Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Vena Cava Filters: Mechanical devices inserted in the inferior vena cava that prevent the migration of blood clots from deep venous thrombosis of the leg.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Azygos Vein: A vein which arises from the right ascending lumbar vein or the vena cava, enters the thorax through the aortic orifice in the diaphragm, and terminates in the superior vena cava.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Renal Veins: Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.Iliac Vein: A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.Hepatic Veins: Veins which drain the liver.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Phlebography: Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.Femoral Vein: The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.Varicose Veins: Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)Vascular Malformations: A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Subclavian Vein: The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.Popliteal Vein: The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Heterotaxy Syndrome: Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Scimitar Syndrome: An anomalous pulmonary venous return in which the right PULMONARY VEIN is not connected to the LEFT ATRIUM but to the INFERIOR VENA CAVA. Scimitar syndrome is named for the crescent- or Turkish sword-like shadow in the chest radiography and is often associated with hypoplasia of the right lung and right pulmonary artery, and dextroposition of the heart.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Brachiocephalic Veins: Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Retroperitoneal NeoplasmsVascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Heart Bypass, Right: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Vascular Grafting: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Leiomyomatosis: The state of having multiple leiomyomas throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed)Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Constriction: The act of constricting.Venous Insufficiency: Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Replantation: Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Portacaval Shunt, Surgical: Surgical portasystemic shunt between the portal vein and inferior vena cava.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Axillary Vein: The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Retinal Vein Occlusion: Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the inferior wall of the heart is involved. It is often caused by occlusion of the right coronary artery.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Portasystemic Shunt, Surgical: Surgical venous shunt between the portal and systemic circulation to effect decompression of the portal circulation. It is performed primarily in the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices resulting from portal hypertension. Types of shunt include portacaval, splenorenal, mesocaval, splenocaval, left gastric-caval (coronary-caval), portarenal, umbilicorenal, and umbilicocaval.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Abnormalities, MultipleMagnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Circulatory Arrest, Deep Hypothermia Induced: A technique to arrest the flow of blood by lowering BODY TEMPERATURE to about 20 degrees Centigrade, usually achieved by infusing chilled perfusate. The technique provides a bloodless surgical field for complex surgeries.Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
  • 1. Haliloglu M, Bilgili B, Kararmaz A, Cinel I. The value of internal jugular vein collapsibility index in sepsis. (jept.ir)
  • Internal jugular vein variability predicts fluid responsiveness in cardiac surgical patients with mechanical ventilation. (jept.ir)
  • Beclometha- prophylactic asthma preparations, such as internal jugular vein superior vena cava after sizing the defect, right atrium descending [lad]), left marginal smallest cardiac drain through the engineering of bone, cartilage, fat and pathological teristic clinical history has been shown that mscs-derived membrane vesicles can operate as para- rodent cerebellar mallam e, scolding n, wilkins a mesenchymal stem cell-derived da neurons. (prescribewellness.com)
  • Phlebectomy may be performed at the same time as laser treatment for a more comprehensive treatment of your varicose veins. (riaendovascular.com)
  • Varicose veins are enlarged veins most commonly appearing in the legs and feet. (riaendovascular.com)
  • For many people, there are no symptoms and varicose veins are simply a cosmetic concern. (riaendovascular.com)
  • If you have varicose veins that need to be treated, you can schedule an appointment at RIA Endovascular to evaluate your legs and recommend a treatment plan. (riaendovascular.com)
  • If the veins are dark blue in color and look swollen or distorted, you may have varicose veins. (shoponsave.com)
  • Extending from the top of your foot to the upper thigh and groin, THIS vein is the major culprit that causes Varicose Veins. (vikrantchoubisa.com)
  • Duplication of the IVC may be differentiated from a dilated left gonadal vein by following the structure more caudally. (uab.edu)
  • A duplicated vena cava ends at the level of the common iliacs, while a dilated left gonadal vein may be traced to the inguinal canal. (uab.edu)
  • Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is an uncommonly performed interventional procedure. (arabjir.com)
  • AVS can be technically challenging, largely from difficulty with right adrenal vein catheterization. (arabjir.com)
  • Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is one of the oldest procedures still performed by interventional radiologists (IRs). (arabjir.com)