Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Communicable DiseasesInfluenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.DucksFood Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Animal DiseasesCloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.GeeseFood Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Salmonella enteritidis: A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Housing, AnimalDisease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.VietnamUnited StatesTropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fowlpox: A poxvirus infection of poultry and other birds characterized by the formation of wart-like nodules on the skin and diphtheritic necrotic masses (cankers) in the upper digestive and respiratory tracts.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.BangladeshIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MycosesAir Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Biosurveillance: Monitoring of information sources of potential value in detecting an emerging epidemic, whether naturally occurring or the result of bioterrorism.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a global outbreak of easily transmissible influenza such as the H5N1 virus avian flu is likely within a few years. (ilo.org)
  • In 2001, the government also carried out a massive poultry slaughter, killing 306,000 birds in wholesale and retail markets and 951,000 in local farms to eradicate an outbreak of bird flu. (nbcnews.com)
  • Rai SK, Matsumura T, Ono K et al (2001) Intestinal parasitoses in an "unknown disease outbreak" hit rural hilly area in western Nepal. (springer.com)
  • To identify common practices and risk factors, the researchers analyzed data from a standardized live poultry exposure questionnaire that has been administered to case-patients or their parents/guardians who were part of 21 multistate outbreak investigations from 2008 to 2013. (healio.com)
  • They also consider the crucial role of information networks, such as the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN), coordinated by the WHO, in broadcasting timely disease alerts to the worldwide health community. (nap.edu)
  • In 2015, a major outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection devastated poultry facilities in Minnesota, USA. (usgs.gov)
  • Once thought to be exclusively a veterinary problem, it was identified as a human disease in 1981 when a Canadian outbreak was linked to tainted cole slaw made from cabbage grown in soil fertilized with Listeria-infected sheep manure. (hubpages.com)
  • 27 November, 2020 Belgium has reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N5 avian influenza on a poultry farm. (poultrymed.com)
  • PARIS, Oct 31, 2013 (AFP) - Closing live poultry markets, though a huge economic setback, is a sure-fire way of curbing the deadly H7N9 bird flu in case of an outbreak, disease control researchers said Thursday. (thestar.com.my)
  • The first new zoonotic disease outbreak of the 21st century was a coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) . (animalsaustralia.org)
  • Movement into a new environment often is followed by an outbreak of infectious disease. (britannica.com)
  • The global Poultry Diagnostics Market was valued at USD 272.06 million in 2016 and is projected to reach USD 666.59 million by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 10.47% from 2017 to 2025. (bccresearch.com)
  • The group also undertakes worldwide epidemiological studies on infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian influenza H9N2, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) and Mycoplasma synoviae (Ms). In recent years, Dr Ganapathy has been consulted on various issues related to diagnosis, control and prevention of infectious diseases in broiler, layer and breeder farms in Asia, Middle East and Europe. (poultryhealthcourse.com)
  • To determine infectivity potential, 3-week-old chickens ( Gallus domesticus ) (n = 11), 2-week-old domestic ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) (n = 11), 73-week-old reproductively active turkey hens ( Meleagris gallopavo ) (n = 9), 3-week-old turkey poults (n = 11), and 5-week-old Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) (n = 11) were intranasally inoculated with 10 6 mean chicken embryo infectious doses of A/Mexico/4108/2009(H1N1). (cdc.gov)
  • So far, however, a possible infection route involving poultry, whether it may be direct consumption of undercooked chicken meat, contamination of food and water sources with chicken feces, or both, remains to be determined. (cdc.gov)
  • It is an acute disease in chicken. (fieldcasestudy.com)
  • He added that the 21-day ban on poultry imports would last through the Christmas holiday, a time when chicken is an important dish in celebratory dinners. (nbcnews.com)
  • Those with impaired immune systems may catch the disease from undercooked chicken. (hubpages.com)
  • Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington DC and New Delhi, says most of the poultry feed available in the Indian market is medicated, but the majority of farmers were unaware of the presence of antibiotic growth promoters premixed in chicken feed. (hindustantimes.com)
  • In an interview to IndiaSpend, Laxminarayan talked of the consumer's role in reforming the poultry industry, particularly because of the fast-growing popularity of chicken in India and a 312% antibiotic-use increase projected for livestock. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Consumers abroad are aware of concepts like free-range chicken farming and pastured poultry which require that animals be reared ethically. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Industry testing of all layer and meat chicken farms that are members of the Poultry Industry Association (PIANZ) and the Egg Producers Federation (EPF) has been completed. (biosecurity.govt.nz)
  • Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals, including from aquaculture, companion animals and horticulture to treat or prevent disease. (who.int)
  • Antimicrobial drug resistance was investigated for Escherichia coli from broilers raised on feed supplemented with antimicrobials, and the people who carry out evisceration, washing and packing of intestines in a high-throughput poultry abattoir in Gauteng, South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • In contrast to other poultry-associated serovars, all strains were susceptible to 17 antimicrobial agents tested and did not encode any resistance determinant. (asm.org)
  • 29 November, 2020 South Korea on confirmed this year's first case of highly pathogenic avian influenza among domestic poultry at a duck farm in a southwestern province. (poultrymed.com)
  • It marked the first confirmed case of highly pathogenic AI detected among domestic poultry in the country this year. (poultrymed.com)
  • He has studied the interactions between live viral vaccines of IBV, aMPV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV). (poultryhealthcourse.com)
  • Although IBDV strains of different antigenic types have been incorporated into vaccines, IBDV remains a major problem for the poultry industry. (asm.org)
  • Many attempts have been made to express the structural proteins of IBDV as subunit vaccines for the control of this disease. (asm.org)
  • strengthening disease monitoring and surveillance, effective vaccines and vaccination strategies along with other control measures including of treatment are of utmost importance. (scialert.net)
  • The development of marker vaccines that provide the ability to distinguish between vaccinal and infectious antibodies, would allow monitoring of the epidemiological field situation. (au-ibar.org)
  • Please see the AHPC library for further information on this disease from OIE, including the International Animal Health Code and the Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines. (au-ibar.org)
  • 1 December, 2020 Avian influenza was discovered at a poultry farm in Hyuga city in Miyazaki prefecture in southwestern Japan. (poultrymed.com)
  • International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2020 30 November, 2020 Following an initial reduction in human campylobacteriosis in New Zealand after the implementation of poultry food chain-focused interventions during 2006-2008, further decline has been relatively small. (poultrymed.com)
  • 24 November, 2020 Dutch authorities have culled some 190,000 chickens after a HPAI broke out in at least two poultry farms. (poultrymed.com)
  • That prompted the government to slaughter all 1.5 million poultry in the territory. (nbcnews.com)
  • Rabbits of different ages may have to be killed on‐farm for purposes other than slaughter (where slaughter is defined as killing for human consumption) either individually or on a large scale (e.g. for production reasons or for disease control). (europa.eu)
  • The killing of poultry for human consumption (slaughtering) can take place in a slaughterhouse or during on‐farm slaughter. (europa.eu)
  • On this background, the tool calculates the probability of different loads of campylobacter in the poultry flock at slaughter time by using various control methods. (dtu.dk)
  • For example, upon learning that people who become sick were keeping poultry in their homes, including in their bedrooms, we provided public health messages encouraging people to practice good husbandry practices for raising poultry, including housing them in their own coop instead of keeping them in the house. (cdc.gov)
  • Because Cyclospora were recently phylogenetically linked to Eimeria mitis and E. tenella (7) , coccidial parasites of chickens, we investigated the presence of Cyclospora in poultry. (cdc.gov)
  • I'm not sure if local authorities will allow to keep poultry at home or even at backyard. (cdc.gov)
  • Clean equipment and materials associated with raising or caring for live poultry, such as cages, feed containers, and water containers, outside the house, not inside. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department also administers the National Poultry Improvement Plan for Illinois. (illinois.gov)
  • Here, we tested next generation pyrosequencing technology as a streamline and economical method to monitor the effects of a probiotic on microbial communities in juvenile poultry ( Gallus gallus domesticus ) after exposure to several microbiological challenges and litter conditions. (scirp.org)