Integration Host Factors: Bacterial proteins that are used by BACTERIOPHAGES to incorporate their DNA into the DNA of the "host" bacteria. They are DNA-binding proteins that function in genetic recombination as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA Polymerase Sigma 54: A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein: A highly abundant DNA binding protein whose expression is strongly correlated with the growth phase of bacteria. The protein plays a role in regulating DNA topology and activation of RIBOSOMAL RNA transcription. It was originally identified as a factor required for inversion stimulation by the Hin recombinase of SALMONELLA and Gin site-specific recombinase of BACTERIOPHAGE MU.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein: A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Random integration of AAV DNA into the host genome is detectable but occurs at very low frequency. AAVs also present very low ... "Human fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a co-receptor for infection by adeno-associated virus 2". Nature Medicine. 5 (1): ... The ITRs were also shown to be required for both integration of the AAV DNA into the host cell genome (19th chromosome in ... In the absence of helper virus or genotoxic factors, AAV DNA can either integrate into the host genome or persist in episomal ...
In E. Coli a histone like protein called integration host factor (IHF), which binds to the leader sequence, is responsible for ... creating diversity in both the phage and host populations. To fight off a phage infection, the sequence of the CRISPR spacer ... Nuñez JK, Bai L, Harrington LB, Hinder TL, Doudna JA (June 2016). "CRISPR Immunological Memory Requires a Host Factor for ... Cas9 proteins select the correct location on the host's genome by utilizing the sequence to bond with base pairs on the host ...
... is an example of such a host factor. Integration occurs following production of the double-stranded viral DNA by the viral RNA/ ... Integration is in part responsible for the persistence of retroviral infections. After integration, the viral gene expression ... In addition, several host cellular proteins have been shown to interact with IN to facilitate the integration process. Human ... Integration is a point of no return for the cell, which becomes a permanent carrier of the viral genome (provirus). ...
The inversion is mediated by two recombinases, FimB and FimE, and regulatory proteins H-NS, Integration Host Factor (IHF) and ... and is important for biofilms and infection. The expression of Agn43 is dependent on the binding of the regulator protein OxyR ... The integrity of the genome is intact and the change incurred by methylation alters the binding of transcription factors. The ... depending on the stage of infection. The invertible element has a promoter within it that depending on the orientation will ...
... coli a histone like protein called integration host factor (IHF), which binds to the leader sequence, is responsible for the ... were required to provide a bacterial host with immunity against infection by a DNA virus. By designing an anti-virus CRISPR, ... Nuñez JK, Bai L, Harrington LB, Hinder TL, Doudna JA (June 2016). "CRISPR Immunological Memory Requires a Host Factor for ... but in other systems different host factors may be required[94]. Protospacer adjacent motifsEdit. Main article: Protospacer ...
"Outer membrane adhesion factor multivalent adhesion molecule 7 initiates host cell binding during infection by gram-negative ... adhesive domain plays the main role in surface recognition while the C-terminal domain is responsible for organelle integration ... The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. "A large number of ... Adhesins are a type of virulence factor. Adherence is an essential step in bacterial pathogenesis or infection, required for ...
"The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and infection. 13 (8-9). doi:10.1016/j ... functional characteristics of geminivirus rolling-circle replication initiator protein and its interaction with host factors ... These oligomeric plus strands are cleaved by a host RNase and ligated by a host RNA ligase to reform the monomeric plus strand ... The virus has a circular, single stranded, DNA that replicates in host plant cells. The entire process is initiated by the ...
... coli Integration Host Factor and Lambda cos DNA: Multiple Complex Formation and Protein-induced Bending". Nuc. Acids Res. 17: ... Kochan, J; Murialdo, H (1982). "Stimulation of groE Synthesis in E. coli by Bacteriophage λ Infection". J. Bacteriol. 149: 1166 ... He also worked on the factors that control immunoglobulin gene expression, the structure of the genes and their rearrangement ... the stimulation of a set of bacterial proteins synthesis upon virus infection, and showed directly, by electron microscopy, ...
"Genome-wide approaches to identifying genetic factors in host susceptibility to tuberculosis". Microbes and Infection. 8 (4): ... HUGENet, or Human Genome Epidemiology Network, which was initiated by the CDC, is accomplishing the integration of this type of ... and environmental factors contribute to case clustering. Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential ... Infections such as rubella and meningitis, low birth weight and ventilator use, are known risk factors for hearing loss, but ...
The infection process of T-DNA into the host cell and integration into its nucleus involve multiple steps. First, the bacteria ... system that hijacks host factors and cellular processes for several pathways of host-plant defense response to invade the host ... For the integration of T-DNA into the target host genome, Agrobacterium carries out multiple interactions with host-plant ... to the host cell nucleus followed by disassembly of the T-complex, stable integration of T-DNA into host plant genome, and ...
Ler is regulated by many factors such as plasmid encoded regulator (Per), integration host factor, Fis, BipA, a positive ... Infection and Immunity. 72 (4): 2329-2337. doi:10.1128/iai.72.4.2329-2337.2004. ISSN 0019-9567. PMID 15039358. Barba, Jeannette ... Integration host factor is also a direct activator of ler and binds upstream of its promoter. Jeannette Barba and her ...
Another integration host factor, IHF, is also essential in the integration process and serves as an architectural protein that ... and maintain as a prophage in host genome. Adsorption of the virion to the host cell is the key step in phage infection, which ... During lysogenic cycle, P2 genome is inserted into the host chromosome and maintained as a prophage. The integration involves ... In a large dense population of isogenic hosts, the lytic strategy is preferred, and phage virulence as well as host defense ...
BPV-1 infection of horses, which are an incidental host for the virus, can lead to the development of benign tumors known as ... Thus, viral genome integration into host DNA genome increases E6 and E7 expression to promote cellular proliferation and the ... this late transcript is essential for L1 and L2 expression and can be regulated by RNA cis-elements and host splicing factors. ... Genetic changes, such as integration of the viral DNA into a host cell chromosome, that inactivate E2 expression tend to ...
... was associated with interference of viral DNA integration into the host genome in a manner dependent on functional ... an intracellular duel between pathogen and host restriction factors". Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 31 (5): 383-397. doi: ... Langlois MA, Neuberger MS (2008). "Human APOBEC3G can restrict retroviral infection in avian cells and acts independently of ... as a member of family of proteins APOBEC3A to 3G on chromosome 22 in 2002 and later also as a cellular factor able to restrict ...
... identifying novel virulence factors, predicting antibiotic resistance and unveiling host-pathogen immune interactions. A ... Integration of RNA-Seq datasets across different tissues has been used to improve annotation of gene functions in commercially ... has recently been applied to simultaneously profile RNA expression in both the pathogen and host throughout the infection ... Durmuş S, Çakır T, Özgür A, Guthke R (2015). "A review on computational systems biology of pathogen-host interactions". ...
2003). "The role of Vif during HIV-1 infection: interaction with novel host cellular factors". J. Clin. Virol. 26 (2): 143-52. ... Brown MJ, Hallam JA, Liu Y, Yamada KM, Shaw S (2001). "Cutting edge: integration of human T lymphocyte cytoskeleton by the ... Snásel J, Pichová I (1997). "The cleavage of host cell proteins by HIV-1 protease". Folia Biol. (Praha). 42 (5): 227-30. doi: ...
Thus, viral genome integration into host DNA genome increases E6 and E7 expression to promote cellular proliferation and the ... Risk factors for persistent genital HPV infections include early age of first sexual intercourse, multiple partners, smoking, ... Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV).[4] Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and ... HPV infection of the skin in the genital area is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide.[11] Such infections ...
This usually encompasses 48Kb, so part of the host DNA is transferred along with the phage. After host infection, the linear ... The primary factor controlling the growth pathway is the multiplicity of infection (moi); high moi favors lysogenic pathway and ... and integration-deficient mutants have been isolated. Peter E. Prevelige Jr. (2006). Richard Calender, ed. The Bacteriophages ( ... This can be done by host rec gene products, but also by P22 recombination function genes in the absence of host enzymes. The ...
... integration host factor). Both Int and IHF bind to attP and form an intasome, a DNA-protein-complex designed for site-specific ... During infection, the phage particle recognizes and binds to its host, E. coli, causing DNA in the head of the phage to be ... The original B-O-B' sequence is changed by the integration to B-O-P'-phage DNA-P-O-B'. The phage DNA is now part of the host's ... the λ DNA is called a prophage and stays resident within the host's genome without apparent harm to the host. The host is ...
RNA that undergoes reverse transcription and then is integrated into the host's genome after infection. This integration is ... There are several AP-1 transcription factor binding sites in the viral LTRs. The closest AP-1 binding site is bound by the Jun ... The integrase enzyme exists inside the viral capsid, facilitating integration into the host chromosome after entry and virion ... Larruskain, A.; Jugo, B. M. (2013). "Retroviral Infections in Sheep and Goats: Small Ruminant Lentiviruses and Host Interaction ...
Thus, viral genome integration into host DNA genome increases E6 and E7 expression to promote cellular proliferation and the ... Lingering infection with high-risk HPV types, such as types 16, 18, 31, and 45, can favor the development of cancer. Co-factors ... HPV infection of the skin in the genital area is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Such infections are ... Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and resolve ...
Viral integration tends to occur in or near oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and it is for this reason that the integration ... Distinct host genome methylation and expression patterns, produced even when virus isn't integrated into the host genome. ... There are a wide variety of factors which can put someone at a heightened risk for throat cancer. Such factors include smoking ... Squamous cell cancers of the tonsils are more strongly associated with human papillomavirus infection than are cancers of other ...
There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example ... This host enzyme allows Candida albicans to attach stably to host epithelial cells. Adhesion of Candida albicans to host cells ... In order to work with plasmids in C. albicans an integrative approach (plasmid integration into the genome) thus has to be used ... Such multispecies infections lead to higher mortalities. In addition hospital-acquired infections by C. albicans have become a ...
The gammaretrovirus will act as a parasite to use cellular host factors to deliver genome into a host's cell nucleus, where ... Stavisky, J.; Dean, R.S.; Molloy, M.H. (October 28, 2017). "Prevalence of and risk factors for FIV and FeLV infection in two ... an enzyme that allows for viral DNA integration into host DNA. The virus is now referred to as a provirus, which means the ... The host nuclear membrane is disassembled during mitosis and the viral double-stranded DNA is able to enter the host nucleus. ...
"The molecular biology of human herpesvirus-6 latency and telomere integration". Microbes and infection. 13 (8-9): 731-741. doi: ... of complement components C3b and C4b by serum factor I, which protects the host cell from damage by complement. The protein ...
Urinary tract infections and incontinence are more common in females.[18] Pregnancy, menstruation, breastfeeding, and diaper- ... An event hosted by the advocacy group A Woman's Place UK to discuss and protest changes in the UK's Gender Recognition Act to ... Such approaches pose a conflict of interest between protecting women and achieving the integration of trans women.[1]:287-290, ... Safety from sexual harassment and privacy were likely two main goals of sex-separation of public toilets, and factors such as ...
However, a host genetic effect on the oral microbiota was not observed. A co-occurrence network analysis showed distinct ... However, a host genetic effect on the oral microbiota was not observed. A co-occurrence network analysis showed distinct ... Mattila, K. J., Pussinen, P. J., and Paju, S. (2005). Dental infections and cardiovascular diseases: a review. J. Periodontol. ... Smoot, M. E., Ono, K., Ruscheinski, J., Wang, P. L., and Ideker, T. (2011). Cytoscape 2.8: new features for data integration ...
Integration of HCV-Host Factor Interactions.. To provide a more comprehensive view of HCV-host interactions, we integrated the ... decreased infection) to highest (increased infection). The position of known HCV-host factors and several newly identified ... 1A). To find host factors involved in later stages of viral infection, we undertook part two of the screen, by exposing fresh ... Among the host factors whose depletion decreased HCV infection in the primary screen, we recovered both positive controls, CD81 ...
Host Interactions of HIV factors 62 Infectious disease 62 Integration of provirus 62 ... HIV Infection 62 ... Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor Beta. 17.92. GeneCards ... Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1. 18.96. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) ... Runt Related Transcription Factor 1. 17.92. GeneCards inferred via :. Publications (show sections) ...
Host Interactions of HIV factors 66 Infectious disease 66 Integration of provirus 66 ... Synthetic lethal with vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. GR00362-A 9.1. FOXM1 IHH EFNB1 FGF7 FGF9 RAB23 ... fibroblast growth factor binding. GO:0017134 9.67. FGFR1 FGFR2 FGFR3 13. fibroblast growth factor-activated receptor activity. ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 9. Protein Coding. 15.47. DISEASES inferred 15 GeneCards inferred via :. DISEASES inferred (show ...
2015) Meta- and orthogonal integration of influenza "OMICs" data defines a role for UBR4 in virus budding. Cell Host Microbe 18 ... Quantitative Proteomic Approach Identifies Vpr Binding Protein as Novel Host Factor Supporting Influenza A Virus Infections in ... Quantitative Proteomic Approach Identifies Vpr Binding Protein as Novel Host Factor Supporting Influenza A Virus Infections in ... Quantitative Proteomic Approach Identifies Vpr Binding Protein as Novel Host Factor Supporting Influenza A Virus Infections in ...
IN binds to host lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) and catalyzes HIV DNA integration. Proviral transcription ... Toward this goal, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen to identify host factors involved in HIV-1 infection. ... The siRNA screen. We developed a two-part screen to detect host proteins needed for HIV infection (Fig. 1A) (4). Part one ... This screen detects host proteins needed from viral entry through Gag translation, but is less sensitive for factors affecting ...
Mechanisms and host factors involved in post-fusion intracellular transit, uncoating, and nuclear import of the HIV pre- ... Application of innovative single-cell analysis approaches to the study of HIV infection, persistence, or host immune response ... integration complex * The role of novel, biologically active host and/or viral RNA species, RNA modifications, or extracellular ... 1) Basic Research on HIV Infection and Persistence In recent years the balance between basic and translational HIV research has ...
For epidemiologic investigation, priorities were 1) analysis of individual host risk factors for anthrax infection; 2) exposure ... For surveillance, priorities were 1) expanded veterinary surveillance and integration with human health information; 2) use of ...
Bacterial infection alone is insufficient to produce chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis in most patients. Other host factors ... Togias A. Rhinitis and asthma: evidence for respiratory system integration. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111: 171-83. ... Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections and Asthma Viral upper respiratory tract infections, otherwise known as the common ... which is often preceded by non-allergic or allergic responses and/or infection and possibly other unknown factors. This section ...
... and that of opportunistic lung infections have become more common among this population. HIV proteins secreted by the ... TGF-β signaling alters mRNA levels of HIV-1 host restriction factors in NHBE cells. Several reports have identified host ... HIV infection is an independent risk factor for the development of COPD even after accounting for smoking status8. Increased ... integration and transcription. Our data showed that TGF-β alters the expression of two of the restriction factors tested. TGF- ...
The presence of this gene interferes with infection of bacterial strains that lack integration host factor (IHF), which ...
Sieira, R., D. J. Comerci, L. I. Pietrasanta, and R. A. Ugalde.2004 . Integration host factor is involved in transcriptional ... a lysR21 mutant is not attenuated after 1 week of infection in mice. Many virulence factors are regulated by LTTRs, and it is ... or the integration factor (IHF), which was recently shown to interact directly with the virB promoter in B. abortus (55a). ... Infection in BALB/c mice.Seven-week-old male BALB/c mice (n = 4 mice) were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.1 ml of a ...
For example, immune genes may be directly reprogrammed to respond more effectively to pathogen infection; host factors critical ... 1987) Stable integration and expression of a bacterial gene in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Science 237(4816):779-781. ... 2014) Multimodal integration of carbon dioxide and other sensory cues drives mosquito attraction to humans. Cell 156(5):1060- ... 1988) Microinjection of DNA into Aedes triseriatus ova and detection of integration. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39(5):502-510. ...
... is an example of such a host factor. Integration occurs following production of the double-stranded viral DNA by the viral RNA/ ... Integration is in part responsible for the persistence of retroviral infections. After integration, the viral gene expression ... In addition, several host cellular proteins have been shown to interact with IN to facilitate the integration process. Human ... Integration is a point of no return for the cell, which becomes a permanent carrier of the viral genome (provirus). ...
Viral factors include viral variants, viral load and viral integration. Host factors include the host immune response and ... Viral and host factors play interdependent parts that foster the regression persistence and progression of HPV infections. ... Host factors. A positive association exists between the detection of HPV antibodies (humoral immunity) and the risk for ... the process of cell transformation from productive viral infection and may be due to integration of the viral DNA in the host ...
In order to identify the host factors involved in retroviral infection, we designed and implemented a scheme for identifying ES ... During the retroviral life cycle, numerous cellular factors interact with the virus and play an essential role in infection. ... the approach provides a unique opportunity to recover other cellular factors required for retroviral infection. The resulting ... Blm-deficient ES cell library might also provide access to essential host cell components that are required for infection and ...
... integration of HBV DNA into the host genome, which could alter the expression of cellular factors and, in turn, the control of ... Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma ... We show that the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a target of HBx-regulated AKT, and we link HNF4α ... AKT regulates HBV replication by reducing the activity of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α). HBx ...
The barrier-to-autointegration protein is a host factor for HIV type 1 integration. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95:15270- ... Reverse transcription and integration of SIVmac239 variants. (A) Three independent infections of HeLa cells with wild-type and ... The protein BAF, for barrier-to-autointegration factor, was identified as the host factor that stimulated intermolecular MLV ... Infection assays.One day before infection, HeLa and Cf2Th cells at a density of 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 cells/well were seeded into ...
Host genetic factors can confer resistance to HIV acquisition at different steps in viral infection including the penetration ... a defense that will prevent the integration of viral genome into the host cell - will be nearly impossible to achieve. ... Miyazawa M, Tsuji-Kawahara S, Kanari Y. Host genetic factors that control immune responses to retrovirus infections. Vaccine ... In addition, host genetic factors also influence immune responses to HIV antigens. The molecularly best defined genetic factor ...
2. HOST FACTORS • Age: 20-49 years • High risk groups: Male homosexuals, bisexuals, intravenous drug abusers, transfusion ... Yeast Infection No More! Cure yeast infection, end your candida related symptoms and regain your natural inner balance ... ... HIV REPLICATION - Attachment - Penetration - Uncoating - Reverse Transcription - Integration - Replication - Assembly - Release ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • vif • The virus infectivity factor gene required for infectivity • nef • The negative regulator factor ...
Random integration of AAV DNA into the host genome is detectable but occurs at very low frequency. AAVs also present very low ... "Human fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a co-receptor for infection by adeno-associated virus 2". Nature Medicine. 5 (1): ... The ITRs were also shown to be required for both integration of the AAV DNA into the host cell genome (19th chromosome in ... In the absence of helper virus or genotoxic factors, AAV DNA can either integrate into the host genome or persist in episomal ...
We performed a large-scale small interfering RNA screen to identify host factors required by HIV-1 and identified more than 250 ... in viral integration, and the Mediator complex (Med28) in viral transcription. Transcriptional analysis revealed that HDF genes ... Identification of Host Proteins Required for HIV Infection Through a Functional Genomic Screen ... Identification of Host Proteins Required for HIV Infection Through a Functional Genomic Screen ...
... coli a histone like protein called integration host factor (IHF), which binds to the leader sequence, is responsible for the ... were required to provide a bacterial host with immunity against infection by a DNA virus. By designing an anti-virus CRISPR, ... Nuñez JK, Bai L, Harrington LB, Hinder TL, Doudna JA (June 2016). "CRISPR Immunological Memory Requires a Host Factor for ... but in other systems different host factors may be required[94]. Protospacer adjacent motifsEdit. Main article: Protospacer ...
... with host dependency factors to facilitate early infection events but is also the target of several host restriction factors ... integration of the viral genetic material into the host genome, which is an essential step for productive viral infection, ... Host dependency factors are shown in pink and host restriction factors in blue. ... Yamashita M, Engelman AN (2017) Capsid-dependent host factors in HIV-1 infection. Trends Microbiol 25:741-755Google Scholar ...
... and of viral Tat proteins and host factors associated with Tat. Equally important is the role of positive transcription ... and as the direct infection of memory T cells does not progress to integration, the only way the latent reservoir can be formed ... Impact Factor. The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in ... tumour necrosis factor; VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor. ... Strategies for the cure of HIV infection Estrategias de ...
  • By experimentation, understanding the biochemical functions and physiological relevance of microbial virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. (
  • Flagellar structures contribute to the virulence of multiple gastrointestinal pathogens either as the effectors of motility, as adhesins, or as a secretion apparatus for virulence factors. (
  • The flagellum can serve as a secretion apparatus for virulence factors, similar to a type III secretion system. (
  • Quorum sensing regulates many diverse biological functions in gram-negative bacteria, including conjugation ( 20 , 32 ), antibiotic synthesis, extracellular enzyme and exopolysaccharide production ( 13 , 21 ), expression of extracellular virulence factors, and biofilm formation ( 5 , 18 ). (
  • Transcriptional analysis revealed that HDF genes were enriched for high expression in immune cells, suggesting that viruses evolve in host cells that optimally perform the functions required for their life cycle. (
  • These sequences are derived from DNA fragments from viruses that have previously infected the prokaryote and are used to detect and destroy DNA from similar viruses during subsequent infections. (
  • SIVgor), which themselves contracted infection originally from chimpanzees, gave rise to formation of group O HIV-1 viruses. (
  • These M group viruses cause most of the HIV-1 infections, accounting for the current AIDS pandemic. (
  • ERVs are found at many loci in host DNA and also in the genomes of large DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses and poxviruses. (
  • Conversely, many host genes have been incorporated into large DNA viruses, such as herpesviuses and poxviruses, as well as oncogene-bearing retroviruses. (
  • He postulated that RNA tumour viruses made DNA copies which then integrated into host chromosomal DNA, analogous to integration of prophage in bacteria. (
  • Indeed, germ-line integration has not yet been described for DNA tumour viruses, although we now know that it occasionally occurs with human herpesvirus 6 [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • These studies indicate that BAF is a novel type of host defense against viral DNA, which may in fact extend to other sources of foreign DNA, including other viruses and potentially bacteria. (
  • 2) We will explore the question of whether BAF is capable of responding to other sources of foreign DNA including plasmids or during infection with other viruses. (
  • Endogenization is where viruses become part of the genetic material of their host species, leaving behind mostly nonpathogenic remnants of the infection called endogenous retroviruses (retroviruses are a family of viruses that includes HIV). (
  • Given that E2F activity is often deregulated by infection with DNA viruses, these observations raise the possibility that an E2F1-mediated mechanism of DDR activation may be conserved among DNA viruses. (
  • Indeed, it is well described that viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV) or human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), are important risk factors for tumor malignancies. (
  • Viruses and bacteria can cause chronic inflammation and are thought to contribute to more than 1.2 million cases of infection-related disease per year [ 2 , 3 ]. (
  • Do giant viruses have a CRISPR-like immune system or a protein restriction factor? (
  • Here we show that HIV-1 infection with reporter viruses does not activate sensing pathways in cell lines and primary cells that are otherwise responsive to foreign nucleic acids. (
  • HIV-1 infection can often occur without robust induction of an innate immune response, in contrast to what occurs with many other viruses. (
  • The most important determinant that distinguishes transmitted founder (TF) viruses from those that arise during chronic infection is type I IFN resistance ( 15 - 17 ). (
  • As TF viruses are those that establish initial infection in the new host, there is reason to believe that IFN resistance is selected for and that host IFN responses propose a significant barrier to transmission. (
  • Feline A3s also are restriction factors for HIV and Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). (
  • Other viruses called picornaviruses use small molecules called pocket factors to stabilize the capsid and to trigger uncoating. (
  • Third-generation technologies used negative sense, non-integrating RNA viruses, termed Sendai Viruses (SeV), which originated from highly transmissible respiratory tract infections in mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, rats, and pigs. (
  • These RNA viruses produced integration-free iPSCs, produced high reprogramming efficiencies and were easy to use, but residual Sendai virus was difficult to clear from cells, resulting in the requirement for multiple rounds of clonal expansion and analysis. (
  • Viruses lack the machinery and precursors required to replicate, and thus may be considered metabolic products of their host. (
  • Any virus is necessarily a metabolic product of its host, since viruses lack the macromolecule machinery and small molecule precursors required to replicate. (
  • The published sets of host-gene viral dependencies have consistently included metabolic genes - both enzymes and regulators - in systems ranging from phages T7 and lambda, to the human viruses HIV and influenza - . (
  • The microscopic phenotype of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, also referred to as squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)) reflects a fine balance between factors that promote or accelerate the development of progressively more advanced disease and factors that reduce or decelerate its progression. (
  • PES is more likely to be antibiotic resistant than are unique strains of P. aeruginosa , and infection with PES has been associated with increased rates of lung function decline, pulmonary exacerbation frequency, and progression to death and/or transplantation ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • 6 Compelling evidence has shown that the majority of cancers arise from sites of chronic irritation, infection and inflammation, 7 solidifying the concept that chronic unabated inflammation is critical for tumour progression. (
  • Integration of high oncogenic risk HPV types (HR-HPV) is considered to be a key event in the progression of CIN to invasive cancer [ 14 ]. (
  • Whilst GAS is a frequent agent of self-limited pharyngitis and uncomplicated impetigous infections, penetration of GAS into deeper tissues, trauma, or adverse progression of superficial tissue infections can result in devastating invasive infections, such as the "flesh-eating" syndrome, necrotising fasciitis (NF), or more rarely, myonecrosis , . (
  • Alternative clinical biomarkers that can measure other regulatory factors of Human Papillomavirus infection are required to more accurately predict patient outcome and help direct treatment options specifically to patients at risk of neoplasia and cancer progression. (
  • HPV infection is most common in sexually active young women 25 years of age or younger but cervical cancer is common in older woman, suggesting infection at younger age and slow progression to cancer [ 10 ]. (
  • A full understanding of susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its progression to a severe and sometimes deadly disease calls for study of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and their cell-type-specific expression in human tissues, at both mRNA and protein levels. (
  • In contrast to the views held for HIV infection in the twentieth century, having HIV is no longer a death sentence since drugs can prolong the progression to AIDS. (
  • The central hypotheses are: 1) that progression of early HPV-related anal dysplasia is associated with environmental, virological, and host molecular factors and 2) that it is possible to develop a predictive statistical model with a high sensitivity and specificity for predicting disease progression. (
  • These are orchestrated by specific molecular pathways involving a host of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and lipid mediators. (
  • The DNA provirus hypothesis involving reverse transcription and integration is generally regarded as a revolutionary paradigm shift, but the science historian Fisher suggests in a recent reappraisal that Temin was actually thinking-albeit boldly-within the conceptual framework of his time and that the synthesis of DNA from an RNA template did not overturn the 'central dogma' of molecular biology [ 4 ]. (
  • Based in the MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, the course provides an opportunity to learn directly from internationally-respected scientists through sustained interaction for the duration of the course. (
  • The MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection (Departments of Medicine and Life Science) is located at the South Kensington Campus of Imperial College London . (
  • Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of host symptoms during severe GAS disease will assist the development of improved treatment regimens for this formidable pathogen. (
  • Host cell transcriptional changes in response to EBV infection classified tumors into two molecular subtypes based on patterns of IFN signature genes and immune checkpoint markers, such as PD-L1 and IDO1. (
  • This study aimed to examine several Human Papillomavirus regulatory factors to determine if they would be suitable as clinical biomarkers and explore further the link between molecular changes and associated pathology. (
  • The findings presented in this thesis, highlight a need for further research into Human Papillomavirus infection and the molecular changes associated with Sonic Hedgehog gene expression and viral methylation as these show promise as prognostic biomarkers. (
  • While seasonal or pandemic IAV strains replicate efficiently in permissive human cells, many avian IAV cause abortive nonproductive infections in these hosts despite successful cell entry. (
  • By using Spike-in SILAC mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics we characterized sets of cellular factors whose abundance is specifically up- or downregulated in the course of permissive versus nonpermissive IAV infection, respectively. (
  • These results not only show that there are similar differences in the overall changes during permissive and nonpermissive influenza virus infections, but also provide a basis to evaluate VprBP as novel anti-IAV drug target. (
  • Herein we present two crystal structures containing the N-terminal and the catalytic core domains of maedi-visna virus IN in complex with the IN binding domain of the common lentiviral integration co-factor LEDGF. (
  • We now report two crystal structures containing the N-terminal and catalytic core domains from a lentiviral integrase in complex with its co-factor LEDGF. (
  • Furthermore, lentiviral infections are known to progress slowly due to the virus' long latent period . (
  • Because the CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system that protects bacteria and Archaea from virus infections and invasion of foreign DNA, the authors propose that they have discovered a new adaptive immune system that protects mimiviruses from virophage infection. (
  • It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. (
  • Flagella can also serve as adhesins to tether bacteria to host cells much like fimbrial adhesins. (
  • They also used Yersinia pestis (the causative agent of the Black Death) to challenge mice with a latent infection of gammaherpesvirus 68, and they found the mice did have an increased resistance to the bacteria. (
  • Most acute infections are asymptomatic, following which, EBV establishes latency. (
  • Download file to see previous pages Infection with HBV may result in acute, fulminant or chronic hepatitis, sometimes even resulting in a chronic asymptomatic carrier state, apart from hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis (Davis 179). (
  • We have previously reported that TGF-β and cigarette smoke suppress miR-141-5p to promote CCR5 expression on primary bronchial epithelial cells, which increases viral entry and infection by R5-tropic HIV. (
  • Cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells are susceptible to retroviral infection, therefore providing access to all of the genes required for this process to take place. (
  • We successfully recovered five independent clones of ES cells that are resistant to retroviral infection. (
  • In non-dividing cells, these concatemers remain intact for the life of the host cell. (
  • In dividing cells, AAV DNA is lost through cell division, since the episomal DNA is not replicated along with the host cell DNA. (
  • These observations led to the hypothesis that viral exposure resulting in the exclusive priming of HIV-specific T cells could be associated with protection against the establishment of HIV infection . (
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induces the ATM and H2AX DNA damage response early during de novo infection of primary endothelial cells, which play roles in latency establishment. (
  • DNA hypomethylation has been shown to facilitate the integration of HPV DNA into cells and to reduce the inhibition of HPV expression ( 3 ). (
  • and invade host cells. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (
  • HIV-1 preferentially infects activated CD4+ T cells , which leads to massive depletion of these cells, as well as the accompanying immune suppression and exhaustion that are characteristic of HIV-1 infection. (
  • A unique feature of HIV-1 is the establishment of a pool of latently infected cells very early during primary infection, resulting in the indefinite establishment of HIV-1 infection in all infected individuals. (
  • We therefore sought to investigate the role of leukotrienes (LTs) in HIV-1 infection of microglial cells. (
  • To evaluate the role of LTs on HIV-1 infection in the CNS, monocyte-derived microglial-like cells (MDMis) were utilized in this study. (
  • The viral infection or the presence of a tumor cell activates the immune system's response involving a wide range of components that are resumed under two general responses: the "innate immune response" involving mainly neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells and the "adaptive immune response" which implies B and T lymphocytes. (
  • The HIV-1 life cycle initiates with viral entry into host immune cells that express surface CD4. (
  • shRNA knockdown of these four repressive factors significantly enhances HIV expression in primary CD4 T cells, and active HIV infection is preferentially found in cells expressing lower levels of these four factors. (
  • The host immune system targets HBV in liver cells (hepatocytes), inadvertently causing damage to the liver. (
  • Enzymes are central to every aspect of biology and metabolite levels (as substrates, products and co-factors) are the crucial read-out of the combined enzyme and transporter activity within cells. (
  • Others such as the malaria parasite have adapted to life within host cells, which offers certain protections but can place additional barriers to nutrient acquisition. (
  • There was no believable evidence for clonal expansion of cells with integrated Toca 511 DNA, or preferential retrieval of integration sites near oncogenes. (
  • Previous treatment-related adverse events, including lymphomas, in some clinical trials with distinct nonreplicating retroviral vectors were preceded by clonal expansion of infected cells due to integration near a proto-oncogene. (
  • These results indicated that flagella do not function as adhesins to enhance the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to targeted host cells. (
  • The major drivers of clonal expansion of HIV-1-infected cells include antigen-driven proliferation, homeostatic proliferation and HIV-1 integration site-dependent proliferation. (
  • Here, we reviewed how viral, immunologic and genomic factors contribute to clonal expansion of HIV-1-infected cells, and how clonal expansion shapes the HIV-1 latent reservoir. (
  • Expansion dynamics of HIV-1-infected CD4 + T cells during HIV-1 infection. (
  • identification of a splice variant of the integrase SUMO E3 ligase, PIAS3, in quiescent T cells that are resistant to HIV infection (A. Zamborlini). (
  • Integration is completed through the action of host DNA repair enzymes, which mediate the necessary joining of viral DNA 5′-ends, yielding a short duplication of target DNA sequence flanking the integrated provirus. (
  • 13,14 When integrase is inhibited, host enzymes circularize the viral cDNA, and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) circles accumulate in the nucleus. (
  • Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are a major cause for respiratory disease in humans, which affects all age groups and contributes substantially to global morbidity and mortality. (
  • However, many avian IAV strains lack adaptation to other hosts and hardly propagate in humans. (
  • With complete host genomes available for analysis, we can now see the great extent of viral invasion into the genomes of numerous vertebrate species, including humans. (
  • In the case of humans, the host species has also shaped pathogen dynamics and virulence via a multitude of factors from changes in social organization, group size, and exploitation of varied habitats and their animals and plant resources to agriculture, technology, rapid long-distance travel, medicine and global economic integration - which all continue to shape epidemics and the human host populations. (
  • Parasitology : Lectures, tutorials and laboratory demonstrations of the principal factors which affect levels of parasite infection and treatment of infections in humans and animals. (
  • Hepatitus C virus (HCV) causes a chronic infection resulting in progressive liver damage. (
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • IMPORTANCE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common cause of the development of liver cancer. (
  • Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major global health problem. (
  • Chronic HBV infection is the major cause of the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ( 1 ). (
  • There are limited therapeutic options for treating a chronic HBV infection, and the emergence of HBV mutants that are resistant to available therapies is common. (
  • Virus infections are involved in chronic inflammation and, in some cases, cancer development. (
  • To investigate the virological characteristics of these subgenotypes and their clinical implications, we enrolled a cohort of 211 patients in the Guangdong Province of China, including 132 with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CH), 32 with liver cirrhosis (LC), and 47 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to clinical examination, liver function test, and ultrasonograph results. (
  • Furthermore, influenza pandemics that are caused by novel virus strains originating from animal host reservoirs of influenza A virus (IAV) 1 as well as the ongoing highly lethal zoonotic infections with avian H5N1 and H7N9 subtype strains remain a constant threat for the human population ( 2 ). (
  • Similar assays have been developed for other epidemic P. aeruginosa strains, including Liverpool epidemic strain (LES), Midlands-1, Manchester, and Australia epidemic strain-1 (AUS-1), and they are used prospectively in infection control and research ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • I-'vl has two alleles known as Fvl" and Fv/' whose restriction characteristics determine the host range of different MLV strains. (
  • Study of the host factors that are involved in the retroviral life cycle is important if we are to gain a detailed understanding of the interaction between virus and host cell components. (
  • Experiments using a series of mutants defective for proper processing and assembly of capsid yielded evidence suggesting that the restriction factor binding site is in fact formed only when capsid is in its polymeric state in a mature virus, thus explaining why conventional approaches had failed to detect any interaction. (
  • In order to better understand the context of the capsid/restriction factor interaction, cell biology studies using live-cell microscopy were initiated. (
  • My research focus in this area of host-pathogen interaction is two-fold. (
  • Application of metabolomics to the study of protozoan parasites, while still in its infancy, is rapidly emerging as a fertile approach to better understand the host/parasite interaction. (
  • Our goal is a systems-level understanding of host-viral metabolic interaction via computational tools and quantitative dynamic measurements. (
  • Each of these host dependencies is a potential therapeutic target. (
  • The identification of host factors participating in the complete HCV lifecycle will both advance our understanding of HCV pathogenesis and illuminate therapeutic targets. (
  • In addition, these factors are scored alongside the therapeutic effect of the expressed transgene. (
  • Another recent in vivo experiment demonstrated the use of retroviral vectors to produce sustained expression of therapeutic levels of factor VIII in a neonatal mouse model of haemophilia A. 6 As it is desirable to institute gene therapy early in life, the propagation of neonatal hepatocytes represents a promising approach with clinical relevance. (
  • Under his direction, the Viral Mutation Section is implementing this knowledge to develop novel therapeutic agents and strategies to control HIV infection. (
  • In the latency phase, EBV infection is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality as it causes a wide range of lymphocytic and epithelial malignancies, such as Burkitt and diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and stomach adenocarcinoma, in both immune-competent and immune-compromised hosts ( 2 ). (
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. (
  • Following entry into the host cell, lentiviruses must proceed through several steps on the way to generating a provirus. (
  • We find strong evidence that the hosts' immunocompetence waxes and wanes with the seasons, but also contains a lifelong cohort factor, possibly acting through a maternal effect dependent on the host's month of birth. (
  • Much of the complexity of viral infection is contributed by the host's own resources that the virus commandeers. (
  • Evidence of the importance of host factors is provided by individuals who harbor homozygous mutations in the gene encoding CC chemokine receptor (CCR)5, who are extremely resistant to HIV infection. (