian reserve and response to hormonal stimulation.

3. Clomiphene citrate challenge test (CCCT): This test involves measuring FSH levels on day 3 of the menstrual cycle and then again after administering clomiphene citrate, a fertility medication, on days 5-9. An abnormal response may suggest decreased ovarian function.

4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist stimulation test: This test evaluates the ovaries' ability to respond to GnRH, which regulates FSH and LH release. A suboptimal response may indicate reduced ovarian function.

5. Ovarian biopsy: Though rarely performed, an ovarian biopsy can provide direct information about the number and quality of follicles and eggs present in the ovary.

These tests are often used in conjunction to provide a comprehensive assessment of ovarian function, particularly in women experiencing infertility, menopause, or those undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Sperm agglutination is the clumping or sticking together of sperm cells, which can be caused by the presence of antibodies or other substances in semen. In some cases, sperm agglutination may occur due to an immune response in which the body produces antibodies that attack and bind to sperm cells, leading to their clumping together. This can interfere with the sperm's ability to move and fertilize an egg.

Sperm agglutination can be detected through a semen analysis test, which involves examining a sample of semen under a microscope. If sperm agglutination is present, it may indicate an underlying medical condition or issue that requires further evaluation and treatment. In some cases, sperm agglutination may be treated with medications to reduce the production of antibodies or other substances that are causing the problem.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system. The beta subunit of LH is one of the two non-identical polypeptide chains that make up the LH molecule (the other being the alpha subunit, which is common to several hormones).

The beta subunit of LH is unique to LH and is often used in assays to measure and determine the concentration of LH in blood or urine. It's responsible for the biological specificity and activity of the LH hormone. Any changes in the structure of this subunit can affect the function of LH, which in turn can have implications for reproductive processes such as ovulation and testosterone production.

DNA fragmentation is the breaking of DNA strands into smaller pieces. This process can occur naturally during apoptosis, or programmed cell death, where the DNA is broken down and packaged into apoptotic bodies to be safely eliminated from the body. However, excessive or abnormal DNA fragmentation can also occur due to various factors such as oxidative stress, exposure to genotoxic agents, or certain medical conditions. This can lead to genetic instability, cellular dysfunction, and increased risk of diseases such as cancer. In the context of reproductive medicine, high levels of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells have been linked to male infertility and poor assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Menstruation is the regular, cyclical shedding of the uterine lining (endometrium) in women and female individuals of reproductive age, accompanied by the discharge of blood and other materials from the vagina. It typically occurs every 21 to 35 days and lasts for approximately 2-7 days. This process is a part of the menstrual cycle, which is under the control of hormonal fluctuations involving follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstruation phase: The beginning of the cycle is marked by the start of menstrual bleeding, which signals the breakdown and shedding of the endometrium due to the absence of pregnancy and low levels of estrogen and progesterone. This phase typically lasts for 2-7 days.

2. Proliferative phase: After menstruation, under the influence of rising estrogen levels, the endometrium starts to thicken and regenerate. The uterine lining becomes rich in blood vessels and glands, preparing for a potential pregnancy. This phase lasts from day 5 until around day 14 of an average 28-day cycle.

3. Secretory phase: Following ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries), which usually occurs around day 14, increased levels of progesterone cause further thickening and maturation of the endometrium. The glands in the lining produce nutrients to support a fertilized egg. If pregnancy does not occur, both estrogen and progesterone levels will drop, leading to menstruation and the start of a new cycle.

Understanding menstruation is essential for monitoring reproductive health, identifying potential issues such as irregular periods or menstrual disorders, and planning family planning strategies.

Embryo loss is a medical term that refers to the miscarriage or spontaneous abortion of an embryo, which is the developing offspring from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of pregnancy. Embryo loss can occur at any point during this period and may be caused by various factors such as chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health issues, infections, environmental factors, or lifestyle habits.

Embryo loss is a common occurrence, with up to 30% of pregnancies ending in miscarriage, many of which happen before the woman even realizes she is pregnant. In most cases, embryo loss is a natural process that occurs when the body detects an abnormality or problem with the developing embryo and terminates the pregnancy to prevent further complications. However, recurrent embryo loss can be a sign of underlying medical issues and may require further evaluation and treatment.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Mycoplasma infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. These are among the smallest free-living organisms, lacking a cell wall and possessing a unique molecular structure. They can cause various respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia, bronchitis), urogenital infections, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

The most common Mycoplasma species that infect humans include M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Transmission usually occurs through respiratory droplets or sexual contact. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the site of infection but may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, joint pain, rash, and genital discharge or pelvic pain in women. Diagnosis often requires specific laboratory tests due to their unique growth requirements and resistance to many common antibiotics. Treatment typically involves macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

Diathermy is a medical term that refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat body tissues. The term "diathermy" comes from the Greek words "dia," meaning "through," and "therme," meaning "heat." There are several types of diathermy, including shortwave, microwave, and ultrasound diathermy.

Shortwave diathermy uses electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 10 MHz and 27 MHz to generate heat in deep tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat muscle or joint pain, increase blood flow, or promote healing after surgery or injury.

Microwave diathermy uses high-frequency electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 915 MHz and 2450 MHz to generate heat in superficial tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat skin conditions such as dermatitis or psoriasis.

Ultrasound diathermy uses high-frequency sound waves with frequencies above 1 MHz to generate heat in soft tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat muscle or tendon injuries, promote healing, or relieve pain.

Diathermy should be administered by a trained healthcare professional, as there are potential risks and complications associated with its use, including burns, discomfort, or damage to implanted medical devices such as pacemakers.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Bromocriptine is a dopamine receptor agonist drug, which means it works by binding to and activating dopamine receptors in the brain. It has several therapeutic uses, including:

* Treatment of Parkinson's disease: Bromocriptine can be used alone or in combination with levodopa to help manage the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.
* Suppression of lactation: Bromocriptine can be used to suppress milk production in women who are not breastfeeding or who have stopped breastfeeding but still have high levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.
* Treatment of pituitary tumors: Bromocriptine can be used to shrink certain types of pituitary tumors, such as prolactinomas, which are tumors that secrete excessive amounts of prolactin.
* Management of acromegaly: Bromocriptine can be used to manage the symptoms of acromegaly, a rare hormonal disorder characterized by abnormal growth and enlargement of body tissues, by reducing the production of growth hormone.

Bromocriptine is available in immediate-release and long-acting formulations, and it is usually taken orally. Common side effects of bromocriptine include nausea, dizziness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects are rare but can include hallucinations, confusion, and priapism (prolonged erection).

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Spina Bifida Cystica is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) do not form properly around the developing spinal cord, resulting in a sac-like protrusion of the spinal cord and its surrounding membranes through an opening in the spine. This sac, called a meningocele or myelomeningocele, can be covered with skin or exposed, and it may contain cerebrospinal fluid, nerve roots, or portions of the spinal cord.

Myelomeningocele is the most severe form of Spina Bifida Cystica, where the sac contains a portion of the spinal cord and nerves. This can lead to various neurological complications such as weakness or paralysis below the level of the spine affected, loss of sensation, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). Early diagnosis and intervention, including prenatal surgery, can help improve outcomes for individuals with Spina Bifida Cystica.

Axonemal dyneins are motor proteins that are located in the axoneme of eukaryotic cilia and flagella. The axoneme is the internal structure of these cellular appendages, and it is composed of nine microtubule doublets arranged in a ring around two central single microtubules.

Dyneins are large protein complexes that use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules, generating force and motion. Axonemal dyneins are responsible for the sliding of the microtubule doublets relative to each other, which leads to the bending and movement of cilia and flagella.

There are several types of axonemal dyneins, classified based on their structure and function. The outer dynein arms are larger complexes that generate the power stroke for ciliary beating, while the inner dynein arms are smaller complexes involved in regulating the beat pattern and frequency.

Defects in axonemal dyneins can lead to a variety of genetic disorders known as ciliopathies, which affect the structure and function of cilia and flagella. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, infertility, and developmental abnormalities.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

Gonads are the reproductive organs that produce gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones. In males, the gonads are the testes, which produce sperm and testosterone. In females, the gonads are the ovaries, which produce eggs and estrogen and progesterone. The development, function, and regulation of the gonads are crucial for reproductive health and fertility.

A blastocyst is a stage in the early development of a fertilized egg, or embryo, in mammals. It occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization and consists of an outer layer of cells called trophoblasts, which will eventually form the placenta, and an inner cell mass, which will give rise to the fetus. The blastocyst is characterized by a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. This stage is critical for the implantation of the embryo into the uterine lining.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jordan" is not a medical term or condition. It is most commonly known as the name of a country in the Middle East, as well as a personal name for both males and females. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help clarify or provide information based on appropriate medical terminology and concepts.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Women" is not a medical term that can be defined in a straightforward way. In medical contexts, "women" is often used to refer to adult human females, based on their biological sex characteristics. However, it's important to note that there are individuals who may be biologically male but identify as women, and they are also considered part of the female population in many medical and societal contexts.

In general, gender identity is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else. It's separate from biological sex, which refers to physical characteristics like chromosomes, hormone levels, and reproductive organs. Some people identify with the gender that matches their biological sex, while others may identify as the opposite gender, or as neither male nor female.

Therefore, it's important to consider both the biological and personal aspects of an individual's identity when discussing medical issues related to women.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

A "mutant strain of mice" in a medical context refers to genetically engineered mice that have specific genetic mutations introduced into their DNA. These mutations can be designed to mimic certain human diseases or conditions, allowing researchers to study the underlying biological mechanisms and test potential therapies in a controlled laboratory setting.

Mutant strains of mice are created through various techniques, including embryonic stem cell manipulation, gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and radiation-induced mutagenesis. These methods allow scientists to introduce specific genetic changes into the mouse genome, resulting in mice that exhibit altered physiological or behavioral traits.

These strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research because their short lifespan, small size, and high reproductive rate make them an ideal model organism for studying human diseases. Additionally, the mouse genome has been well-characterized, and many genetic tools and resources are available to researchers working with these animals.

Examples of mutant strains of mice include those that carry mutations in genes associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, and immunological conditions. These mice provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases and help advance our understanding of potential therapeutic interventions.

Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig or interstitial cell-stroma, are cells in the testes that produce and release testosterone and other androgens into the bloodstream. They are located in the seminiferous tubules of the testis, near the blood vessels, and are named after Franz Leydig, the German physiologist who discovered them in 1850.

Leydig cells contain cholesterol esters, which serve as precursors for the synthesis of testosterone. They respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) released by the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the production and release of testosterone. Testosterone is essential for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also plays a role in sperm production and bone density.

In addition to their endocrine function, Leydig cells have been shown to have non-hormonal functions, including phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and immune regulation. However, these functions are not as well understood as their hormonal roles.

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a class of proteins that selectively interact with RNA molecules to form ribonucleoprotein complexes. These proteins play crucial roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA stability, transport, localization, and translation. RBPs recognize specific RNA sequences or structures through their modular RNA-binding domains, which can be highly degenerate and allow for the recognition of a wide range of RNA targets. The interaction between RBPs and RNA is often dynamic and can be regulated by various post-translational modifications of the proteins or by environmental stimuli, allowing for fine-tuning of gene expression in response to changing cellular needs. Dysregulation of RBP function has been implicated in various human diseases, including neurological disorders and cancer.

Mycoplasmatales infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the order Mycoplasmatales, which are characterized as the smallest self-replicating organisms lacking a cell wall. The most common pathogens in this group include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, while M. genitalium is associated with sexually transmitted infections, including urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. M. hominis and U. urealyticum are typically commensals but can cause invasive diseases such as septic arthritis, endocarditis, or meningitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals.

Infections caused by these organisms often present with nonspecific symptoms, making diagnosis challenging. Diagnosis usually involves serological tests, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs), or culture methods. Treatment typically includes macrolides, tetracyclines, or fluoroquinolones, depending on the specific pathogen and its antibiotic susceptibility profile.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

Ectogenesis is a theoretical concept in medical and reproductive biology that refers to the development of an organism outside of the body, typically referring to the growth and development of a fetus or embryo in an artificial environment, such as an external womb or an artificial uterus. This concept is still largely speculative and not currently possible with existing technology. It raises various ethical, legal, and social questions related to pregnancy, reproduction, and the nature of parenthood.

Dysmenorrhea is a medical term that refers to painful menstrual cramps and discomfort during menstruation. It's one of the most common gynecological complaints among women of reproductive age. There are two types of dysmenorrhea: primary and secondary.

1. Primary Dysmenorrhea: This type is more common and occurs in women who have had normal, pelvic anatomy. The pain is caused by strong contractions of the uterus due to the production of prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that are involved in inflammation and pain). Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts soon after menarche (the beginning of menstruation) and tends to improve with age, particularly after childbirth.
2. Secondary Dysmenorrhea: This type is less common and occurs due to an underlying medical condition affecting the reproductive organs, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or adenomyosis. The pain associated with secondary dysmenorrhea tends to worsen over time and may be accompanied by other symptoms like irregular menstrual bleeding, pain during intercourse, or chronic pelvic pain.

Treatment for dysmenorrhea depends on the type and underlying cause. For primary dysmenorrhea, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naproxen can help alleviate pain by reducing prostaglandin production. Hormonal birth control methods like oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices (IUDs) may also be prescribed to reduce menstrual pain. For secondary dysmenorrhea, treatment typically involves addressing the underlying medical condition causing the pain.

A chromosome inversion is a genetic rearrangement where a segment of a chromosome has been reversed end to end, so that its order of genes is opposite to the original. This means that the gene sequence on the segment of the chromosome has been inverted.

In an inversion, the chromosome breaks in two places, and the segment between the breaks rotates 180 degrees before reattaching. This results in a portion of the chromosome being inverted, or turned upside down, relative to the rest of the chromosome.

Chromosome inversions can be either paracentric or pericentric. Paracentric inversions involve a segment that does not include the centromere (the central constriction point of the chromosome), while pericentric inversions involve a segment that includes the centromere.

Inversions can have various effects on an individual's phenotype, depending on whether the inversion involves genes and if so, how those genes are affected by the inversion. In some cases, inversions may have no noticeable effect, while in others they may cause genetic disorders or predispose an individual to certain health conditions.

In the field of medicine, twins are defined as two offspring produced by the same pregnancy. They can be either monozygotic (identical) or dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two separate embryos, resulting in individuals who share identical genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to siblings who share about 50% of their genetic material, similar to non-twin siblings.

Alpha-chlorohydrin is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CHClNH2. It is primarily used in the production of other chemicals and has been used as a reagent in laboratory settings.

Ingestion or exposure to alpha-chlorohydrin can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Medical professionals may encounter alpha-chlorohydrin in cases of accidental or intentional ingestion or exposure, or in the context of occupational health and safety for workers who may be exposed to it in industrial settings.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Ascitic fluid is defined as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the two layers of the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. This buildup of fluid, also known as ascites, can be caused by various medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, or infection. The fluid itself is typically straw-colored and clear, but it may also contain cells, proteins, and other substances depending on the underlying cause. Analysis of ascitic fluid can help doctors diagnose and manage the underlying condition causing the accumulation of fluid.

Cadmium poisoning is a condition that results from the exposure to cadmium, a toxic heavy metal. This can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption. Cadmium is found in some industrial workplaces, such as battery manufacturing, metal smelting, and phosphate fertilizer production. It can also be found in contaminated food, water, and cigarette smoke.

Acute cadmium poisoning is rare but can cause severe symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle cramps. Chronic exposure to cadmium can lead to a range of health problems, including kidney damage, bone disease, lung damage, and anemia. It has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer.

The treatment for cadmium poisoning typically involves removing the source of exposure, providing supportive care, and in some cases, chelation therapy to remove cadmium from the body. Prevention measures include reducing exposure to cadmium in the workplace, avoiding contaminated food and water, and not smoking.

The seminiferous epithelium is a specialized type of epithelial tissue that lines the seminiferous tubules within the testes. It is composed of various cell types, including germ cells in different stages of development (spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids) and supportive cells called Sertoli cells.

The primary function of the seminiferous epithelium is to support sperm production (spermatogenesis). The Sertoli cells provide structural support and nourishment to the developing germ cells, helping them to differentiate into mature spermatozoa (sperm). This process involves a series of complex cellular events, including mitosis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis.

In addition to its role in sperm production, the seminiferous epithelium also plays a crucial part in maintaining the blood-testis barrier, which separates the testicular environment from the systemic circulation. This barrier helps protect developing germ cells from potential immune attacks and maintains an optimal microenvironment for spermatogenesis.

Growth Differentiation Factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, which plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Specifically, GDF9 is primarily expressed in oocytes and has essential functions during follicular development and ovulation in the ovary. It regulates granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and steroidogenesis, contributing to the maintenance of follicular integrity and promoting follicle growth. Additionally, GDF9 is involved in embryonic development and has been implicated in several reproductive disorders when its expression or function is disrupted.

Gonadal dysgenesis is a condition characterized by the abnormal development of the gonads, which are the reproductive organs that produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm or eggs). In individuals with gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads may be underdeveloped, structurally abnormal, or completely absent. This condition can affect people of any gender and is often associated with other genetic disorders, such as Turner or Klinefelter syndromes.

The clinical presentation of gonadal dysgenesis varies widely depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of other associated conditions. Some individuals may have normal sexual development and fertility, while others may experience delayed puberty, infertility, or ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal dysgenesis can also increase the risk of developing gonadal tumors, particularly in individuals with complete or partial absence of the gonads.

The diagnosis of gonadal dysgenesis is typically made through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to support sexual development and prevent complications associated with hormonal imbalances. In some cases, surgical removal of the gonads may be recommended to reduce the risk of tumor development.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of specific cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system, particularly in the regulation of reproduction and development.

FSH receptors are primarily located on the granulosa cells that surround and support the developing eggs (oocytes) within the ovarian follicles in females. In males, these receptors can be found on the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

When FSH, a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to various physiological responses. In females, FSH receptor activation stimulates follicle growth, estrogen production, and oocyte maturation. In males, FSH receptor signaling supports spermatogenesis, the process of sperm cell development within the testes.

In summary, FSH receptors are essential components in the hormonal regulation of reproduction and development, mediating the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone on target cells in both females and males.

The male infertility crisis is an increase in male infertility since the mid-1970s. The issue attracted media attention after a ... Doctors, men, and men's partners facing male infertility in France and French-speaking Switzerland (c. 1890-1970)". NORMA. 15 ( ... In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to ... "Male Infertility is a Women's Health Issue-Research and Clinical Evaluation of Male Infertility Is Needed". Cells. 9 (4): 990. ...
The male infertility crisis is an increase in male infertility since the mid-1970s. The issue attracted media attention after a ... Critics of labeling male infertility a crisis have cited research which has partially stigmatized men, and say that male ... The scientific community, however, generally acknowledges increasing male infertility as a men's-health issue. The term male ... Believers that male infertility has reached crisis proportions say that more must be done to remediate potential causes of male ...
The diagnosis of infertility causes many males to question their masculinity. Male factor infertility is frequently associated ... The stigma of male factor infertility described earlier has huge effects on the man. The problems infertile men have with ... Men are much less likely to seek out psychological help than women. Men who acknowledge infertility, articulate the sources of ... Throughout history men have recognized the desire for paternity and the possibility for male infertility; however, women are ...
Male infertility is responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases, while 20-35% are due to female infertility, and 25-40% are due ... Male infertility is responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases, while 20-35% are due to female infertility, and 25-40% are due ... Antisperm antibodies cause immune infertility. Cystic fibrosis can lead to infertility in men. In some cases, both the man and ... "Male Infertility". Male Infertility - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf. StatPearls. PMID 32965929. Mishail, A., et al. (2009) Impact ...
Male infertility Female infertility merckmanuals > Unexplained Infertility Last full review/revision November 2008 by Robert W ... Unexplained infertility is infertility that is idiopathic in the sense that its cause remains unknown even after an infertility ... Dada R, Kumar M, Jesudasan R, Fernández JL, Gosálvez J, Agarwal A (2012). "Epigenetics and its role in male infertility". J. ... Globally, about 10% of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Potential methods in unexplained infertility include ...
NR5A1 mutations are associated with male infertility, suggesting the possibility that these mutations cause the infertility. ... sSMCs occur in 0.125% of all infertility cases, are 7.5-fold more common in men, and in women are often associated with ovarian ... However, it is possible that these mutations individually have no major effect and only contribute to the male infertility by ... Subsequently, three missense mutations were identified as associated with and most likely the cause of the male infertility, ...
Both male infertility and female infertility can be stigmatized, however, in many traditional cultures, women are held ... One study showed that infertility in Ghana led to "increased risk of precarious sexual behaviour of both men and women...trying ... Healthcare policies and education should increase discussion of infertility without shaming infertile people. Men may have more ... Springen, Karen (2008-09-14). "How Women Around the World Cope With Infertility". Newsweek. Retrieved 2023-04-13. "Infertility ...
Advanced maternal age Fertility Infertility Male infertility Oncofertility te Velde, E. R. (2002). "The variability of female ... Female infertility caused by anovulation is called "anovulatory infertility", as opposed to "ovulatory infertility" in which ... Infertility in many cultures is a reason for divorce, and a way for a man or woman to increase his/her chances of producing an ... Infertility can further be broken down into primary and secondary infertility. Primary infertility refers to the inability to ...
In males with KS/CHH, infertility is primarily due to the lack of sperm production within the testes. Sperm production can be ... Males with KS/CHH are normally at stage I or II with genitalia, females at stage I with breast development and both males and ... Hypogonadism due to low levels of testosterone in men or oestrogen/progesterone in women. Infertility. Total lack of sense of ... Kallmann syndrome occurs about 4 times more often in males than females, but is only 2.5 times more common among males in ...
Abdel Raheem, Amr; Ralph, David; Minhas, S. (September 2012). "Male infertility". British Journal of Medical and Surgical ... It occurs in about 1 in 4,000 to 1 per 25,000 males per year before 25 years of age; but it can occur at any age, including ... It occurs in about 1 in 4,000 to 1 in 25,000 males under 25 years of age each year. Of children with testicular pain of rapid ... Infertility: The impact of testicular torsion on long-term fertility is not yet fully understood. However, testicular torsion ...
Male infertility; Post-traumatic stress disorder; Child abuse by part of a teacher or parent; Child abuse in general; Bed ...
It has also been used to treat male infertility, although this use is controversial. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of ... ISBN 978-1-4471-1029-3. Lipshultz LI, Howards SS, Niederberger CS (24 September 2009). Infertility in the Male. Cambridge ... 411-. ISBN 978-1-139-45221-2. Hargreave TB (6 December 2012). Male Infertility. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 398-399 ... Mesterolone is used in the treatment of androgen deficiency in male hypogonadism, anemia, and to support male fertility among ...
Though there is no FDA indication for the use of clomiphene in male infertility, it has been prescribed since the 1960s. As of ... Chehab M, Madala A, Trussell JC (March 2015). "On-label and off-label drugs used in the treatment of male infertility". ... Willets AE, Corbo JM, Brown JN (July 2013). "Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility". Reproductive Sciences (Review ... de Kretser DM (March 1997). "Male infertility". Lancet (Review). 349 (9054): 787-90. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(96)08341-9. PMID ...
"Infertility - Treatment". nhs.uk. 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2019-09-24. Liu, Wen; Schulster, Michael L.; Alukal, Joseph P.; Najari ... When compared with FNA of the testis, conventional TESE is 2-fold more effective at identifying sperm in men with non- ... Klami, Rauni; Mankonen, Harri; Perheentupa, Antti (2018). "Successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction for men with ... where infertility is caused by a lack of sperm production rather than a blockage. In these cases, micro-TESE is more likely to ...
In men, her research team and collaborators have investigated mechanisms of male infertility. In a study published in 2000, she ... There, she worked in the laboratory of David C. Page, where she worked to map genes linked to male infertility on the Y ... Her research group has also worked on developing alternative solutions for men experiencing infertility through an ... "Science Is Getting Us Closer to the End of Infertility". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2020-03-28. "In the Race for Life, ...
In males, there can be deformities in the seminiferous tubule as in Klinefelter syndrome (most common cause in males), defects ... Castaldi MA, Cobellis L (June 2016). "Thalassemia and infertility". Human Fertility. 19 (2): 90-6. doi:10.1080/14647273.2016. ... Testosterone Deficiency in Men. 2008. ISBN 978-0199545131 Editor: Hugh Jones. Chapter 9. Puberty & Fertility. Male Hypogonadism ... Males with primary failure of the testes will be on lifelong testosterone. Pulsatile GnRH, weekly multi-LH, or hCG and FSH can ...
Immunopathology and Infertility. In: Infertility in the Male, 3rd ed. Edited by LI Lipshultz and SS Howards. Mosby Year Book, ... Surgery or assisted reproduction? A decision analysis of treatment costs in male infertility. J. Urol. 174: 1926, 2005, PMID ... In the USA, about 2% of men later go on to have a vasectomy reversal afterwards. However the number of men inquiring about ... of men are satisfied with having had the procedure. While there are a number of reasons that men seek a vasectomy reversal, ...
"Infertility in Men". DynaMed. Philpott, Lloyd Frank; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; FitzGerald, Serena; Savage, Eileen (2017). "Stress ... "More About Us". Men's Health Forum. Retrieved Oct 29, 2019. "Men's Health Week". GLOBAL ACTION ON MEN'S HEALTH. 2014-05-26. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Men's health. Men's Health Network Men's Health Information and Resource Centre ( ... males. Some conditions that affect both men and women, such as cancer, and injury, manifest differently in men. Some diseases ...
"Infertility in men". Retrieved 2007-11-21. Costabile RA, Spevak M (2001). "Characterization of patients presenting with male ... The diagnosis of oligozoospermia requires a work-up via semen analysis (listed in Male infertility). There are many causes for ... The use of carnitine showed some promise in a controlled trial in selected cases of male infertility improving sperm quality ... Conception device Male infertility Semen quality Vasectomy thefreedictionary.com > oligospermia Citing: Dorland's Medical ...
ISBN 978-1-4419-1435-4. Drobnis EZ, Nangia AK (2017). "Antimicrobials and Male Reproduction". Impacts of Medications on Male ... Wheeler CJ, Keye WR, Peterson CM (2010). "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome". Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. pp. 147-182. ... Ketoconazole has been used to prevent the testosterone flare at the initiation of GnRH agonist therapy in men with prostate ... Oral ketoconazole has been used clinically as a steroidogenesis inhibitor in men, women, and children at dosages of 200 to ...
ISBN 0-632-03906-X. S. Lee (2003). "Myths and reality in male infertility". In J. Haynes; amp; J. Miller (eds.). Inconceivable ... His book Counselling in Male Infertility was published in 1996; he contributed to major newspaper articles and appeared on ... S Lee (1996). Counselling in male infertility. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Press. ... such as Counselling in Male Infertility, and was also a contributor/consultant in such books: The Miraculous World of The ...
"Mitochondria-related male infertility." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103.41 (2006): 15148-15153. Labuda, ... Males are more susceptible to mtDNA defects, not only because of lack of selection for mtDNA on males but also due to sperm's ... Mother's curse predicts that mtDNA mutations pose a greater threat on males and male-specific detrimental mutations in mtDNA ... Because of maternal inheritance, mtDNA has no selection in males. Instead, mutations only deleterious to males could be ...
Another threat is infertility. Generally, female gorillas mature at 10-12 years of age (or earlier at 7-8 years). Males mature ... Males like to settle with other male members of their family. Their breeding groups consist of one silverback male, three adult ... A male standing erect can be up to 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) tall and weigh up to 270 kg (600 lb). Males have an average weight of 140 ... Males also aggressively compete for contact with females. The group of gorillas is led by one or more adult males. In cases ...
Vaclav Insler; Bruno Lunenfeld (January 1993). Infertility: Male and Female. Churchill Livingstone. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-443- ... In men, cyclofenil can increase testosterone levels due its progonadotropic effects. In terms of distribution, cyclofenil acts ... It has been used as a doping agent by male athletes. Cyclofenil is used to treat menstrual disturbances and anovulatory ... Cyclofenil has been used by male athletes to increase testosterone levels. It is not effective for this purpose in women. ...
Wiser, Herbert J.; Sandlow, Jay; Kohler, Tobias S. (2012). "Causes of Male Infertility". Male Infertility: Contemporary ... Since sperm are antigenically different from self-tissue, a male animal can react immunologically to his own sperm. The male ... which lead to development of the male phenotype, including directing development of the early bipotential gonad toward the male ... For 85% of men, the right testis hangs lower than the left one. The volume of the testicle can be estimated by palpating it and ...
Anne M. Jequier (1986). Anne M. Jequier (ed.). Infertility in the Male. Current Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol. 11 ... Infertility in the Male (Jequier, 1986) Volume 12: Endometriosis (O'Connor, 1987) Volume 13: Diabetic Pregnancy (Brudenell & ...
Varicocele and Male Infertility: Asian Journal of Andrology, Volume 18, Number 2, March 2016. The Azoospermic Male: Current ... An Update on Male Infertility: Factors, Mechanisms and Interventions, Volume 53 (1), 2020. Men's Health, Volume 19 (3), 2021. " ... "Agarwal,A. "An Update on Male Infertility: Factors, Mechanisms and Interventions", vol. 53, no. 1, 2020". "Agarwal, A., "Men's ... "Understanding Male Infertility Global practices and Indian Perspective". Unexplained Infertility: Pathophysiology, Evaluation ...
"BBC News , Health , Natural pregnancies for 'infertile' couples". (Infertility, Gynaecology, Human pregnancy). ... The likelihood also depends on the sperm performance of the man and the egg count of the woman. " ...
"Teratozoospermia and male infertility". Forum Instituto Bernabeu. 2016-11-25. Retrieved 2019-05-06. (Articles with short ...
"Varicocele and male infertility". Nature Reviews Urology. 14 (9): 523-533. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2017.98. ISSN 1759-4820. PMID ... The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside the body and around the pelvis region of a male that ... The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male sperm for fertilization of the ovum. The ... In contrast with males, each of the original diploid germ cells or primary oocytes will form only one mature ovum, and three ...
Read about the causes of male infertility and treatments. ... Infertility is when a woman cant get pregnant after a year or ... Infertility is a term doctors use if a man hasnt been able to get a woman pregnant after at least one year of trying. Causes ... Causes of Male Infertility (American Society for Reproductive Medicine) * Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Medical ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Infertility, Male (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Oligospermia (National Institutes ...
Men without any sperm at all are at the greatest risk. ... Cite this: Male Infertility Increases Overall Cancer Risk - ... So the silver lining in this clinical cloud is that infertility might be an opportunity to connect men to the healthcare system ... Eisenberg and his coauthors point out that they excluded any men who had a cancer diagnosis within 3 years of their infertility ... Eisenberg and coauthors evaluated 2238 men from a Texas infertility clinic - 451 with and 1787 without azoospermia. They ...
... due to male factors alone, 20% due to a combination of female and male factors, and 15% unexplained. ... Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. An estimated 15% of ... encoded search term (Male Infertility) and Male Infertility What to Read Next on Medscape ... Causes of infertility in men can be categorized as obstructive or nonobstructive. Infertile men may have deficiencies in sperm ...
The male infertility crisis is an increase in male infertility since the mid-1970s. The issue attracted media attention after a ... Doctors, men, and mens partners facing male infertility in France and French-speaking Switzerland (c. 1890-1970)". NORMA. 15 ( ... In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to ... "Male Infertility is a Womens Health Issue-Research and Clinical Evaluation of Male Infertility Is Needed". Cells. 9 (4): 990. ...
Male factors are estimated to contribute to 30-50% of cases of infertility. Infertility or reduced fertility can result from ... Clinical infertility is the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of trying. ... Male factors are estimated to contribute to 30-50% of cases of infertility. Infertility or reduced fertility can result from ... Male infertility Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2023 Sep 14;9(1):49. doi: 10.1038/s41572-023-00459-w. ...
Learn more about what causes infertility in women and men, and available treatments. ... Infertility doesnt mean you and your partner will never have a baby. ... Signs of Potential Infertility in Men. Infertility symptoms in men can be vague. They may go unnoticed until a man tries to ... What Causes Fertility Problems in Men?. The most common cause for infertility in men is a problem with sperm, including:. *Low ...
Male infertility contributes to approximately half of all cases of infertility. In cases of complex male factor fertility, we ... percentage of male factor assisted reproduction cases in the nation and authors the textbooks on male factor infertility. ... offering expert evaluation and treatment of male infertility. ... Frequently Asked Questions about Infertility * How to Choose a ... The Scott Department of Urologys specialized laboratory is one of only a few devoted exclusively to male reproductive health ...
The research team has found that eggs that dont fertilise because of a defective PLCz, as in some forms of male infertility, ... "We know that some men are infertile because their sperm fail to activate eggs," said Professor Tony Lai, who led the research." ...
... in many cases the underlying causes of infertility have remained a mystery. ... Around one in 20 men is infertile, but despite the best efforts of scientists, ... "While medical practitioners have a fairly good idea that certain mitochondrial mutations can bring about male infertility, the ... Crucially, the genes that are most affected in males are expressed almost exclusively in the male reproductive organs and ...
Many couples experience problems with infertility when trying to conceive. Here are the common symptoms of infertility. ... Common Signs of Infertility in Men 1. Changes in sexual desire. A mans fertility is also linked with his hormone health. ... Female factor infertility is typically to blame 40 percent of the time, while male factor infertility is the cause of issues 30 ... Infertility is something many men experience. Here are 10 science-backed ways to increase sperm count and enhance overall ...
Possible cause of male infertility: Gina Esther Merges and Prof. Hubert Schorle study genes involved in sperm maturation.. (c) ... "Our study shows that mutations in the Actl7b gene could be the cause of male infertility," says Prof. Schorle. ... Male sperm cells are constantly produced in large quantities in the testicles during so-called spermatogenesis. In this process ... This explains why the sperm of male mice with a mutated Actl7b gene is not able to develop the characteristic shape. Due to ...
Al-Snafi and others published Effect of royal jelly on male infertility , Find, read and cite all the research you need on ... had worked on effect of RJ on male infertility. In their study used 83 infertile men and treated with RJ in 10gm pure honey, in ... infertility. Eighty - three infertile men were treated with Royal Jelly,. twenty - two with 100mg Royal Jelly, twenty -one with ... Male infertility may occur due to different causes, therefore , different. therapeutic approaches have been applied in order to ...
NMECT Infertility Support Group Comments Off on NMECT Infertility Support Group Categories: Virtual Peer-led Support Groups, ... RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association is a 501(c)3, national patient advocacy organization. ... RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association is a 501(c)3, national patient advocacy organization. ...
This article describes the findings of a study on obese men and infertility. ... Home › Male Infertility › Creating Healthy Sperm › Obesity and Infertility. Male Obesity and Infertility. Obese men need to ... This led the researchers to wonder if male obesity might be a contributory factor in infertility since obesity is already a ... have seen a significant rise in the number of men with poor quality sperm but have not yet shown a link to male infertility ...
Home › Getting Pregnant › Male Infertility › Varicocele Treatment. Varicocele Treatment: A Way to Improve Male Fertility. ... In more severe cases of varicocele, where men suffer from testicular damage or infertility, surgery may be the best choice of ... they produce a variety of symptoms from discomfort and pain to testicle shrinkage and infertility. Men who suffer from ... Men can also undergo a varicocele embolization to help soothe the pressure placed on the veins while regulating the blood flow ...
... semen quality decline in men, female infertility , Health ... As for male infertility, Dr Shruti N Mane said, "You will be ... Male fertility gets impacted owing to low sperm counts having dropped almost dramatically. This is how male infertility cases ... Microplastics and male infertility:. The growing rate of infertility has displaced attention to gametogenesis and gamete ... News / Lifestyle / Health / Microplastics can cause semen quality decline in males and female infertility. Here are tips to ...
ICD-10 code N46 for Male infertility is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -Diseases of male genital ... ICD-10-CM Code for Male infertility N46 ICD-10 code N46 for Male infertility is a medical classification as listed by WHO under ... male infertility). Now this is a male diag. Am I correct to say that this will ... [ Read More ] ... IVF with Male Infertility. Hello, I have a doctor that wants to bill for a female patient for IVF with ICSI S4015, 89280 with ...
Men who are found to be infertile also have a high risk for developing prostate cancer. ... Male Infertility › Prostate Cancer Risks. Male Infertility And Prostate Cancer. It seems that male infertility comes with a ... how male infertility] could be somehow translated into a tool to help identify young men at greatest risk for most aggressive [ ... location of infertility treatment, and how long the men received treatment for infertility. Slower growing prostate cancers ...
Learn about myths about male infertility and get the facts about low sperm count, sperm health and more. ... Male Infertility Myths and Truths. As with any topic, there are always going to be myths abounding about sperm health and male ... Myth 1: Infertility isnt my fault, the man says. Its got to be an issue with my wife.. Truth: Approximately half of the time ... Here, we discuss a number of myths about male infertility so that we can shed light on the truths and help you to deal with ...
Male Infertility: Its More Common Than You Think Infertility can feel alienating for a couple, and for each individual partner ... Male Infertility: Get Tested, Get Treated Fifteen percent of couples struggle with infertility, an often frustrating problem ... Take Control of Your Health During Mens Health June is Mens Health Month, making it a great time for men to get schedule ... A Closer Look at Male Infertility Nearly 15% of couples are infertile. But its not just a womens issue. Both genders can have ...
Male fertility is declining, and despite knowledge that this is impacted by nutrition, lifestyle advice rarely reaches beyond ... "Despite the increasing trend in male factor infertility, it still remains largely taboo and the male experience of infertility ... with male factor infertility accounting for 40-50% of all infertility cases​, making it important that men are provided with ... "Pre-Conceptual Guidelines for Men: A Review of Male Infertility Experience, including Nutrition and Lifestyle Factors"​ ...
... the tide of male infertility occasioned by drinking water not containing zinc What is this quality of drinking water and male ... explains why male infertility is on the rise. He also speaks on the key nutrients and supplements needed to enhance ... a United States trained Doctor and Medical Director of Heritage Mens Clinic, in an interview with Adedayo Adejobi, ... Male infertility: Does excessive gyming and steroids lead to fertility issues in men?. Hindustan Times. 2023-09-09, 09:46 ...
California Bill Would Redefine Infertility To Give Men Access to Pregnancy Treatments (Grabien / Marko Geber) Susannah Luthi ... "For single men or male same-sex couples, this means they would need to access a surrogate to carry their child. So the bill is ... California lawmakers are advancing a bill that would redefine the inability of men to get pregnant as "infertility" and entitle ... Men Having Babies, Equality California, and other S.B. 729 sponsors are also behind a federal bill by Reps. Adam Schiff (D., ...
Male infertility is diagnosed when, after testing both partners, reproductive problems have been found in the male. A male ... However, determining the true prevalence of male infertility remains elusive, as most estimates are derived from couples ... Infertility, defined as the inability to achieve a successful pregnancy after 1 year or more of unprotected sexual intercourse ... factor contributes in part or whole to about 50% of cases of infertility. ...
male infertility. Understanding Sperm Morphology. by carolinaconceptions , Aug 1, 2017. By: Alysia McGlynn, BS and Meaghan ... We offer comprehensive fertility testing, the most advanced infertility treatments like IVF, PGT, INVOcell and surgery, and ... Bowling, MD Male fertility is evaluated via semen analysis. During this test, the patients semen is examined for color, ...
... male infertility. In this video, male infertility doctor specialists perform Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) ... Southern California San Diego Fertility Center is a leading fertility clinic for female infertility & ... San Diego Fertility Clinic video showing Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) male infertility treatment. Microscopic ... The infertility doctor specialist identifies and removes areas of the testicle which are more likely to be making sperm. ...
These information give men and their accomplices a sensible assumption for the expense of seeking after ripeness treatment, the ... Generally speaking 64% of men who sought after richness treatment had cash based costs surpassing $15,000 dollars. Practically ... This investigation clarifies the beforehand uncharacterized monetary difficulties of male fruitlessness care. ...
... risk also up for men who have not fathered any children ... Breast cancer risk linked to male-origin infertility; ... Breast cancer risk linked to male-origin infertility; risk also up for men who have not fathered any children. ... The researchers found that the risk for breast cancer was statistically significantly associated with male-origin infertility ... Higher risk was seen for men who had not fathered any children versus men who were fathers. These associations were significant ...
Learn more about one of the top male infertility specialists in Los Angeles and Director of the Center for Male Reproductive ... Innovator in Male Infertility Treatment. Dr. Werthman was the first male infertility specialist to use local anesthesia in an ... "study of man," a subspecialty within the discipline of Urology) and was granted a visiting fellowship in male infertility and ... and took on the task of editing a textbook on male infertility for the series, "Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics ...
... have the same damaging effect on sperm of both man and dog. ... Household Pollutants Cause Infertility In Both Men And Dogs. ... "We know when human sperm motility is poor, DNA fragmentation is increased and that human male infertility is linked to ... Home » Living Healthy » Household Pollutants Cause Infertility In Both Men And Dogs ... Our findings suggest man-made chemicals, widely used in home and working environment, may be responsible for the decline in ...
  • The study is also important because it found that the infertile men - those without any sperm and those with ineffective sperm - developed a variety of malignancies, including prostate cancer, brain and central nervous system (CNS) cancer, melanoma, and stomach cancer, as well as testicular cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Previous studies have found only a consistent association between infertility and testicular cancer, the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • Testicular biopsy is indicated in azoospermic men with a normal-sized testis and normal findings on hormonal studies to evaluate for ductal obstruction, to further evaluate idiopathic infertility, and to retrieve sperm. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood‑testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected receptive anal or oral sex with men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mumps Malaria Testicular cancer Defects in USP26 in some cases Acrosomal defects affecting egg penetration Idiopathic oligospermia - unexplained sperm deficiencies account for 30% of male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infertility or reduced fertility can result from testicular dysfunction, endocrinopathies, lifestyle factors (such as tobacco and obesity), congenital anatomical factors, gonadotoxic exposures and ageing, among others. (nih.gov)
  • In more severe cases of varicocele, where men suffer from testicular damage or infertility, surgery may be the best choice of treatment. (wdxcyber.com)
  • San Diego Fertility Clinic video showing Microscopic Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) male infertility treatment. (sdfertility.com)
  • Infertility doctor specialists at San Diego Fertility Center are among the best doctors in the nation for Testicular Sperm Extraction (TESE) male infertility treatment. (sdfertility.com)
  • Men who have or have had a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or have had prolonged exposure to environmental hazards are more likely to have testicular infection and should have this treated immediately. (natural-fertility-prescription.com)
  • This study intends to assess the repercussion of marijuana smoking and other habits (sedentary lifestyle, alcohol, and tobacco use) in the testicular function of infertile men seeking andrological evaluation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scientists have 3D printed human testicular cells in the hope of helping men with fertility issues finally produce sperm. (euronews.com)
  • The researchers managed to print viable testicular cells that they hope will eventually yield sperm from patients with forms of infertility that currently cannot be treated. (euronews.com)
  • Testicular function is normal in men with post-testicular cause, but sperm does not get out of the body. (gennet.cz)
  • Infertility in men can be caused by different factors, including disruption of testicular or ejaculatory function, hormonal, and genetic disorders, and is typically evaluated by a semen analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An estimated 15% of couples meet this criterion and are considered infertile, with approximately 35% due to female factors alone, 30% due to male factors alone, 20% due to a combination of female and male factors, and 15% unexplained. (medscape.com)
  • Factors relating to male infertility include: Antisperm antibodies (ASA) have been considered as infertility cause in around 10-30% of infertile couples. (wikipedia.org)
  • It's common for couples to experience issues with infertility. (healthline.com)
  • Around 15 to 20 percent of couples trying to conceive will have trouble with infertility. (healthline.com)
  • Shayeb's team intends a follow-up study to compare the male BMI of both fertile and infertile couples to check for a correlation between poor semen quality and infertility. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Infertility can feel alienating for a couple, and for each individual partner, but in reality, it affects many couples. (utah.edu)
  • Fifteen percent of couples struggle with infertility, an often frustrating problem that affects both men and women equally. (utah.edu)
  • For single men or male same-sex couples, this means they would need to access a surrogate to carry their child. (freebeacon.com)
  • Infertility, defined as the inability to achieve a successful pregnancy after 1 year or more of unprotected sexual intercourse or therapeutic donor insemination, affects approximately 15% of all couples. (health.mil)
  • 4-6 However, determining the true prevalence of male infertility remains elusive, as most estimates are derived from couples seeking assistive reproductive technology in tertiary care or referral centers, population-based surveys, or high-risk occupational cohorts, all of which are likely to underestimate the prevalence of the condition in the general U.S. population. (health.mil)
  • For more information on how Fairfax Cryobank supports couples facing infertility, visit our resource page . (fairfaxcryobank.com)
  • Pregnancy rates have also been found to be lower in couples where the man drinks 10 units of alcohol a week. (natural-fertility-prescription.com)
  • Iva has dedicated her professional life to supporting couples on their path to parenthood with scientifically grounded information, protocols, and coaching around preconception care, natural infertility treatments, and integrative reproductive health. (natural-fertility-prescription.com)
  • About half of infertile couples are affected by male factor infertility. (inviafertility.com)
  • We use this for couples where the man has very low sperm counts or non-motile sperm (sperm that don't swim effectively toward the egg). (inviafertility.com)
  • Men as well as women participate in the increasing number of couples who have problems with natural conception. (gennet.cz)
  • In situations where infertility is due to complete absence of sperm, couples have the option of building their families with the use of donor sperm. (laurelfertility.com)
  • At Laurel Fertility Care, skilled Reproductive Endocrinologists are available to help couples dealing with male factor infertility, working closely with male reproductive specialists. (laurelfertility.com)
  • Infertility, defined as the absence of pregnancy after 1 year of unprotected intercourse, affects 1 in every 13 couples in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] In case of presumed male factor infertility, couples are often offered intrauterine inseminations (IUIs) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (medscape.com)
  • Many couples who struggle with infertility do end up having children, sometimes with medical help. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals and couples who are unable to conceive a child should consider making an appointment with a reproductive endocrinologist-a doctor who specializes in managing infertility. (cdc.gov)
  • Couples in which the male partner is 40 or older are more likely to report difficulty conceiving. (cdc.gov)
  • Infertility is a rising problem on a global basis, affecting anywhere from 10% to 30% of couples who have reached reproductive age. (bvsalud.org)
  • The reduction of testosterone in the male body normally results in an overall decrease in the production of viable sperm for these individuals thereby forcing them to turn to fertility treatments to father children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-surgical treatments, such as athletic support or close-fitting underwear to provide support to the scrotum are suitable for men who suffer from mild symptoms of varicocele. (wdxcyber.com)
  • California lawmakers are advancing a bill that would redefine the inability of men to get pregnant as "infertility" and entitle them to insurance-covered fertility treatments. (freebeacon.com)
  • We offer comprehensive fertility testing, the most advanced infertility treatments like IVF, PGT, INVOcell and surgery, and inclusive fertility services for LGBTQ+ family building, egg donation and egg donor database, sperm donation and a gestational carrier surrogacy program. (carolinaconceptions.com)
  • With exceptional patient care, a track record of IVF success and a sunny fertility tourism destination, San Diego Fertility Center is an international location for egg donation, IVF , IUI, PGD/PGS, gender selection, egg freezing, surrogacy and other infertility treatments. (sdfertility.com)
  • The study is the first to report an increased risk for cancer in men with an absence of sperm, or azoospermia, note the authors, led by Michael Eisenberg, MD, PhD, director of male reproductive medicine and surgery at Stanford Hospital & Clinics in Palo Alto, California. (medscape.com)
  • According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, there are some 7.3 million men and women in the United States who suffer from infertility. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Dr. Eisenberg and his coauthors point out that they excluded any men who had a cancer diagnosis within 3 years of their infertility evaluation to rule out the possibility that the infertility was caused by an undiagnosed cancer. (medscape.com)
  • For these reasons, epidemiologic statements regarding male reproductive dysfunction present formidable challenges, and the patients undergoing diagnosis and treatment for infertility are often understandably confused. (rand.org)
  • Our providers are using Z31.41 (encounter for fertility testing) as a diagnosis for our male new patient evaluations. (aapc.com)
  • Hello, I have a doctor that wants to bill for a female patient for IVF with ICSI S4015, 89280 with the diagnosis N46.8 (male infertility). (aapc.com)
  • This is the initial stage of infertility diagnosis. (harcourthealth.com)
  • The law defines infertility based on a physician's diagnosis or according to the widely accepted definition of not being able to have a child after a year or more of trying. (freebeacon.com)
  • For surveillance purposes, an incident case of male infertility was defined by a case-defining diagnosis (Table 1) in the first diagnostic position of a record of an inpatient or outpatient medical encounter. (health.mil)
  • Male factor infertility represents 35% of all infertility cases and the diagnosis is made by the presence of abnormal parameters on a semen analysis. (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • This diagnosis is further recommended for the purpose of discovering and subsequently treating the cause of infertility. (gennet.cz)
  • Diagnosis and appropriate correction of intrauterine anomalies are considered et d'Application en Chirurgie essential in order to increase chances of conception. (who.int)
  • 10 However, the cause of male infertility is unknown (idiopathic male infertility) in up to 40% of cases, 7,10 and while many infertile men have oligospermia (low sperm concentrations compared with reference ranges) or azoospermia (the absence of motile sperm in semen), some infertile men have normal sperm concentrations. (health.mil)
  • The researchers concluded that idiopathic male infertility could benefit from acupuncture treatment, and result in a general improvement of sperm quality , specifically in the ultrastructural integrity of spermatozoa. (attiliodalberto.com)
  • 2005) Quantitative evaluation of spermatozoa ultrastructure after acupuncture treatment for idiopathic male infertility. (attiliodalberto.com)
  • Drug treatment is indicated if the woman's infertility is caused by an endocrine system dysfunction or has an immunological nature. (harcourthealth.com)
  • Though it is often thought of as a woman's problem, infertility can affect both men and women. (cdc.gov)
  • Testosterone is a key hormone for male fertility, so problems with the testes that produce this hormone may lead to infertility. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some health experts believe that high testosterone levels lead to infertility in men. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • The most common causes of male infertility are low sperm production, abnormal sperm function, or problems that affect sperm transport. (health.mil)
  • Dr. Mark Rispler details the four common causes of male infertility that we see at our Manhattan Beach fertility center. (innovativefertility.com)
  • Sperm abnormalities are one of the most common causes of male infertility . (innovativefertility.com)
  • An azoospermic man's risk for developing cancer is similar to that for a typical man 10 years older," said Dr. Eisenberg in a press statement. (medscape.com)
  • Aside from making it hard to have children , infertility may heighten a man's risk for developing the more aggressive form of prostate cancer . (wdxcyber.com)
  • What increases a man's risk of infertility? (cdc.gov)
  • Determining the causes of female infertility is somewhat more difficult, and the process begins with a gynecological examination and ultrasound testing. (harcourthealth.com)
  • That's a doctor who specializes in infertility. (webmd.com)
  • The problem of "free radicals" has been identified as having a major effect on male infertility. (natural-fertility-prescription.com)
  • The impact of human papilloma virus on human reproductive health and the effect on male infertility: An updated review. (bvsalud.org)
  • What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility? (medlineplus.gov)
  • This general division allows an appropriate workup of potential underlying causes of infertility and helps define a course of action for treatment. (medscape.com)
  • In cases of complex male factor fertility, we partner with the Baylor Medicine Scott Department of Urology, offering expert evaluation and treatment of male infertility. (bcm.edu)
  • The Scott Department of Urology's specialized laboratory is one of only a few devoted exclusively to male reproductive health treatment, providing the peace of mind that comes with knowing you're in the hands of experts. (bcm.edu)
  • results, Royal Jelly is sa fe and effective in the treatment of male infertility. (researchgate.net)
  • In this study, researchers looked at the prostate cancer rate in 22,562 men undergoing evaluation for infertility at 15 different California infertility treatment centers between the years 1967 and 1998. (wdxcyber.com)
  • The investigators discovered that the infertile men developed aggressive prostate cancer at a rate 2.6 times that of the general population when the researchers factored for age, location of infertility treatment, and how long the men received treatment for infertility. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Shayeb and his colleagues reviewed the results of seminal fluid analyses of over 5000 men attending the Aberdeen Fertility Centre for infertility treatment. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Typically 43% to 50% of men who undergo treatment for varicocele will be able to get their partner pregnant within the first year. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Hi all, I'm hoping for some input on coding ICD10 for a woman receiving fertility treatment - IUI - when the male is infertile. (aapc.com)
  • Male infertility treatment can be carried out conservatively or surgically. (harcourthealth.com)
  • Depending on the causes identified during the examination, the woman is offered one of the standard infertility treatment regimens. (harcourthealth.com)
  • When considering infertility treatment, you can take steps beforehand to make the infertility journey smoother and help you find the best treatment for your own situation. (utah.edu)
  • found that the majority of men undergoing fertility treatment did not believe diet, caffeine, artificial sweeteners, or over-the-counter medicines affected fertility. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Generally speaking 64% of men who sought after richness treatment had cash based costs surpassing $15,000 dollars. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • These information give men and their accomplices a sensible assumption for the expense of seeking after ripeness treatment, the extraordinary estimates that numerous patients take to fund care and the monetary strain related with such choices. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The samples from the treatment group were randomised with semen samples from the 12 men in the untreated control group and evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. (attiliodalberto.com)
  • Dr. Werthman's practice is dedicated exclusively to microsurgical vasectomy reversal, no-scalpel vasectomy and the treatment of male infertility . (malereproduction.com)
  • Our male infertility treatment program director is Dr. Robert Brannigan, M.D.,Assistant Professor in the Department of Urology at Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. (inviafertility.com)
  • Dr. Sherman Silber, Infertility Center of St. Louis, is offering video consultations for patients who need to plan now for their treatment while stay-at-home orders are in place. (infertile.com)
  • Although most men with abnormal semen parameters have a normal workup and the cause is unknown, some may have hormonal abnormalities for which medical treatment may be beneficial. (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • When surgery or medical therapy are not appropriate treatment options, intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can overcome male factor infertility. (laurelfertility.com)
  • No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. (medscape.com)
  • PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The study recruits women aged 18-45 years and men aged 18-55 years seeking fertility evaluation and treatment at a large academic hospital fertility center. (cdc.gov)
  • MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among women in this cohort, higher urinary concentrations of some phthalate metabolites were associated with reduced oocyte yields, lower likelihood of clinical pregnancy, increased risk of pregnancy loss and lower likelihood of live birth following infertility treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not uncommon for people to experience signs of infertility. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this article, learn about signs of infertility in both men and women, as well as when to see a doctor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several things, from irregular periods to changes in sexual desire, can be signs of infertility. (healthline.com)
  • However, many signs of infertility could also be a signal of something else, so it's worth bringing up with a healthcare professional. (healthline.com)
  • The testes house a man's sperm, so testicle health is paramount to male fertility. (healthline.com)
  • When these enlarged bulging veins appear on the testicles, they produce a variety of symptoms from discomfort and pain to testicle shrinkage and infertility. (wdxcyber.com)
  • The infertility doctor specialist identifies and removes areas of the testicle which are more likely to be making sperm. (sdfertility.com)
  • Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse. (medscape.com)
  • Healthy testicles are an important aspect of male fertility. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are several different conditions that could lead to pain or swelling in the testicles, many of which could contribute to infertility. (healthline.com)
  • Male sperm cells are constantly produced in large quantities in the testicles during so-called spermatogenesis. (innovations-report.com)
  • This is a condition where infertility is caused by insufficient development of the male genital glands - testicles. (gennet.cz)
  • A study of eunuchs in Korea's royal court has found men without testicles live longer. (abc.net.au)
  • A combination of these factors leads to infertility 20 to 30 percent of the time. (healthline.com)
  • If the levels of testosterone become high or low, it leads to infertility in men. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • Infertility in men is typically evaluated using semen analysis to assess sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. (health.mil)
  • If male factor infertility is suspected, we can test your semen for sperm motility and morphology, with recommendations for next steps. (laurelfertility.com)
  • Chromosomal anomalies and genetic mutations account for nearly 10-15% of all male infertility cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Where a normal healthy male will have both an X and a Y chromosome, affected males have genetic deletions in the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exclusion criteria included cryptorchidism, infertility caused by genetic or infectious diseases, and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic evaluation of men with low sperm count is also recommended after an initial evaluation to rule out any obstruction in the male genital system. (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • In addition, male fertility is influenced by genetic and immunological factors. (gennet.cz)
  • This problem concerns both women and men who have some genetic defects or are their carriers. (gennet.cz)
  • Endometriosis is a risk factor for infertility. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Today, Baylor College of Medicine ranks among the highest percentage of male factor assisted reproduction cases in the nation and authors the textbooks on male factor infertility. (bcm.edu)
  • Female factor infertility is typically to blame 40 percent of the time, while male factor infertility is the cause of issues 30 to 40 percent of the time. (healthline.com)
  • However, the authors say that more research is necessary before male fertility issues can be seen as a risk factor necessitating early prostate cancer screening. (wdxcyber.com)
  • It is true that stress can be a contributing factor to infertility. (gettingpregnant.co.uk)
  • This led the researchers to wonder if male obesity might be a contributory factor in infertility since obesity is already a known risk factor for female infertility. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Researchers did not investigate DNA damage to sperm, preferring to stick to the parameters of routine semen analysis, though Dr. Shayeb notes that other studies suggest an association between male obesity and DNA damage to the sperm and believes this may be another factor in reduced fertility. (sharedjourney.com)
  • It has been reported that male fertility is declining across the world, with male factor infertility accounting for 40-50% of all infertility cases ​, making it important that men are provided with adequate lifestyle and nutrition guidance. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • "Despite the increasing trend in male factor infertility, it still remains largely taboo and the male experience of infertility is a poorly researched area hence improved understanding should help improve care of these individuals," ​the report states. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • 1 A male factor contributes in part or whole to about 50% of cases of infertility. (health.mil)
  • However, male factor infertility (MFI) is actually a lot more common than people think. (fairfaxcryobank.com)
  • 2 The discovery of how to make eggs from stem cells could help women preserve their fertility or could remove age as a factor in infertility. (nih.gov)
  • Unfortunately, majority of male factor infertility is idiopathic (cause unknown). (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • The choice of assisted reproduction usually depends on the male factor severity. (laurelfertility.com)
  • IUI is used with mild male factor and involves placement of washed motile sperm in the uterus, in closer proximity to the fallopian tubes where fertilization occurs. (laurelfertility.com)
  • With severe male factor infertility where only, a few motile sperm are present, IVF with ICSI allows for conception with even less sperm, as just one viable sperm is injected into the egg to create an embryo. (laurelfertility.com)
  • A specialist will study the volume, number, movement, and shape of the sperm in a semen sample to determine if a male factor is involved. (cdc.gov)
  • It has also been linked to tubal-factor infertility in sero-epidemiologic studies, even after accounting for previous chlamydial infection ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • After increasing from 2000 to 2018, age-adjusted suicide rates for non-Hispanic White males and females declined from 2018 to 2020, from 28.6 per 100,000 to 27.2 for males and from 8.0 to 6.9 for females. (cdc.gov)
  • Rates for non-Hispanic Black males and Hispanic males were lower than that for non-Hispanic White males over the entire period and increased more recently to 13.1 and 12.3, respectively, in 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • This may be stressful, as many people show no direct symptoms of infertility until they try to conceive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of infertility are often related to other underlying conditions. (healthline.com)
  • Common symptoms of infertility include the following. (healthline.com)
  • According to the Office on Women's Health , about a third of issues with infertility comes from women, and another third starts with men. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Having an irregular cycle, including missing periods, can contribute to infertility, as it means a woman may not be regularly ovulating. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are numerous conditions that can contribute to infertility in men and women. (healthline.com)
  • Both of these can contribute to infertility. (healthline.com)
  • Male infertility refers to a sexually mature male's inability to impregnate a fertile female. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, female infertility is related to a hormone problem. (webmd.com)
  • News / Lifestyle / Health / Microplastics can cause semen quality decline in males and female infertility. (hindustantimes.com)
  • While female infertility tends to get the most attention, male infertility has made headlines in recent years, as research sheds light on the dramatic decline in sperm concentration and quality. (mercola.com)
  • The researchers found that the risk for breast cancer was statistically significantly associated with male-origin infertility but not if a couple's infertility had been diagnosed as of origin from the female partner. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The book offers in-depth information about the menstrual cycle, when a woman ovulates and how to improve male and female fertility. (attiliodalberto.com)
  • At InVia Fertility, we take a team approach where both male and female reproductive experts work with the couple. (inviafertility.com)
  • In 50% of infertility cases, the cause is due to either male infertility factors or a combination of male and female factors. (innovativefertility.com)
  • Conditions affecting any one of these organs can contribute to female infertility. (cdc.gov)
  • PCOS is the most common cause of female infertility. (cdc.gov)
  • Mycoplasma genitalium causes 20%-30% of male urethritis cases ( 1 , 2 ) and has been associated with a 2-fold increased risk for female cervicitis, preterm delivery, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 40 men joined without female partners) as of June 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • They don't have any reason to suspect they may have infertility until they start trying to conceive. (healthline.com)
  • Men who suffer from varicocele may have trouble trying to conceive a child with their partner because varicocele affects the male's reproductive system. (wdxcyber.com)
  • 2013). Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: A committee opinion. (nih.gov)
  • Sexually transmitted infections may be present without symptoms or with symptoms that are mild and transient, but they may have severe long-term consequences such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic illness and premature death. (who.int)
  • STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATION: The Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study is an ongoing prospective preconception cohort designed to investigate the impact of environmental, nutritional and lifestyle factors in both women and men on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • The majority of cases in women are asymptomatic and untreated cases can progress to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. (cdc.gov)
  • 15 These cases were then grouped into 5 types of male infertility based on the ICD coding system: male infertility unspecified, azoospermia, oligospermia, other male infertility, and infertility due to extratesticular causes. (health.mil)
  • However, few studies have been designed to assess these factors simultaneously, and even fewer have collected such data among both men and women in the preconception period. (cdc.gov)
  • Resulting in males having smaller testes, reducing the amount of testosterone and sperm production. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a sample of 153 men, semen parameters, testosterone levels, and testis volume were not significantly influenced. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonetheless, current evidence seems conflicting regarding the effects of cannabis on male reproductive endocrine function, with an emphasis on the inconclusive findings in testosterone levels, concomitant with reduced luteinizing hormone (LH) and unchanged follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations ( 7 - 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Many men are not aware of the fact that testosterone is one of the most vital sex hormones in males. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • Testosterone is a sex hormone of men which plays a vital role in a man's body. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • As men start to age, the level of testosterone starts to decrease. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • How Does Testosterone Affect Male Fertility? (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • It has been observed that testosterone does affect infertility in men. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • Is Infertility In Men Caused By High Testosterone? (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • Is Infertility Caused By Testosterone? (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • Many research studies prove that low testosterone can increase the risk of infertility in men. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • To make a woman pregnant, healthy testosterone in men is necessary. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • It has been observed that high levels of testosterone harm infertility in men. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • If a man uses steroids to a higher extent, testosterone levels can be increased. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • Clomid for men can help increase testosterone and increase sperm counts. (txfertility.com)
  • This spectrum of expression of hypogonadism among obese men originates from multiple interacting factors including reduced levels of gonadotropins and testosterone, altered androgen-to-estrogen ratios, insulin resistance, and sleep apnea. (medscape.com)
  • Thirdly, it helps to prevent serious complications such as tubal infertility, carcinoma of the cervix and maternal death. (who.int)
  • It is present in up to 35% of cases of primary infertility and 69-81% of secondary infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult male exposure to pesticides has been associated with altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer. (hindustantimes.com)
  • In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • Any abnormality in the levels of these hormones requires further assessment and patients are commonly referred to an urologist who specializes in male infertility for further work up and management. (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • Clinical infertility is the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of trying. (nih.gov)
  • Infertility is a disease described as the inability to conceive after 12 months of regular sexual intercourse without using a contraceptive method ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Infertility is a term doctors use if a man hasn't been able to get a woman pregnant after at least one year of trying. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The primary sign of infertility is not getting pregnant after trying for a certain length of time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor may diagnose infertility if a woman has not become pregnant after 1 year of trying. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Infertility is when you cannot get pregnant after having unprotected, regular sex for six months to one year, depending on your age. (webmd.com)
  • The main symptom of infertility is not getting pregnant . (webmd.com)
  • Infertility refers to the impossibility of becoming pregnant naturally for a long period of time, provided that a couple has regular sexual activity. (harcourthealth.com)
  • This study is absurd," Sherman J. Silber, M.D. , director of the Infertility Center of St. Louis and the author of " How to Get Pregnant ," told AOL Health. (infertile.com)
  • Males exposed to DES (diethylstilbestrol), a synthetic hormone taken by pregnant women in the 1960s and 1970s, may have anatomical abnormalities and problems with sperm count, movement and shape. (sbivf.com)
  • Infertility is generally defined as not being able to get pregnant (conceive) after one year (or longer) of unprotected sex. (cdc.gov)
  • The men with optimal BMIs of between 20-25 percent had higher sperm counts, quality, and volume than those of the other groups. (sharedjourney.com)
  • Most men can restore their sperm counts in less than 24 hours following ejaculation. (ivf1.com)
  • The male reproductive function has been the subject of particular attention in recent years due to the accumulation of data on a possible deterioration in sperm counts and quality related to various environmental and behavioral factors ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Men who consume a quart of cola - fewer than three 12-ounce cans or two 20-ounce bottles - or more a day have sperm counts that are about 30 percent lower than those of men who don't, according to a Danish report published March 25 in the American Journal of Epidemiology. (infertile.com)
  • You have to average at least 12 sperm counts over at least a six-month period … because there is so much variation in sperm count within the same man. (infertile.com)
  • Among the 2,500 young men studied, those who didn't drink cola had higher sperm counts: an average of 50 million per milliliter of semen. (infertile.com)
  • He also said that the relatively small number of men who drank cola every day and had lower sperm counts is suspicious. (infertile.com)
  • Such interventions gain more importance in light of reports that, paralleling the population body mass index (BMI) increase, the prevalence of male infertility is increasing as evidenced by decreasing sperm counts throughout the world over the last few decades. (medscape.com)
  • Fluid from the seminal vesicle will still come out and so men who have had a vasectomy will still see fluid emerge from the penis during orgasm. (ivf1.com)
  • At age 49, Dr. Philip Werthman is the most recognized vasectomy reversal surgeon and male fertility specialist in the world. (malereproduction.com)
  • Dr. Werthman first pioneered, then perfected a new technique for vasectomy reversal (the mini-incision microsurgical vasectomy reversal or vasoepididymostomy), one which permits a male fertility surgeon to relieve extraneous blockage through microsurgery. (malereproduction.com)
  • In fact, many of the urologists and Los Angeles male fertility doctors who perform microsurgical vasectomy reversals today use the techniques that were developed and perfected by Dr. Werthman. (malereproduction.com)
  • Micro Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA) - A way of obtaining sperm from men with a reproductive tract blockage (i.e., after a vasectomy or congenital absence of the vas deferens). (inviafertility.com)
  • Male infertility can be caused by nutritional imbalances, adverse drug reactions, chronic infections (Herpes, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea etc.) and others which are treatable with lifestyle and diet changes. (natural-fertility-prescription.com)
  • Among the wide range of environmental factors that can affect men's fertility, some evidence suggests an association between chronic marijuana use and male infertility ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A Story of Health begins with a family reunion that brings you into the lives of fictional people with some of the chronic illnesses that are a serious problem for the health of our nation - asthma, developmental disabilities, cancer, infertility, diabetes, and cognitive decline. (cdc.gov)
  • Male infertility contributes to approximately half of all cases of infertility. (bcm.edu)
  • The median age at the initial infertility evaluation was 35.7 years. (medscape.com)
  • The initial step in the evaluation of an infertile male is to obtain a thorough medical and urologic history. (medscape.com)
  • The evaluation of male infertility includes detailed history taking, focused physical examination and selective laboratory testing, including semen analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Male Endocrinology Evaluation - A functioning reproductive endocrine system is a prerequisite for male fertility. (inviafertility.com)
  • If a man has a low sperm count, an endocrine evaluation is recommended. (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • Dr. Eisenberg and coauthors evaluated 2238 men from a Texas infertility clinic - 451 with and 1787 without azoospermia. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, 29 of the infertile men developed some type of cancer - 10 (2.2%) with azoospermia and 19 (1.1%) without azoospermia. (medscape.com)
  • Although the relative risk for cancer is elevated in men with azoospermia, the authors emphasize that "it is reassuring that the absolute risk [for cancer in infertile men] remains low. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, for the infertile men without azoospermia, there was no effect of age at semen analysis on cancer risk. (medscape.com)
  • This study suggests that most of the increased cancer risk in infertile men is in those with azoospermia. (medscape.com)
  • The great majority of men in the study had the latter problem, known as nonobstructive azoospermia. (medscape.com)
  • Men with this condition may exhibit azoospermia (no sperm production), oligozoospermia (small number of sperm production), or they may produce abnormally shaped sperm (teratozoospermia). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most severe form of male infertility, known as non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), the production of sperm within seminiferous tubules fails, and no sperm is found in the ejaculate. (euronews.com)
  • Some men may not produce any sperm at all, which is a condition known as azoospermia. (innovativefertility.com)
  • So the silver lining in this clinical cloud is that infertility might be an opportunity to connect men to the healthcare system and thus improve overall health, he said. (medscape.com)
  • And whereas presence of offspring is the ultimate proof of male reproductive health, the manner in which outcomes are expressed in this area are perhaps the most sensitive in medicine to probabilistic statements. (rand.org)
  • Although male infertility is recognized as a disease with effects on quality of life for both members of the infertile couple, fewer data exist on specific quantification and impact compared with other health-related conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Now, researchers from the University Hospital Bonn (UKB) and the Transdisciplinary Research Unit "Life & Health" at the University of Bonn have found that a loss of the structural protein ACTL7B blocks spermatogenesis in male mice. (innovations-report.com)
  • Since it is exclusively made in humans and mice during the maturation of male sperm, it has been postulated that the protein is important for this phase of development," notes corresponding author Prof. Hubert Schorle from the Institute of Pathology at UKB, who is also a member of the Transdisciplinary Research Area (TRA) "Life & Health" at the University of Bonn. (innovations-report.com)
  • As with any topic, there are always going to be myths abounding about sperm health and male infertility. (gettingpregnant.co.uk)
  • June is Men's Health Month, making it a great time for men to get schedule preventive health checkups. (utah.edu)
  • psychosocial impact of male infertility, diet and lifestyle factors affecting sperm parameters, environmental factors affecting sperm health and the effect of supplementation on sperm health. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Zinc has been found in healthy testes and the prostate gland and studies have shown that infertile men who took zinc exhibited significant improvement in their sperm health and quantity. (natural-fertility-prescription.com)
  • It's important to note that the men who drank a lot of cola were also different in many other ways," lead researcher Tina Kold Jensen, M.D., of Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, told Reuters Health. (infertile.com)
  • Though the sperm levels of the cola-drinking men studied were still within normal ranges by World Health Organization standards, those with fewer sperm are generally more likely to be infertile. (infertile.com)
  • A recent study claims that men infertility may indicate other health issues. (utahpeoplespost.com)
  • In order to determine male fertility, examinations are carried out as part of comprehensive reproductive health care of the couple. (gennet.cz)
  • Cenforce 100mg Pills can help men get back their good sexual health. (sildenafilcitrates.com)
  • A Story of Health: Infertility is one module in A Story of Health which conveys complex concepts about multiple influences on health through a family reunion scenario, allowing stories to emerge about family members with a range of diseases, which we will explore from a case study perspective. (cdc.gov)
  • A Story of Health Infertility training module. (cdc.gov)
  • This study aims to investigate the existing research on HPV, its connection to male infertility , and how it could be a helpful tool for medical professionals managing HPV in the context of reproductive health care. (bvsalud.org)
  • This policy is a continuation of the efforts to take Namibia forward towards the achievement of Vision 2030, National Development Plans (NDPs), the Millennium Development Goals related to maternal, child health, and improving the quality of reproductive health and nutrition services to the Namibian men, women and children. (who.int)
  • Male factors are estimated to contribute to 30-50% of cases of infertility. (nih.gov)
  • Around one in 20 men is infertile, but despite the best efforts of scientists, in many cases the underlying causes of infertility have remained a mystery. (scienceblog.com)
  • In 2009, some 192,000 men were found to have prostate cancer and 27,000 of these cases are considered to be terminal. (wdxcyber.com)
  • In some cases, it is necessary to apply surgery, namely when infertility is caused by a trauma of the reproductive system. (harcourthealth.com)
  • In most cases, infertility is curable. (harcourthealth.com)
  • The analysis included 1998 incident cases from 2005 to 2017 and 1597 male controls. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A recently developed test called the sperm DNA integrity assay (SDIA) or sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) has been used to diagnose those cases of possibly unidentified male infertility with normal semen analysis. (conceptionsrepro.com)
  • In these cases, infertility is caused by inferior ejaculate in terms of the number of viable and motile sperm. (gennet.cz)
  • Abnormal uterine findings were de Recherche et d'Application en identified in 95.8% of patients attending hysteroscopy at GESHRTH. (who.int)
  • Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple explanations have been proposed for the decline in male fertility including increased prevalence of obesity and exposure to environmental pollution during fetal or adult life. (medscape.com)
  • In the period from 1991 to 1998, the prevalence of obesity increased from 12 to 17.9% in the general population and from 11.7 to 17.9% in men. (medscape.com)
  • A recent review, published in the journal 'Dietetics' ​reveals the psychosocial impacts of infertility in males whilst assessing nutritional and lifestyle interventions that can be used in personalised nutrition care. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In recent decades, numerous investigations have raised the impacts of lifestyle and environment on male fertility ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This study aimed to understand the impacts caused by infertility in the lives of seven infertile, heterosexual men. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dr. Walsh says these findings should, "…generate new questions about [how male infertility] could be somehow translated into a tool to help identify young men at greatest risk for most aggressive [prostate] cancer. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Dr. Walsh believes that if these findings can be confirmed through more research, doctors may be able to use male infertility as an early predictor for the cancer and order early screening tests for infertile males. (wdxcyber.com)
  • Our findings were quite independent of any other factors," said Dr. Shayeb, "and seem to suggest that men who are trying for a baby with their partners should first try to achieve an ideal body weight. (sharedjourney.com)
  • From the collected findings, the review provides preconceptual guidelines for men based upon a Mediterranean diet high in omega 3 fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins and minimally processed foods and minimising exposure to environmental pollutants and radiation. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The current report updates and expands on the findings of the previous MSMR analysis of infertility among active component service men. (health.mil)
  • The findings, published in the journal Scientific Reports, showed the chemicals -- at concentrations relevant to environmental exposure -- have the same damaging effect on sperm of both man and dog. (ndtv.com)
  • Our findings suggest man-made chemicals, widely used in home and working environment, may be responsible for the decline in sperm quality," lead author Richard Lea from the varsity noted. (ndtv.com)
  • Dr. Silber said that since the sperm levels of most men fluctuate, it isn't out of the ordinary for counts to be 35 million on some occasions and 50 million on others - and so he believes the findings mean nothing. (infertile.com)