The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The fundamental tenet of modern medicine that certain diseases are caused by microorganisms. It was confirmed by the work of Pasteur, Lister, and Koch.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from patients to health professionals or health care workers. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to better understand, treat, and ultimately prevent infectious, immunologic, and allergic diseases. It was established in 1948.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.
The length of the face determined by the distance of separation of jaws. Occlusal vertical dimension (OVD or VDO) or contact vertical dimension is the lower face height with the teeth in centric occlusion. Rest vertical dimension (VDR) is the lower face height measured from a chin point to a point just below the nose, with the mandible in rest position. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p250)
Diseases of animals within the order PRIMATES. This term includes diseases of Haplorhini and Strepsirhini.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Living facilities for humans.
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (1/2315)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(2/2315)


Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs. (3/2315)

Congenital transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in pigs was investigated by experimentally infecting sows at four weeks gestation (n = 3), 10 weeks gestation (n = 3), or a few weeks prior to insemination (n = 2). None of the piglets born to sows infected prior to insemination or in early pregnancy were found to be infected. However, all of the piglets (n = 26) born to sows infected at 10 weeks gestation were found to harbor schistosomes with S. japonicum eggs recovered from both their feces and livers. The findings show that congenital S. japonicum infection of pigs can occur if sows are infected during mid-to-late pregnancy and may have important implications not only for pigs but also for other mammalian hosts of schistosomes, including humans.  (+info)

Variation of hepatitis C virus following serial transmission: multiple mechanisms of diversification of the hypervariable region and evidence for convergent genome evolution. (4/2315)

We have studied the evolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) from a common source following serial transmission from contaminated batches of anti-D immunoglobulin. Six secondary recipients were each infected with virus from identifiable primary recipients of HCV-contaminated anti-D immunoglobulin. Phylogenetic analysis of virus E1/E2 gene sequences [including the hypervariable region (HVR)] and part of NS5B confirmed their common origin, but failed to reproduce the known epidemiological relationships between pairs of viruses, probably because of the frequent occurrence of convergent substitutions at both synonymous and nonsynonymous sites. There was no evidence that the rate at which the HCV genome evolves is affected by transmission events. Three different mechanisms appear to have been involved in generating variation of the hypervariable region; nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion of nucleotide triplets at the E1/E2 boundary and insertion of a duplicated segment replacing almost the entire HVR. These observations have important implications for the phylogenetic analysis of HCV sequences from epidemiologically linked isolates.  (+info)

Virulence evolution in a virus obeys a trade-off. (5/2315)

The evolution of virulence was studied in a virus subjected to alternating episodes of vertical and horizontal transmission. Bacteriophage f1 was used as the parasite because it establishes a debilitating but non-fatal infection that can be transmitted vertically (from a host to its progeny) as well as horizontally (infection of new hosts). Horizontal transmission was required of all phage at specific intervals, but was prevented otherwise. Each episode of horizontal transmission was followed by an interval of obligate vertical transmission, followed by an interval of obligate horizontal transmission etc. The duration of vertical transmission was eight times longer per episode in one treatment than in the other, thus varying the relative intensity of selection against virulence while maintaining selection for some level of virus production. Viral lines with the higher enforced rate of infectious transmission evolved higher virulence and higher rates of virus production. These results support the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence.  (+info)

Studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mucosal viral shedding and transmission in Kenya. (6/2315)

If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity of virus that may be exchanged during sexual contact. Transmission may also depend on the fitness of the virus for replication in the exposed individual, which may be influenced by whether a virus encounters a target cell that is susceptible to infection by that specific variant. Of interest, our data suggest that the complexity of the virus that is transmitted may be different in female and male sexual exposures.  (+info)

Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through breast-feeding: how can it be prevented? (7/2315)

One-third to two-thirds of maternal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to breast-fed infants can be attributed to ingestion of breast milk. The presence of HIV-1 as cell-free and as cell-associated virus in milk has been documented. Several substances in breast milk may be protective against transmission, including maternal anti-HIV antibodies, vitamin A, lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. The portal of virus entry in the infant's gastrointestinal tract is unknown but may involve breaches in mucosal surfaces, transport across M cells, or direct infection of other epithelial cells, such as enterocytes. Timing of transmission of HIV-1 during lactation should be further clarified. An early rebound of plasma viremia after withdrawal of antiretrovirals was recently detected. This rebound may reduce the benefit of antiretroviral prophylaxis when women breast-feed their infants. Interventions should be viewed from the public health perspective of risks of infant morbidity and mortality associated with breast-feeding versus risks from formula-feeding.  (+info)

The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1--a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. The International Perinatal HIV Group. (8/2315)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the relation between elective cesarean section and vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we performed a meta-analysis using data on individual patients from 15 prospective cohort studies. METHODS: North American and European studies of at least 100 mother-child pairs were included in the meta-analysis. Uniform definitions of modes of delivery were used. Elective cesarean sections were defined as those performed before onset of labor and rupture of membranes. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to adjust for other factors known to be associated with vertical transmission. RESULTS: The primary analysis included data on 8533 mother-child pairs. After adjustment for receipt of antiretroviral therapy, maternal stage of disease, and infant birth weight, the likelihood of vertical transmission of HIV-1 was decreased by approximately 50 percent with elective cesarean section, as compared with other modes of delivery (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.33 to 0.56). The results were similar when the study population was limited to those with rupture of membranes shortly before delivery. The likelihood of transmission was reduced by approximately 87 percent with both elective cesarean section and receipt of antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, as compared with other modes of delivery and the absence of therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 0.13; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.19). Among mother-child pairs receiving antiretroviral therapy during the prenatal, intrapartum, and neonatal periods, rates of vertical transmission were 2.0 percent among the 196 mothers who underwent elective cesarean section and 7.3 percent among the 1255 mothers with other modes of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that elective cesarean section reduces the risk of transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child independently of the effects of treatment with zidovudine.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Every year nearly 400,000 children are infected with HIV through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), which is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infections in children. In high-income countries, the MTCT rate is less than 1% through perinatal prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) interventions. In low- and middle-income countries, PMTCT programme coverage remains low and consequently transmission rate high. The World Health Organisation recommends integration of PMTCT programmes with other healthcare services to increase access and improve uptake of these interventions.. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of integration of perinatal PMTCT measures with other health care services on coverage and service uptake compared to stand-alone PMTCT programmes and healthcare services or partially integrated PMTCT interventions.. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the following databases, for the time period of January 1990 to August 2010: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO Global Health ...
By Wichsinee Wibulpolprasert. Since its implementation in 2001, the national program for Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) in Thailand has been successful in substantially reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. In order to assess and improve the efficacy of the PMTCT program, it is important to identify relevant socio-demographic and biomedical factors associated with antiretroviral compliance and HIV transmission rates. In this paper, we attempt to measure the associations between province specific socio-demographic characteristics, such as average income, education, average household size, and availability of health care providers, on the antiretroviral compliance rate. Then we measure how the antiretroviral completion rates and other biomedical factors affect the probability of mother-to-child HIV transmission among participants in Thailands national PMTCT program. We find that education level, mothers nationality, family size, prenatal care, and the time the pregnant ...
Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among children have been documented since 1981--1986, when 78% of children with AIDS were black or Hispanic (1). These racial/ethnic disparities have been reflected in rates of perinatal HIV infection. Although the total number of annual perinatal HIV infections in the United States has decreased approximately 90% since 1991 (3) and the findings in this report indicate a continued decrease during 2004--2007, racial/ethnic disparities persist. Of all reported diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection during 2004--2007, 85% were in children who were black or Hispanic, and rates were several-fold higher among black and Hispanic children than among white children. To eliminate perinatal transmission and racial/ethnic disparities, continued measures are needed, including primary HIV prevention for women, reproductive health and family planning for women with HIV infection, and prenatal care and early treatment with antiretroviral medications for ...
PLEASE NOTE: This review should be considered obsolete and outdated. Instead of this review, please refer to the following Cochrane reviews:. Read JS, Newell ML. Efficacy and safety of cesarean delivery for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19, Issue 4.. Wiysonge CS, Shey MS, Sterne JA, Brocklehurst P. Vitamin A supplementation for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19, Issue 4.. Wiysonge CS, Shey MS, Shang JD, Sterne JA, Brocklehurst P. Vaginal disinfection for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19, Issue 4.. Volmink J, Siegfried NL, van der Merwe L, Brocklehurst P. Antiretrovirals for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24, Issue 1.. Horvath T, Madi BC, Iuppa IM, Kennedy GE, Rutherford G, Read JS.. Interventions for preventing late postnatal ...
Early accurate diagnosis is one of the first crucial steps in care for infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies upon early diagnosis and results in significant reductions in infant morbidity and mortality. There is little information on evidence-based interventions that specifically target improved attendance of postpartum clinic visits and subsequent infant HIV testing in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs. The investigators propose a randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of text messages sent to women enrolled in PMTCT programs on adherence to postpartum clinic visits and uptake of early infant diagnosis by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study seeks to test the hypotheses that (a) text messages sent to women enrolled in PMTCT will improve their attendance at the postnatal clinic within the first 6-8 weeks after childbirth; and (b) text messages sent to women enrolled in ...
This is the first published systematic review analysing the PMTCT cascade in China. Along with the relatively low and stable HIV prevalence among pregnant women in China (,0.1% since 2002), remarkable reduction of HIV vertical transmission has been achieved through expanding PMTCT interventions following the improved national guidelines and remarkably high government investment.34 ,41 The overall trend of HIV prevalence is consistent with official reports.9 ,42 Transmission rates among mother and infants enrolled in PMTCT have decreased from 31.8% (25.7-38.6%) prior to the roll-out of PMTCT to 12.9% (7.5%-21.4%) in 2003 and 2.3% (1.4%-3.8%) in 2011. However, when including pregnant women who did not attend ANC and hence not enrolled in PMTCT, the vertical transmission rate was 27.1% (17.4%-44.0%) in 2003 and 11.5% (8.0%--15.7%) in 2011, which is slightly higher than 7.4% reported by the 2012 progress report on PMTCT of HIV in China.17 This corresponds to similar findings published from other ...
Purpose of review To describe progress and challenges to elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMCT) in high-income countries. Recent findings Despite ongoing declines in the number of perinatally HIV-infected infants in most high-income countries, the number of HIV-infected women delivering may be increasing, accompanied by apparent changes in this population, including higher percentages with antiretroviral pre-treatment (with possible antiretroviral resistance), other co-infections, mental health diagnoses, and recent immigration. The impact of antiretroviral resistance on mother-to-child transmission is yet to be defined. A substantial minority of infant HIV acquisitions occur in the context of maternal acute HIV infection during pregnancy. Some infant infections occur after pregnancy, e.g., by premastication of food, or breastfeeding (perhaps by an uninfected woman who acquires HIV while breastfeeding). Summary The issues of EMCT are largely those of providing proper care for ...
IBETO, M; GIDDY, J y COX, V. Closing the gaps: Steps towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. South. Afr. j. HIV med. (Online) [online]. 2014, vol.15, n.3, pp.107-109. ISSN 2078-6751. BACKGROUND: With significant reductions in the rate of HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in South Africa, each case of failed prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) should be investigated. OBJECTIVE: To establish the cause(s) of MTCT at Khayelitshas Community Health Centre (CHC) in order to identify obstacles to MTCT elimination. METHODS: Routinely collected data were reviewed for all HIV-infected infants identified at Khayelitsha Site B CHC from January 2012 to April 2013. RESULTS: A total of 926/1 158 (80%) of exposed infants had polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results, with 15/926 (1.6%) PCR-positive. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) values for the maternal indicators were as follows: maternal age, 27 (23 - 31) years; parity, 2 (1 - 3); gestational age ...
Background Preventing unintended pregnancies among HIV-positive women through family planning (FP) reduces pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality, decreases the number of pediatric HIV infections, and has also proven to be a cost-effective way to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. A key element of a comprehensive HIV prevention agenda, aimed at avoiding unintended pregnancies, is recognizing the attitudes towards FP among HIV-positive women and their spouse or partner. In this study, we analyze FP attitudes among HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a PMTCT clinical trial in Western Kenya. Methods and Findings Baseline data were collected on 522 HIV-positive pregnant women using structured questionnaires. Associations between demographic variables and the future intention to use FP were examined using Fishers exact tests and permutation tests. Most participants (87%) indicated that they intended to use FP. However, only 8% indicated condoms as a preferred FP method, and 59% of current
A series of studies presented Monday at the 14th Annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Los Angeles suggest that the benefits of breast-feeding in developing countries might outweigh the risk of vertical HIV transmission, the San Francisco Chronicle reports.
Opinion: International Community Must Keep Fighting to End Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission, at, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
An emerging field known as implementation science may help reduce the nearly 150,000 instances of mother-to-child HIV transmissions that occur annually ...
Since the implementation of universal vaccination in 1984, the chronic HBV carier rate in our general population reduced from 15-20%, down to , 1% in the post-vaccination population. However, children born to HBeAg positive mothers still may be infected with HBV despite immunization. To further reducing the HBV infection in our people, strategies in reducing infection rate in this high risk group are mandatory. Previous small scale studies using lamivudine treatment in pregnant woman in the third trimester has proved effective in reducing children infection rate. The aims of the present study are to conduct a clinical trial in using Tenofovir (category B) to reduce mother-to-infant transmission, and to monitor the hepaitits B viral status and mother hepatitis occurrence. The clinical trials will screen cases of HBsAg positive pregnant women aged 20 to 40 years at gestational at 20-32 weeks. They will be tested for HBsAg and HBeAg. In whom both markers are positive, HBV viral load will be tested. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trends in neonatal prophylaxis and predictors of combination antiretroviral prophylaxis in US infants from 1990 to 2015. AU - Williams, Paige L.. AU - Huo, Yanling. AU - Rutstein, Richard. AU - Hazra, Rohan. AU - Rough, Kathryn. AU - Van Dyke, Russell B.. AU - Chadwick, Ellen G.. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - Postnatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis for infants born to women with HIV is a critical component of perinatal HIV transmission prevention. However, variability in prophylaxis regimens remains and consistency with guidelines has not been evaluated in the United States. We evaluated trends over time in prophylaxis regimens among 6386 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants using pooled data spanning two decades from three US-based cohorts: the Women and Infants Transmission Study (WITS, 1990-2007), Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) 219C (1993-2007), and the PHACS Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study (2007-2015). We also identified maternal and ...
In 2013, an estimated 1.5 million women living with HIV gave birth, accounting for nearly 20% of all births in sub-Saharan Africa (1). Although mother-to-child transmission rates are decreasing due to improved availability of antiretrovirals (1), there is now a large and rapidly growing cohort of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. These children experience nearly twice the mortality rates compared to matched controls (7). The results of our study show that maternal HIV infection is associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, the HMO content trended toward being different based on maternal HIV status. Specific oligosaccharides appeared to be directly linked with specific bacteria within the infants microbiome. These data suggest that maternal HIV infection disrupts the normal development of the infant microbiome. This relatively immature and dysbiotic microbiome potentially could compromise development of the infants immune system. This may help to ...
Introduction. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most significant route of HIV infection in children. In South Africa, the risk of vertical transmission from HIV-infected mothers to their infants is estimated to be between 19% and 36%, depending on whether or not the child is breastfed (1). The prevalence of infection with HIV among expectant mothers attending public-sector clinics was 27.9% in 2003 (2), and an estimated 75 000 infants would be born infected with HIV-1 in South Africa each year in the absence of programmes to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of HIV. International and local experience has shown that the provision of antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis and replacement feeding can cause a dramatic reduction in the risk of transmission from mother to infant in resource-constrained settings (3 8).. In 1999, the Department of Health of the Western Cape initiated the first pilot programme for the prevention of mother-to-child ...
National HIV incidence for a given year x [I(x)] equals prevalence [P(x)] times the transmission rate [T(x)]. Or, simply rearranging the terms, T(x) = [I(x)/P(x)]*100 (where T(x) is the number of HIV transmissions per 100 persons living with HIV in a given year). The transmission rate is an underutilized measure of the speed at which the epidemic is spreading. Here, we utilize recently updated information about HIV incidence and prevalence in the U.S. to estimate the national HIV transmission rate for 2006 through 2008, and present a novel method to express the level of uncertainty in these estimates. Transmission rate estimates for 2006 through 2008 are as follows (respectively): 4.39 (4.01 to 4.73); 4.90 (4.49 to 5.28); and 4.06 (3.70 to 4.38). Although there are methodological challenges inherent in making these estimates, they do give some indications that the U.S. HIV transmission rate is at a historically low level ...
Discussion. Perinatal transmission of HBV still occurs in infants despite passive and active immunoprophylaxis. Rates of perinatal transmission have not previously been described in Australia. Our study revealed an overall rate of perinatal transmission from HBsAg- and HBV DNA-positive mothers of 3% and from HBeAg-positive mothers of 7%. In a Dutch study of 705 infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers,1 the rate of transmission was 1.1%, but their HBV DNA status was not disclosed. In contrast, alarmingly high rates of transmission (23%-28%)2,3 have been reported in other countries such as China, despite passive and active immunoprophylaxis. Explanations for these reported differences are unclear and may reflect variation in HBIG efficacy, varying adherence to immunisation protocols, or possibly different prevalences of vaccine escape mutations.. In our study, perinatal transmission only occurred when the mothers viral load was , 108 copies/mL. Canho et al1 also reported that transmission only ...
Despite expanded programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), HIV-infected infants may not be diagnosed until they are ill. Comparing HIV prevalence and outcomes in infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs to those in hospital settings may improve pediatric HIV diagnosis strategies. HIV-exposed infants |12 months old were recruited from 9 PMTCT sites in public maternal child health (MCH) clinics or from an inpatient setting in Nairobi, Kenya and tested for HIV using HIV DNA assays. A subset of HIV-infected infants |4.5 months of age was enrolled in a research study and followed for 2 years. HIV prevalence, number needed to test, infant age at testing, and turnaround time for tests were compared between PMTCT programs and hospital sites. Among the enrolled cohort, baseline characteristics, survival, and timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were compared between infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs versus hospital. Among 1,923 HIV-exposed infants, HIV prevalence was higher
HIV-positive pregnant women who take a single dose of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine at delivery to prevent vertical HIV transmission later could ...
After starting to receive prenatal care, to take advantage of interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, an HIV-infected pregnant woman must know her HIV status. Thus, she must be offered and must accept HIV testing. In an assessment of prenatal HIV counseling and testing practices in 14 states during 1996 and 1997, more than 70% of women recalled discussing HIV testing during prenatal care, and at least 50% reported being tested for HIV during pregnancy or delivery.54 However, despite national recommendations for universal prenatal HIV counseling and testing, rates varied by state, type of prenatal health care provider, health insurance, and maternal demographic characteristics. Higher rates of testing were reported for black women, younger women, and those who sought care from a public provider, received Medicaid benefits, or had low income while lower rates of testing were reported for white women or those with health insurance who might have been perceived to be at lower risk ...
Mother-to-Child Transmission. One of the most striking success stories of the HIV epidemic is the near elimination of vertical transmission of HIV in the developed world. This remarkable feat has been accomplished through universal HIV testing in pregnancy and use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infected mothers. Optimal control of HIV in pregnancy requires knowledge of how pregnancy affects the pharmacokinetics of antiretrovirals (ARVs) and adequate information on the safety of treatment for both mother and child. Raltegravir (RAL) is an effective well tolerated ARV that is guidelines preferred for non-pregnant patients, but currently designated for use only in special circumstances in pregnancy. RAL is classified by the FDA as pregnancy category C because of supernumerary rib formation after high dose exposures in rats. Safety data in human pregnancy is sparse. Therefore, additional studies of the safety and efficacy of RAL in pregnancy are needed. Jeantils et al reported on 31 ...
Downloadable! Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions reduce the cumulative probability of transmission from a HIV positive woman to her child by as much as 40 percentage points. This paper is the first economic analysis of the behavioral effects of PMTCT. I examine fertility responses to the scale-up of PMTCT in Zambia, a country where approximately 15 percent of adults age 15-49 are HIV positive. My results suggest that the local introduction of PMTCT reduced pregnancy rates by up to 20 percent, that the fertility response was greater among women who were more likely to be HIV positive, and that PMTCT substantially increased breastfeeding rates.
The impact of the HIV epidemic on child health globally is beginning to be appreciated. With the burden of new infections falling on young women, there is a skyrocketing number of AIDS orphans, and a rapidly increasing number of children infected via mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). An estimated 600,000 new paediatric infections occur each year, of which some 1500/day (| 90%) occur in sub-Saharan Africa. But whereas children account for only 4% of those currently living with HIV infection, 20% of AIDS deaths have been in children. This reflects the rapid progression to disease in paediatric HIV infection. Whereas a dramatic reduction in viraemia follows acute adult infection, corresponding to the appearance of a vigorous anti-HIV cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, virtually no impact of the immune response is observed in acute paediatric infection following MTCT. Two specific challenges for the paediatric immune response are: (i) infection occurs before the immune system itself is fully developed; and
ABSTRACT. The HIV and AIDS epidemic in South Africa has reached serious proportions. Over 5, 5 million South Africans are infected with HIV (Department of Health, 2004:10). Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) is a well-established mode of HIV transmission and these infections may occur during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. According to the Department of Health (2000:2), breastfeeding constitutes a significant risk of MTCT HIV transmission. Studies in Africa have also shown that breast-feeding increases the risk of MTCT by 12%-43% (Department of Health, 2000:13;Department of Health, 2000:3). Since breastfeeding is a significant and preventable mode of HIV transmission to infants, there is an urgent need to educate, counsel and support women and families to make informed decisions about how best to feed their infants in the context of HIV. To achieve a reduction in MTCT, there is an urgent need to empower women with information on MTCT for informed decision-making. However, ...
Interventions for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV are cost-effective. Further costs and negative effects of drug resistance, are unlikely to outweigh the social benefits of reduce transmission of HIV. This model suggests that the new drug regimen is a cost-effective option in the Thai …
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play a central role in containment of HIV infection. Evasion of the immune response by CTL escape is associated with progression to disease. It is therefore hypothesised that transmitted viruses encode escape mutations within epitopes that are required for successful control of viraemia. In order to test this hypothesis, escape through the dominant HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope SLYNTVATL (p17 Gag residues 77-85 SL9) in the setting of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) was investigated. Initial data from two families in which the HIV-infected mother expressed HLA-A*0201 and had transmitted the virus to other family members were consistent with this hypothesis. In addition, analysis of the gag sequence phylogeny in one family demonstrated that CTL escape variants can be successfully transmitted both horizontally and vertically. To test the hypothesis further, a larger cohort of transmitting mothers (n=8) and non-transmitters (n=14) were studied. Variation within the SL9
Fast facts: About 150,000 [Confidence bounds: 94,000-240,000] new HIV infections among children under five occurred in 2019, dramatically declining from 310,000 [200,000-500,000] in 2010 and representing a 52 per cent decline. Progress in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV has been dramatic since the introduction in 2011 of the Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children and Keeping their Mothers Alive - largely because of increased access to PMTCT-related services and increased number of pregnant women living with HIV being initiated on lifelong antiretroviral medicines. But it has not been fast enough to reach the 2020 targets set by UNAIDS and partners as part of the Super-Fast-Track Framework to end AIDS. Acceleration of treatment for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV is still needed to achieve elimination of new infections among children and halve HIV-related deaths among pregnant women and new mothers.
BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV (EMTCT), defined as ≤50 infant HIV infections per 100 000 live births, is a global priority. Since 2011 policies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) shifted from maternal antiretroviral (ARV) treatment or prophylaxis contingent on CD4 cell count to lifelong maternal ARV treatment (cART). We sought to measure progress with early (4-8 weeks postpartum) MTCT prevention and elimination, 2011-2013, at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high antenatal HIV prevalence setting ( ≈ 29%), where early MTCT was 3.5% in 2010. METHODS: Two surveys were conducted (August 2011-March 2012 and October 2012-May 2013), in 580 health facilities, randomly selected after two-stage probability proportional to size sampling of facilities (the primary sampling unit), to provide valid national and sub-national-(provincial)-level estimates. Data collectors interviewed caregivers of eligible infants, reviewed patient-held ...
In most viral infections, protection through existing vaccines is linked to the presence of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). However, more than 30 years after the identification of AIDS, the design of an immunogen able to induce antibodies that would neutralize the highly diverse HIV-1 variants remains one of the most puzzling challenges of the human microbiology. The role of antibodies in protection against HIV-1 can be studied in a natural situation that is the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) context. Indeed, at least at the end of pregnancy, maternal antibodies of the IgG class are passively transferred to the fetus protecting the neonate from new infections during the first weeks or months of life. During the last few years, strong data, presented in this review, have suggested that some NAbs might confer protection toward neonatal HIV-1 infection. In cases of transmission, it has been shown that the viral population that is transmitted from the mother to the infant is usually
A team from Duke University’s Developing World Healthcare Technologies Lab have discovered a way to extend the lifespan of antiretroviral drugs in order to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing countries.
In this commentary, the authors discuss why integrating HIV testing, treatment and care into child survival platforms is important, as well as its potential to advance progress towards global targets that call for, by 2020, 90% of children living with HIV to know their status, 90% of those diagnosed to be on treatment and 90% of those on treatment to be virally suppressed (90-90-90). Integration is critical in improving health outcomes and efficiency gains. In children, integration of HIV in programmes such as immunization and nutrition has been associated with an increased uptake of HIV infant testing. Integration is increasingly recognized as a case-finding strategy for children missed from prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes and as a platform for diffusing emerging technologies such as point-of-care diagnostics. These support progress towards the 90-90-90 targets by providing a pathway for early identification of HIV-infected children with co-morbidities, prompt initiation ...
Brussels, 20 June 2002 New guidelines aimed at reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV are emerging from European research. The guidelines for the treatment of various groups of HIV-positive patients are to be published on 28 June 2002. A comparable set of guidelines for paediatric patients will be published in July 2002. A consortium of 15 research teams from 7 European countries, has worked together to produce the set of guidelines for best practice. Their report highlights that certain precautions and the appropriate use of anti-retroviral therapy during pregnancy, labour and in the neonatal period can reduce the risk of mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT) from 15-20% (without intervention) to less than 2%. Mothers should undergo HIV testing, caesarean section, anti-retroviral therapy, and avoid breast-feeding. Children should undergo anti-retroviral testing after birth. The definition of HIV treatment guidelines that will limit the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the virus ...
Genetic polymorphisms in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disease progression, but little is known regarding the association between these allelic variations and the ability of the host to transmit virus. In this study, we show that the maternal heterozygous SDF1 genotype (SDF1 3A/wt) is associated with perinatal transmission of HIV-1 (risk ratio [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.3) and particularly postnatal breastmilk transmission (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 8.6). In contrast, the infant SDF1 genotype had no effect on mother-to-infant transmission. These data suggest that SDF1, which is a ligand for the T-tropic HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, may affect the ability of a mother to transmit the virus to her infant. This suggests that a genetic polymorphism in a gene encoding a chemokine receptor ligand may be associated with increased infectivity of the index case and highlights the importance of
Evidence indicates that the GBV-C or hepatitis G virus can cause persistent infection in humans, but little is known on the importance of vertical transmission. To assess the risk of mother-to-infant transmission and the clinical outcome of infected babies, we investigated 175 anti-HCV positive mothers and followed-up their children for 3-33 months. GBV-C RNA was detected by RT-PCR and anti-E2 antibody was assayed by EIA. Thirty-four (19.4%) women were GBV-C RNA positive and transmission occurred to 21 (61.8%) babies; 20 (95.2%) acquired GBV-C alone, and one (4.8%) GBV-C and HCV. Maternal factors such as intravenous drug use, HIV coinfection, HCV-RNA positivity, and type of feeding were not correlated with GBV-C transmission. GBV-C RNA remained persistently positive in all infected babies but one baby who seroconverted to anti-E2. Seven (35%) babies with GBV-C alone developed marginally elevated ALT; the baby with HCV and GBV-C co-infection had the highest ALT peak value (664 IU/l). Seven of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal tuberculosis. T2 - A risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. AU - Gupta, Amita. AU - Bhosale, Ramesh. AU - Kinikar, Arti. AU - Gupte, Nikhil. AU - Bharadwaj, Renu. AU - Kagal, Anju. AU - Joshi, Suvarna. AU - Khandekar, Medha. AU - Karmarkar, Alaka. AU - Kulkarni, Vandana. AU - Sastry, Jayagowri. AU - Mave, Vidya. AU - Suryavanshi, Nishi. AU - Thakar, Madhuri. AU - Kulkarni, Smita. AU - Tripathy, Srikanth. AU - Sambarey, Pradeep. AU - Patil, Sandesh. AU - Paranjape, Ramesh. AU - Bollinger, Robert C.. AU - Jamkar, Arun. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/2/1. Y1 - 2011/2/1. N2 - Background. Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established. Methods. The study ...
The Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS and Malnutrition Program (DREAM) gathered professionals in the field of Elimination of HIV-Mother-To-Child Transmission (EMTCT) in Maputo in 2013 to discuss obstacles and solutions for the elimination of HIV vertical transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. During this workshop, the benefits of administrating combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) to HIV positive women from pregnancy throughout breastfeeding were reviewed. cART is capable of reducing vertical transmission to less than 5% at 24 months of age, as well as maternal mortality and infant mortality in both HIV infected and exposed populations to levels similar to those of uninfected individuals. The challenge for programs targeting eMTCT in developing countries is retention in care and treatment adherence. Both are intrinsically related to the model of care. The drop-out from eMTCT programs before cART initiation ranges from 33%-88% while retention rates at 18-24 months are less than 50%. Comprehensive
More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infants microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. ...
This evaluation of perinatal HIV transmission in a malarious area of western Kenya demonstrated that approximately 20% of infants born to HIV-infected mothers acquired HIV by 4 months of age, similar to rates reported in other sub-Saharan African settings (30-32). Consistent with other studies, we found that maternal viral load in peripheral blood at the time of delivery and having an episiotomy or perineal tear were risk factors for perinatal MTCT (33,34). Contrary to our expectations, we observed that women with placental malaria had lower rates of perinatal MTCT than women without malaria. However, women with high-density malaria had significantly higher rates of perinatal MTCT than parasitemic women with low-density malaria. In additional models, only low placental parasite density (1-9,999 parasites/μL of blood) was associated with protection from perinatal MTCT; high-density placental infection was either a risk factor for perinatal MTCT (in the model evaluating only women with malaria) ...
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as described for women with an established infection is, in most cases, associated with the transmission of few maternal variants. This study analysed virus variability in four cases of maternal primary infection occurring during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding. Estimated time of seroconversion was at 4 months of pregnancy for one woman (early seroconversion) and during the last months of pregnancy and/or breastfeeding for the remaining three (late seroconversion). The C2V3 envelope region was analysed in samples of mother-child pairs by molecular cloning and sequencing. Comparisons of nucleotide and amino acid sequences as well as phylogenetic analysis were performed. The results showed low variability in the virus population of both mother and child. Maximum-likelihood analysis showed that, in the early pregnancy seroconversion case, a minor viral variant with further evolution in the child was transmitted, which could
In 2011, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS announced a plan to eliminate new HIV infections among children by 2015. This increased focus on the elimination of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) is most welcome but is insufficient, as access to prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) programming is neither uniform nor universal. A new and more expansive agenda must be articulated to ensure that those infants and children who will never feel the impact of the current elimination agenda are reached and linked to appropriate care and treatment. This agenda must addresses challenges around both reducing vertical transmission through PMTCT and ensuring access to appropriate HIV testing, care, and treatment for all affected children who were never able to access PMTCT programming. Option B+, or universal test and treat for HIV-infected pregnant women, is an excellent start, but it may be time to rethink our current approaches to delivering PMTCT services. New strategies will reduce vertical transmission ...
A cohort design was used to determine uptake and drop out of 213 HIV-exposed infants eligible for Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) of HIV. To explore service providers and care givers knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the EID process, observations
The implementation and utilization of programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in most low income countries has been described as sub-optimal. As planners and service providers, the views of health workers are important in generating priorities to improve the effectiveness of the PMTCT programme in Uganda. We explored the lessons learnt by health workers involved in the provision of PMTCT services in eastern Uganda to better understand what more needs to be done to strengthen the PMTCT programme. A qualitative study was conducted at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital, The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) Mbale and at eight neighbouring health centres in eastern Uganda, between January and May 2010. Data were collected through 24 individual interviews with the health workers involved in the PMTCT programme and four key informants (2 district officials and 2 officials from TASO). Data were analyzed using the content thematic approach. Study themes and sub-themes were
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 19275589. Curr. HIV Res. 2009 Mar;7(2):211-7. Placental cytokine balance may be critical for the control of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. We assessed whether the type and duration of antiretrovirals used for prevention of HIV-1-MTCT modified the inflammatory cytokine profile. We investigated the levels of cytokine expression in the placentas of 61 HIV-1-infected women who received zidovudine (ZDV) plus single dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) or ZDV only for prevention of MTCT. Placentas of 38 HIV-1-uninfected women were included as controls. All placentas were obtained after vaginal delivery. Levels of mRNA and cytokine expression were quantified using real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively, in placental explants and 24-hour culture supernatants and analyzed in relation to the womens characteristics and the type and duration of antiretroviral prophylaxis. HIV-1-infected and uninfected women did not show any differences in the expression of placental cytokine ...
In this review we detected 16 alleles groups significantly associated with risk of HIV MTCT and/or with progression of disease in HIV-infected children (Table 1). HLA-B homozygosis was assumed as one allele group, HLA-B*57 allele was the most frequent allele showing a protective effect against the risk for HIV infection in children. This protective effect was detected in four different studies.10,11,21,22 Four alleles groups (HLA-B*27, B*57, B*58, B*81) were significantly associated with slower progression of HIV infection in children while six alleles groups (HLA-B*8, B*18, B*42, B*44, B*49, B*53) were associated with reduced risk of HIV-1 MTCT (Table 1). HLA-B*53:01 allele was associated with reduced risk of HIV-1 MTCT in the study by Winchester et al., but was also associated to rapid disease progression in the study by Gao et al.12,23. On the other hand, five alleles groups (HLA-B*18, B*35, B*45, B*58, B*homozygosis) were related to rapid HIV progression in children, and six alleles groups ...
Dr. Nancy HaigwoodMother-to-child transmission of HIV remains a significant problem in the resource-poor world. Given appropriate prenatal care, and continuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for mother and infant during breastfeeding, over 99% of HIV-positive women can expect to deliver a baby free of HIV. But there are still more than 200,000 infected infants born annually to HIV-positive mothers in countries where prenatal care and ART are not readily available. In addition, potentially less toxic interventions, not reliant on strict medication adherence, would clearly be welcomed.. amfAR-funded scientist Dr. Nancy Haigwood and colleagues at Oregon Health and Science University and the National Institutes of Health approached this problem through a monkey model. They examined mother-to-child transmission of a hybrid AIDS virus known as SHIV, which contains elements of both HIV and the simian AIDS virus, SIV. Writing in the April issue of the prominent journal Nature Medicine, Dr. Haigwood ...
ACOG. ACOG Committee opinion no. 751: Labor and delivery management of women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Obstet Gynecol 2018a;132(3):e131-e137. [PMID: 30134427]. ACOG. ACOG Committee opinion no. 752: Prenatal and perinatal human immunodeficiency virus testing. Obstet Gynecol 2018b;132(3):e138-e142. [PMID: 30134428]. Andiman W, Bryson Y, de Martino M, et al. The mode of delivery and the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-a meta-analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies. N Engl J Med 1999;340(13):977-987. [PMID: 10099139]. Chikhungu LC, Bispo S, Rollins N, et al. HIV-free survival at 12-24 months in breastfed infants of HIV-infected women on antiretroviral treatment. Trop Med Int Health 2016;21(7):820-828. [PMID: 27120500]. Currier JS, Britto P, Hoffman RM, et al. Randomized trial of stopping or continuing ART among postpartum women with pre-ART CD4 ≥ 400 cells/mm3. PLoS One 2017;12(5):e0176009. [PMID: 28489856]. Galli L, Puliti D, Chiappini E, ...
Cuba yesterday became the first country in the world to receive validation from the World Health Organization (WHO) that it has eliminated mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis.Eliminating transmission of a virus is one of the greatest...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Flash-heat inactivation of HIV-1 in human milk. T2 - A potential method to reduce postnatal transmission in developing countries. AU - Israel-Ballard, Kiersten. AU - Donovan, Richard. AU - Chantry, Caroline J. AU - Coutsoudis, Anna. AU - Sheppard, Haynes. AU - Sibeko, Lindiwe. AU - Abrams, Barbara. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - BACKGROUND: Up to 40% of all mother-to-child transmission of HIV occurs by means of breast-feeding; yet, in developing countries, infant formula may not be a safe option. The World Health Organization recommends heat-treated breast milk as an infant-feeding alternative. We investigated the ability of a simple method, flash-heat, to inactivate HIV in breast milk from HIV-positive mothers. METHODS: Ninety-eight breast milk samples, collected from 84 HIV-positive mothers in a periurban settlement in South Africa, were aliquoted to unheated control and flash-heating. Reverse transcriptase (RT) assays (lower detection limit of 400 HIV copies/mL) were performed ...
Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) is vital for HIV/AIDS control [1-3]. In developing countries, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis averted HIV infection in 409,000 children between 2009 to 2011 [4]. However, PMTCT is not optimum in Nigeria, with largest number of new paediatric HIV infection globally occurring here - averaging 60 000 yearly from 2009 to 2012 [5]. For enhanced PMTCT, mutual knowledge of partners HIV status is ideal [6], yet clinicians frequently have to presume that HIV-positive women have partners whose status are either negative or unknown.. We introduce the term serodiscordancy to encompass serodiscordant and seroconcordant heterosexual couples. Serodiscordant or serodiscordance applies when one partner of an intimate couple pairs HIV result is positive and other negative. If positive HIV results are known for both, this is a seroconcordant or seroconcordance relationship [7]. A discordant status is particularly risky because regular coitus without condoms ...
Infants with established in utero infection had a high rate (87.0%) of selection of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 mutants, which rapidly decayed to undetectable levels. The few without nevirapine resistance received zidovudine with single-dose nevirapine and/or their mothers took alternative antiretroviral drugs. Infants with acute in utero infection had a lower rate of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 (33.3%; P =.006, compared with established in utero infection), but mutants persisted over time. Infants with peripartum infection also had a lower rate of nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 (38.1%; P =.001, compared with established in utero infection) but often acquired 100% mutant virus that persisted over time (P =.017, compared with established in utero infection).. ...
Description The overall goal of this proposal is to determine whether neutralizing antibody plays a significant role in limiting the establishment of infection in perinatal transmission of HIV. This is an important question, because if such a correlation can be established, novel strategies for augmenting humoral responses during pregnancy can be attempted. Clinical studies have established the importance of plasma virus load in the pregnant mother at the time of birth, but virus load levels alone are not sufficient to explain all transmission. The establishment of a relevant animal model for transmission would complement clinical studies by allowing variables to be controlled and tested individually. To address this question, we plan to establish a maternal-infant transmission model in M. nemestrina using the pathogenic chimeric virus SHIVSF162P. SHIVSF162P utilizes the chemokine receptor CCR5 and was developed by serial passage in M. mulatta. Infection results in high primary viremia, high ...
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Polly Clayden, HIV i-Base. A paper in AIDS authored by Wendy Mphatswe and coworkers reported findings from a study conducted in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to evaluate MTCT in a cohort of mothers and infants receiving single-dose NVP and disease progression in a subset of infants that were HIV-positive despite the NVP prophylaxis.. The infants form part of a study designed to assess the feasibility of ART delivery and to compare immediate versus delayed ART in early infancy.. In the study HIV-positive infants were randomised at enrolment (2:1) to immediate versus delayed ART (the results will be reported upon completion of the study). This report looks at transmission across the whole cohort and also the natural history of disease progression in the 20 infants randomised to delayed ART.. Infants were tested (whole blood) on days 1 and 28 to establish intrauterine (IU) and intrapartum (IP) infection. Follow up included monthly viral load and CD4 cell measurement. ART was initiated at infant CD4% ...
Paediatric HIV infection is a substantial global public health problem in its own right. Approximately one in six new HIV infections worldwide arises as a result of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In contrast to adult infection, progression to AIDS and death is rapid in most infected children
The study on the Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment Market Research offers a profound comprehension of the market dynamics like opportunities, drivers, trends, and the challenges. The analysis further elaborates on the micro and macro-economic aspects which can be predicted to shape the rise of the Pediatric HIV Infection Treatment Market throughout the forecast period (2019-2029).. The introduced study elucidates the key indexes of Market growth which contains a comprehensive analysis of CAGR development the value chain, and Porters Five Forces Analysis. This data will enable readers to know the qualitative growth parameters of their worldwide market.. Analytical Insights Included at the Report. ...
HIV-1 infection is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality globally and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the major mode of infection. Over the past decade, natural history and interventional studies have improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of MTCT and pediatric HIV-1 infection. This has resulted in the development of effective preventive strategies to reduce new infections and therapeutic strategies to improve outcome following infection. However, successful implementation of these preventive and therapeutic strategies has been limited in resource-poor settings, where the majority of new pediatric infections occur. In addition, toxicities and antiretroviral resistance may limit the long-term utility of currently available strategies. Continued efforts to understand MTCT and pediatric HIV-1 pathogenesis and to refine preventive and therapeutic strategies are of high priority.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surveillance of pediatric HIV infection. AU - Wilfert, C.. AU - Beck, D. T.. AU - Fleischman, A. R.. AU - Mofenson, L. M.. AU - Pantell, R. H.. AU - Schonberg, S. Kenneth. AU - Scott, G. B.. AU - Sklaire, M. W.. AU - Whitley-Williams, P. N.. AU - Rogers, M. F.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance should expand to include perinatal HIV exposure and HIV infection as well as AIDS to delineate completely the extent and impact of HIV infection on children and families, accurately assess the resources necessary to provide services to this population, evaluate the efficacy of public health recommendations, and determine any potential long- term consequences of interventions to prevent perinatal transmission to children ultimately determined to be uninfected as well as for those who become infected. Ensuring the confidentiality of information collected in the process of surveillance is ...
"Meet the Infectious Diseases team". Retrieved 2020-04-20. UCL (2018-04-26). "Real-time detection of influenza ... "Diagnostics for the vertical transmission and paediatric studies. An article by Eleni Nastouli". 2017-08-09. ... She looks to support pregnant women with viral infectious diseases, including Zika ad Hepatitis B. She has investigated novel ... At University College London Nastouli leads the Advanced Pathogen Diagnostics Unit as well as the antenatal infectious diseases ...
"Blocking vertical transmission of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 through breastfeeding interruption". The ... Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 31 (11): 1139-1143. doi:10.1097/INF.0b013e318263215e. ISSN 1532-0987. PMID 22683674. " ... "Diseases and Conditions - Breastfeeding - CDC". Retrieved 6 August 2017. SLCP Peadiatric Guidelines "WHO , Breast ... Breastfeeding contraindication are situations where the mother has conditions such as an addiction or disease that would make ...
"Virus Markers Associated with Vertical Transmission of Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in Jamaica". Clinical Infectious ... The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 14 (7): 638-640. doi:10.1097/00006454-199507000-00028. PMID 7567307. Tosone, G.; ... almost all cases of vertical transmission continue to be pathological-in particular if any other routes of transmission exist. ... 2014). "Vertical hepatitis C virus transmission: Main questions and answers". World Journal of Hepatology. 6 (8): 538-548. doi: ...
"Infectious Diseases Related to Travel". Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on ... Fontenille D, Diallo M, Mondo M, Ndiaye M, Thonnon J (1997). "First evidence of natural vertical transmission of yellow fever ... Mitchell misdiagnosed the disease that he observed and treated, and the disease was probably Weil's disease or hepatitis. See: ... International Society for Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017.. ...
"Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 59 (6): 765-73 ... Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver. Whenever the course of the problem ... Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Hereditary diseases ... Alcoholic liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic ...
... because the fitness of the host is bound to the fitness in vertical transmission but is not so bound in horizontal transmission ... Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Bacterial effector protein Infectious disease Optimal virulence Super- ... "plant disease development" Keen, E. C. (2012). "Paradigms of pathogenesis: Targeting the mobile genetic elements of disease". ... and decreases with vertical transmission (from parent to child). This is ...
B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health. 2005;52(7-8):303-11. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0450.2005.00868.x. PMID 16316389. ... Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV, where the baby is born already infected with the virus.[ ... disease) in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer; in humans, prionic diseases include Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, ... The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2005;191 Suppl 1:S97-106. doi:10.1086/425271. PMID 15627236. ...
Many infectious diseases have a risk of vertical transmission to the fetus. Examples include: Chickenpox Chlamydia Herpes ... ISBN 978-0-521-88115-9. Yu J, Wu S, Li F, Hu L (January 2009). "Vertical transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis in Chongqing ... A pre-existing disease in pregnancy, is a disease that is not directly caused by the pregnancy in contrast to various ... Lee MJ, Hallmark RJ, Frenkel LM, Del Priore G (1998). "Maternal syphilis and vertical perinatal transmission of human ...
Interruption of mother-to-infant transmission". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 (5): 810-816. doi:10.1093/infdis/148.5.810 ... GBS-EOD is acquired vertically (vertical transmission), through exposure of the fetus or the baby to GBS from the vagina of a ... 2001). "Group B Streptococcal Disease in Nonpregnant Adults" (PDF). Clinical Infectious Diseases. 33 (4): 556-561. doi:10.1086/ ... COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES. (2019). "Management of Infants at Risk for Group B Streptococcal Disease" (PDF). Pediatrics. ...
Tracking the transmission of infectious diseases is called disease surveillance. Surveillance of infectious diseases in the ... Vertical transmission refers to acquisition of symbionts from parents (usually mothers). Vertical transmission can be ... Bioaerosol Bugchasing Cross-species transmission Infectious disease: Transmission Transmission risks and rates Bush, Albert O ... although all contagious diseases are infectious, not all infectious diseases are contagious). These diseases can also be ...
Horizontal disease transmission Horizontal gene transmission Vertical transmission Vertical transmission (symbiont) Myers JH, ... Rothman LE (May 1995). "Virulence and transmission of infectious diseases in humans and insects: evolutionary and demographic ... Symbionts can follow vertical, horizontal, or a mixed mode of transmission to their host. Horizontal, or lateral, transmission ... Posterior station is transmission via contact with infected feces. Examples are rickettsiae driven diseases (like typhus), ...
Tracking the transmission of infectious diseases is called disease surveillance. Surveillance of infectious diseases in the ... Vertical transmission[edit]. Vertical transmission refers to acquisition of symbionts from parents (usually mothers). Vertical ... An infectious disease agent can be transmitted in two ways: as horizontal disease agent transmission from one individual to ... contagious is not the same as infectious; although all contagious diseases are infectious, not all infectious diseases are ...
Transmission of viruses can be vertical, which means from mother to child, or horizontal, which means from person to person. ... Infectious Diseases. 9 (6): 347-56. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70108-2. PMID 19467474. Shuda M, Feng H, Kwun HJ, Rosen ST, ... Examples of vertical transmission include hepatitis B virus and HIV, where the baby is born already infected with the virus. ... One transmission pathway is through disease-bearing organisms known as vectors: for example, viruses are often transmitted from ...
Germany Germany's federal infectious disease center, the Robert Koch Institute, states there were 3,810 confirmed cases of H1N1 ... Thailand In the first reported case of vertical transmission of A(H1N1), a baby is born infected. Swaziland First case ... and its agency the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Unless ... Take note that the date of the first confirmations of the disease or any event in a country may be before or after the date of ...
Dong L, Tian J, He S, Zhu C, Wang J, Liu C, Yang J (May 2020). "Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 From an Infected ... Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease: 101665. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101665. PMC 7151464. PMID 32283217. "Coronavirus ( ... had mild disease, 9.3% had severe disease and 4.7% developed critical disease. Another study found the cases of COVID-19 ... More recent small-scale findings indicate that vertical transmission may be possible. One infant girl born to a mother with ...
Instead, preventing disease transmission by implementing preventive practices would likely be more cost-effective.[6] High ... Meas S, Usui T, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C, Onuma M (January 2002). "Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus and bovine ... April 2019). "Bovine leukemia virus discovered in human blood". BMC Infectious Diseases. 19 (1): 297. doi:10.1186/s12879-019- ... While transmission has been documented via blood feeding insects, the significance of this risk is unclear. Transmission relies ...
Routes of infection include vertical transmission (such as through childbirth), early life horizontal transmission (bites, ... Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver; it is a type of viral ... Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. It is 50 to 100 ... Cirrhosis or liver cancer occur in about 25% of those with chronic disease. The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious ...
"Epidemiology and Transmission Dynamics of West Nile Virus Disease". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (8): 1167-1173. doi: ... Vertical transmission between female and offspring is possible in mosquitoes, and might potentially be important in ... Goddard LB, Roth AE, Reisen WK, Scott TW (November 2003). "Vertical transmission of West Nile Virus by three California Culex ( ... Like other mosquito-born infectious diseases, there is concern that climate change will increase the spread and replication of ...
Vertical transmission. Τ. *Template:Mycoses. Retrieved from " ... Pages in category "Infectious diseases". The following 38 pages are in this category, out of 38 total. ...
Horizontal transmission occurs between hosts of the same species, in contrast to vertical transmission, which tends to evolve ... However, a relatively small list of pathogenic bacteria can cause infectious diseases. One of the bacterial diseases with the ... Transmission[edit]. Main article: Transmission (medicine). Transmission of pathogens occurs through many different routes, ... Further information: Viral disease. Some of the diseases that are caused by viral pathogens include smallpox, influenza, mumps ...
The disease is mainly transmitted horizontally by the oro-faecal route, but rarely vertical transmission may occur. Clinical ... Causes: Infectious Stunting Syndrome - ISS - Baby Chick Nephritis - BCN. The virus has been reported in Japan, Europe, USA and ... Adequate nutrition and a stress-free environment should decrease the amount of clinical disease seen in flocks. Avian Nephritis ... policy and thorough disinfection of housing between batches should be employed to control disease. ...
Many infectious diseases have a risk of vertical transmission to the fetus. Examples include: *Chickenpox ... Valvular heart disease[edit]. Main article: Valvular heart disease and pregnancy. In case of valvular heart disease in ... Thyroid disease[edit]. Main article: Thyroid disease in pregnancy. Thyroid disease in pregnancy can, if uncorrected, cause ... An intercurrent (ie concurrent, concomitant or, in most cases, pre-existing) disease in pregnancy is a disease that is not ...
... whereas offspring acquire same colonies from their environment in horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission is also seen ... It's hypothesized the continued incidence non-infectious diseases is a result of modernization reducing the diversity of ... Offspring inherit these microbial colonies via vertical and/or horizontal transmission. Symbiont colonies are transferred ... Disease biomarkers can be found by investigating lifestyle, genomic differences, and mRNA/protein/metabolite profiles of the ...
Oral, anal or vaginal sex can spread the disease. Cases of vertical perinatal transmission have been reported. The CDC ... 2011). "Probable Non-Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (5): 880-882. ... Zika fever, also known as Zika virus disease or simply Zika, is an infectious disease caused by the Zika virus. Most cases have ... 2016). "Zika virus: high infectious viral load in semen, a new sexually transmitted pathogen?". The Lancet Infectious Diseases ...
... mother-to-child transmission (vertical transmission), and through HIV-infected blood. Since rate of HIV transmission via ... Malnutrition, the immune system, and infectious diseases operate in a cyclical manner: infectious diseases have deleterious ... Gum disease has been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Diseases of poverty reflect the dynamic relationship ... are diseases that are more prevalent in low-income populations. They include infectious diseases, as well as diseases related ...
STI-associated vulvovaginitis may be caused by sexual abuse or vertical transmission, and are treated and diagnosed like adult ... Vulvovaginitis in children may be "nonspecific", or caused by irritation with no known infectious cause, or infectious, caused ... The most common cause is low levels of estrogen (hypoestrogenism), which may result from chronic disease, radiation or ... Infectious vulvovaginitis can be caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (7-20% of cases), Haemophilus influenzae, ...
There is little known of the relationship of TiLV to other viral aquaculture diseases, but viruses such as infectious salmon ... There is currently no evidence of vertical transmission of TiLV. Restriction of the movement of live tilapines between farms or ... Emerging Infectious Diseases. 23 (6): 1031-1033. doi:10.3201/eid2306.161278. PMC 5443430. PMID 28518020. Dong HT, Siriroob S, ... Other pathogens known to cause viral diseases in this species are betanodavirus and herpes-like virus. The virus is found to be ...
Viruses that transmit through vertical transmission (transmission to the offspring of the host) will evolve to have lower ... Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 24 (3): 603-17. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2010.04.001. PMC 7127320. PMID 20674794. Mahy & ... "Smallpox". Center for Disease Control. 2017-07-13. Retrieved 2017-12-05. Implications of horizontal and vertical pathogen ... Viruses that transmit through horizontal transmission (transmission between members of the same species that don't have a ...
Different predominant transmission strategies (horizontal transmission for orthohepadnaviruses and vertical transmission for ... It is thought that mother-to-child perinatal transmission and the establishment of a lifelong highly infectious carrier state ... However the potential for zoonotic disease transmission exists where blood or body fluid exposure is common. Such scenarios ... Vertical transmission: through perinatal periods, mother to child. Cross-species transmission has not been proven yet, but if ...
One of the ways to prevent or slow down the transmission of infectious diseases is to recognize the different characteristics ... impetigo and warts Vehicle transmission, transmission by an inanimate reservoir (food, water, soil). Vertical transmission, ... Sexual transmission, with the resulting disease being called sexually transmitted disease Oral transmission, Diseases that are ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) Infectious Disease Index of the Public ...
These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases.[102] They can also be ... Whales swim by moving their tail fin and lower body up and down, propelling themselves through vertical movement, while their ... Cranford, T.W.; Krysl, P.; Hildebrand, J.A. (2008). "Acoustic pathways revealed: simulated sound transmission and reception in ... A 2008 study found that sperm whales sleep in vertical postures just under the surface in passive shallow 'drift-dives', ...
NAT - National Cancer Institute (NCI) - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) - National Institute of ... vertical transmission - viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion ... pelvic inflammatory disease - peptide - perianal - perinatal - perinatal transmission - peripheral neuritis - peripheral ... efficacy - empirical - encephalitis - end-stage disease - endemic - endogenous - endoscopy - endotoxin - endpoint - enteric - ...
"Current opinion in infectious diseases 25 (1): 51-7. PMC 3266126. PMID 22156901. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834ef5ef.. ... Coutsoudis, A; Kwaan, L; Thomson, M (2010 Oct). "Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 in resource-limited settings". ... editor, Julio Aliberti, (2011). Control of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses During Infectious Diseases. New York, NY: ... "HIV and Its Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 04 de febreiro de ...
"Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals". Clin Microbiol Rev. 26 (1): 58-85. doi: ... Mouth diseases include tongue diseases and salivary gland diseases. A common gum disease in the mouth is gingivitis which is ... It can also arise as a result of other gastrointestinal diseases such as coeliac disease. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune ... Crohn's disease is a common chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can affect any part of the GI tract,[45] but it ...
Infectious diseases. *බෝවන රෝග. සැඟවුනු ප්‍රවර්ගය: *GND හැඳුනුම් සමග පවතින විකිපීඩියා ලිපි ...
Less common modes of transmission include vertical transmission, which is transmission from mother to child during pregnancy or ... "Current Infectious Disease Reports. 13 (3): 218-28. doi:10.1007/s11908-011-0180-1. PMC 3085104. PMID 21465340.. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 14 (3): 412-5. doi:10.3201/eid1403.070720. PMC 2570824. PMID 18325255.. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (8). doi:10.3201/eid2008.130696. PMC 4111160. PMID 25062306.. ...
Infectious diseases of wild birds. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publ. pp. 87-107. ISBN 978-0-8138-2812-1. Salguero, Francisco J.; ... Latent stage leads to vertical and horizontal transmission of DVE. Virus particles can be shed by the latent host in shared ... There is also evidence of vertical transmission from latent host carriers to their eggs and offspring, which will also be ... Migratory waterfowl are a major factor in the spread of this disease as they are often asymptomatic carriers of disease. The ...
Transmission Avihepadnavirus. Birds. Hepatocytes. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Vertical: parental; ... Although liver diseases transmissible among human populations were identified early in the history of medicine, the first known ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... Vertical: parental; sex; blood Structure[edit]. Viruses in Hepadnaviridae are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 ...
This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases, and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic ... Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 13 (2): 134-141. doi:10.1053/spid.2002.125138.. ... Distinctive Ways of Thinking about Infectious Diseases". Microbe. 2 (8): 383-7. Retrieved December 12, 2007.. ... Swabe, Joanna (2002). Animals, Disease and Human Society: Human-animal Relations and the Rise of Veterinary Medicine. Routledge ...
Gene therapy holds promise as a potential avenue to cure a wide range of retinal diseases. This involves using a non-infectious ... These layers can be grouped into 4 main processing stages: photoreception; transmission to bipolar cells; transmission to ... Further information: List of eye diseases and disorders. There are many inherited and acquired diseases or disorders that may ... This strategy is effective against a number of retinal diseases that have been studied, including neovascular diseases that are ...
"Center for Infectious Disease Research & Policy. Retrieved 27 December 2007.. *^ LeDuc JW, Jahrling PB (2001). "Strengthening ... Transmission. Transmission occurred through inhalation of airborne Variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, ... the WHO intensified efforts to eliminate the disease.[10] Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (4): 676-680. doi:10.3201/eid1704.101960. ISSN 1080-6040. PMC 3377426. PMID 21470458.. ...
Transmission of HBV results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. Possible forms of transmission ... "HIV Transmission". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved May 3, 2014.. ... and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth. HBV can also be transmitted between family members within ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. *^ a b Paddock, Catharine (June 27, 2008). "HIV Rising Among Young Gay Men In The ...
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 25 (4): 395-404. doi:10.1097/QCO.0b013e328355a835. PMID 22744316. S2CID 41051853.. ... Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table, ... Masuda, Hideki (2016). "Combined Transmission Electron Microscopy - In situ Observation of the Formation Process and ... which feeds into some surface waters through upwelling and vertical mixing.[86] ...
... and by vertical transmission (from a mother to her fetus).[1] Diagnosis of early disease is by finding the parasite in the ... Infectious diseases - Parasitic disease: protozoan infection: Excavata (A06-A07, B55-B57, 007, 085-086) ... The disease cannot be cured in this phase, however. Chronic heart disease caused by Chagas disease is now a common reason for ... Association for the Promotion of Independent Disease Control in Developing Countries. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j ...
Diseases in humans that are caused by infectious agents are known as pathogenic diseases, though not all diseases are caused by ... Horizontal transmission occurs between hosts of the same species, in contrast to vertical transmission, which tends to evolve ... 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 62 (4): e1-e50. doi:10.1093/cid/ ... TransmissionEdit. Main article: Transmission (medicine). Transmission of pathogens occurs through many different routes, ...
Some things can be teratogens, including some chemicals, medications, and infectious diseases. ... This is called vertical transmission. Some of these infections can cause birth defects. ... In "Manual for Surveillance of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases"". United States Centers for Disease Control and ... United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). April 16, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2016.. ...
Done Anti-tumour necrosis factor biological therapies for the treatment of uveitic macular oedema (UMO) for non-infectious ... Gloves, gowns and masks for reducing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the hospital ... Interventions for replacing missing teeth: horizontal and vertical bone augmentation techniques for dental implant treatment ... Spiritual and religious interventions for well-being of adults in the terminal phase of disease PMID 22592721 ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases 22:1961-1962 *^ "Guinea worm outbreak dashes hopes of elimination in South Sudan". July 25, 2018. ... making it very difficult to know where and when transmission occurred. The peak transmission season coincides with the rainy ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (December 1993). "Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease ... Uniting to Combat Neglected Tropical Diseases (30 January 2012). "London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases" (PDF). ...
1998) Vertical HIV-I-transmission. I. Risk and prevention in pregnancy. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 142, 2720-2724 PMID 10065235 ... World Health Organisation (1990) Interim proposal for a WHO staging system for HIV infection and disease. WHO Wkly Epidem Rec ... 2004) Infectious molecular clone of a recently transmitted pediatric human immunodeficiency virus clade C isolate from Africa: ... Rothenberg, R. B., Scarlett, M., del Rio, C., Reznik, D., O'Daniels, C. (1998) Oral transmission of HIV. AIDS 12, 2095-2105 ...
... is predominantly a blood-borne virus, with very low risk of sexual or vertical transmission.[47] Because of ... Infectious diseases - viral systemic diseases. Oncovirus. DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal ... Common setting for transmission of HCV is also intra-hospital (nosocomial) transmission, when practices of hygiene and ... Alter, MJ (Nov 2011). "HCV routes of transmission: what goes around comes around". Semin Liver Dis. 31 (4): 340-6. doi:10.1055/ ...
"The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 9 (5): 291-300. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70069-6. PMC 4327893. PMID 19393959.. ... Human-to-human transmission *Horizontal. *Vertical. *Cross-species transmission *Spillover infection. *Vector ... Smallpox Disease Overview Archived 2013-04-02 at the Wayback Machine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ... Which is shorter depends on the disease. A person may carry disease, such as Streptococcus in the throat, without exhibiting ...
Persons, TM «Emerging Infectious Diseases: Actions Needed to Ensure Improved Response to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks» (en ... Cao B, Parnell LA, Diamond MS2, Mysorekar IU «Inhibition of autophagy limits vertical transmission of Zika virus in pregnant ... Plourde, Anna R.; Bloch, Evan M. A Literature Review of Zika Virus. (en anglès). Emerging Infectious Diseases journal-CDC, 2016 ... Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. University of Minnesota «Needle stick infects lab worker with Zika virus» ( ...
Besides, there are direct implications of the immune system in the infectious diseases (tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, ... "Cellular mechanism for selective vertical transmission of an obligate insect symbiont at the bacteriocyte-embryo interface". ... examples include chronic granulomatous disease and primary immune diseases);. *autoimmunity, in which the immune system attacks ... Role of dendritic cells in the aetiology of allergic respiratory disease. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 417. ...
Spread of infectious diseaseEdit. By sperm washing, the risk that a chronic disease in the male providing the sperm would ... the risk of vertical transmission during IVF is no different from the risk in spontaneous conception.[33] However, there is not ... In the United States, women seeking to be an embryo recipient undergo infectious disease screening required by the U.S. Food ... "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2009.. ...
Tóth FD, Bácsi A, Beck Z, Szabó J (2001). "Vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus". Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ... "The Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (2003). பார்த்த நாள் 2008-12-20. ... "HIV/AIDS Connection: Resource and links". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. பார்த்த நாள் 2009-03-31. ... Various (January 14, 2010). "Resources and Links, HIV-AIDS Connection". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. ...
69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 69.4 69.5 Coutsoudis, A; Kwaan, L; Thomson, M (2010 Oct). "Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV-1 in ... editor, Julio Aliberti, (2011). Control of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses During Infectious Diseases.. New York, NY: ... Anderson, J (2012 Feb). "Women and HIV: motherhood and more". Current opinion in infectious diseases 25 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1097 ... HIV and Its Transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya February 4, 2005. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. ... Leishmaniasis is a neglected and poorly reported disease with an underestimated or undetermined burden in most countries of the ...
We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. antibodies ... Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(8):1318-1321. doi:10.3201/ ... Vertical Transmission of Babesia microti, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(8), 1318-1321. ... and vertical transmission in animals has been documented (2,3) and is a potential route of transmission for humans. We report a ...
Vertical Transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):125-127. doi:10.3201/ ... Vertical Transmission of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 125-127. ... warrants study of vertical/transplacental transmission as an additional route of transmission of this stenoxenic microorganism. ... a controversial case of vertical transmission of P. jirovecii was reported: an infection in the lungs of a fetus of an HIV- ...
... with vertical transmission rates slightly higher. From our findings, we concluded that there was efficient vertical ... transmission of three HPV genotypes, with HPV-16 the most prevalent type in pregnant women and newborn babies. ... and vertical transmission characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) among pregnant women from Nanjing, China was ... with vertical transmission rates slightly higher. From our findings, we concluded that there was efficient vertical ...
Browsing by Subject "Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. ... Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B [fact sheet]  World Health Organization. Regional Office for the ... Preventing mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B : operational field guidelines for delivery of the birth dose of ...
Published on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America Volume 56, issue 10, pages 1451-1456. Published in print May 2013 ... Keywords: human papillomavirus; vertical transmission; human cancers; human papillomatosis Journal Article. 3971 words. ... This new evidence of hematogeneous and vertical spread of HPV suggests that these modes of transmission should be investigated ... Despite the increasing evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vertical transmission, this route is regarded as less clinically ...
A 28-year-old pregnant woman with hypertension presented with symptoms compatible with an arboviral disease at 34 weeks ... We report the occurrence of the first death of a mother and child after probable vertical transmission of chikungunya virus in ... From: Maternal and infant death after probable vertical transmission of chikungunya virus in Brazil - case report ...
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. *Pneumococcal Vaccines. *Cytomegalovirus Vaccines. *Dengue Vaccines. *Infectious ...
HIV; global health; mHealth; maternal health; vertical infectious disease transmission. PMID:. 28107805. DOI:. 10.1080/ ... d Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of the Witwatersrand , ...
Vertical Transmission of Babesiosis From a Pregnant, Splenectomized Mother to Her Neonate. Cornett, Julia Kang; Malhotra, ... An Overview of Social Media in the Practice of Infectious Diseases. Oehler, Richard L. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice.. ... Pyomyositis Caused by Disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient With Goodpasture Disease. Kraft, Colleen S.; Aldrete, Sol ...
Infectious disease transmission on airplanes. Researchers estimate the risk of infectious disease transmission on board ... Evolution of vertical and oblique transmission under fluctuating selection Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Evolution of vertical and oblique transmission under fluctuating selection. Yoav Ram, Uri Liberman and Marcus W. Feldman ... Under such a selection regime, the fate of a genetic modifier of the rate of vertical transmission depends on the length of the ...
Infectious Disease Institute. Kampala, Uganda. 4. NCT02515370. Recruiting. Friends for Life Circles for Option B Plus. *Human ... Prevention of mother-to-child transmission OR PMTCT OR MTCT OR perinatal transmission OR vertical transmission , Recruiting, ... Prevention of mother-to-child transmission OR PMTCT OR MTCT OR perinatal transmission OR vertical transmission , Recruiting, ... Prevention of mother-to-child transmission OR PMTCT OR MTCT OR perinatal transmission OR vertical transmission , Recruiting, ...
Prevention of mother to child transmission. HAART. Aluvia. Lopinavir. Africa. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. ... Therapeutic options to prevent vertical transmission of HIV remain limited. Combination antiretroviral therapy in the form of ... Dr Michael Silverman, Chair of Infectious Diseases, St.Josephs Hospital, London, Ontario, Canada, University of Zambia. ... Clinical Study of an Aluvia-based HAART Regimen for Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV Transmission in Africa. The safety and ...
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. en_US. dc.title. Progress in scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV ...
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical [‎5]‎. Inflation, Economic [‎2]‎. Influenza A virus [‎22]‎. ...
By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a ... Interventions to control diseases dont simply hinder their spread but can cause pathogens and the diseases they engender to ... especially those involved in the fight against infectious diseases. This book is the first in-depth presentation of these ... When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism ...
Vertical Transmission of Avian Bornavirus in Psittacines. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(12):2390-2391. doi:10.3201/ ... which may point toward vertical transmission (9).. To investigate vertical transmission of ABV, we examined 30 dead-in-shell ... Vertical Transmission of Avian Bornavirus in Psittacines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(12), 2390-2391. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control ...
... transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric HIV-1 infections. Many factors are involved in vertical transmission, ... Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical * Molecular Sequence Data * Phylogeny * Pregnancy * Pregnancy Complications, ... transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric HIV-1 infections. Many factors are involved in vertical transmission, ... It has been suggested that HIV-1 subtype may influence vertical transmission and that subtype D viruses may be less likely to ...
The absolute number of vertical transmissions and the young age at infection highlight a public health concern. These findings ... Vertical transmission is one of the primary HCV infection routes among children,5 years in Egypt. ... 1 Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College-Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation-Education ... Estimation of hepatitis C virus infections resulting from vertical transmission in Egypt Hepatology. 2015 Mar;61(3):834-42. doi ...
The estimated pooled prevalence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was 11.4% (95% CI = 9.1-13.7). The pooled adjusted odds ... This systematic review and meta-analysis intended to provide the pooled estimation of mother-to-child transmission rate and its ... This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV was high in Ethiopia. Being from ... and mixed infant feeding practices increased the risk of HIV transmission. It is registered in the Prospero database: (PROSPERO ...
... transmission, symptoms, treatment, and guidelines about hepatitis C testing and diagnosis. ... Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2014;59(6):765- ... American Association for the Study of Liver Disease (AASLD), and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). HCV ... American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). ...
Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan. N Engl J Med 1975; 292: 771-774. ... Australia has been fortunate in its experience with infectious diseases over the past century. By the 1960s, many communicable ... Natural history of infectious disease. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953. ... Sex, disease and society: a comparative history of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific. Westport ...
4 Centers for Disease Control. Oct. 19, 2016. *5 Clinical Infectious Diseases. Human Papillomavirus Vertical Transmission: ... Originally the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended a three-dose HPV vaccine regimen, but in ... Why Vaccinate Newborns Against a Sexually Transmitted Disease?. Even if you overlook the potential for adverse effects from HPV ... But hepatitis B is a primarily blood-transmitted adult disease associated with risky lifestyle choices such as unprotected sex ...
We investigated mother-to-newborn infant transmission of Lactobacillus species in Japanese by the typing of isolates from the ... Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*. Lactobacillus / classification, genetics, isolation & purification*. Milk, Human / ... Molecular epidemiological study of vertical transmission of vaginal Lactobacillus species from mothers to newborn infants in ... We investigated mother-to-newborn infant transmission of Lactobacillus species in Japanese by the typing of isolates from the ...
Disease Outbreaks. Female. Host-Parasite Interactions. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. Microscopy, Electron. ... Furthermore where vertical transmission is combined with host sex ratio distortion these parasites may directly enhance host ... Microsporidiosis / transmission*. Oocytes / parasitology. Ovary / parasitology. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... 3336179 - Dicroceliasis (lancet fluke disease) in an hiv seropositive man.. 2389319 - Ecdysteroid-like compounds in the serum ...
... infectious disease transmission, vertical ... Discussion. The risk for vertical transmission of syphilis ... 3 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals of Geneva & Geneva Medical School, Geneva ... Conclusion. Both cases emphasize the relevance of the prevention of vertical transmission of syphilis by means of systematic ... False positive results can occur in NB due to the transmission of IgG antibodies to the fetus1. False negative results are not ...
Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:765-73. CrossRef ... Red book: 2012 report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; ... Increased hepatitis C virus (HCV) detection in women of childbearing age and potential risk for vertical transmission-United ... The rate of vertical transmission from infected mothers to infants is estimated at 6% (11% if the mother is coinfected with ...
There currently is no evidence of intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop 2019 novel ... Infectious-diseases Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles ... infection caused by vertical transmission in women who develop 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia in late ... No Sign of Vertical Transmission of COVID-19 Found in Late Pregnancy. 14:00 EST 13 Feb 2020 , ...
infectious disease transmission, vertical. *gastroenteritis. Strengths and limitations of this study. *. UK general practice ... Infectious disease burden related to child day care in the Netherlands. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013;32:1-40.doi:10.1097/INF. ... Longitudinal study of infectious intestinal disease in the UK (IID2 study): incidence in the community and presenting to ... RCGP RSC is one of the oldest surveillance networks; it has been producing a weekly return on infectious disease, including ...
  • Efficacy of Interferon Alpha-2b and Ribavirin Against West Nile Virus in Vitro Emerging Infectious Diseases. (
  • Recently, a controversial case of vertical transmission of P . jirovecii was reported: an infection in the lungs of a fetus of an HIV-positive mother with Pneumocystis pneumonia ( 5 ). (
  • Studies of vertical HPV transmission have reported a wide range of neonatal infection rates. (
  • This new evidence of hematogeneous and vertical spread of HPV suggests that these modes of transmission should be investigated in greater detail to obtain a better understanding of the infection and a fuller awareness of the preventive measures that can be taken against HPV-related diseases. (
  • Transmission of HIV-1 with subtype D V3 regions was confirmed in 4 of the 11 transmitters, including 2 who had dual infection with subtype A and D HIV-1. (
  • Whereas HCV mother-to-child infection is a well-established transmission route, there are no estimates of HCV infections resulting from vertical transmission for any country, including Egypt. (
  • The absolute number of vertical transmissions and the young age at infection highlight a public health concern. (
  • Screening for HCV infection in women of childbearing age and provision of treatment services might reduce perinatal transmission of HCV, and monitoring of HCV-exposed infants can aid in early identification of HCV infection and related liver disease. (
  • Vertical transmission of HCV, passage from mother to child during pregnancy or birth, occurs in approximately five percent of pregnancies of HCV-infected mothers and is now the leading route of infection in children. (
  • Although T-cell immunity is known to be critical for control of acute infection in adults and animal models of HCV, the roles of maternal and infant T-cell responses in preventing vertical transmission and reasons for their failure remain unknown. (
  • Vertical transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the third trimester: a systematic scoping review. (
  • The objective of this review was to summarize the current evidence on the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in the third trimester and its effects on the neonate.Methods: OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial (CENTRAL) were searched from January 2020 to May 2020, with continuous surveillance.Results: 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, consisting of 157 mothers and 160 neonates. (
  • Neutralizing antibodies destroy or inactivate infectious agents, while enhancing antibodies promote infection. (
  • Nastouli is also contributing to Virus Watch, a project led by Andrew Hayward that will investigate the spread of coronavirus disease around the United Kingdom as well as analysing how social distancing impacts infection rates. (
  • A severe outbreak of ovine anaplasmosis was diagnosed for the first time in Spain in 2014 and, subsequently, a research was developed in order to increase de knowledge of this not-well-known disease.An experimental infection with Anaplasma ovis was carr. (
  • In horizontal transmission, acutely infected subjects were found to have shorter variable loops and fewer PNG sites encoded in env compared to subjects with chronic HIV-1 infection for subtypes A and C, but not subtype B ( 10 , 32 , 34 ). (
  • Refers to infection or disease without signs of illness. (
  • Substances present in the blood that can cause infection or disease. (
  • Mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the most common form of HBV infection in China. (
  • Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis (IHHN) (also known as infection with Penaeus stylirostris densovirus [PstDNV])is an infectious virus affecting shrimp and prawns. (
  • IHHN suppresses the prawns immune system, allowing infection by other disease agents. (
  • Usually, infectious diseases do not carry the gloomy outlook of malignant tumors, although an infection may be fatal or develop at the end of treatment of a cancer. (
  • Vertical transmission of infection or acquisition at birth is an important consideration in the care of women who might become pregnant. (
  • In the current study, NICHD-funded researchers led by Indira U. Mysorekar, Ph.D., at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, demonstrate that Zika virus infection activates autophagy in lab cultures of human placental cells and in the placentas of mouse models of Zika virus transmission. (
  • The treatment also restricts Zika infection in the fetal head and leads to a larger fetal body size, suggesting that the drug limits cross-placental transmission of the virus. (
  • Lyme disease (LD) is a multi-stage, multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral shaped bacterium that is most commonly transmitted by a tick bite. (
  • It can cause chronic liver disease and chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer [ 1 ]. (
  • transmission can also occur by transfusion of infected blood products, and vertical transmission in animals has been documented ( 2 , 3 ) and is a potential route of transmission for humans. (
  • in different mammals, including humans, warrants study of vertical/transplacental transmission as an additional route of transmission of this stenoxenic microorganism. (
  • In humans, transplacental transmission was first suggested by a few reports of Pneumocystis pneumonia in neonates published before the AIDS epidemic ( 4 ). (
  • Our results provide molecular evidence of P . jirovecii transplacental transmission in humans. (
  • R. M. Anderson and R. M. May, "Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control,", Oxford University Press , (1991). (
  • Professor Edward Holmes is known for his work on the evolution and emergence of infectious diseases, particularly the mechanisms by which pathogens jump species boundaries to emerge in humans. (
  • Transmission can also be indirect, via another organism , either a vector (e.g. a mosquito or fly) or an intermediate host (e.g. tapeworm in pigs can be transmitted to humans who ingest improperly cooked pork ). (
  • Next, we take the controls as time and formulate the appropriate optimal control problem and obtain the optimal control strategy to minimize both the number of infectious humans and the associated costs. (
  • To date, smallpox is the only one eradicated infectious disease that affects humans. (
  • Treatment of periodontal disease prior to or during pregnancy (not proven to decrease the incidence of pregnancy complications or preterm birth). (
  • Case definitions have been developed by CDC, in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, to provide uniform clinical and laboratory-testing criteria for the identification and reporting of nationally notifiable infectious diseases. (
  • 1269 words - 6 pages Vaccines should be mandatory The invention of the vaccinations has been one of the greatest health interventions, saving millions of people from infectious diseases (Ehreth, 2002). (
  • The viral disease first appeared in Southern China in November 2002 and spread to more than 24 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Originally the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended a three-dose HPV vaccine regimen, but in October, 2016, the CDC changed its recommendation to two doses for girls and boys aged 9 to 14 years old to be given six months apart. (
  • What's more, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now advises healthcare providers that transmission of the virus to newborns is thought to occur primarily from respiratory droplets when babies are exposed to moms, caregivers, visitors, or healthcare workers who are infected. (
  • During the 2014 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that all emergency department (ED) patients undergo travel screening fo. (
  • Unless you act now, as many as 1,002 newborn infants in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean will die from unnecessary HIV infections they will contract from their HIV-infected mothers in nine unethical research experiments funded by your Department through either the National Institutes of Health (NIH) or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), SARS was recognized as a global threat in March 2003. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lyme disease continues to be a rapidly emerging infectious disease, and is the lea. (
  • The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading globally at an accelerated rate, with a basic reproduction number (R0) of 2-2.5, indicating that 2-3 persons will be infected from an index patient. (
  • Alongside her role in ICONIC, Nastouli is a member of i-sense, a consortium that looks to identify and prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases. (
  • These outbreaks prompted our Neonatal-Perinatal Service to characterize clinical manifestations of the diseases, develop guidelines for diagnosis and management of suspected intrauterine exposed fetuses. (
  • No outbreaks of avian notifiable disease (AND) were confirmed during the quarter in Great Britain. (
  • Pregnant women and their fetuses represent a high-risk population during infectious disease outbreaks. (
  • ZIKV is also present on the African and Asian continents but has not resulted in similarly large outbreaks, despite the presence of permissive mosquito vectors and favorable ecological conditions for transmission. (
  • We briefly review available literature and discuss the possible mechanisms of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women. (
  • This report summarizes our first case of congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosed among 767 HIV-exposed infants followed at Infectious Diseases Department of Hospital dos Servidores do Estado, since 1996, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where 74% of HIV-infected mothers had serologic evidence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG during pregnancy. (
  • Our findings indicate that pharmacological inhibition of autophagy warrants evaluation in preclinical studies and eventually in human trials to further define its effects on Zika congenital disease," added Dr. Mysorekar. (
  • 8-10] The evolution of the congenital and reactive forms of the disease has yet to be determined. (
  • Abstract The United Kingdom achieved interrupted endemic measles transmission for 36 months in 2016. (
  • Molecular epidemiological study of vertical transmission of vaginal Lactobacillus species from mothers to newborn infants in Japanese, by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. (
  • We investigated mother-to-newborn infant transmission of Lactobacillus species in Japanese by the typing of isolates from the vagina of pregnant women and stool specimens from their newborn infants. (
  • More recent studies indicate that MS can colonize the mouths of predentate infants and that horizontal as well as vertical transmission does occur. (
  • Transmission of S. mutans can be found in people of all ages although it is more common for infants and children. (
  • The Women and Infants Transmission Study is a prospective natural history study that has been enrolling HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their infants since 1989. (
  • Despite the dramatic reduction of perinatal HIV transmission following the administration of ZDV to mothers and infants, new, more effective strategies are needed. (
  • These findings also emphasize the need to quantify the relative contributions of other transmission routes to HCV incidence in Egypt. (
  • We are carrying out this study to describe household transmission of medically attended AGE, and explore whether there is an increased incidence in households with young children. (
  • A 25-year repeated cross-sectional study will explore the incidence of medically attended AGE overall and then a 5-year retrospective cohort study will describe household transmission of AGE. (
  • High epilepsy prevalence and incidence have been reported in areas with high onchocerciasis transmission. (
  • to reduce the incidence of, or to eliminate a particular disease. (
  • Differences in incidence of such diseases between different groups can also throw light on the routes of transmission of the disease. (
  • Clinician scientists within Infectious Diseases along with principal investigators in the Center for Vaccines and Immunity and the Center for Microbial Pathogenesis at The Research Institute are dedicated to improving care for children with infectious diseases. (
  • Investigators in the Center for Vaccines and Immunity at The Research Institute are focused on understanding the role of T-cell immunity in the vertical transmission of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (
  • Prominent among these are parallel immediate means of spread [ 3 , 4 ], some aspects of the role of immunity [ 5 ] and the characteristics of terminal events occurring in these diseases. (
  • Infectious disease and immunization histories should be reviewed to determine likely immunity and needed immunizations. (
  • Sugar is still the leading culprit - and genetics, diet, immunity, susceptibility, oral hygiene and fluoride exposure play roles - but a large and growing body of research suggests that oral decay is also an infectious disease. (
  • It is important to note the prevention of perinatal transmission of syphilis by systematic screening of pregnant women and appropriate treatment given by trained professionals within the prison environment, which represents a key population for controlling this disease, which is responsible for causing severe complications. (
  • A SEIR model for control of infectious diseases with constraints, Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering , 11 (2014), 761-784. (
  • The prediction that sex-ratio distorting parasites are likely to retain a degree of horizontal transmission has important implications for the epidemiology and host-parasite interactions of these organisms. (
  • By presenting the first detailed explanation of an evolutionary perspective on infectious disease, the author has achieved a genuine milestone in the synthesis of health science, epidemiology, and evolutionary biology. (
  • By the 1960s, many communicable diseases were controlled through a combination of high living standards, progressive adoption of vaccines and antimicrobial treatment. (
  • Australian medical scientists have made substantial contributions to the understanding of many historically significant communicable diseases and global initiatives for control. (
  • Protect women who become pregnant from the increased severity of some communicable diseases in pregnancy (such in influenza and varicella). (
  • 3 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals of Geneva & Geneva Medical School, Geneva, Switzerland. (
  • She looks to support pregnant women with viral infectious diseases, including Zika ad Hepatitis B. She has investigated novel strategies to test for and treat HIV, Zika and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). (
  • The recent emergence in America of Chikungunya and Zika has added new febrile viral diseases which impact susceptible women in childbearing age and with a high rate of vertical transmission, which can occur in asymptomatic women. (
  • Hydroxychloroquine, a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat malaria and certain autoimmune diseases in pregnant women, appears to reduce transmission of Zika virus from pregnant mice to their fetuses, according to a study funded in part by the National Institutes of Health. (
  • These results led us to reason that an existing drug that blocked autophagy and could be administered during pregnancy might reduce vertical transmission of Zika virus," said Dr. Mysorekar. (
  • Inhibition of autophagy limits vertical transmission of Zika virus in pregnant mice. (
  • Zika is a mosquito-borne disease associated with neurological disorders that causes an on-going pandemic. (
  • 6 Maritime quarantine provided a significant, if not impregnable, barrier to the introduction of epidemic diseases. (
  • An appropriate quantification of the transmission potential requires the estimation of the cohort generation time during the initial growth phase of an epidemic or adjustment of the time-effect (e.g., adjustment of the growth rate of the epidemic during the sampling time) on the period generation time. (
  • Sexual transmission and the probability of an end of the Ebola virus disease epidemic. (
  • Ebola virus disease epidemic. (
  • We devised a statistical model to compute the probability of the end of an Ebola virus disease epidemic, accounting for sexual transmission and under-ascertainment of cases. (
  • During the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Liberia, contact tracing was implemented to rapidly detect new cases and prevent further transmission. (
  • During the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the Ebola-Tx trial evaluated the use of convalescent plasma (CP) in Guinea. (
  • Adherence to Universal Travel Screening in the Emergency Department During Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease. (
  • In this paper, a delayed SIR epidemic model with pulse vaccination and vertical transmission is proposed. (
  • Mathematical analysis of an age-structured SIR epidemic model with vertical transmission. (
  • R_0$ and the global behavior of an age-structured SIS epidemic model with periodicity and vertical transmission. (
  • Global properties of a delayed SIR epidemic model with multiple parallel infectious stages. (
  • a condition in which an individual's immune system fails to recognize its own biochemical markers as being "self" and attacks body tissues as if they were foreign matter, possibly leading to autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • The evolution of rules of transmission has dramatically different dynamics from the more frequently studied modifiers of recombination, mutation, or migration. (
  • O. Diekmann , H. Heesterbeek and T. Britton , Mathematical Tools for Understanding Infectious Disease Dynamics , Princton University Press, Princton, 2013. (
  • Vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii can result in significant morbidity in the fetus and newborn, although it is rare in Australia. (
  • The disease is also evident by high morbidity or mortality. (
  • When tumor suppressor genes are overwhelmed by a mutation (deletion), the burst of tumor growth may evoke an association with the infectious morbidity that occurs when the normal flora is destroyed by wide spectrum antibiotics [ 7 ]. (
  • Esta fue la primera vez que se realizó un tamizaje neonatal para el HTLV-1/2 en Brasil. (
  • Publication date: Available online 13 July 2019Source: Small Ruminant ResearchAuthor(s): C. Jiménez, A. Benito, J.L. Arnal, A. Ortín, M. Gómez, A. López, S. Villanueva-Saz, D. LacastaAbstractOvine anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria Anaplasma ovis and the disease is characterized by anaemia, weight loss and weakness. (
  • When S. mutans is detected in the furrows of the tongue it is concluded that the vertical transmission route for the bacteria from mother to child arises shortly after birth. (
  • A further parallel feature is that of oncogenic viruses and bacteria which promote an infectious disease on the one hand and are capable of causing cancer on the other hand, following a long latent period [ 3 , 8 ]. (
  • For transmission between insect hosts, the bacteria colonize the intestine of the nematode's infective juvenile stage 6-8 . (
  • Previous research has established that autophagy plays an important role in the placenta's defense against bacteria and other disease-causing agents. (
  • More recently, various studies, including a 2006 study in the journal Pediatric Dentistry, have shown that the bacteria can also be passed among siblings and classmates, what's known as "horizontal transmission. (
  • Pneumocystis DNA has been documented in blood or amniotic fluid samples from pregnant rabbit does ( 3 ), in which transplacental transmission of Pneumocystis spp. (
  • The prevalence, genotypes, and vertical transmission characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) among pregnant women from Nanjing, China was investigated. (
  • The prevalence of cervical HPV DNA in pregnant women from Nanjing was low, with vertical transmission rates slightly higher. (
  • From our findings, we concluded that there was efficient vertical transmission of three HPV genotypes, with HPV-16 the most prevalent type in pregnant women and newborn babies. (
  • We analyzed HIV-1 gp120 V3 region sequences from the plasma of 20 pregnant Ugandan women of known transmission status who did not receive antiretroviral prophylaxis. (
  • Adolescent and young pregnant women at increased risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and poorer maternal and infant health outcomes: A cohort study at public facilities in the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan district, Eastern Cape, South Africa. (
  • HIV-infected pregnant women with undetectable plasma HIV RNA concentrations at delivery pose a minimal risk of vertical transmission. (
  • To date, the outcomes of 55 pregnant women infected with COVID-19 and 46 neonates have been reported in the literature, with no definite evidence of vertical transmission. (
  • El año 2018 es un momento oportuno para explorar las reformas del sistema de salud y la atención primaria de salud (APS) en Brasil, dados los aniversarios de la Declaración de Alma-Ata (40 años) y de la Constitución de Brasil (30 años), las bases del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS). (
  • 6thEurosurveillance scientific seminar 'One Health - we are in this together - Viral and bacterial diseases/conditions at the animal-human interface' at ESCAIDE 2017 in Stockholm. (
  • That was comforting news, but now a new study in JAMA Pediatrics suggests that "vertical transmission"-from mom to baby-of the virus that causes COVID-19, may be possible. (
  • fecal-oral transmission - usually from unwashed hands, contaminated food or water sources due to lack of sanitation and hygiene , an important transmission route in pediatrics, veterinary medicine and developing countries. (
  • The growing understanding of the role of bacterial transmission in tooth decay in young children has, in part, led to the enormous effort by organizations including the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Academy of Pediatrics to educate parents and even general dentists about the need to see children by the time they are 1 year of age or when their first teeth emerge. (
  • A change of heart led him to medical school at New York University School of Medicine, followed by an internship and residency in pediatrics and an infectious disease fellowship at NYU where he was awarded the Bristol Fellowship by the Infectious Disease Society of America. (
  • Dr. Frey recently retired from private practice in pediatrics and pediatric/adult infectious diseases. (
  • established capsule form is known as Kaletra) to improve maternal virological control and thus mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT). (
  • HIV has many routes of transmission including mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) [ 4 ]. (
  • BACKGROUND Limited information exists about effects of different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens and duration of regimens on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among women in Africa who start treatment for advanced immunosuppression. (
  • Subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1C) continues to cause the majority of new cases of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), and yet there are limited data on HIV-1C transmission. (
  • Owing to the availability of matched donor-recipient pairs and the relatively well-defined timing of transmission, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 is a tractable setting in which to study this bottleneck and determine the viral characteristics and/or immune responses associated with transmission, with the potential to suggest mechanisms. (
  • This systematic review and meta-analysis intended to provide the pooled estimation of mother-to-child transmission rate and its risk factors in Ethiopia. (
  • This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV was high in Ethiopia. (
  • citation needed] Some of the signs and symptoms of liver disease are the following: Jaundice[citation needed] Confusion and altered consciousness caused by hepatic encephalopathy. (
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy in the form of HAART (Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy) is generally recommended in the developed world, both for its ability to reduce maternal viral load, and thus the likelihood of transmission, as well as for its prevention of drug resistance mutations, which might otherwise reduce future options for therapy in the mother, infant, or both. (
  • Some of the diseases that can be transmitted vertically include chagas, dengue fever and hepatitis B. Vertical transmission of HIV/ AIDS generally occurs during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding and may be influenced by many factors such as maternal viral load and the type of delivery [1,2]. (
  • Currently, there is currently no conclusive evidence to suggest that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs. (
  • Intrapartum transmission occurs when an infant is exposed to an infected mom's vaginal secretions or blood during labor or delivery. (
  • Droplet transmission occurs when respiratory droplets generated via coughing, sneezing or talking contact susceptible mucosal surfaces, such as the eyes, nose or mouth. (
  • Numerical simulations using biologically realistic parameters suggest that a feminising parasite is only likely to lose the capability for horizontal transmission if its host occurs at low density and/or has a male-biased primary sex ratio. (
  • Although horizontal transmission is not essential to the survival of an SRD parasite in theory, there is mounting evidence that it occurs in nature, suggesting some evolutionary benefit. (
  • Specific characteristics such as no carrier state, no vertical transmission, no arthropod vector, and availability of vaccines were fundamental elements that suggested the possibility to eradicate rinderpest. (
  • Indirect transmission could involve zoonoses or, more typically, larger pathogens like macroparasites with more complex life cycles . (
  • 13 (8%) neonates had complications or symptoms.Conclusions: The findings of this rapid descriptive review based on early clinical evidence suggest that vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to neonate/newborn did not occur. (
  • Se realizó una revisión sistemática con búsqueda bibliográfica en PubMed Central, LILACS, y Google Scholar usando las palabras clave 'covid' Y 'newborn' O 'child' O 'infant', el 18 de marzo de 2020, y de nuevo el 17 de abril de 2020. (
  • Ebola cases defined by the World Health Organization did not explicitly account for the sexual transmission and led to multiple recrudescent events in West Africa from 2015-2016, partly indeed caused by sexual transmission from survivors. (
  • Following the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak from 2013 to 2016, viral RNA has been detected in survivors from semen and breast milk long after disease recovery. (
  • Este informe se enfoca en ese periodo, así como los desafíos y las estrategias implementados durante el ciclo político más reciente (2013-2016). (
  • Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic. (
  • Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy duration and regimen on risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. (
  • Prevention of mother-to-child transmission involves the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), caesarean section [5,6] and refraining from breastfeeding. (
  • An increasing number of women may require combination antiretroviral therapy for their own disease because they may be resistant to ZDV, may have high viral loads, or may have previously transmitted HIV to an infant while on ZDV monotherapy. (
  • Vertical (mother-to-child) transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric HIV-1 infections. (
  • The burden of mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV is high and risk factors are common in Ethiopia. (
  • The estimated pooled prevalence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was 11.4% (95% CI = 9.1-13.7). (
  • Vertical transmission is defined as mother-to-child transmission of a pathogen (such as a virus, like the coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2). (
  • A high percentage of perinatal HIV infections are due to inadequate or absent mother-to-child transmission prophylaxis. (
  • The high rates of vertical transmission in Africa are attributed to low rates accessibility of intervention programmes and lack of adherence to the necessary medications to prevent mother-to-child transmission. (
  • Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) can dramatically reduce the risk of vertical transmission. (
  • Though there are a number of HIV-related studies conducted in Ethiopia, there is a scarcity of evidence on the rate of mother to child transmission. (
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the absolute number of new HCV infections resulting from vertical transmission in Egypt. (
  • The mathematical model estimated the number of HCV vertical infections nationally and for six subnational areas. (
  • Applying two vertical transmission risk estimates to the 2008 Egyptian birth cohort, we estimated that between 3,080 and 5,167 HCV infections resulted from vertical transmission among children born in 2008. (
  • Disproportionately higher proportions of vertical infections were estimated in Lower Rural and Upper Rural subnational areas. (
  • Gene expression analyses has allowed the team to better understand the mechanisms of the disease, and also assess disease severity, responses to therapy and eventually predict outcomes in children with RSV, influenza or rhinovirus infections among others. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICSTDI 2022 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections . (
  • 12 The social stigma of sexually transmitted diseases and the heroic nature of combined mercurial and Salvarsan therapy deterred many asymptomatic patients from seeking treatment. (
  • The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been isolated from asymptomatic individuals, and affected patients continue to be infectious 2 weeks after cessation of symptoms. (
  • In detailing why the pathogens that cause malaria, smallpox, tuberculosis, and AIDS have their special kinds of deadliness, the book shows how efforts to control virtually all diseases would benefit from a more thorough application of evolutionary principles. (
  • Interventions to control diseases don't simply hinder their spread but can cause pathogens and the diseases they engender to evolve into more benign forms. (
  • Currently, he is studying why some pathogens are particularly likely to jump between species and spread, and using metagenomic technology to discover novel viruses and determine the possible microbial cause of disease syndromes (e.g. emerging tick-borne disease in Australia). (
  • Determining the ability for Australian tick species to mediate vector transmission of veterinary and medically significant pathogens and the range of pathogens vectored. (
  • Responsibilities on the clinical service include the evaluation and management of children admitted to the Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, as well as outpatient consultations in the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic, the Pediatric HIV clinic, the local county health department tuberculosis clinic, and the Pediatric Emergency Department. (
  • 8] The high prevalence of the disease has been demonstrated in several Latin American countries. (
  • Despite the increasing evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vertical transmission, this route is regarded as less clinically important because of the detections of transient HPV DNA. (
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a rapidly spreading, potentially fatal infectious viral disease. (
  • If the disease is acute, your immune system is usually able to clear the virus from your body, and you should recover completely within a few months. (
  • False positive results can occur in NB due to the transmission of IgG antibodies to the fetus 1 . (
  • Liver disease can occur through several mechanisms: One general mechanism, increased DNA damage, is shared by some of the major causes of liver disease. (
  • [5] Transmission of pathogen can occur in various ways including physical contact, contaminated food, body fluids, objects, airborne inhalation, or through vector organisms. (
  • Transmission may also occur indirectly via contact with contaminated fomites with hands and then mucosal surfaces. (
  • Syphilis also imposed a high burden of chronic disease on society. (
  • When viewed from a Darwinian perspective, a pathogen is not simply a disease-causing agent, it is a self-replicating organism driven by evolutionary pressures to pass on as many copies of itself as possible. (
  • At University College London Nastouli leads the Advanced Pathogen Diagnostics Unit as well as the antenatal infectious diseases clinic. (
  • He has spent almost 30 years using molecular genetic techniques to understand the determinants of cross-species pathogen transmission and emergence. (
  • In medicine , public health , and biology , transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected. (
  • What is more common, horizontal or vertical transmission? (
  • With a worldwide distribution, transmission of IHHN virus can be via horizontal or vertical routes. (
  • Streptococcus mutans can be passed from one person to the next via horizontal or vertical transmission. (
  • Diseases can be transmitted in various ways, some of which can be classified as horizontal or vertical. (
  • Hypothesis: Maternal use of HAART containing Zidovudine, 3TC and Aluvia (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) can prevent antepartum, and intrapartum transmission of HIV, as well as allow exclusive and then subsequent complementary feeding to be carried out with minimum risk to the mother and infant. (
  • We developed a conceptual framework of HCV vertical transmission, expressed in terms of a mathematical model and based on maternal HCV antibody and viremia. (
  • Here we present a review of COVID-19 in pregnancy, bringing together the various factors integral to the understanding of pathophysiology and susceptibility, diagnostic challenges with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, therapeutic controversies, intrauterine transmission, and maternal-fetal complications. (
  • The biological mechanisms involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission remain largely unclear. (
  • simian immunodeficiency disease zoonosis of HIV occured when african hunters hunted bushmeat, exposure to infected blood occured during physical contact E V O L U T I O N of HIV. (
  • Hereditary diseases that cause damage to the liver include hemochromatosis, involving accumulation of iron in the body, and Wilson's disease. (
  • In theory, the ability to distort host sex-ratios allows a parasite with efficient vertical (hereditary) transmission to dispense completely with horizontal (infectious) transmission. (
  • In general, the evolutionarily stable rate of vertical transmission differs markedly from the rate that maximizes the geometric mean fitness of the population. (
  • The success of this program prompted a postwar attempt to eradicate the disease from the civilian population, and the advent of streptomycin and sickness benefit payments made compulsory treatment acceptable to the community. (
  • Furthermore where vertical transmission is combined with host sex ratio distortion these parasites may directly enhance host invasion success through increased rates of population growth. (
  • In this paper an improved SEIR model for an infectious disease is presented which includes logistic growth for the total population. (
  • The transfer of genotypes are responsible for the transmission of S. mutans from mothers to their children although, there is a genotypic variation from one population to the next. (
  • It is also demonstrated that even a small amount of horizontal transmission can allow multiple feminising parasites to coexist within a single host population. (
  • Finally it is shown that, by boosting its host's rate of population growth, a feminising parasite can increase its own horizontal transmission and allow the invasion of other, more virulent parasites. (
  • Childhood Immunizations The importance of immunizations: Immunization is key to preventing disease among the general population. (
  • Highlights of the latest quarterly report from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA) include duck virus enteritis, Salmonella pullorum responsible for high mortality in chicks in a small backyard flock and a further outbreak of QX strain of infectious bronchitis in chickens. (
  • Further outbreak of QX strain infectious bronchitis in chickens - This strain of IB virus is believed to have been imported into GB having originated in China. (
  • An outbreak of rinderpest in imported animals in Belgium in 1920 was the impetus for international cooperation in controlling animal diseases, and a key factor leading to the establishment of the World Organization for Animal Health (Office International des Épizooties: OIE) in 1924. (
  • We report a case of babesiosis in an infant for whom vertical transmission was suggested by evidence of Babesia spp. (
  • If symptoms persist but Babesia organisms are no longer detected, one should consider the possibility of addition concurrent Lyme disease (caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in the USA) and/or concurrent human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum ). (
  • For example, low personal and food hygiene due to the lack of a clean water supply may result in increased transmission of diseases by the fecal-oral route, such as cholera . (
  • 34 were presumed uninfected while four showed clinical and laboratory evidence of HIV disease. (
  • Maxwell Finland Laboratory for Infectious Diseases, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 774 Albany Street, Suite 506, Boston, MA 02118, U S A J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 29:484-94. (
  • Clinical material was however submitted to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle Disease (ND), VLA Weybridge from three cases of suspected AND in domestic poultry. (
  • For some diseases, insufficient evidence exists to determine the benefits of screening and treatment relative to pregnancy outcomes. (
  • A growing body of direct empirical evidence also indicates that some bacterial SRD parasites are capable of horizontal transmission. (
  • It is the timing of the transmission - a time when the infant has limited immune resources to counterbalance the presence of the bacterial colonies. (
  • Horstick O, Runge-Ranzinger S. Protection of the house against Chagas disease, dengue, leishmaniasis, and lymphatic filariasis: a systematic review. (
  • For example, only 1% of people infected with T. cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, receive timely diagnosis and treatment. (
  • The majority of SRD parasites possess very efficient mechanisms of transovarial vertical transmission and do not normally appear to undergo horizontal transmission. (
  • We have reviewed the analogous features of these two categories of diseases, in an attempt to find out whether they are absent or negligible, if they present with similar mechanisms or if they possess common properties. (
  • Mechanisms of spread at the molecular level are as different as possible in the two categories of disease discussed. (
  • Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. (
  • d Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences , University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg , South Africa. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. (
  • In a clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health in Hungary in collaboration with Merck, researchers indicated in 2014 they were going to test the original 4-valent Gardasil vaccine to treat recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), a rare disease in children caused by HPV types 6 and 11, which also cause genital warts. (
  • It concedes, though, that 'the extent and clinical significance of vertical transmission' is unclear. (
  • Understand that the number of microorganisms present in a patient must exceed a certain threshold to cause clinical disease. (
  • Liver damage is also a clinical feature of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and glycogen storage disease type II. (
  • Objectives The goal of the authors was to determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all HIV-positive children and adolescents infected by vertical transmission. (
  • 15] The disease causes illnesses ranging from no clinical signs to prematurity, encephalitis, deafness, hematologic disorders, and death. (
  • Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders There are many inflammatory and infectious disorders that affect the body's musculoskeletal system that require clinical care by a physician oar other healthcare professional. (
  • Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult . (