Trichuris: A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.Trichuriasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.Ascaris lumbricoides: A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.Ascariasis: Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Helminths: Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.Ancylostomatoidea: A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Hookworm Infections: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.Mebendazole: A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Pyrantel Pamoate: Broad spectrum antinematodal anthelmintic used also in veterinary medicine.Therapy with Helminths: The treatment of immune system diseases by deliberate infestation with helminths. This therapy is partly based on the HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS which states that the absence of parasites increases immune dysregulation because of the lack of stimulation of REGULATORY T-CELLS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Ascaris: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.Mice, Inbred AKRPaleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Ancylostomiasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Ancylostoma: A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.Nematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Hymenolepis: A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.Oesophagostomum: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Oesophagostomiasis: Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Necator americanus: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.Fenbendazole: Antinematodal benzimidazole used in veterinary medicine.Papio hamadryas: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE, which has a well-studied trilevel social structure consisting of troops, bands, and clans.Colobinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE, that inhabits the forests of Africa and Asia. The genera COLOBUS (Procolobus; colobus), Nasalis (proboscis monkey), Presbytis (Semnopithecus; leaf monkey), Pygathrix (Rhinopithecus; snub-nosed monkey), and Simias (pig-tailed langur) all belong to this subfamily.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Papio cynocephalus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern equatorial and east Africa. They are smaller than PAPIO ANUBIS and have a thinner mane.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Strongyloides: A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.HondurasHymenolepiasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.Strongyloidiasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.EcuadorNecatoriasis: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Strongyloides stercoralis: A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
  • Most of our current understanding of immunity to Trichuris trichiura infection in man has come from the laboratory model, Trichuris muris in the mouse. (nih.gov)
  • Our model of immunity to Trichuris has developed from one resolving round IL-4 and IFN-gamma to one that also has to accommodate IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IL-18. (nih.gov)
  • The high prevalence of parasitic helminth infections in TB affected communities, has highlighted co-infection as another risk factor compromising host immunity and thus a potential determinant for development of TB [ 4 , 5 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Protective immune responses to M. tb infection are associated with enhanced T helper 1 (TH1) type cellular immunity and the production of characteristic TH1 cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) [ 8 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host's immunity of co-infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IL-25-deficient mice exhibit impaired Th2 immunity against nematode infection, implicating IL-25 as a key component in mucosal immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • IL-25 −/− mice had diminished intestinal smooth muscle and epithelial responses to N. brasiliensis infection that were associated with an impaired Th2 protective immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Exogenous IL-25 induced characteristic changes similar to those after nematode infection but was unable to restore the impaired host immunity against N. brasiliensis infection in IL-13 −/− mice. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data show that IL-25 plays a critical role in nematode infection-induced alterations in intestinal function that are important for host protective immunity, and IL-13 is the major downstream Th2 cytokine responsible for the IL-25 effects. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interleukin-25, also called IL-17E, is a cytokine member of the IL-17 family, which includes IL-17A through F. Whereas other members of the IL-17 family have biological activities similar to Th1 inflammatory cytokines, IL-25 appears to be involved primarily in the promotion of Th2 immunity, including allergy, asthma, and enteric nematode infection ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The mannose receptor binds Trichuris muris excretory/secretory proteins but is not essential for protective immunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The hypothesis of this study is that treatment with Trichuris suis ova will be safe and effective as an oral treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of trichuris suis ova (TSO) in ulcerative colitis (UC). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether Trichuris Suis Ova (TSO) is safe and effective in treating adults with serious behavioral problems related to autism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 13 Our aim in this study was to describe the population at risk, disease associations and temporal trends of T. trichiura infections over the same 11 years. (mja.com.au)
  • Changes in relative abundances of Succinivibrio and Mucispirillum , for example, may relate to alterations in carbohydrate metabolism and niche disruptions in mucosal interfaces induced by parasitic infection, respectively. (asm.org)
  • In this study we were able to demonstrate delayed expulsion occurs at day 26 post infection and is associated with the production of the key Th2-associated cytokine IL-13 by both CD4 + T cells and an auxiliary DX5 + NK cell source, as well as a concurrent reduction in proinflammatory cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
  • Gender differences have previously been noted in other murine models of parasitic disease with a prominent female bias toward resistance in nematode infections, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Trichinella spiralis (reviewed in Ref. 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Morphological observations indicate that infection results in local tissue disruption in the intestinal mucosal layer and profound histopathological changes, including eosinophil and mast cell infiltration, crypt hyperplasia, goblet cell hyperplasia, and mucosal hypertrophy ( 20 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • The Central Australian Rural Practitioners Association (CARPA) treatment manual currently recommends albendazole (400 mg) on 3 consecutive days for treatment of proven T. trichiura infection. (mja.com.au)