A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
A species of virus (tentatively placed in the genus HEPACIVIRUS) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE, that was recovered from a tamarin monkey, but may have been of human origin. It causes HEPATITIS in several species of New World monkeys.
A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE, that have been identified in at least six species of New World monkeys. They do not cause HEPATITIS in the host or other susceptible species.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The genus of lion tamarins in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE. The common name refers to the mane on the shoulders.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, containing one species, swinepox virus.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM (2004). Immunology, Infection, and Immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5. .. ... During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... University of Leicester, Virus Immunopathology Notes. *Antibody-Dependent+Cell+Cytotoxicity at the US National Library of ... "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza virus-infected cells". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 ...
gB, gC, gD, gH, and gL are known to be involved. Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell ... The means of infection influences which tissues will be affected first and the incubation time before symptoms show. Typically ... Virus particles can be shed by the latent host in shared water or through direct contact (horizontal transmission), ... gB, gD, gH, and gL proteins allow for fusion of the cell and envelope, and are necessary for survival. Entrance to host cells ...
Variola virus Smallpox was caused by infection with Variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family ... Golding GB, Southon J, Devault A, Rouillard JM, Sahl JW, Dutour O, Hedman K, Sajantila A, Smith GL, Holmes EC, Poinar HN (2016 ... Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in ... Because the person was infected with Variola virus, a severe infection could result, and the person could transmit smallpox to ...
Wyatt GB, Hocking B, Bishop R, Wyatt JL. Duovirus infection as a cause of infantile gastro-enteritis in Port Moresby. P N G Med ... He described a virus causing diarrhoea in calves. I realized we had much the same in children. We found his virus and ours were ... Flewett's interests included influenza, coxsackie A and coxsackie B viruses, the major and minor variants of smallpox virus, ... Comparison With Berne Virus of Horses and Breda Virus of Calves". Journal of Medical Virology. 20 (1): 67-78. doi:10.1002/jmv. ...
"Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis D virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection attending the three ... Andersson MI, Maponga TG, Ijaz S, Barnes J, Theron GB, Meredith SA, Preiser W, Tedder RS (November 2013). "The epidemiology of ... "Prevalence of hepatitis D virus infection among hepatitis B virus-infected individuals in India". Indian J Gastroenterol. 34 (2 ... "Hepatitis delta virus infection in a large cohort of chronic hepatitis B patients in Ethiopia". Liver Int. 38 (6): 1000-1009. ...
... as co-receptor for human and simian immunodeficiency virus infection, and identification of virus-binding receptor domains". ... doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-2-r8. PMC 395752. PMID 14759258. Mårtensson UE, Fenyö EM, Olde B, Owman C (November 2006). " ...
... is a blood-borne virus that causes chronic long-term infections much like hepatitis C virus (HCV) and GB virus C (HPgV ... whereas in case of GB virus C, appearance of antibodies usually leads to resolution of the infection. HPgV-2 is a positive- ... is Tightly Associated with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and HCV/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coinfection". Clinical ... "Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection". PLOS Pathogens. 11 (12): ...
GB virus C, hepatitis X) Hepatitis: cytomegalovirus infection herpesviral: herpes simplex infection Toxoplasmosis Hepatosplenic ... in schistosomiasis Liver disease in syphilis Epstein-Barr virus infection yellow fever virus infection rubella virus infection ... in a patient already infected with hepatitis B Acute hepatitis E Chronic viral hepatitis Other viral hepatitis viruses may ...
... infection promotes the fusion of infected host cells within lesions and is one possible mechanism by which the virus spreads ... By studying different mutant strains of HSV, Spear found that the viral glycoprotein gB promotes cell fusion, while another ... "Glycoprotein C of herpes simplex virus type 1 plays a principal role in the adsorption of virus to cells and in infectivity". ... She is best known for her pioneering work studying the herpes simplex virus. Spear is a past president of the American Society ...
GB virus C and Chandipura virus are possible examples in humans. It has also been suggested that a virus related to Alcelaphine ... the absence of the virus at the earliest stages of the disease; curing the viral infection using antiviral drugs or vaccination ... A passenger virus is a virus that is frequently found in samples from diseased tissue, such as tumours, but is not a ... Proving that a virus has no causative role can be difficult. Although none of the following signs is definitive, evidence that ...
"Effect of GB Virus C Co-infection on Response to Generic HAART in African Patients with HIV-1 Clade C Infection". AIDS. 21 (10 ... GB virus C (GBV-C), formerly known as hepatitis G virus (HGV) and also known as human pegivirus - HPgV is a virus in the family ... Hepatitis G virus and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently ... 2004). "Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by GB virus C infection through increases in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and SDF-1 ...
Viral infection by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes many hepatocyte changes due to the direct action of a protein encoded by the ... Hundie GB, Stalin Raj V, Gebre Michael D, Pas SD, Koopmans MP, Osterhaus AD, et al. (February 2017). "A novel hepatitis B virus ... the woolly monkey hepatitis B virus), suggesting an ancient origin for this virus in primates. The virus is divided into four ... Yan H, Liu Y, Sui J, Li W (September 2015). "NTCP opens the door for hepatitis B virus infection". Antiviral Research. 121: 24- ...
After the primary infection (chickenpox), the virus lies dormant in the nerves, including the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal ... VZV is closely related to the herpes simplex viruses (HSV), sharing much genome homology. The known envelope glycoproteins (gB ... Primary varicella zoster virus infection results in chickenpox (varicella), which may result in complications including ... Nagel, M. A.; Gilden, D. H. (July 2007). "The protean neurologic manifestations of varicella-zoster virus infection". Cleveland ...
Cats have been experimentally infected with the virus, leading to clinical signs, shedding of the virus and infection of other ... Equine influenza virus by Wilson et al doi:10.1053/j.ctep.2006.03.013 Sharp, GB; Kawaoka, Y; Jones, DJ; et al. (August 1997). " ... nose with discharge and secondary bacterial infection are some of the clinical signs of Equine influenza virus infection. ... Equine influenza virus (H3N8) can be spread by a few different routes. The ultimate source of the virus is respiratory tract ...
When treating infection, whether bacterial or viral, there is always a risk of the infectious agent to develop drug resistance ... The transcription of the viral RNA is inhibited and therefore the replication rate of the virus reduces. Although the exact ... Ren J, Bird LE, Chamberlain PP, Stewart-Jones GB, Stuart DI, Stammers DK (October 2002). "Structure of HIV-2 reverse ... In 1987, the first drug for the treatment of HIV infection was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This ...
2 and at very early stages of HIV infection. 9, 35 In active infection, HIV pro virus is active and HIV virus particles are ... Karlsson Hedestam GB; Fouchier RA; Phogat S; Burton DR; Sodroski J; Wyatt RT (February 2008). "The challenges of eliciting ... Age acceleration effects due to HIV-1 infection[edit]. Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is associated ... This, they say, could lead to the production of a vaginal gel which could help prevent infection by disabling the virus.[11] Dr ...
Diamond MS, Zachariah M, Harris E. Mycophenolic acid inhibits dengue virus infection by preventing replication of viral RNA. ... Dooley, MA; Jayne, D; Ginzler, EM; Isenberg, D; Olsen, NJ; Wofsy, D; Eitner, F; Appel, GB; Contreras, G; Lisk, L; Solomons, N; ... 在美國食品藥品監督管理局(FDA)已發出警告,指接受黴酚酸酯和黴酚酸的患者受機會性感染的風險有所增加,例如激活潛在的病毒感染,如帶狀皰疹、其他單純皰疹感染、鉅細胞
Infection with this virus is thought to be lifelong, but a healthy immune system will keep the virus in check. Many people ... ORF8 - gB - envelope glycoprotein involved in viral entry ORF9 - Pol8 - DNA polymerase required for viral DNA replication ... The virus is now known to be a widespread infection of people living in sub-Saharan Africa; intermediate levels of infection ... After infection, the virus enters into lymphocytes via macropinosomes where it remains in a latent ("quiet") state expressing ...
He conducted cresearch into hepatitis G, previously known as Hepatitis G virus (HGV), but later renamed GB virus C (GBC). His ... ultimately concluding that coinfection of GBC with HCV did not worsen the symptoms of HCV infection. Scheraga, Harold A. (2016- ... and Risk Factors for Blood Donors Coinfected with HGV and Hepatitis C Virus" details how he and his colleagues studied ... "Analysis of Hepatitis G Virus (HGV) RNA, Antibody to HGV Envelope Protein, and Risk Factors for Blood Donors Coinfected with ...
10.1186/gb-2006-7-11-241, PMC 1794577, PMID 17118218 Worley, M (2001), "Retrovirus infections", in Williams, E. S.; Barker, I. ... The virus is thought to be a recently introduced exogenous virus that is also integrating into the koala genome (becoming ... a Novel Type C Endogenous Virus Related to Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus", Journal of Virology, 74 (9): 4264-72, doi:10.1128/JVI. ... In 2008, lead researcher Jon Hanger, said the virus was a threat that could lead to extinction of koalas in Queensland within ...
GB Virus-Like Virus) That Infects Horses". Journal of Virology. 87 (12): 7185-90. doi:10.1128/JVI.00324-13. PMC 3676142. PMID ... It was discovered in 2013 in blood of horses and causes chronic infections. EPgV is not known to be responsible for any disease ... In a serosurvey of EPgV and related viruses, antibodies to EPgV were detected in the majority of horses, indicating a high ... Equine pegivirus (EPgV) is a virus in the genus Pegivirus of the family Flaviviridae. ...
Kroon virus, Lentille virus, Terra2, Niemeyer virus, Samba virus. B - Moumouvirus group: includes Moumouvirus, Saudi ... doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-r106. PMC 2530865. PMID 18598358. Saadi H, Pagnier I, Colson P, Cherif JK, Beji M, Boughalmi M, Azza S ... "Pulmonary Infection Related to Mimivirus in Patient with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 26 (10): ... Viruses in this family belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus clade (NCLDV), also referred to as giant viruses. ...
Anaplasmosis Bacteriophage coinfection GB virus C HIV-HCV coinfection HIV-TB coinfection (enhances TB transmission and ... In virology, coinfection includes simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more virus particles. An example is the ... Strength in numbers: Mechanisms of viral co-infection. Virus Res. 2019;265:43-46. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2019.03.003 Drake JW ( ... Recombination in RNA viruses appears to be an adaptive mechanism for transmitting an undamaged genome to virus progeny. ...
2006). "Histone deacetylase 6 regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection". Mol. Biol. Cell. 16 (11): 5445-54. doi: ... doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84. PMC 545604. PMID 15461802. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality ...
Generally bacteria and viruses require a wet environment with a humidity of over 10 percent. E. coli can survive for a few ... doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-reviews0003. PMC 139013. PMID 11864374. Barton, Larry L.; Northup, Diana E. (9 September 2011). ... Tong SY; Davis JS; Eichenberger E; Holland TL; Fowler VG (July 2015). "Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, ... "How long do microbes like bacteria and viruses live on surfaces in the home at normal room temperatures?". Retrieved 2016-09-18 ...
"Acute Non-A-E Hepatitis in the United States and the Role of Hepatitis G Virus Infection". N Engl J Med. 336 (11): 741-746. doi ... "Molecular cloning and characterization of a GB virus C isolate from a patient with non-A-E hepatitis". Journal of General ... "TTV infection in patients with acute hepatitis of defined aetiology and in acute non-A-E hepatitis". Journal of Hepatology. 32 ...
"Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins gH/gL and gB Bind Toll-Like Receptor 2, and Soluble gH/gL Is Sufficient To Activate NF-κB". ... Lorenz E (2007). "TLR2 and TLR4 expression during bacterial infections". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 12 (32): 4185-93. doi: ... These newly formed antibodies would arrive too late in an acute infection, however, so what we think of as "immunology" ... Borrello S, Nicolò C, Delogu G, Pandolfi F, Ria F (2011). "TLR2: a crossroads between infections and autoimmunity?". ...
RFC6214: "There is a known risk of infection by the so-called H5N1 virus." The network topologies supported for multicast ... containing 1.3 GB, amounting in total of 4 GB of data, achieving an effective throughput of 2.27 Mbps. The purpose of the test ... For example: If 16 homing pigeons are given eight 512 GB SD cards each, and take an hour to reach their destination, the ... ". "Virus Risks of RFC1149 and RFC2549". Human, Katy (22 June 2007). "Homing pigeons get down to business, ferrying rafting ...
Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM (2004). Immunology, infection, and immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5. .. CS1 maint: ... They are all designed to attack only one kind of antigen (in practice, this means virus or bacteria). For instance, an antibody ...
... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-reviews0003. PMC 139013 . PMID 11864374.. *^ Rappé, M.S.; Giovannoni, S.J. (2003). "The uncultured ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ...
Klintmalm GB, Cardo D, LeDuc J, Chamberland ME, Jernigan DB, Zaki SR (March 2005). "Transmission of rabies virus from an organ ... with special reference to the clinical course and the latency of infection". Caribbean Medical Journal. 21: 137-56. PMID ... David D, Yakobson B, Rotenberg D, Dveres N, Davidson I, Stram Y (2002). "Rabies virus detection by RT-PCR in decomposed ... the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection) ...
Pier GB, Lyczak JB, and Wetzler LM. (2004). Immunology, Infection, and Immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5 ... Anthrax is now known to be caused by a bacterium, and rabies is known to be caused by a virus. The microscopes of the time ... Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. Since Pasteur provided support for a germ ... Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required ...
As arqueas poden ser infectadas por virus de ADN bicatenario que non están relacionados con ningún outro tipo de virus e teñen ... doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-reviews0003.. *↑ Rappé MS, Giovannoni SJ (2003). "The uncultured microbial majority". Annu. Rev. ... "Identification and quantification of archaea involved in primary endodontic infections". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (4): 1274-82. ... Pietilä MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with ...
Gear, JS; Cassel, GA; Gear, AJ; Trappler, B; Clausen, L; Meyers, AM; Kew, MC; Bothwell, TH; Sher, R; Miller, GB; Schneider, J; ... enteroviral infections, malaria, muscular dystrophy, leukemoid reaction secondary to metastases to the bone marrow, and drug ... "Outbreake of Marburg virus disease in Johannesburg". British Medical Journal. 4 (5995): 489-93. doi:10.1136/bmj.4.5995.489 ... and neutrophilic band forms and from an increase in young neutrophilic forms that can be observed in association with infection ...
Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... Fialho, DM; Clarke, KC; Moore, MK; Schuster, GB; Krishnamurthy, R; Hud, NV (21 February 2018). "Glycosylation of a model proto- ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ... In comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection are about 2,000 nucleobases long.[72] ...
Bell DM (1997). "Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers: an overview.". Am. J. Med. ... Karlsson Hedestam GB, Fouchier RA, Phogat S, Burton DR, Sodroski J, Wyatt RT (February 2008). "The challenges of eliciting ... 1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ...
... is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[4][3] Symptoms may range from ... Sack DA, Sack RB, Nair GB, Siddique AK (January 2004). "Cholera". Lancet. 363 (9404): 223-33. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15328-7 ... "Oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea". Journal of ... "The Journal of Infection. 66 (5): 432-8. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2012.11.013. PMC 3677557. PMID 23201968.. ...
The third BIOS virus was a technique called "Persistent BIOS infection." It appeared in 2009 at the CanSecWest Security ... so that execution starts at 4 GB minus 16 bytes (FFFFFFF0h).[10] The platform logic maps this address into the system ROM, ... "Persistent BIOS Infection". Exploiting Stuff. Archived from the original on 2009-08-04. Retrieved 2010-02-06.. ... The first BIOS virus was CIH, whose name matches the initials of its creator, Chen Ing Hau. CIH was also called the "Chernobyl ...
"Taxonomic distribution of large DNA viruses in the sea". Genome Biology. 9 (7): R106. doi:10.1186/gb-2008-9-7-r106. PMC ... The full course of infection (until the complete lysis of the amoebal cells) takes 17 hours on average, compared to 12 hours ... Table1: Largest giant viruses with complete sequenced genomes[edit]. Giant virus name. Genome Length. Genes. Capsid diameter. ... Table 2: Specific common features among giant viruses[edit]. Giant virus name. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Octocoral-like MutS. ...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections". American Journal of Preventive Medicine svezak 42 (broj 3 ... Gizzo, S, Fanelli, T; Di Gangi, S; Saccardi, C; Patrelli, TS; Zambon, A; Omar, A; D'Antona, D; Nardelli, GB (rujan 2012.). " ... 2005.). "The limits of abstinence-only in preventing sexually transmitted infections". Journal of Adolescent Health svezak 36 ( ... Statement on Dual Protection against Unwanted Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections, including HIV (PDF). International ...
Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM (2004). Immunology, Infection, and Immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5.. ... Determination of the virus clearance studies. Before clinical trials[edit]. *Product safety testing : Sterility (bacteria and ... If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the ... Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen (an example is a virus ...
Fact Sheets: The Difference Between Latent TB Infection and Active TB Disease. Centers for Disease Control. 20. juni 2011. ... Den største faktor på verdensplan er HIV; 13% af alle, der får TB, har også HIV-virus.[5] Det er et udbredt problem i Afrika ... Sester, M; Sotgiu, G, Lange, C, Giehl, C, Girardi, E, Migliori, GB, Bossink, A, Dheda, K, Diel, R, Dominguez, J, Lipman, M, ... december 2007). "Chapter 4: Pulmonary Infections". Infectious Diseases: A Clinical Short Course, 2nd ed.. McGraw-Hill Medical ...
Al Fazairy, A.A.; Hassan, F.A. Infection of Termites by Spodoptera littoralis Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus. International Journal ... 其序列大小約為 1.3Gb[62][65]。 ... Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus(英语:Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus))。 ... Chouvenc, T.; Mullins, A.J.; Efstathion, C.A.; Su, N.-Y. Virus-like symptoms in a termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) field ... Saathoff, E.; Olsen, A.; Kvalsvig, J.D.; Geissler, P.W. Geophagy and its association with geohelminth infection in rural ...
"IMI-GB-018v2-24042008-CallTopics.pdf. European Commission. Archived from the original on 15 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August ... and by 1983 the CDC had identified contaminated blood products as a source of infection. According to the New York Times, this ...
From 1995 to 2002, inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections, which are usually caused by viruses ... Suto, MJ.; Domagala, JM.; Roland, GE.; Mailloux, GB.; Cohen, MA. (December 1992). "Fluoroquinolones: relationships between ... Only inhalant anthrax and pseudomonal infections in cystic fibrosis infections are licensed indications in the UK due to ... For certain severe infections where other antibiotics are not an option, their use can be justified.[46] Quinolones should also ...
However, whether these virus infections trigger the expansion of adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells or whether other infections result in ... West WH, Cannon GB, Kay HD, Bonnard GD, Herberman RB (January 1977). "Natural cytotoxic reactivity of human lymphocytes against ... NK cells provide rapid responses to virus-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor ... Patients deficient in NK cells prove to be highly susceptible to early phases of herpes virus infection. ...
Many bacteria and viruses secrete virulence factors, such as the enzyme collagenase, which destroys collagen or interferes with ... It helps to keep the wound sterile, because of its natural ability to fight infection. When collagen is used as a burn dressing ... Leonidas, Demetres D.; Chavali, GB; et al. (2001). "Binding of Phosphate and pyrophosphate ions at the active site of human ...
Claude M. Fauquet; J. Maniloff; Desselberger, U. (2005). Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses: 8th report ... Anderson EJ, Weber SG (2004). «Rotavirus infection in adults». The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 4 (2): 91-9. PMID 14871633. doi: ... Hopkins RS, Gaspard GB, Williams FP, Karlin RJ, Cukor G, Blacklow NR (1984). «A community waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak: ... Ramig RF (2007). «Systemic rotavirus infection». Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy. 5 (4): 591-612. PMID 17678424. doi: ...
1998) Human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection in baboons is an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis in ... Locher CP, Barnett SW, Herndier BG, Blackbourn DJ, Reyes-Teran G, Murthy KK, Brasky KM, Hubbard GB, Reinhart TA, Haase AT, Levy ... 1976) Murine sarcoma virus defectiveness: serological detection of only helper virus reverse transcriptase in sarcoma virus ... 1991) Evaluation of screened blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by culture and DNA amplification ...
"Salmonella infection data for Myh9". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.. *^ "Citrobacter infection data for Myh9". Wellcome Trust ... doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r196. PMC 2375034. PMID 17877792.. *^ Sebé-Pedrós A, Grau-Bové X, Richards TA, Ruiz-Trillo I (February ... "Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, ... doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-224. PMC 3218837. PMID 21722353.. *^ England K, Ashford D, Kidd D, Rumsby M (June 2002). "PKC epsilon ...
Human Papilloma Virus-HPV),మానవ పాపిలోమా వంశానికి చెందిన డిఎన్ఏ విషక్రిమి(DNA virus ), వల్ల మానవ పాపిల్లోమా అంటువ్యాధి వస్తుంది ... "Sexually Transmitted Infections. 75 (5): 317-319. doi:10.1136/sti.75.5.317. ISSN 1368-4973. PMC 1758241. PMID 10616355.. ... Nicolau SM, Camargo CG, Stávale JN, Castelo A, Dôres GB, Lörincz A, de Lima GR (2005). "పాపిల్లోమా వైరస్ DNA డిటెక్షన్ ఇన్ మేల్ ... Human Papilloma Viruses. వర్గీకరణ & బయటి వనరులు m:en:ICD-10 {{{m:en:ICD10}}} ...
The sharing of territory with domestic dogs results in a number of diseases, such as rabies virus, parvovirus, distemper virus ... Ferreira GB, Barros CS, Costa AB, Dias TS, Oliveira MJR (2017). "First ever record of a black-coloured maned wolf" (PDF). Canid ... The maned wolf is particularly susceptible to potentially fatal infection by the giant kidney worm. Ingestion of the wolf apple ...
Carvalho CA, Sousa IP, Silva JL, Oliveira AC, Gonçalves RB, Gomes AM (March 2014). "Inhibition of Mayaro virus infection by ... Jameson GB, Anderson BF, Norris GE, Thomas DH, Baker EN (1998). "Structure of human apolactoferrin at 2.0 Å resolution. ... human respiratory syncytial virus, murine leukemia viruses and Mayaro virus. The most studied mechanism of antiviral activity ... Fujihara T, Hayashi K (1995). "Lactoferrin inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection to mouse cornea". Arch. Virol ...
By University of Iowa, How a harmless virus called GB Virus type C (GBV-C) protects against HIV infection is now better ... Harmless GB Virus type C (GBV-C) protects against HIV infection. Oct 10, 2006, 13:33, Reviewed by: Dr. Priya Saxena. ... Harmless GB Virus type C (GBV-C) protects against HIV infection. Study defines effective microbicide design for HIV/AIDS ... Because the GBV-virus is transmitted through bodily fluids, as is HIV, many HIV-positive individuals have evidence of past or ...
How a harmless virus called GB Virus type C (GBV-C) protects against HIV infection is now better understood. Researchers at the ... Harmless GB Virus type C (GBV-C) protects against HIV infection. By University of Iowa. Oct 10, 2006, 13:33. ... Because the GBV-virus is transmitted through bodily fluids, as is HIV, many HIV-positive individuals have evidence of past or ... As a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not require that blood donations be screened for this common virus.. Up ...
Enterovirus Infections. Picornaviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Flaviviridae Infections. Lentivirus Infections. ... Associations, Outcomes and Genomics of GB Virus C, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. This study has ... Associations, Outcomes and Genomics of GB Virus C, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. ... GB virus C: insights into co-infection. J Clin Virol. 2005 Aug;33(4):257-66. Review. ...
The impact of coexisting GB virus C (GBV-C) infection on the clinical course of HIV infection remains controversial. Early data ... GB virus C.. GBV-C is a non-pathogenic virus that infects humans. This 2014 paper details the impact of co-infection with HIV-1 ... GB virus C co-infection with HIV-1. May 19, 2016 at 12:52pm. by [email protected] ... Impact of GB virus C viraemia on clinical outcome in HIV-1-infected patients: a 20-year follow-up study. ...
In contrast, HNP-4 and HD6 bound heparan sulfate, but not gB. HBD3 bound both gB and heparan sulfate, but hBD1 and hBD2 bound ... Human α- and β-Defensins Block Multiple Steps in Herpes Simplex Virus Infection. Ehsan Hazrati, Benjamin Galen, Wuyuan Lu, Wei ... θ Defensins protect cells from infection by herpes simplex virus by inhibiting viral adhesion and entry. J. Virol. 78: 5147- ... In vivo protection from genital herpes virus infection. Given these encouraging in vitro results, we used a murine genital ...
Hiv infections explanation free. What is Hiv infections? Meaning of Hiv infections medical term. What does Hiv infections mean? ... Looking for online definition of Hiv infections in the Medical Dictionary? ... foamy virus. Spumavirus.. GB virus type C. Hepatitis G virus.. Guanarito virus. An arenavirus from the Tacaribe virus group ... slow virus. A virus that replicates and causes disease indolently.. See: slow virus infection. street virus. A rabies virus ...
... recurrent herpes simplex virus infection, herpes zoster, persistent diarrhea, two serious bacterial or fungal infections, ... Scott GB, *et al.. (1990) Safety and tolerance of intermittent intravenous and oral zidovudine therapy in human ... 1995) A phase I/II evaluation of stavudine (d4T) in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. 96:247- ... 1993) Effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the growth of young children. J Pediatr. 123:579-582. ...
Schreiber GB, *Busch MP, *Kleinman SH, *et al.. (1996) The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. N Engl J Med. 334: ... 1992) Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus infections in women of reproductive age. Br J ... Because antibodies elicited by one virus type do not recognize other virus types, previous infection does not protect against ... 1995) Human immunodeficiency virus infection as a risk factor for mother-to-child hepatitis C virus transmission; persistence ...
LPAI virus infection in GB. H7N7 LPAI was identified in January. The incident was identified as a result of the 12-month pilot ... This condition is due to infection with an avian leucosis virus which is most likely to be transmitted vertically through the ... HPAI and LPAI outbreaks in Europe: including LPAI infection in GB and Notifiable Avian Disease exclusion testing scheme results ... E. coli infection - colibacillosis. E coli infection (colibacillosis) is a common and economically important disease of poultry ...
Di Gregorio GB, *et al.. (2005) Expression of CD68 and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 genes in human adipose and muscle ... 1997) Effector CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell mechanisms in the control of respiratory virus infections. Immunol Rev 159:105-117. ... TNF/iNOS-producing dendritic cells are the necessary evil of lethal influenza virus infection. Jerry R. Aldridge Jr., Carson E ... Respiratory infection with highly pathogenic influenza A viruses is characterized by the exuberant production of cytokines and ...
HIV-GB virus C co-infection: an overview. Baggio-Zappia, Giovana Lotici / Hernandes Granato, Celso Francisco ...
GB. Jr. Estimates of population size, dispersal, and longevity of domestic Aedes aegypti aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by mark- ... Vector-borne Zika virus transmission model fitted to epidemiologic data from 2015 to 2016 on Zika virus infection in Colombia. ... Because of the risk for Zika virus infection in the Americas and the links between infection and microcephaly, other serious ... likely due to the presence of the virus in the semen of infected men (52). Because most cases of Zika virus infection are ...
infection in men and women. Ann Intern Med; 1983;48:973. 3. G-B Lowhagen et al. First episodes of genital herpes in a Swedish ... virus type 1 (HSV-1) as the cause of genital infections for the years 1986. to 2000, with predominance in the young and female ... Longitudinal study of genital infection by herpes simplex virus type 1. EDITOR--Scoular et al describe the rising incidence of ... Longitudinal study of genital infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 in western Scotland over 15 years BMJ 2002; 324 :1366 ...
Schreiber GB, Busch MP, Kleinman SH, Korelitz JJ. The risk for transfusion-transmitted viral infections. The Retrovirus ... Outcome of hepatitis B virus infection in homosexual men and its relation to prior human immunodeficiency virus infection. J ... Variability in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among young ... Prevention of perinatally transmitted hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B immune ...
The study shows that asymptomatic humans are capable of transmitting L. infantum, that ill persons with HIV infection are more ... Therefore, control policies currently focused on dog culling may need to consider that VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV ... Reservoir competence of patients with VL without and with HIV infection and of persons asymptomatically infected with ... Although, considered a zoonosis with dogs held as the main reservoirs, humans are also sources of infection. ...
In order to investigate the prevalence of GB virus C (GBV-C)/hepatitis G virus (HGV) infection in dialysis patients and kidney ... GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients in central Brazil ... GB virus C/hepatitis G virus infection in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipien ... Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Flaviviridae Infections , GB virus C , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , ...
A prospective study of transfusion-transmitted GB virus C infection: Similar frequency but different clinical presentation ...
GB virus C infection and survival in the Amsterdam Cohort study - Reply to George and to Stapleton et al. ... GB virus C infection and survival in the Amsterdam Cohort study - Reply to George and to Stapleton et al. ... GB virus C infection and survival in the Amsterdam Cohort study - Reply to George and to Stapleton et al. ... Harmonised Zika virus research protocols published * Birth attendant training course may be global model for safer birth care ...
GB Virus C / Hepatitis G Virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa : its diagnosis, distribution and molecular ... where Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is endemic and infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a catastropic ... Recently a new Flavivirus, GB Virus C also referred to as Hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) was identified in humans with ... Potato virus Y (PVY) is an economically important virus worldwide. In South Africa, PVY has been shown to be a major limiting ...
Human infections with vaccinia virus (VACV), mostly from laboratory accidents or contact with infected animals, have occurred ... Costa GB, Moreno EC, de Souza Trindade G; Studies Group in Bovine Vaccinia. Neutralizing antibodies associated with exposure ... is used as a lyophilized live virus vaccine against smallpox, variola virus (1). VACV, cowpox virus, and monkeypox virus are ... Human infections with OPVs frequently emerge or reemerge, including cowpox virus in Europe (4), monkeypox virus in Africa and ...
... and AHR to histamine in asthmatic subjects following influenza A virus infection [27]. It has been established that viruses can ... Influenza A virus infection and cigarette smoke impair bronchodilator responsiveness to β-adrenoceptor agonists in mouse lung ... CS and respiratory virus infections are a major cause of COPD and exacerbations of COPD, respectively. The aim of the present ... To assess the effect of this prior CS exposure on responses to influenza A virus infection, mice were treated with CS (or air ...
Dengue virus (DENV) infection is an increasing problem in both tropical and subtropical areas and remains endemic in more than ... Mast cell stabilizing effect of a geranyl acetophenone in dengue virus infection using in vitro model of DENV3-induced RBL-2H3 ... The plate was incubated at room temperature (RT) for 1 h for virus adsorption followed by washing to remove any unbound virus ... DENV serotype 3 (DENV-3) was a clinical isolate virus from Hospital Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Virus was propagated in Aedes ...
http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/EB126/B126_15-en.pdf ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health ... The contributions of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer worldwide. J ... Sero-Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) Co-Infection among pregnant women residing in ... Sero-epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis infections among first-time blood ...
Désirée to the virus. We constructed a sRNA regulatory network connecting sRNAs and their targets to link sRNA level responses ... Désirée to the virus. We constructed a sRNA regulatory network connecting sRNAs and their targets to link sRNA level responses ... Potato virus Y is the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We aimed at unraveling the roles of small RNAs (sRNAs ... Potato virus Y is the most economically important potato viral pathogen. We aimed at unraveling the roles of small RNAs (sRNAs ...
CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions ... Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA ... CiLV-C infection does not systemically spread in any of its known host plants, thus remaining restricted to local lesions ... Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA ...
Pier GB, Lyczak JB, Wetzler LM (2004). Immunology, Infection, and Immunity. ASM Press. ISBN 1-55581-246-5. .. ... During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... University of Leicester, Virus Immunopathology Notes. *Antibody-Dependent+Cell+Cytotoxicity at the US National Library of ... "Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against influenza virus-infected cells". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 148 ...
... findings of the herpetic lesion as it relates to primary and recurrent lesions of cutaneous or mucosal HSV infection. This can ... Tunbäck P, Bergström T, Andersson AS, Nordin P, Krantz I, Löwhagen GB. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus antibodies in ... Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system. A review. Am J Med. 1988 Aug 29. 85(2A):61-7. [Medline]. ... Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of ...
Genome Biol. 7:R100. doi:10.1186/gb-2006-7-10-r100.. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ... Oncolytic viruses include herpesvirus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza A virus, Newcastle disease virus, ... effects of virus infections in real time and a label-free manner and can identify both infection-enhancing and infection- ... GFP infection in A549 cells. GCA or DMSO was added to the cells at 30 min prior to virus infection or at the indicated times ...
1. Harnett GB, Bucens MR. Isolation of Chikungunya virus in Australia. Med J Aust 1990; 152: 328-329. ... Chikungunya virus infection is believed to confer lifelong immunity. No licensed Chikungunya virus vaccine is currently ... The clinical features of Chikungunya virus infection can be similar to dengue fever and malaria, and these infections should ... The review was undertaken to raise awareness among medical practitioners of Chikungunya virus infection. Chikungunya virus was ...
... infection. HPgV-2 is thought to be a bloodborne virus: higher prevalence of active infection has been found in populations with ... We found evidence of HPgV-2 infection in 11.2% (22/197) of past or current HCV-infected IDUs, compared with 1.9% (4/205) of an ... Testing of available longitudinal blood samples from HPgV-2-positive participants identified 5 with chronic infection (> ... Our findings indicate that HPgV-2 can establish chronic infection and replicate in the absence of HCV. ...
  • Some primary infections are asymptomatic. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to control (naive) hamsters, many of which appeared clinically ill or died after YFV infection, the flavivirus-immune animals remained asymptomatic. (ajtmh.org)
  • Spectrum of human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type III infection in children: recognition of symptomatic, asymptomatic, and seronegative patients. (springer.com)
  • There are four closely related serotypes of DENV (DENV-1 to DENV-4) that can cause asymptomatic infections or clinical illnesses ranging from the self-limiting but debilitating dengue fever to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), which are characterized by vascular leakage ( 76 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Infection with CMV is ubiquitous and generally asymptomatic in healthy children and adults. (medscape.com)
  • This statement summarizes the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations on screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on the USPSTF's examination of evidence specific to asymptomatic persons for HCV testing and treatment. (aafp.org)
  • The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for HCV infection in asymptomatic adults who are not at increased risk (general population) for infection. (aafp.org)
  • There is also limited evidence that available treatments are effective in preventing cirrhosis in patients with asymptomatic HCV infection. (aafp.org)
  • The likelihood of progression to chronic infection is the same whether infection is symptomatic or asymptomatic. (who.int)
  • In addition, the virus has been detected in one asymptomatic case in Beijing. (flutrackers.com)
  • To compare the safety and tolerance of stavudine (d4T) versus zidovudine (ZDV, AZT) in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected children 3 months to 6 years of age. (aappublications.org)
  • Symptomatic infections usually are mild and insidious in onset. (aappublications.org)
  • Terms and Abbreviations Used in This Publication Acute hepatitis C Newly acquired symptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary maternal infection often results in virus transmission, and symptomatic babies can have permanent neurological deficiencies and deafness. (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of continuous intravenous infusion of Zidovudine (AZT) in children with symptomatic HIV infection. (springer.com)
  • Impact of GB virus C viraemia on clinical outcome in HIV-1-infected patients: a 20-year follow-up study. (osu.edu)
  • The impact of coexisting GB virus C (GBV-C) infection on the clinical course of HIV infection remains controversial. (osu.edu)
  • Antiretroviral therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children results in a variety of virologic, immunologic, and clinical benefits. (aappublications.org)
  • Finally, the reasons for the high female infection rate can be found in the world's largest clinical description to be written on herpes genitalis, which cites menstruation, vulvo vaginitis caused by sexually transmitted disease, cystitis, trauma of intercourse in relation to virginity, stress and psychosomatic disorders and the neuralgic herpes of Mauriac, which act as trigger mechanisms. (bmj.com)
  • To promote vaccination in all settings, health-care providers should implement standing orders to identify adults recommended for hepatitis B vaccination and administer vaccination as part of routine clinical services, not require acknowledgment of an HBV infection risk factor for adults to receive vaccine, and use available reimbursement mechanisms to remove financial barriers to hepatitis B vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Genital herpes simplex virus infections: clinical manifestations, course, and complications. (medscape.com)
  • Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibody response to primary infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in young women. (medscape.com)
  • These eight patients illustrate the typical clinical presentation of Chikungunya virus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • The viraemic phase of alphaviruses is 2-8 days, so the success of RT-PCR to detect the virus depends on early presentation and the clinical suspicion of a possible alphavirus infection. (mja.com.au)
  • The recently identified second human pegivirus (HPgV-2 or HHpgV-1) is a bloodborne flavivirus: little is known about the potential clinical significance of infection ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate the prevalence of mixed cryoglobulinemia in patients with HIV-1 infection, the clinical spectrum of cryoglobulinemia in these patients, and the possible role of HIV-1 in cryoglobulin formation. (annals.org)
  • Among patients with AIDS, the most common clinical presentation of T. gondii infection is focal encephalitis with headache, confusion, or motor weakness and fever. (nih.gov)
  • Our data illustrate the value of high-coverage genome-wide analysis of intrahost diversity for high-resolution mapping of the relationship between intrahost diversity and clinical, epidemiological, and virological parameters of viral infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, infection of poultry with H7N9 LPAI may result in few or no clinical signs, reducing the sensitivity of scanning surveillance detection methods and highlighting the importance of robustly validated laboratory methods. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The USPSTF found no evidence that screening for HCV infection in adults at high risk (see Clinical Considerations) leads to improved long-term health outcomes, although the yield of screening would be substantially higher in a high-risk population than in an average-risk population, and there is good evidence that antiviral therapy improves intermediate outcomes, such as viremia. (aafp.org)
  • This can lead to substantially higher early viral loads, which in turn can increase the chance of the infection spreading to the brain and worsen clinical outcome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The clinical signs of DVE "vary with virulence of virus strain, species, sex, and immune system status" of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • PCP is often the initial clinical sign of HIV infection, particularly among infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Viruses pose a serious threat to potato production, not only because of the effects caused by the primary infection but also because potato is propagated vegetatively so that viruses are transmitted through the tubers and accumulate over time ( Solomon-Blackburn and Barker, 2001 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Virus transmission to the fetus occurs in 40%-50% of cases of primary infection and can result in birth defects, including severe neurological disorders, impaired hearing, vision loss and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a defect that results from compromised placental function [ 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Although recent studies indicate that the frequency of hearing loss is similar in pregnancies complicated by primary and recurrent infection, the severity is greater in cases of primary infection [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 1-4 Primary infection occasionally is associated with acute cerebral or disseminated disease. (nih.gov)
  • 1,3,8,9 Primary infection occurs after eating undercooked meat containing tissue cysts or ingesting oocysts that have been shed in cat feces and sporulated in the environment, a process that takes at least 24 hours. (nih.gov)
  • 10 Up to 50% of individuals with documented primary infection do not have an identifiable risk factor. (nih.gov)
  • If host organisms survive primary infection, they enter a latent stage lasting up to 4 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants and young children may be more seriously affected than older children and adults because for the former, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia may represent primary infection rather than reactivation disease, and because an infant's or young child's immune defenses may be immature. (cdc.gov)
  • Because antibodies elicited by one virus type do not recognize other virus types, previous infection does not protect against reinfection with the same or different genotypes of the virus. (aappublications.org)
  • [1] It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, as part of the humoral immune response , can act to limit and contain infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence of herpes simplex virus antibodies in childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional study. (medscape.com)
  • We monitored the cohort for HCV status by HCV antibodies, RNA, or both, with the intent of capturing nascent HCV infections ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, due to immunity from maternal antibodies, recurrent infection is associated with a reduced viral transmission rate (0.1% to 2%) [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Serum and cryoglobulins were evaluated for antibodies to HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV-1, and HCV viral load. (annals.org)
  • Individuals submitted to frequent blood transfusions such as patients with sickle-cell anemia are at risk for HCV infection, with a prevalence ranging from 2 to 30% (5-11), especially those who were submitted to blood transfusion before serological screening for anti-HCV antibodies at blood banks (3,4). (scielo.br)
  • Seroconversion is the stage when a person's body is producing antibodies to HIV, which means that their immune system is fighting the infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Following transmission by mosquitoes, the early specific (also called adaptive) immune response to WNV is thought to be dominated by antibodies, and, consistent with this, the researchers found that older mice had less potent WNV-specific antibody responses during the early phase of infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Protective factors present in the human female genital tract provide an inherent ability to resist sexually transmitted infections (STI) ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In settings in which a high proportion of adults have risks for HBV infection (e.g., sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus testing and treatment facilities, drug-abuse treatment and prevention settings, health-care settings targeting services to IDUs, health-care settings targeting services to MSM, and correctional facilities), ACIP recommends universal hepatitis B vaccination for all unvaccinated adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Using this platform, we longitudinally sampled and sequenced the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope genome region (1,680 nucleotides [nt]) from individuals belonging to a cluster of sexually transmitted cases. (asm.org)
  • We used this method to genetically characterize a unique transmission cluster of sexually transmitted HCV infections, providing insight into the distinct evolutionary pathways in each patient over time and identifying the transmission-associated genetic bottleneck as well as fluctuations in viral genetic diversity over time, accompanied by dynamic shifts in viral subpopulations. (asm.org)
  • The researchers observed a high prevalence of HIV in the semen of sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) on HAART, and the presence of HIV in seminal fluid was associated with other sexually transmitted infections and genital inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Since the disease targets areas of the genitalia and carries the psychosocial stigma of being a sexually transmitted infection, patients can experience a range of emotions, including anger, shame, depression, and low self-worth as potential partners. (skintherapyletter.com)
  • B, C, D and E) can cause acute hepatitis, but only nant women and women of childbearing age in- hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) clude a history of blood transfusion, surgery, abor- are major causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and tion, sexually transmitted infections, level of edu- liver cancer globally (1). (who.int)
  • Prevalence and risk factors associated with herpes simplex virus-2 infection in a contemporary cohort of HIV-infected persons in the united states," Sexually Transmitted Diseases , vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 154-160, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type-2 among patients attending the sexually transmitted infections clinic in Jos, Nigeria," Journal of Infection in Developing Countries , vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 572-575, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • During replication of a virus some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncolytic viral therapy takes advantage of the fact that many enveloped and nonenveloped viruses destroy host cells as part of their replication strategy. (asm.org)
  • Despite observations of HCV and HPgV-2 co-infection, no evidence has been reported that HPgV-2 infection exacerbates HCV infection ( 5 , 6 , 8 ) or that co-infection influences the replication of either virus. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) antigens, gB and pp65, in the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection. (nih.gov)
  • The interferon inducible transmembrane protein family members, IFITM1, 2 and 3, are IEGs required for inhibition of influenza A virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus replication in vitro . (plos.org)
  • These alterations often increase replication efficiency by mislocalizing immune regulators or restriction factors ot by creating platforms for replication and assembly of new virus particles. (bioscience.org)
  • Viruses, many of which require interactions with membranes at multiple steps during their replication cycle, often alter the membrane profiles of cells. (bioscience.org)
  • These alterations have several benefits for the virus and may be essential for immune evasion strategies or to create a novel milieu optimal for replication. (bioscience.org)
  • GBF1, BIG1 and BIG2 are mostly at the Golgi and are sensitive to the trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A. Many of the initial observations linking the Arfs to virus replication are based on the observation that replication is sensitive to brefeldin A. It should be noted that some Arf GEFs, like ARNO and EFA6, are resistant to brefeldin A treatment. (bioscience.org)
  • 3. A method of inhibiting influenza virus replication in cells in vitro by introducing an oligonucleotide having SEQ ID NO: 1, SEQ ID NO: 3, SEQ ID NO: 4, SEQ ID NO: 5, SEQ ID NO: 6, SEQ ID NO: 7 or SEQ ID NO: 8, wherein at least some of the internucleotide linkages within said oligonucleotide are phosphorothioate linkages, into said cells in an amount sufficient to inhibit replication. (google.com)
  • The relationship between viral replication and the pathogenesis of infection is the subject of a recent review. (medscape.com)
  • Replication and transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus (PRV) are widely used to define the organization of neural circuits in rodent brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Replication of the virus constructed for that study (PRV-2001) requires Cre-mediated recombination of the viral genome to remove a floxed stop cassette that prevents transcription of a thymidine kinase gene essential for viral replication in non-mitotic cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Reduction in hepatitis C-related liver disease associated with GB virus C in human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study examined the ability of nine human defensins (HD) to protect against herpes simplex virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Noncytotoxic concentrations of all six α-defensins (HNP1-4, HD5, and HD6) and human β-defensin (hBD) 3 inhibited HSV infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Certain human β-defensins (e.g., hBD1) are expressed constitutively ( 9 ), and others (e.g., hBD2 and 3) show increased expression in response to inflammation or infection ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • used to indicate that an individual has been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus but does not yet have AIDS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In an initially double-blind trial, 212 evaluable human immunodeficiency virus-infected children who had received no more than 6 weeks of previous antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive either d4T (1 mg/kg orally every 12 hours, maximum 40 mg orally every 12 hours) or zidovudine (180 mg/m 2 orally every 6 hours, maximum 200 mg orally every 6 hours). (aappublications.org)
  • Therefore, control policies currently focused on dog culling may need to consider that VL and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/VL patients may also be infectious, contributing to transmission. (ajtmh.org)
  • Whilst in non-African countries this discovery led to an enormous enthusiasm to elucidate an association with liver disease, very little was known about the prevalence and pathogenicity of GBV-C/HGV infection in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, where Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is endemic and infection with the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a catastropic health problem. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Human infections with vaccinia virus (VACV), mostly from laboratory accidents or contact with infected animals, have occurred since smallpox was eradicated in 1980. (cdc.gov)
  • Human infections with OPVs frequently emerge or reemerge, including cowpox virus in Europe ( 4 ), monkeypox virus in Africa and North America ( 5 ), buffalopox in India ( 6 ), and VACV in South America ( 7 ), especially in Brazil ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No human cases of VACV infection have been reported in China in recent decades. (cdc.gov)
  • Most human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2) infections are associated with past or current hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Dengue virus has been shown to activate the inflammasome and induce the production of IL-18 by human macrophages ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • In our case, her previous unremarkable history, rapid recovery, normal laboratory evaluations, normal immunologic testing and absence of recurrence make the possibility of an underlying immunodeficiency, such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, extremely unlikely. (ispub.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of congenital infection and birth defects. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, infection is blocked by a potent human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), TRL345, reactive with glycoprotein B (gB), but not mAbs to the pentamer proteins pUL130/pUL131A. (mdpi.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the major viral cause of congenital infections and affects 1%-3% of live births in the U.S. [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • To experimentally mimic human infection in animal models, investigators have infected the cornea, nasal mucosa, oral mucosa, or the skin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct transformation by infectious agents, including Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8, or chronic immune stimulation by HCV and Helicobacter pylori , are thought to play a role in some NHL subtypes ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Classification system for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children under 13 years of age. (springer.com)
  • Natural history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in-fections in hemophiliacs: Effects of T-cell sub-sets, Platelet Counts, and Age. (springer.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus receptor of human B lymphocytes is the C3d receptor CR2. (springer.com)
  • Viruses are important human and animal pathogens causing disease that affect global health and the economy. (bioscience.org)
  • Occult HCV and Occult HBV Co-infection in Iranian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals. (amedeo.com)
  • Analogous to observations in RNA viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus, genetic variation associated with intrahost dengue virus (DENV) populations has been postulated to influence viral fitness and disease pathogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, several high-risk groups, including immunocompromised organ transplant recipients and individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are at risk of developing life-threatening and sight-threatening CMV disease. (medscape.com)
  • Human CMV was first isolated in tissue culture in 1956, and the propensity of this organism to infect the salivary gland led to its initial designation as a salivary gland virus. (medscape.com)
  • The emergence of this novel influenza A virus from a likely animal source presents an ongoing threat to human health, as well as posing threats to both poultry health and supply chains. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Furthermore, there are concerns regarding more severe public health impacts should the causative H7N9 virus undergo further adaptations that enable sustained community transmission within human populations that are immunologically naïve to infection with an H7 influenza A virus, including pandemic potential. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is a member of beta-herpesvirus family. (genome.jp)
  • An extracorporeal apparatus and methods for treatment of HIV (Human Immuno-deficiency Virus) infections and AIDS. (google.ca)
  • A collaboration between researchers from the University of Nebraska and Harvard Medical School has implemented next-generation DNA sequencing technology to characterize mutations in the envelope glycoprotein of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), a model for studying HIV transmission and pathogenesis, in infected non-human primates. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center in New York used ARRA funding to analyze the activity of proteins that facilitate viral persistence in non-human primates and to develop novel chimeric, or hybrid, viruses based on HIV-1. (nih.gov)
  • Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Lesions. (portalesmedicos.com)
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Venereal Infection and Gynecology Cancer. (portalesmedicos.com)
  • 1 The etiology of EGW has been clearly linked to infection with non-oncogenic strains (types 6 and 11) of the human papilloma virus (HPV) transmitted through sexual contact. (skintherapyletter.com)
  • 13 Upregulation of IFN-α, β, and γ and TNF-α has a strong association with EGW regression, as well as with a reduction in human papilloma virus DNA and mRNA. (skintherapyletter.com)
  • Although guidelines have been established for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) for adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, they have not been available for children (1). (cdc.gov)
  • African Americans infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) are at risk of developing a renal syndrome named HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). (siicsalud.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus infection as a risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus infection in heterosexuals," Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 251-255, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B virus infection in haitian women with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T lymphotropic virus type I infections," Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 166, no. 2, pp. 418-420, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • Interactions between herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in African women: opportunities for intervention," Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 182, no. 4, pp. 1090-1096, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Irja Lutsar, The impact of CCR5 human haplotypes and co-infection with HCV on immune activation combination antiretroviral therapy in HlV-positive subjects, University of Tartu, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Chair of Medical Microbiology and Virology. (etis.ee)
  • Human infection with avian influenza A viruses, China. (flutrackers.com)
  • This was the first time human infections with avian influenza virus A(H7N9) were identified. (flutrackers.com)
  • This event also marked the identification of the first fatal human infections caused by a low pathogenicity virus of avian origin. (flutrackers.com)
  • In recent weeks there has been a notable increase in the number of human cases, which may indicate a larger wild or domestic bird reservoir, an increase in the number of exposed individuals, enhanced transmissibility of the virus, a seasonal transmission pattern or a combination of these factors. (flutrackers.com)
  • Three human cases of influenza A(H10N8) virus have been reported in Jiangxi province in China. (flutrackers.com)
  • The severe nature of human infections and the persistence of A(H7N9) and A(H5N1) in poultry represents a significant long-term threat to humans, either through zoonotic transmission or potentially through developing pandemic capacity. (flutrackers.com)
  • EDITOR--Scoular et al describe the rising incidence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as the cause of genital infections for the years 1986 to 2000, with predominance in the young and female sex, together with differences in recurrence rates, subclinical shedding and mode of infection as compared to HSV-2. (bmj.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 1. (medscape.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. (medscape.com)
  • Arduino PG, Porter SR. Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection: review of its management. (medscape.com)
  • Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States," The Journal of the American Medical Association , vol. 296, no. 8, pp. 964-973, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • WHO and UNAIDS, "Herpes simplex virus type 2: programmatic and research priorities in developing countries," Report of a WHO/UNAIDS/LSHTM Workshop HIV_AIDS/2001.05, WHO, UNAIDS, London, UK, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in selected German populations - Relevance for the incidence of genital herpes," Journal of Medical Virology , vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 201-207, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Lepej, and J. Begovac, "Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 in adult HIV-infected patients and blood donors in Croatia," Collegium Antropologicum , vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 693-695, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening infants born to HCV-infected mothers and persons with risk factors for HCV infection such as injection drug use, transfusion of ≥1 U of blood or blood products before 1992, or hemodialysis should be screened for anti-HCV. (aappublications.org)
  • The genital tract secretions of healthy women can inhibit HSV-2 ( 2 ) and HIV-1 ( 3 ) infections in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • This can be related to either oral or genital infection. (medscape.com)
  • The burden of infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2 in England and Wales: implications for the changing epidemiology of genital herpes. (medscape.com)
  • Dengue virus infection usually manifests as a self-limiting febrile illness. (asm.org)
  • Viruses with lipid envelopes have a greater ability to adhere to cell membranes and to avoid destruction by the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5 This rapid mutation appears to be a mechanism that allows the virus to escape immune surveillance by the host and to maintain persistent infection. (aappublications.org)
  • This paradox led to the hypothesis that these HP influenza viruses induce immune-mediated pathology, characterized by severe vascular leakage and lung edema. (pnas.org)
  • Although the expeditious accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines during HP influenza infections has been extensively characterized, the identities of the cell types responsible for this immune-induced pathology are less clear. (pnas.org)
  • Mast cells (MCs), a type of immune effector cell, have recently become recognized for their ability to cause vascular leakage during dengue virus (DENV) infection. (portlandpress.com)
  • Oncolytic viruses directly kill cancer cells and may trigger an immune response against cancer-specific or viral epitopes presented on major histocompatibility complex class I protein to immune cells. (asm.org)
  • The flavivirus-immune hamsters also had a reduced viremia and lower serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin, compared with naive hamsters, following YFV infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • However, steatosis was not observed in the flavivirus-immune animals, whereas naive hamsters developed extensive microvesicular steatosis in the liver following YFV infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • The relative resistance of dengue-immune monkeys to yellow fever virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Despite these findings, the local immune response mimicked the phenotype of an active infection during latency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GBV-C infection may play an etiologic role in a small proportion of NHL cases, perhaps by causing chronic immune stimulation or impaired immunosurveillance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chronic GBV-C infection has been associated with decreased apoptosis of T cells, impaired T-cell activation and proliferation, and changes in immune responsiveness that may contribute to lymphomagenesis ( 14-16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Flu-like symptoms may appear within the first 2-6 weeks of an HIV infection as the immune system fights the infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Opportunistic infections are usually caused by ordinary, harmless viruses, bacteria, and fungi, which only provoke disease when the immune system is compromised. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An immune patient was defined as a patient who was positive for anti-HBs as a result of vaccination or positive for anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs as a result of natural infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital component of the innate immune response to virus-infected cells. (jove.com)
  • Few studies have examined T-cell responses to these viruses, and therefore the nature of the viral targets and the immune cells involved in antiviral responses remain unclear. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A study published on July 23rd in PLOS Pathogens suggests that several critical components of the early immune response to the virus are impaired in elderly individuals, and that this can explain their vulnerability. (eurekalert.org)
  • Michael Diamond, from Washington University in Saint Louis, USA, and colleagues analyzed and compared the immune response to WNV infection in four-month-old (the equivalent of young adults) and 18-month-old (elderly) mice. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the observed differences of the individual steps were mostly modest, mathematical modeling suggested that even small delays in the trafficking of these immune cells will lead to reduced initiation of a WNV-specific antibody-response during the early stages after infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ultimately, this leads to blunted adaptive immune responses, higher viral titers, and increased death after West Nile virus infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • He showed that the FOXO3a pathway plays a critical role in educating the immune response towards the generation of central memory T cells that can control the virus naturally. (drexel.edu)
  • He has used this approach to identify biomarkers and immune signatures for many vaccines and natural infections. (drexel.edu)
  • Norwalk virus had been discovered by Albert Kapikian using immune electron microscopy and Ruth Bishop and colleagues had seen different particles that they thought were viruses in gut biopsies by thin section electron microscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus with reduced pathogenicity as a result of treatment or repeated passage through hosts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • VACV, cowpox virus, and monkeypox virus are OPVs of concern because of pathogenicity in humans, possible adverse effects in vulnerable populations, potential spread and introduction in other areas, and public health burden ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Bacterial infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of children. (springer.com)
  • This is a bacterial infection that occurs when there is an interruption of salvia flow from the salivary gland to the mouth. (colgate.com)
  • A tooth abscess occurs when there is a bacterial infection in the nerve of the tooth. (colgate.com)
  • Mouth sores can be caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infections, a loose orthodontic wire, a denture that doesn't fit, or a sharp edge from a broken tooth or filling. (colgate.com)
  • Sialadenitis a bacterial infection of a salivary gland and can be acute, chronic or recurrent. (colgate.com)
  • The bacterial infection causes pain, bad breath and inflammation. (colgate.com)
  • Hepatitis A and E viruses persist in the environment and are able to resist food-production processes routinely used to inactivate and/or control bacterial pathogens. (who.int)
  • Persistent infection develops in at least 85% of infected newborns, even in the absence of biochemical evidence of liver disease. (aappublications.org)
  • Last, we hypothesized that longitudinal samples from IDUs would reveal whether HPgV-2 can establish a persistent infection in the absence of HCV co-infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was historically placed in the Paramyxovirus family. (bmj.com)
  • The aim was to estimate the seroprevalence of HBV infection in Cameroon. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion The seroprevalence of HBV infection in Cameroon is high. (bmj.com)
  • All blood specimens most studies on seroprevalence of HBV infection from each Kebele were transported to Jimma Univer- depend either on rapid test kits or ELISA method to sity Microbiology laboratory on the same day in a capture HBsAg markers (11-17). (who.int)
  • This paradoxical exacerbation of prenatal Zika virus exposure is due to an elevated risk for pregnancies to shift toward the peak of the outbreak. (annals.org)
  • Hepatitis B is a disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted through percutaneous (i.e., puncture through the skin) or mucosal (i.e., direct contact with mucous membranes) exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. (cdc.gov)
  • CS exposure prior to Mem71 infection almost completely abolished relaxation, although β 2 -adrenoceptor and TNFα and IL-1β expression were unaltered. (portlandpress.com)
  • Primary (first-episode) infections manifest within several days of exposure to secretions containing viable virus. (medscape.com)
  • HPgV-2 is thought to be a bloodborne virus: higher prevalence of active infection has been found in populations with a history of parenteral exposure to viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Active or resolved HPgV-2 infection has been detected worldwide in cohorts associated with risk for parenteral exposure to bloodborne pathogens ( 1 , 3 - 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Our experimental results support earlier anecdotal reports that prior exposure of humans to heterologous flaviviruses reduces subsequent risk of fatal YFV infection. (ajtmh.org)
  • for HBV infection only family exposure or contact with HBV case were identified. (who.int)
  • In these investigations, a case of acute HBV infection was defined as seroconversion from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative to HBsAg-positive in a hemodialysis patient during the exposure period defined in each investigation. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to blood through injections with nonsterile equipment or transfusion of infected blood products is a common and preventable cause of hepatitis B and C virus infections. (who.int)
  • Potentially these novel therapies would have certain advantages over current drugs, as the newer therapies would target the cell in which HIV can replicate and not the virus directly. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Our findings indicate that HPgV-2 can establish chronic infection and replicate in the absence of HCV. (cdc.gov)
  • To replicate, viruses must gain access to the host cell's resources. (plos.org)
  • The method exploits the tropism of these viruses for neurons and their tendency to replicate and spread from neuron-to-neuron via the intimate synaptic contacts through which neurons communicate. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Ruth Bishop, who was the first to describe rotaviruses as a cause of gastroenteritis had suggested "duovirus" because these viruses replicate in the duodenum and, at the time, were thought to have a double protein outer coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. (cdc.gov)
  • Asia is endemic for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which is the leading cause of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma , and liver transplantation worldwide. (dovepress.com)
  • The prevalence of HCV infection in the general population is low, and most who are infected do not develop cirrhosis or other major negative health outcomes. (aafp.org)
  • There is no evidence that screening for HCV infection leads to improved long-term health outcomes, such as decreased cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer, or mortality. (aafp.org)
  • There is limited evidence that 10 to 20 percent of patients with chronic HCV infection develop cirrhosis within 20 to 30 years after infection. (aafp.org)
  • Hepatitis B and C viruses can also cause chronic infections that remain silent for decades, placing infected persons at risk for premature death from liver cirrhosis (scarring) or primary liver cancer in later life. (who.int)
  • An estimated 57% of cases of liver cirrhosis and 78% of primary liver cancer result from hepatitis B or C virus infection. (who.int)
  • People with chronic infection risk progression to cirrhosis and primary liver cancer. (who.int)
  • People with chronic hepatitis B virus infection have a 15% to 25% risk of dying prematurely from hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and liver cancer. (who.int)
  • People with chronic hepatitis C virus infection are also at high risk for developing cirrhosis and liver cancer. (who.int)
  • Viruses are also responsible for the common cold, childhood exanthems (such as chickenpox, measles, rubella), latent infections (such as herpes simplex), some cancers or lymphomas (such as Epstein-Barr virus), and diseases of all organ systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This will be done by determining the point prevalence of co-infection retrospectively then following that cohort prospectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • GB virus C infection and survival in the Amsterdam Cohort study - Reply to George and to Stapleton et al. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transmission of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in a prospective cohort of HIV-negative gay men: the health in men study. (medscape.com)
  • Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that HNPs 1, 2, 3, and HD5 bound HSV glycoprotein B (gB) with high affinity, but showed minimal binding to heparan sulfate, the receptor for attachment. (jimmunol.org)
  • EBV glycoprotein B (gB) is the critical fusion protein for infection of both B and epithelial cells, and determines EBV susceptibility of non-B cells. (nature.com)
  • Key associations for hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Middle East and North Africa. (amedeo.com)
  • Considerable variation is also observed between viruses from the same serotype (~3 to 6% at the nucleotide level), which are phylogenetically divided into genotypes that are further subdivided into clades. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Prevalence and Genotypes of GBV-C and Its Associations With HIV Infection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Eastern Europe. (etis.ee)
  • This section describes physical examination findings of the herpetic lesion as it relates to primary and recurrent lesions of cutaneous or mucosal HSV infection. (medscape.com)
  • The leading causes of late mortality include recurrent malignancy, lung diseases, infection, secondary cancers and chronic graft- versus -host disease. (haematologica.org)
  • Unlike the situation for seasonal influenza where the immunocompromised (very young or elderly individuals) are most at risk, infection with the highly pathogenic (HP) 1918 H1N1 pandemic strain and recent H5N1 isolates is associated with high death rates in otherwise healthy, fully immunocompetent adults ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex partners, injection-drug users [IDUs], and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • This report, the second of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), provides updated recommendations to increase hepatitis B vaccination of adults at risk for HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In other primary care and specialty medical settings in which adults at risk for HBV infection receive care, health-care providers should inform all patients about the health benefits of vaccination, including risks for HBV infection and persons for whom vaccination is recommended, and vaccinate adults who report risks for HBV infection and any adults requesting protection from HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Mark KE, Wald A, Magaret AS, Selke S, Olin L, Huang ML. Rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus reactivation in immunocompetent adults. (medscape.com)
  • The USPSTF found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine screening for HCV infection in adults at high risk for infection. (aafp.org)
  • [ 5 ] Although enormous progress has recently been made in defining and characterizing the molecular biology, immunology, and antiviral therapeutic targets for CMV, considerable work remains in devising strategies for prevention of CMV infection and in understanding the role of specific viral genes in pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Since HIV pathogenesis is thought to be accelerated by T cell activation, these results may contribute to prolonged survival among HIV infected individuals co-infected with GBV-C. Furthermore, since cART therapy does not reduce T cell activation to levels seen in HIV-uninfected people, GBV-C infection may be beneficial for HIV-related diseases in those effectively treated with anti-HIV therapy. (jove.com)
  • HIV-1 infection appears to play a key role in the pathogenesis of HIVAN, at least partially by affecting the growth and differentiation of renal epithelial cells, and by enhancing the renal recruitment of inflammatory cells and circulating heparin binding growth factors. (siicsalud.com)
  • In order to improve our understanding of EBOV pathogenesis and EBOV-host interactions, we examined the molecular features of EBOV infection in vivo . (unl.edu)
  • Chikungunya virus infection is believed to confer lifelong immunity. (mja.com.au)
  • The premature loss of MBCs in many diseases, including HIV-1 infection, leads to the establishment of profound defects in global and polyclonal humoral immunity and the inability to elicit efficient responses to most vaccines. (drexel.edu)
  • detectable in persons with acute, chronic, and resolved infection. (cdc.gov)
  • During latency (i.e., 30 DPI and beyond) despite no detectable infectious virus or lytic gene expression and low levels of latency associated transcripts, total effector (CD44 + CD62 − ) CD4 + T, CD8 + T, HSV-1-specific CD8 + T cells, and MHC class II positive resident microglia numbers continued to increase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hospital admission and abortion are the major risk factors for hepatitis B and C virus infection among mothers. (who.int)
  • The group of viruses that cause acute and/or chronic liver infection and inflammation (hepatitis) is responsible for major public health problems globally. (who.int)
  • Although MC stabilizers have been reported to attenuate DENV induced infection in animal studies, there are limited in vitro studies on the use of MC stabilizers against DENV induced MC degranulation. (portlandpress.com)
  • The present study aims to establish an in vitro model of DENV3-induced RBL-2H3 cells using ketotifen fumarate as a control drug, as well as to determine the effect of tHGA on the release of MC mediators upon DENV infection. (portlandpress.com)
  • HCV is a small, single-stranded RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae . (aappublications.org)
  • The influenza A virus is 50-100 nm in size, encodes for up to 11 proteins, and contains eight segments of negative single-stranded genomic RNA (3). (plos.org)
  • also known as hepatitis G virus) is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pegivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae ( 1-3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1-3 A decrease in virus concentration in serum or plasma, an increase in CD4+ lymphocyte count, improved weight gain, decreased hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, and improvement in HIV-associated encephalopathy, often are observed. (aappublications.org)
  • 16.6%)]) were exposed to GBV-C/HGV infection as determined by the detection of Anti-E2 &/or RNA in serum. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Chikungunya virus was diagnosed by performing a generic alphavirus reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum. (mja.com.au)
  • Prediagnostic PLCO serum samples were tested for GBV-C RNA (as a measure of active infection) and E2 antibody (active or resolved infection). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, JA pathway genes were markedly suppressed upon the CiLV-C infection mediated by viruliferous mites. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viral infection also intensified the ROS burst and cell death, and enhanced the expression of genes involved in the RNA silencing mechanism and SA pathway. (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple viruses enter host cells through the late endocytic pathway, and many of these invaders are attenuated by IFN. (plos.org)
  • HCMV gB could activate the PDGFRA, and induce activation of the oncogenic PI3-K/AKT pathway. (genome.jp)
  • Cancer cells are susceptible to oncolytic viruses, albeit variably. (asm.org)
  • From April 1 through June 1, 1994, cases of acute HBV infection were identified in seven (5.3%) of 131 susceptible patients in center B. Of the two patients with chronic infections, one was identified as the source of the transmission through genetic sequencing of virus isolates from all infected patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Staff frequently were assigned to provide simultaneous care for the source-patient with chronic infection and for susceptible patients. (cdc.gov)
  • T-cell lines, even without infection, are quite susceptible to NK cell lysis. (jove.com)
  • The absence of this molecule rendered mice (ashen mice) and humans (Griscelli patients) susceptible to repeated infection. (drexel.edu)
  • Viral genetic diversity was low during acute infection and increased upon progression to chronicity but subsequently fluctuated during chronic infection, caused by the alternate detection of distinct coexisting lineages. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, during acute infection, most infected cells appeared to be anatomically distributed within the OB rather than other regions of the CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the United States, eating raw shellfish including oysters, clams, and mussels recently was identified as a novel risk factor for acute infection. (nih.gov)
  • Respiratory infection with highly pathogenic influenza A viruses is characterized by the exuberant production of cytokines and chemokines and the enhanced recruitment of innate inflammatory cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that challenging mice with virulent influenza A viruses, including currently circulating H5N1 strains, causes the increased selective accumulation of a particular dendritic cell subset, the tipDCs, in the pneumonic airways. (pnas.org)
  • Our current concern is with the avian H5N1 influenza A viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis plays a central role in the molecular epidemiology of rapidly evolving RNA viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and influenza A viruses ( 1 - 3 ) and requires sequencing methods that can accurately capture the genetic diversity of RNA virus genomes. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of GB virus C (GBV-C) on the natural history of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in subjects co-infected with HIV and HCV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • New viruses are then released either by destroying their host cell or by forming small buds that break off and infect other cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most of the known plant viruses systemically infect their main plant hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virus damages or destroys the cells before moving on to infect more cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In another it took 300,000 more virus material it infect northern pintail than to infect blue-winged teal. (wikipedia.org)
  • What we do know is that phages, or the viruses that infect bacteria, are extremely important. (bbc.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that initially infects mucosa epithelial cells prior to infection of the innervating sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mechanisms of cell-free EBV infection of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells remain elusive. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, NRP1 is identified as an EBV entry factor that cooperatively activates RTK signalling, which subsequently promotes EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. (nature.com)
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common serious HIV-associated opportunistic infection among children. (cdc.gov)
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be life-threatening and often results in significant developmental deficits and/or hearing loss. (nih.gov)
  • The UK's avian disease emerging threats report for the first quarter of 2015 describes cases of enterococcal and streptococcal infections, colibacillosis of several types, and an unusual diagnosis of leucocis in chickens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • GB Virus C / Hepatitis G Virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa : its diagnosis, distribution and molecular epidemiology. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Compositions and methods are provided for the treatment and diagnosis of influenza virus infections. (google.com)
  • Diagnosis can also be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Faster diagnosis of infections would reduce morbidity and mortality, for example, through the earlier implementation of appropriate antimicrobial treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • genus Orthopoxvirus [OPV]) is used as a lyophilized live virus vaccine against smallpox, variola virus ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • No licensed Chikungunya virus vaccine is currently available. (mja.com.au)
  • Pup survival was significantly increased in the LCMV-gB vaccine group. (nih.gov)
  • There was 23% pup mortality in the gB vaccine group (p = 0.044) and 26% pup mortality in the pp65 vaccine group (p = 0.054) compared to 49% control pup mortality. (nih.gov)
  • The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. (nih.gov)
  • The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on attenuated Japanese B encephalitis virus vaccine. (ajtmh.org)
  • Following initial infection, most people clear GBV-C within a few years, but the virus can cause chronic infection in an estimated 20% to 30% of people ( 5, 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5] With the rise in incidence of AIDS and HIV infections over the same time span, 1986 to 2000, coupled with the increased use of condoms and other preventive measures, venereal transmission has been blocked in favour of HSV-1 auto-inoculation with recurrences. (bmj.com)
  • Other causes include tobacco use, HIV/AIDS and the Epstein-Barr virus. (colgate.com)
  • Although progress has been made in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, the epidemic continues to challenge the United States and the international community, with approximately 50,000 new HIV infections each year in the United States and an estimated 34.2 million people living with HIV worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • In medical centers caring for large numbers of children with perinatally acquired HIV infection, PCP has been the initial HIV-related illness for 8%-12% of all children and for greater than 50% of those children who progress to AIDS within the first year of life (2-6). (cdc.gov)
  • Each of our cells contains antiviral factors that work to inhibit infection. (plos.org)
  • Here, we seek to better understand how one of these antiviral factors, IFITM3, contributes to both baseline, as well as interferon-induced, antagonism of influenza A viral infection. (plos.org)
  • Sex difference in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting antiviral therapy in patients with HCV infection. (amedeo.com)
  • Currently available antiviral agents include amantadine (Symmetrel) and rimantadine (Flumadine), which are active against influenza virus A, and two newer products, zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu), which have activity against influenza viral types A and B. (aafp.org)
  • There is no treatment for DVE, but resveratol has shown to have some antiviral activity against the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The seroprevalence of HCV infection is 1.8% in the general population of the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, unpublished data), with global distribution of infection. (aappublications.org)
  • As all five viruses differ in their global distribution and routes of transmission, tailored prevention strategies will be required. (who.int)
  • The differences are most significant in patients with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection, which is attributed to the higher frequency of IFN-responsive or favorable interleukin-28B (IL-28B) genotype in Asian populations than in other ethnic populations. (dovepress.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the study of genetically variable RNA virus populations, but for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses, longer sequences than those generated by most available platforms, while minimizing the intrinsic error rate, are desired. (asm.org)
  • CD4 + and CD8 + T cell populations isolated from the OB during latency were capable of responding to PMA/ionomycin in the production of IFN-γ similar to T cells from other tissue that possess latent virus including the TG and brain stem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in China and the rapid detection of a case of H9N2 low-pathogenic avian influenza in turkeys in eastern England are among the highlights of the latest AHVLA surveillance report. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in China discussed. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • In addition, surveillance activities for suspected avian notifiable disease (AND) resulted in the detection of a non-notifiable avian influenza infection in turkey breeders during April 2013. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The causative avian influenza A(H7N9) virus is a reassortant putatively with genes from avian-origin H7N9 and H9N2 avian influenza (AI) viruses (Defra, 2013a). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The continued and increasing transmission of a novel reassortant avian influenza virus capable of causing severe disease in humans in one of the most densely populated areas in the world remains a cause for concern due to the pandemic potential. (flutrackers.com)
  • Next, the NK cells which have Fc Receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes , which causes the lysis of the infected cell to hinder the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results indicate that mAbs to gB protect trophoblast progenitors of the placenta and could be included in antibody treatments developed to suppress congenital infection and prevent disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Antibody responses are initiated in lymph nodes close to the site of initial infection (so-called draining lymph nodes, or DLNs), where antigen-presenting cells, helper T cells, and antibody-producing B cells migrate to and interact to form so-called "germinal centers" and produce a highly specific antibody response. (eurekalert.org)
  • Regarding the mechanisms, they say "the delayed antibody and germinal center cell responses are due to trafficking defects, which are compounded by lower levels of chemokines in the lymph node after infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Next, the NK cells which have reciprocal Fcγ receptors will bind to that antibody, inducing the NK cell to release proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes, which causes the lysis of the infected cell to hinder the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persons with hepatitis B virus infection, as defined by the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and/or hepatitis B virus DNA positive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sequence analysis of the immunoglobulin antigen receptor of hepatitis C virus-associated non-Hodgkin lymphomas suggests that the malignant cells are derived from the rheumatoid factor-producing cells that occur mainly in type II cryoglobulinemia. (nature.com)
  • The eight cases of Chikungunya virus infection were identified after reviewing the database of the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory between February 2006 and September 2007. (mja.com.au)
  • Harrys A. Torres, MD, is an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, where he is also founder and director of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Clinic, the first established clinic in the United States devoted to managing HCV infection in cancer patients. (jnccn.org)
  • Lillian R. Roach, RN-BC, is from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. (jnccn.org)