Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Peptide Elongation Factor Tu: A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Thiostrepton: One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.Prokaryotic Initiation Factor-2: The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Toll-Like Receptor 5: A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Glycosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.ThiazolesHydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Structural Homology, Protein: The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein PrecursorsSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... DnaE2 is an error-prone repair DNA repair polymerase that appears to contribute to M. tuberculosis survival during infection. ... These proteins have a conserved N-terminal motif, deletion of which impairs growth in macrophages and granulomas. Nine ... About 10% of the coding capacity is taken up by the PE/PPE gene families that encode acidic, glycine-rich proteins. ...
... is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections ... It is a bacterial protein synthesis inhibitor by inhibiting ribosomal translocation, in a similar way to macrolides. It does so ... Coyle EA, Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (2003). "Targeting bacterial virulence: the role of protein synthesis ... including dental infections, and infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissue, and peritonitis. In people with ...
"Resilience to bacterial infection: difference between species could be due to proteins in serum". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (2): 223- ... Lipooligosaccharides play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain bacterial infections because they are capable of ... "A critical role of natural immunoglobulin M in immediate defense against systemic bacterial infection". J. Exp. Med. 188 (12): ... the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. Subsequent work showed that release of LPS ...
Infection begins when G protein binds to lipopolysaccharides on the bacterial host cell surface. H protein (or the DNA Pilot ... 2009) that de novo H protein was required for optimal synthesis of other viral proteins. Mutations in H protein that prevent ... are difficult to detect in protein crystallography. Additionally, H protein induces lysis of the bacterial host at high ... The A protein will cleave the complete genome every time it recognises the origin sequence. As D protein is the most abundant ...
The tuberactinomycins target bacterial ribosomes, binding RNA and disrupting bacterial protein biosynthesis. It is produced by ... The tuberactinomycin family is an essential component in the drug cocktail currently used to fight infections of Mycobacterium ... The NRPS contains 4 proteins: VioA, VioF, VioI, and VioG. These proteins condense and cyclize two molecules of L-2,3- ... the actinomycete Streptomyces puniceus, that binds to RNA and inhibits prokaryotic protein synthesis and certain forms of RNA ...
B. mallei has bacterial protein-dependent, actin-based motility once inside the cell. It is also able to initiate host cell ... and implies their importance to immunity against this bacterial infection. T cells (nitric oxide) are actually more involved in ... or splenous infections. B. mallei infection has a fatality rate of 95% if left untreated, and a 50% fatality rate in ... Acute infection in horses results in a high fever, loss of fat or muscle, erosion of the surface of the nasal septum, ...
The species has been associated with outbreaks of bacterial infection-associated protein losing enteropathy in horses. McORIST ... McGurrin MK, Vengust M, Arroyo LG, Baird JD (September 2007). "An outbreak of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a ... Bihr TP (January 2003). "Protein-losing enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis in a weanling foal". The Canadian ... "Evidence of host adaptation in Lawsonia intracellularis infections". Veterinary Research. 43 (1): 53. doi:10.1186/1297-9716-43- ...
"Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi". ... including bacterial gene expression in infected humans, and human immune responses to bacterial infection. This collaborative ... Direct Conjugation of Bacterial O-SP-Core Antigens to Proteins: Development of Cholera Conjugate Vaccines". Bioconjugate ... Ryan is the Director of Global Infectious Diseases at Massachusetts General Hospital, and in 2006 isolated a new bacterial ...
"ECCMID Presentation: Synthetic Novel Host Defense Protein Mimetics for the Treatment of Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections" ( ... "Synthetic novel host defense protein mimetics for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections". European Society of ... Initial Treatment for Acute Bacterial Skin Infections (ABSSSI) Caused by Staphylococcus aureus Randomized, Dose Ranging, Active ... proven to be successful in fighting off infections over millions of years of evolution), bacterial antibiotic resistance is ...
... urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections, gynecologic infections, bacterial septicemia, bone and joint infections, ... Imipenem/cilastatin, like other carbapenems, binds to bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and interferes with bacterial cell ... Imipenem inhibits bacterial cell-wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins; cilastatin prevents renal metabolism ... Imipenem is a broad-spectrum betalactam antibiotic used for severe bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. ...
... interferes with the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, by binding to penicillin binding proteins. Due to high protein ... It is used to treat skin and soft tissue infections in dogs and cats. The antimicrobial effects last for 14 days following ... The maximum anti-bacterial activity occurs approximately two days after cefovecin has been administered. In the dog, the half- ... In cats, 99% of cefovecin is bound to proteins in the blood plasma. Cefovecin was first authorized for use in the European ...
"Structural relationship of bacterial RecA proteins to recombination proteins from bacteriophage T4 and yeast". Science. 259 ( ... Michod RE, Bernstein H, Nedelcu AM (May 2008). "Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens". Infection, Genetics and ... RecA protein binds to this strand and is either aided by the RecF, RecO, and RecR proteins or stabilized by them. The RecA ... The proteins of the RecA recombinase family of proteins are thought to be descended from a common ancestral recombinase. The ...
Laboratory investigations reveal signs of a bacterial infection with elevated C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation ... During the primary infection, F. necrophorum colonizes the infection site and the infection spreads to the parapharyngeal space ... It most often develops as a complication of a bacterial sore throat infection in young, otherwise healthy adults. The ... Lemierre's syndrome occurs most often when a bacterial (e.g., Fusobacterium necrophorum) throat infection progresses to the ...
The Hershey-Chase experiment in 1952 showed that only DNA and not protein enters a bacterial cell upon infection with ... In 2015 it was shown that proteins from an ERV are actively expressed in 3-day-old human embryos and appear to play a role in ... Tests detecting HIV infection by detecting the presence of HIV antibody were developed. Subsequent tremendous research efforts ... Also in 1955, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat and Robley Williams showed that purified TMV RNA and its capsid (coat) protein can self- ...
... which have similarity with bacterial restriction endonuclease. This similarity with bacterial protein indicates that ... The infection can occur when a person puts anything into their mouth that has touched the feces of a person who is infected ... The infected individual will be treated with only one antibiotic if the E. histolytica infection has not made the person sick ... In the vast majority of cases, infection is asymptomatic and the carrier is unaware they are infected. However, in an estimated ...
"Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection". eLife. 3: e03206. doi:10.7554 ... "Serum amyloid A is a retinol binding protein that transports retinol during bacterial infection". eLife. 3: e03206. doi:10.7554 ... SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly produced by hepatocytes in response to infection, tissue injury and malignancy. When ... These findings suggest that SAA1 has a function in host defense against bacterial infection. The biological function of SAA1 ...
... and an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. "Transmembrane protein 165". Retrieved 2011-12-06. "Radiography data ... Transmembrane protein 165 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMEM165 gene. The gene is also known as TPARL and ... "Salmonella infection data for Tmem165". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Tmem165". Wellcome ...
Kanamycin is indicated for short term treatment of bacterial infections caused by one or more of the following pathogens: E. ... Kanamycin works by interfering with protein synthesis. It binds to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. This results in ... It works by blocking the production of proteins that are required for bacterial survival. Kanamycin was first isolated in 1957 ... Kanamycin A, often referred to as simple kanamycin, is an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections and tuberculosis ...
As a response to the use of β-lactams to control bacterial infections, some bacteria have evolved penicillin binding proteins ... β-lactam antibiotics are indicated for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible organisms. At ... Hence, there are two main modes of bacterial resistance to β-lactams: If the bacterium produces the enzyme β-lactamase or the ... The amount of PBPs varies among bacterial species. β-lactam antibiotics are analogues of d-alanyl-d-alanine-the terminal amino ...
... is a pioneer in the study of proteins and protein assemblies essential to bacterial pathogenicity and ... Her agenda-setting dissection of the membrane assemblies involved in infection, virulence and bacterial cell wall synthesis is ... Strynadka, N. C. J.; James, M. N. G. (1989). "Crystal Structures of the Helix-Loop-Helix Calcium-Binding Proteins". Annual ... "Structural analysis of the essential self-cleaving type III secretion proteins EscU and SpaS". Nature. 453 (7191): 124-7. doi: ...
Resistance to methicillin is conferred by activation of a new bacterial penicillin binding protein (PBP) mecA gene. This ... However, selection of meticillin depended on the outcome of susceptibility testing of the sampled infection, and since it is no ... Penicillinase is a bacterial enzyme produced by bacteria resistant to other B-lactam antibiotics which hydrolyses the ... At one time, meticillin was used to treat infections caused by certain gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, ...
... inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. Omadacycline has activity against bacterial strains expressing the two main forms of ... disease product in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial ... a second phase 3 study of omadacycline was initiated in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, ... development of a novel aminomethylcycline antibiotic for treating drug-resistant bacterial infections". Future Microbiology. 11 ...
... mezlocillin inhibits the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin binding proteins. This ... therefore it is useful for biliary tract infections, such as ascending cholangitis. Like all other beta-lactam antibiotics, ...
"The mechanism of bacterial infection by filamentous phages involves molecular interactions between TolA and phage protein 3 ... Russel, M; Model, P (August 1989). "Genetic analysis of the filamentous bacteriophage packaging signal and of the proteins that ...
Mycoplasma Mollicutes Bacterial pneumonia A.S. Dajani; W.A. Clyde Jr. & F.W. Denny (1965). "Experimental Infection with ... The P1 adhesin (trypsin-sensitive protein) is a 120 kDa protein highly clustered on the surface of the attachment organelle tip ... The majority of antibiotics used to treat M. pneumoniae infections are targeted at bacterial rRNA in ribosomal complexes, ... Transmission of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections is difficult to limit because of the several day period of infection before ...
Infection[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... Atromentin and leucomelone possess antibacterial activity, inhibiting the enzyme enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, ( ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ...
... requires five translocated bacterial effectors that inhibit host protein synthesis. Upon infection of macrophages with virulent ... Previous studies have demonstrated that the host response to bacterial infection is induced primarily by specific microbial ... whereas multiple compounds or bacterial toxins that inhibit host protein synthesis via distinct mechanisms recapitulated the ... For virulence, L. pneumophila requires a Dot/Icm type IV secretion system that translocates bacterial effectors to the host ...
During infection, Legionella pneumophila avoids lysosomal degradation by employing a Type IVB secretion system to translocate ... Abstract: Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that infects human alveolar macrophages, ... Proteins were truncated into N and C termini fragments, and both in vitro and in vivo studies were used to assess the fragments ... These effector proteins hijack endoplasmic reticulum derived vesicles and allow for the formation of a replication permissive ...
During listeria infection, this protein promotes the release of cytokines which help the body eliminate the bacteria. ... INRA and the University of Freiburg have uncovered the key role played by the protein ISG15 in the fight against bacterial ... The ISG15 protein plays a key role in fighting bacterial infections. Tissue infected by Listeria monocytogenes © Institut ... The ISG15 protein plays a key role in fighting bacterial infections. *The Institut Pasteur in Côte dIvoire diagnoses a dengue ...
Jude Childrens Research Hospital scientists has identified a possible new approach to defeating bacterial infections by ... Innate Immune System Protein Provides a New Target in War Against Bacterial Infections. July 2, 2012 ... we can block bacterial infection. This discovery offers a completely new approach to fighting infections by targeting the host ... "NLRP6 might represent an entirely new subclass of these NLR proteins that functions to impede bacterial clearance," he said. ...
... bacterial infection.. RESULTS: For differentiating between serious bacterial infection and benign or nonbacterial infection (6 ... To determine the accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) for diagnosing serious bacterial and bacterial infections in infants and ... Review: C-reactive protein has moderate diagnostic accuracy for serious bacterial infection in children with fever. [Evid Based ... Systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein to detect bacterial infection in nonhospitalized infants and ...
C-Reactive Protein in Febrile Children 1 to 36 Months of Age With Clinically Undetectable Serious Bacterial Infection. Patrick ... C-Reactive Protein in Febrile Children 1 to 36 Months of Age With Clinically Undetectable Serious Bacterial Infection ... SBI, serious bacterial infection, OB, occult bacteremia, UTI, urinary tract infection, WBC, white blood cell count, ANC, ... C-Reactive Protein in Febrile Children 1 to 36 Months of Age With Clinically Undetectable Serious Bacterial Infection ...
Isolated cell surface associated proteins from L. fermentum were sufficient for this adhesion exclusion. Identification and ... and Functional Analysis of Probiotic Bacterial Surface Associated Proteins in Preventing Enteropathogenic Infections ... Identification and characterisation of these surface proteins from L. fermentum are of vital importance for developing new ... Isolated cell surface associated proteins from L. fermentum were sufficient for this adhesion exclusion. ...
Called pili, these hairs allow bacteria to group together and stick to human cells to cause infection -- and are therefore a ... Scientists have uncovered the structure of the protein complex that assembles the tiny hair-like strands that cover the outside ... protein which takes it across to a protein in the outer cell wall called the usher. The usher protein coordinates the ordered ... New Antibiotics a Step Closer with Discovery of Bacterial Protein Structure. Jun 02, 2011 ...
Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection. Ali Vural ... Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection ... Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection ... Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection ...
Role of bacterial infection in the epigenetic regulation of Wnt antagonist WIF1 by PRC2 protein EZH2.. [B C Roy, D Subramaniam ... We aimed at investigating EZH2s role in epigenetically regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling following bacterial infection. NIH: ... Following infection with wild-type but not mutant CR, elevated EZH2 levels in the crypt at days 6 and 12 (peak hyperplasia) ... Besides EZH2, increases in miR-203 expression in the crypts at days 6 and 12 post infection correlated with reduced levels of ...
Myeloid-related protein 8 induces self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection via TLR4- and TLR2-mediated signal ... However, it is unclear whether Mrp8 could induce self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection. Here we report that ... Myeloid-related protein 8 (Mrp8) is the active component of Mrp8/14 protein complex released by phagocytes at the site of ... bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial challenges, with substantially attenuated TNF-α and IL-6 ...
... ... The balancing role of TTP comes at the cost of an increased risk of bacterial infections. ... Activated TTP-deficient neutrophils exhibited decreased apoptosis and enhanced accumulation at the infection site. In the ... of neutrophil deployment protected mice against lethal soft tissue infection with Streptococcuspyogenes and prevented bacterial ...
Novel Virulence Factors in Bacterial Infections - Henderson Brian - информация о книге, читать бесплатно без регистрации онлайн ... Moonlighting Proteins: Novel Virulence Factors in Bacterial Infections is a complete examination of the ways in which proteins ... Moonlighting Proteins: Novel Virulence Factors in Bacterial Infections will be of interest to researchers and graduate students ... The book explores the pathogenicity of bacterial moonlighting proteins, demonstrating the plasticity of protein evolution as it ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) is widely used to detect bacterial infection in children. We investigated the impact of CRP test ... Impact of C-reactive protein test results on evidence-based decision-making in cases of bacterial infection. Mona Nabulsi,. 1 ... The utility of serum C-reactive protein in differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial pneumonia in children. A meta-analysis ... This test is often requested to help discriminate viral infections from bacterial infections or monitor the response to ...
Use of Miracil D to Suppress Bacterial Ribonucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis During Bacteriophage MS2 Infection ... Use of Miracil D to Suppress Bacterial Ribonucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis During Bacteriophage MS2 Infection. Journal of ... A comparison of the activities of the viral RNA synthetase produced during the course of infection in the presence and in the ... When the drug is added to host bacteria prior to infection with bacteriophage MS2, the phage adsorb to the cells, but ...
Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient ... Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila.. ... Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila. ... Protein expression by the protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis upon contact with its bacterial parasite Legionella pneumophila. ...
Surface localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and a heat shock protein homolog requires bacterial autolysis.. S H Phadnis ... Surface localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and a heat shock protein homolog requires bacterial autolysis. ... Surface localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and a heat shock protein homolog requires bacterial autolysis. ... Surface localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and a heat shock protein homolog requires bacterial autolysis. ...
3-glucan recognition proteins (βGRPs) play an essential role in immune recognition and signaling pathway of insect innate ... are biosensor proteins that bind to non-self pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). β-1, ... β-1,3-Glucan recognition protein 3 activates the prophenoloxidase system in response to bacterial infection inOstrinia ... The OfβGRP3 contains 1455 bp open reading frame, encoding a predicted 484 amino acid residue protein. In hemocytes, the ...
... as well as bacterial infection. Here, we explore the roles of mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy) and the mitochondrial ... unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction, focusing in particular on recent evidence on ... how they may interact to protect the mitochondrial pool while initiating an innate immune response to protect against bacterial ... Bacterial pathogenesis. A number of bacteria and bacterial pathogens secrete protein or toxin virulence factors that perturb ...
Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A. ... Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during human infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. ... Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A ... Identification of In Vivo-Induced Bacterial Proteins during Human Infection with Salmonella enterica Serotype Paratyphi A ...
C-reactive Protein Is a More Sensitive and Specific Marker for Diagnosing Bacterial Infections in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ... C-reactive Protein Is a More Sensitive and Specific Marker for Diagnosing Bacterial Infections in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ... C-reactive Protein Is a More Sensitive and Specific Marker for Diagnosing Bacterial Infections in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ... C-reactive Protein Is a More Sensitive and Specific Marker for Diagnosing Bacterial Infections in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus ...
C-reactive protein (CRP) level increases in the presence of acute or chronic inflammation and infections. In patients with ... bacterial infections, cirrhosis, Intensive Care Unit, mortality, prognosisAnn Gastroenterol 2014; 27 (2): 113-120. Types: info: ... Therefore, the predictive power of CRP for infection and prognosis is weak in patients with decompensated/advanced cirrhosis ... but when infection occurs the more severe the underlying liver dysfunction, the lower the increase in CRP. ...
Home Infections New antibiotics a step closer with discovery of bacterial protein structure ... Each subunit is then picked up by a chaperone protein which takes it across to a protein in the outer cell wall called the ... The structure of the FimD protein means scientists can see the process of pili assembly, from individual protein subunits to ... "Cystitis is one of the most common gram negative bacterial infections; it can also be extremely painful and surprisingly hard ...
... serum CRP is a useful and rapidly available adjunct to clinical assessment in diagnosis and exclusion of bacterial infection in ... In 104 with no clinical or laboratory evidence of infection the median CRP in cord serum was 0.125 mg/l (range 0.011-6.0 mg/l ... Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by a new solid phase ligand-binding radiometric monoclonal antibody ... in the absence of infection, did not appear to elevate CRP, nor did cerebral germinal layer or intraventricular haemorrhage. ...
  • Our results add to this model by providing a striking illustration of how the host immune response to a virulent pathogen can also be shaped by pathogen-encoded activities, such as inhibition of host protein synthesis. (purdue.edu)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the host response to bacterial infection is induced primarily by specific microbial molecules that activate TLRs or cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. (purdue.edu)
  • Upon infection of macrophages with virulent L. pneumophila , these five effectors caused a global decrease in host translation, thereby preventing synthesis of IκB, an inhibitor of the NF-κB transcription factor. (purdue.edu)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (elsevier.com)
  • Until now, however, scientists have been able to track down only a few of the proteins that interact with bacterial toxins in infected human cells. (phys.org)
  • Now, researchers of the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch in Germany have identified 39 interaction partners of these toxins, using novel technology which allowed them to screen for large numbers of proteins simultaneously ( Cell Host & Microbe , Vol. 5, Issue 4, 397-403). (phys.org)
  • Applying a method developed by Professor Matthias Mann of the MPI, the scientists succeeded for the first time in systematically investigating the cellular target sites of the bacterial toxins. (phys.org)
  • Surprisingly, the toxins are not optimally adapted to the structures of human proteins," Dr. Matthias Selbach of MDC explained. (phys.org)
  • Instead of nonspecific antibiotic therapy, new drugs could target the signaling mechanisms which are disrupted by the bacterial toxins. (phys.org)
  • Aktories, K. (1997) Bacterial Toxins that Target Rho Proteins. (scirp.org)
  • The ability of S. aureus to cause disease has been attributed to an impressive spectrum of cell-wall-associated (protein A, clumping factors, fibronectin binding proteins, and other adhesive matrix molecules) factors, and extracellular toxins (coagulase, hemolysins, enterotoxins, toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1, exfoliative toxins, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin) as virulence determinants. (mdpi.com)
  • We collected information from the hospital records of 91 neonates with suspected sepsis and of 152 febrile children with suspected infection on the number of ordered CRP tests, the number of EB-CRP tests, and the impact of the test results on decision-making. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To validate the Feverkidstool, a prediction model consisting of clinical signs and symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP) to identify serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in febrile children, and to determine the incremental diagnostic value of procalcitonin. (nature.com)
  • A systematic review included the Feverkidstool, a clinical prediction model including both clinical signs and symptoms and the biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP), as a potential tool for supporting physicians in their decision-making for safely discharging febrile children from an emergency department (ED) ( 7 ). (nature.com)
  • A novel antibacterial protein targeted against E. coli O157:H7 may offer a way to prevent or treat serious food-borne bacterial infections, as demonstrated in a study published in the December issue of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy . (pylumbio.com)
  • Results in an animal model of E. coli infection showed that the orally administered protein, developed by AvidBiotics, Inc., could prevent or treat E. coli O157:H7-induced diarrhea and intestinal inflammation when administered either on a preventative basis or after the onset of diarrhea. (pylumbio.com)
  • E. coli O157:H7 contamination of foods like ground meats or produce is a well-publicized public health problem, with life-threatening infection outbreaks reported around the world in recent years," said Dean Scholl, Ph.D., lead author of the publication. (pylumbio.com)
  • Avidocin protein administration also greatly reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 recovered from the intestine and the stool of treated animals. (pylumbio.com)
  • When the anti- E. coli O157:H7 Avidocin protein was administered to infected animals already exhibiting disease symptoms, the existing diarrhea began to resolve in treated animals compared to animals treated with placebo. (pylumbio.com)
  • Thus, even after the onset of diarrhea in E. coli O157:H7-infected animals, administration of the anti- E. coli O157:H7 Avidocin protein could still mitigate the effects of infection. (pylumbio.com)
  • Additionally those rare variants of E. coli O157:H7 that emerge resistant to the anti- E. coli O157:H7 Avidocin protein are likely to have compromised virulence, or disease-causing properties. (pylumbio.com)
  • Urinary tract infections are caused mainly by E.coli and can occur during pregnancy. (medindia.net)
  • Buret A., Oslon, M.E., Gall, D.J. and Hardin, J.A. (1998) Effects of Orally Administered Epidermal Growth Factor on Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Rabbits. (scirp.org)
  • Resta-Lenert, R. and Barret, K.E. (2003) Live Probiotics Protect Intestinal Epithelial Cells from the Effects of Infection with Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC). (scirp.org)
  • Detection of human malaria using recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi merozoire surface protein-1 (MSP-1₁₉) expressed in Escherichia coli. (semanticscholar.org)
  • proteins made from bacterial cells (E. coli). (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Moreover, this agent provides several significant advantages over conventional antibiotics, including a lack of drug-induced shiga toxin production and unintended collateral damage to normal intestinal bacterial populations. (pylumbio.com)
  • A single bacterial toxin seems to function like a master key that can access different host cell proteins in parallel", Dr. Selbach said. (phys.org)
  • Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic properties and define appropriate cut-off values of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in predicting bacterial infection in generalized pustular psoriasis patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Results Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis generated similar areas (p = 0.051) under the curve for procalcitonin 0.896 (95% CI 0.782-1.000) and C-reactive protein 0.748 (95% CI 0.613-0.883). (bvsalud.org)
  • A cut-off value of 1.50 ng/mL for procalcitonin and 46.75 mg/dL for C-reactive protein gave the best combination of sensitivity (75.0% for procalcitonin , 91.7% for C-reactive protein ) and specificity (100% for procalcitonin , 53.8% for C-reactive protein ). (bvsalud.org)
  • Procalcitonin was significantly positively correlated with C-reactive protein levels both in the infected (r = 0.843, p = 0.040) and non-infected group (r = 0.799, p = 0.000). (bvsalud.org)
  • however, the specificity of procalcitonin was superior to that of C-reactive protein . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the context of myeloid-specific deletion of Ttp, the potentiation of neutrophil deployment protected mice against lethal soft tissue infection with Streptococcuspyogenes and prevented bacterial dissemination. (ovid.com)
  • The Avidocin protein remained active within the treated animals' intestinal tract for at least 24 hours post administration. (pylumbio.com)
  • Analyses of colon tissue showed less severe intestinal inflammation in Avidocin protein-treated animals compared to controls. (pylumbio.com)
  • These three proteins were present in significantly less (P L. acidophilus and EGF after challenge with ampicillin, cyclosporine and lansoprazole, suggesting their role in protecting intestinal barrier function. (scirp.org)
  • AGS3 binds the Gi family of G proteins via its G-protein regulatory (GoLoco) motif, stabilizing the Gα subunit in its GDP-bound conformation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In my Ph.D. work, I demonstrated that Sec31A binds selectively to SH36 and fails to interact with other SH3 domains in Tuba or SH3 domains in several other mammalian signaling proteins. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Using a high-throughput immunoscreening technique, in vivo -induced antigen technology (IVIAT), we identified 20 immunogenic bacterial proteins expressed in humans who were bacteremic with S . Paratyphi A but not those expressed in S . Paratyphi A grown under standard laboratory conditions. (asm.org)
  • Of particular interest among these in vivo -expressed proteins were S . Paratyphi A (SPA)2397, SPA2612, and SPA1604. (asm.org)
  • Here, we analyzed the role and the crosstalk of the global S. aureus regulators agr, sarA and SigB by generating single, double and triple mutants, and testing them with proteome analysis and in different in vitro and in vivo infection models. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show by structural, biophysical, and enzymatic analyses combined with in vivo data that the class III Fic protein NmFic from Neisseria meningitidis gets autoadenylylated in cis , thereby autonomously relieving autoinhibition and thus allowing subsequent adenylylation of its target, the DNA gyrase subunit GyrB. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) is an immuno-screening technique that identifies bacterial antigens expressed during infection and not during standard in vitro culturing conditions. (harvard.edu)
  • Finding ways to interfere with pili formation could help thwart urinary tract infections , which affect millions of women around the world each year. (phys.org)
  • They exist as dental plaque, or arise in urinary tract infections . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 3. Uncoating occurs when there is either the separation of the capsid from the genome or rearrangement of the capsid proteins exposing the genome for transcription and replication. (issuu.com)