Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques: Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Mice, Inbred CBAPatch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.QuinoxalinesNucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein 1: A member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein family involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION of TRANSPORT VESICLES to their target membrane.AmidinesImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tensor Tympani: A short muscle that arises from the pharyngotympanic tube (EUSTACHIAN TUBE) and inserts into the handle of the MALLEUS. This muscle pulls the handle medially thus controlling the tension and movement of TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Pulvinar: Large mass of nuclei forming the most caudal portion of the THALAMUS and overhanging the GENICULATE BODIES and the dorsolateral surface of the MIDBRAIN. It is divided into four parts: the lateral, medial, inferior, and oral pulvinar nuclei.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Mice, Inbred ICRGAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Vestibular Nucleus, Lateral: Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Elapid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
... about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the ... the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), and ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). The VCN is further divided by the nerve root into the ... Ventral nuclei of lateral lemniscus help the inferior colliculus (IC) decode amplitude modulated sounds by giving both phasic ... and receives projections predominantly from the ventral cochlear nucleus, although the dorsal cochlear nucleus projects there ...
... reticular thalamic nuclei, cortical and hippocampal interneurons > inferior colliculi, cochlear and vestibular nuclei), and in ... Kv3.1 channels are prominently expressed in brain (cerebellum > globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra > ... focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii". The Journal of Physiology. 562 (Pt 3): 655-72. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073338. PMC ...
The inferior colliculus in turn projects to the medial geniculate nucleus, a part of the thalamus where sound information is ... The sound information from the cochlea travels via the auditory nerve to the cochlear nucleus in the brainstem. From there, the ... signals are projected to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain tectum. The inferior colliculus integrates auditory input with ... a structure that vibrates when waves from the middle ear propagate through the cochlear fluid - endolymph. The basilar membrane ...
They reflect neuronal activity in the auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus, superior olive, and inferior colliculus of the ...
... from synchronous responses in the cochlear nucleus and later becomes dependent on rate encoding in the inferior colliculus. ... The fluid found in these two cochlear chambers is perilymph, while scala media, or the cochlear duct, is filled with endolymph ... Cochlear hair cells are organized as inner hair cells and outer hair cells; inner and outer refer to relative position from the ... The apical surface of each cochlear hair cell contains a hair bundle. Each hair bundle contains approximately 300 fine ...
... about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the ... with the inferior colliculus (IC). The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) has input from the LL and output to the contralateral LL ... the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) Fibers leaving these brainstem nuclei ascending to the inferior colliculus ... The nucleus is primarily GABAergic, and projects bilaterally to the inferior colliculus, and contralaterally to the DNLL, with ...
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior colliculus, and ... Liu, L.-F.; Palmer, AR; Wallace, MN (2006). "Phase-Locked Responses to Pure Tones in the Inferior Colliculus". Journal of ... Köppl, Christine (1997). "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the Auditory Nerve and Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis of the ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ...
... the cochlear nuclei and the inferior colliculus), and from there to the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and the ... both cortically and in subcortical structures such as the colliculi and geniculate nuclei of the thalamus. Single-cell ... The ganglion cells of the retina project in an orderly fashion to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and from there ... to the ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus and the primary somatosensory cortex. Again, adjacent areas on the skin are ...
... through the cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, lateral lemniscus, to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain, on to ... The evoked potential is generated in the cochlea, goes through the cochlear nerve, ...
... cochlear nucleus, superior olive, and inferior colliculus of the brainstem. They typically have a response latency of no more ... Therefore, cochlear implantation was not performed. Published in 1994, this patient was monitored over the course of almost 20 ... Cochlear or auditory brainstem implantation could also be treatment options. Electrical stimulation of the peripheral auditory ... A case published in 2001 describes the patient as 20-year-old man referred for cochlear implants because of bilateral deafness ...
It is situated between the pontine nucleus and the medial lemniscus. After nerves from the cochlear nucleus cross over in the ... trapezoid body and go on to the superior olivary nucleus, they continue to the lateral lemniscus, then the inferior colliculus ... the anterior cochlear nucleus) decussate (cross over) to the other side before traveling on to the superior olivary nucleus. ... is part of the auditory pathway where some of the axons coming from the cochlear nucleus (specifically, ...
Fibers from the left cochlear nucleus terminate on the left of MSO neurons, and fibers from the right cochlear nucleus ... Transmissions from the SOC travel to the inferior colliculus (IC) via the lateral lemniscus. At the level of the IC, binaural ... The subdivision of the ventral cochlear nucleus that concerns binaural fusion is the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN). ... The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ...
Neurons from the nucleus laminaris project to the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and to the anterior ... the cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (mammalian anteroventral cochlear nucleus) and the cochlear nucleus angularis (see figure ... These two nuclei are the starting points of two separate but parallel pathways to the inferior colliculus: the pathway from ... The time and sound-pressure pathways converge at the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The ...
... and in turn projects to the inferior colliculus. The inferior colliculus receives direct, monosynaptic projections from the ... the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the ... At the nerve root the fibers branch to innervate the ventral cochlear nucleus and the deep layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus ... The outputs from the cochlear nuclei are received in higher regions of the auditory brainstem. The cochlear nuclei (CN) are ...
The inferior colliculus receives input from both the ipsilateral and contralateral cochlear nucleus and respectively the ... the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (or inferior brachium) and deep layers of the superior colliculus. The ... The input connections to the inferior colliculus are composed of many brainstem nuclei. All nuclei except the contralateral ... and at the base of the projection of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral geniculate nucleus. The inferior colliculi ...
Patterns of projection from the periolivary nuclei to the inferior colliculus". J. Comp. Neurol. 317 (4): 438-55. doi:10.1002/ ... and it does not project to the cochlea or cochlear nucleus as many periolivary nuclei do. In contrast, glycinergic projections ... The LSO projects bilaterally to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Ipsilateral projections are primarily ... glycine from the inferior colliculus by ipsilateral projections of the superior olivary complex and nuclei of the lateral ...
Davis, K. A. (2002). "Evidence of a functionally segregated pathway from dorsal cochlear nucleus to inferior colliculus." J ... Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the ... anterograde labeling of axonal layers from lateral superior olive and dorsal cochlear nucleus in the inferior colliculus of cat ... "Somatosensory effects on neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus." J Neurophysiol 73(2): 743-65. NIF Search - Dorsal Cochlear ...
Oliver, D. L. (1987). "Projections to the inferior colliculus from the anteroventral cochlear nucleus in the cat: possible ... The ventral cochlear nucleus is divided into the anterior ventral (anteroventral) cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and the posterior ... Stellate/multipolar cells form the projection to both inferior colliculi (central nucleus and dorsal cortex), and synapse in a ... The anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) (or accessory), is placed between the two divisions of the cochlear nerve, and is on ...
Axons from the inferior colliculus constitute the brachium of the inferior colliculus and end in the medial geniculate. The ... From the cochlea, peripheral auditory information goes to the cochlear nucleus. From there, through the cochlear nerve, axons ... the nucleus anterior and the nucleus superficialis, or superior (previous nucleus lateralis dorsalis). The nucleus anterior, ... the nucleus gracilis (Goll) medial and the nucleus cuneatus (Burdach) lateral. Starting from these nuclei, axons go ...
... and AMIs stimulates auditory neurons in the inferior colliculus. Cochlear implants have been very successful among these three ... CI electrode arrays are implanted in the cochlea, ABI electrode arrays stimulate the cochlear nucleus complex in the lower ... Cochlear and brainstern auditory prostheses "neural interface for hearing restoration: Cochlear and brain stem implants". ... Proceedings of the Ieee 96:1076-84 J. K. Niparko and B. W. Wilson, "History of cochlear implants," in Cochlear Implants: ...
... situated in the midbrain and consists of a group of nuclei the largest of these is the central nucleus of inferior colliculus ( ... known as the antero-ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), postero-ventral cochlear nucleus (PVCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) ... The SOC receives input from cochlear nuclei, primarily the ipsilateral and contralateral AVCN. Four nuclei make up the SOC but ... The ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) is a chief source of input to the inferior colliculus. Research using ...
Moore DR, Irvine DR (March 1981). "Plasticity of binaural interaction in the cat inferior colliculus". Brain Res. 208 (1): 198- ... "Effects of monaural and binaural sound deprivation on cell development in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of rats". Exp. ... "Late appearance and deprivation-sensitive growth of permanent dendrites in the avian cochlear nucleus (nuc. magnocellularis)". ... Webster DB, Webster M (1979). "Effects of neonatal conductive hearing loss on brain stem auditory nuclei". Ann. Otol. Rhinol. ...
In the auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), many ILD sensitive neurons have response functions that decline ... which synapse onto spiral ganglion fibers that travel through the cochlear nerve into the brain. In vertebrates, inter-aural ... This echo cancellation occurs in the Dorsal Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus (DNLL).[citation needed] In order to determine the ... time differences are known to be calculated in the superior olivary nucleus of the brainstem. According to Jeffress, this ...
... nucleus Prepositus nucleus Sublingual nucleus Area postrema Medullary cranial nerve nuclei Inferior salivatory nucleus Nucleus ... Abducens nucleus (VI) Facial nerve nucleus (VII) vestibulocochlear nuclei (vestibular nuclei and cochlear nuclei) (VIII) ... Tectum Corpora quadrigemina inferior colliculi superior colliculi Pretectum Tegmentum Periaqueductal gray Rostral interstitial ... Flocculonodular lobe Cerebellar nuclei Fastigial nucleus Interposed nucleus Globose nucleus Emboliform nucleus Dentate nucleus ...
... cochlear nucleus (ventral/inferior) -> LLN -> caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC). The whole process has a less than 10ms[ ... There is no involvement of the superior/rostral or inferior/caudal colliculus in the reaction that "twitches" the hindlimbs, ... First, there is a synapse from the auditory nerve fibers in the ear to the cochlear root neurons (CRN). These are the first ... Third, a synapse occurs from the PnC axons to the motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus or the spinal cord that will ...
Osteoclasts are large cells with multiple nuclei located on bone surfaces in what are called Howship's lacunae (or resorption ... Cochlear aqueduct. *Stylomastoid foramen. *fossae *Subarcuate fossa. *Jugular fossa. *canaliculi *Inferior tympanic ...
Differential afferent projections to the inferior colliculus from the cochlear nucleus in the albino mouse. ... Differential afferent projections to the inferior colliculus from the cochlear nucleus in the albino mouse. Together they form ...
... Academic Article * View record in ... The present study investigated changes in tuning properties of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons following compression of the ... contralateral cochlear nucleus (CN). The left CN in adult rats (n = 8) was exposed and a 32-channel acute recording probe ...
... cochlear nucleus; (3) superior olivary complex; (4) midbrain, possibly nucleus of the lateral lemniscus; (5) inferior ... colliculus; (6) medial geniculate body; and (7) possibly auditory radiation from the thalamus to temporal cortex.. Use of ... As the nucleus of a radioactive element decays, it releases alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays. Alpha rays (a ...
The CN to MG pathway bypasses the inferior colliculus (IC), where most ascending auditory information is processed. Anderson et ... The CN to MG pathway bypasses the inferior colliculus (IC), where most ascending auditory information is processed. Anderson et ... Many more labeled cells were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). These cells, identifiable as multipolar (stellate) ... Many more labeled cells were present in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN). These cells, identifiable as multipolar (stellate) ...
Davis, K. A. (2002). "Evidence of a functionally segregated pathway from dorsal cochlear nucleus to inferior colliculus." J ... Along with the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), it forms the cochlear nucleus (CN), where all auditory nerve fibers from the ... anterograde labeling of axonal layers from lateral superior olive and dorsal cochlear nucleus in the inferior colliculus of cat ... "Somatosensory effects on neurons in dorsal cochlear nucleus." J Neurophysiol 73(2): 743-65. NIF Search - Dorsal Cochlear ...
Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is ... Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is ... are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting ... are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting ...
cochlear nuclei; medial and lateral superior olive; nucleus of lateral lemniscus; inferior colliculus; medial geniculate ... auditory system uses parallel pathways (the __ branches to innervate __ branches of the cochlear nucleus) ... flow) auditory nerve to __, to __, to nucleus of __, to inferior __, to __ (thalamus) ...
... cochlear nucleus - superior olivary complex - inferior colliculus - medial geniculate nucleus - auditory cortex and ... Cochlear nucleus implants (direct stimulation of neurones in first nucleus of auditory pathway) ...
... reticular thalamic nuclei, cortical and hippocampal interneurons > inferior colliculi, cochlear and vestibular nuclei), and in ... Kv3.1 channels are prominently expressed in brain (cerebellum > globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra > ... focus on the nucleus tractus solitarii". The Journal of Physiology. 562 (Pt 3): 655-72. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.073338. PMC ...
2013) Comparison and contrast of noise-induced hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus. Hear Res ... 2008) Tinnitus and inferior colliculus activity in chinchillas related to three distinct patterns of cochlear trauma. J ... The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), a brainstem nucleus that receives direct input from the auditory nerve, is essential for ... 2002) Effects of cochlear ablation on noise induced hyperactivity in the hamster dorsal cochlear nucleus: implications for the ...
Because the cochlear nucleus is the first processing center in the brain receiving cochlear input, it is the first brainstem ... Research published over the last 30 years demonstrates changes in neural circuitry and activity in the cochlear nucleus that ... Tinnitus most commonly begins with alterations of input from the ear resulting from cochlear trauma or overstimulation of the ... inferior colliculus; IN, interstitial nucleus (auditory nerve root); PVCN, posteroventral cochlear nucleus; SOC, superior ...
Principal neurons of the brainstem nucleus comparing sound level at the two ears do not have the slow response properties ... AN: auditory nerve; CN: cochlear nucleus; GBC: globular bushy cell; IC: inferior colliculus; MNTB: medial nucleus of the ... The neuronal architecture of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat in the region of the cochlear nerve root: ... glycine from the inferior colliculus by ipsilateral projections of the superior olivary complex and nuclei of the lateral ...
Try google searches for cochlear nucleus, superior olive and inferior colliculus. You will find tons of online info on ... is probably the cochlear nucleus which is the first main integrative processing stage for auditory information. -Conscious- ...
The where pathway involves the ventral cochlear nuclei, the superior olivary complex and the inferior colliculus. The ... The MSO receives excitatory inputs from the cochlear nuclei on both sides and is tonotopica. Author(s): The Open University. ...
Cochlear Nucleus to. Superior Olivary Complex to Lateral Lemniscus to the Inferior Colliculus. ... the cochlear nucleus 1st major nucleus of the auditory system. After CN VIII reaches the cochlear nucleus. the info is carried ... Cochlear Nucleus to. Superior Olivary Complex to Lateral Lemniscus to the Inferior Colliculus. ... Some fibers bypass the inferior colliculus and go to the next nucleus. medial geniculate body in thalamus. ...
1997) Glycine immunoreactivity and receptor binding in the cochlear nucleus of C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ mice: effects of cochlear ... 2004) Neural sensitivity to periodicity in the inferior colliculus: evidence for the role of cochlear distortions. J ... 1992) in The mammalian auditory system: neuroanatomy, Inferior and superior colliculi, eds Webster DB, Popper AN, Fay RR ( ... 1997) Neural tuning to sound duration in the inferior colliculus of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. J Neurophysiol 77:2360 ...
... such as a cochlear implant, for delivering electrical plasticity informative stimuli to a neural network of an implantee. The ... cochlear nucleus (by e.g. ABI); 3. Networks of interacting cells, e.g. nucleus of the lateral leminiscus or inferior colliculus ... cochlear nucleus; 3. Networks of interacting cells, e.g. nucleus of the lateral leminiscus or inferior colliculus; and ... cochlear nucleus; 3. Networks of interacting cells, e.g. nucleus of the lateral leminiscus or inferior colliculus ; and ...
cochlear nucleus, [44]. [45]. inferior colliculus, [46]. medial geniculate body, [47]. and auditory cortex. [48]. Rat blood ... and particularly the finding of increased activity in the vicinity of the colliculi, 79. or of the inferior colliculus 74. ... Neural fibers from the dorsal cochlear nucleus project [b]. predominately [c]. to the lateral lemniscus of the contralateral ... The inferior colliculus connects brainstem auditory centers to the medial geniculate body in the posterior thalamus from which ...
The structures tested were the auditory nerve, anteroventral cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, ... and the second between the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex. In neurons from the auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus, and ... In the inferior colliculus, 50% recovery occurred at an average separation of approximately 7 ms, and in the auditory cortex at ... The first major increase occurred between the lower brainstem and inferior colliculus, ...
Immediate changes in tuning of inferior colliculus neurons following acute lesions of cat spiral ganglion. ... Infrared Neural Stimulation Of The Cochlear Nucleus : Towards A New Generation Of Auditory Brainstem Implants. *Rohit Umesh ... Single-unit responses in the inferior colliculus: effects of neonatal unilateral cochlear ablation.. *Leonard M. Kitzes, ... change the frequency organization of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (AI). In those ...
The maximum extension of the VCN was 5.2x2.2x3.2 mm; the dorsal cochlear nucleus was smaller and more flat (mean: 4.1x0.8x1.8 ... Surface and penetrating electrodes were implanted at the site of stimulation and at the inferior colliculus. Impedance and ... The surface depth of the human ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) varied over the ventro-dorsal extension between 0.09 to 10,71mm. ... 1) Anatomical variability at the site of stimulation The variability in orientation, size and shape of the cochlear nucleus was ...
... at the cochlear nuclei, the superior olivary complex, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and the inferior colliculus. The ... Frequency discrimination and stimulus deviance in the inferior colliculus and cochlear nucleus. Front. Neural Circuits 6, 119 ( ... Differences in the strength of cortical and brainstem inputs to SSA and non-SSA neurons in the inferior colliculus. Sci. Rep. 5 ... Ayala, Y. A. & Malmierca, M. S. Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the inferior colliculus. Front. Neural ...
... projections from the inferior colliculus contact superior olivary cells that project bilaterally to the cochlear nuclei. J Comp ... Projections from the cochlear nuclear complex to the inferior colliculus. In: Winer JA, Schreiner CE (eds) The inferior ... Onset neurones in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus project to the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 5:153-170 ... either directly or via other brainstem nuclei, relay fluctuation profiles to the inferior colliculus (IC). IC neurons are ...
Inferior colliculus (Midbrain) Waves VI and VII. In normal hearing adults, the response to the click stimulus presented for ... Cochlear nerves Wave I and Wave II. *Cochlear nucleus (Brainstem) Wave III ... Evaluation of hearing loss due to retro-cochlear pathology (lesion beyond the cochlea), like acoustic neuroma or acoustic ...
Convergence of spinal trigeminal and cochlear nucleus projections in the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig. J. Comp. Neurol ... neurons in the spinal trigeminal and dorsal column nuclei project to both the cochlear nucleus and the inferior colliculus by ... in the cochlear nucleus of these animals. Twenty minutes per day of bimodal stimulation to induce LTD in the cochlear nucleus ... Tinnitus and inferior colliculus activity in chinchillas related to three distinct patterns of cochlear trauma. J. Neurosci. ...
  • The tip electrodes of a cochlear implant Type-CI24M, kindly provided by Cochlear AG Basel, Switzerland were inserted into the basal turn of the cochlea and it was aimed to obtain an initial electrically evoked maximal brainstem response amplitude in the range of 5-8 μV. (egms.de)
  • These nuclei are also tonotopically organized, and the process of achieving this tonotopy after the cochlea is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The motility of the outer hair cells alters the micromechanics of the inner hair cells, creating a cochlear amplifier, which explains the exquisite sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the cochlea. (mhmedical.com)
  • 4 - vibrations are transduced by hair cells in the organ of Corti, which resides atop the basilar membrane - inner hair cells send signals to the cochlear nuclei about sound frequency and amplitude - outer hair cells serve as tunable amplifiers - 30,000 hair cells per cochlea vs. 120 million photoreceptors per retina. (docplayer.net)
  • The activity elicited by electrical stimulation of the cochlea in the auditory pathway was assessed in an animal model of cochlear implants on the basis of the induction of the immediate early gene c-fos and single neuron recordings. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings provide immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence that the various nuclei of the auditory pathway are activated by electrical stimulation of the cochlea. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These cells can be further subdivided into spherical and globular types based upon their appearance in Nissl-stained material, and their location in the nucleus (anterior AVCN and posterior AVCN respectively). (wikidoc.org)
  • Following acoustic trauma, MEMRI, the SNA index, showed evidence of spatially dependent rearrangement of Mn2+ uptake within specific brain nuclei (i.e., reorganization). (cdc.gov)
  • A diffusion-weighted image of the brain showed infarction of medial branch of posterior inferior and superior cerebellar artery on the left side. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because so much of the temporal lobe evolved from these limbic nuclei, unlike the other lobes, it consists of a mixture of allocortex, mesocortex, and neocortex, with allocortex and mesocortex being especially prominent in and around the medial-anterior inferiorally located uncus, beneath which and which abuts the amygdala and hippocampus. (brainmind.com)
  • There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. (scribd.com)