Food, Genetically Modified
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Encyclopedias as Topic
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Lung Diseases, Parasitic
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Encephalitis Virus, Japanese
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)
Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.
Equine Infectious Anemia
Equine encephalosis virus
Occasionally, antibiotics are prescribed in order to prevent the appearance of secondary infections. Some equids show no ... midges affecting all equids. Since then the disease has become both widespread and prevalent, taking on epidemic proportions in ... Although the majority of infections result only in mild clinical signs, in more severe cases clinical signs include a short ... This is achieved by analysing the interaction between VP(2), and the antibodies generated by the host during infection. The ...
D. arnfieldi is similar to D. viviparus in cattle, but only affects equids. Donkeys usually show no disease and can be silent ... D. viviparus is the most common lungworm of cattle; the infection is also known as husk or parasitic bronchitis. Although ... Routine deworming of horses and donkeys may help prevent cross infection when kept together. Pastures that housed donkeys may ... Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E (12 July 2001). "Treatment vs non-treatment of helminth infections in cattle: defining the ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N8
... nose with discharge and secondary bacterial infection are some of the clinical signs of Equine influenza virus infection. ... EQUID BLOG, posted December 11, 2011. http://www.equidblog.com/2010/12/articles/another-category/influenza/bug-of-the-month- ... Such infections contribute to the spread of the disease. The time from when a horse gets exposed to the time when it gets sick ... A 1997 study found H3N8 was responsible for over one quarter of the influenza infections in wild ducks. H3N8 has been suggested ...
Contact your veterinarian if you suspect an S. Vulgaris infection for further diagnosis. Large strongyle infections are ... The S. vulgaris adults are primarily found in the cecum and colon of infected equids and it is here that the females will lay ... The best diagnostic method to determine if a horse has a S. vulgaris infection is through a fecal culture. Here the eggs grow ... Diagnosis via egg identification is not enough to determine if the horse has a S. vulgaris infection as the fecal samples often ...
The duration of infection is very variable (from one month to over a year) and recurrence is possible. Warts caused by the ... BPV-1 and BPV-2 can also induce sarcomas and fibrosarcomas in other mammals, including equids (equine sarcoid) and, ... Infection causes warts (papillomas and fibropapillomas) of the skin and alimentary tract, and more rarely cancers of the ... Campo, MS (1995). "Infection by bovine papillomavirus and prospects for vaccination". Trends Microbiol. 3 (3): 92-7. doi: ...
Thrush and white line disease, common bacterial infections, can become serious if left untreated. Quiltor, an infection of the ... Equid hooves are the result of the 55-million-year evolution of the horse. Wild and domesticated Equus species share a very ... Both wild and feral equid hooves have enormous strength and resilience, allowing any gait on any ground. A common example of ... Self-adapting capabilities of the hooves show their maximal effectiveness in wild equids (but domesticated horses show this too ...
Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis
Integrative fact among horses with EMPF has been frequently established to be an infection of EHV-5. Diagnosis is based on the ... July 2011). "Quantification of Equid herpesvirus 5 DNA in clinical and necropsy specimens collected from a horse with equine ... There is evidence that the disease is caused by infection with a gammaherpesvirus, equine herpesvirus 5. The disease affects ... "Equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis in association with an EHV-5 infection in 5 horses". Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift ...
The infection of humans with M. bovis is referred to as zoonotic tuberculosis. In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), ... it rarely affects equids or sheep. The disease can be transmitted in several ways; for example, it can be spread in exhaled air ... Infection occurs if the bacterium is ingested or inhaled. M. bovis is usually transmitted to humans by ... In the 1930s, 40% of cattle in the UK were infected with M. bovis and 50,000 new cases of human M. bovis infection were ...
Equid alphaherpesvirus 9
Fatal encephalitis was reported from Thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. The virus was reported ... Data related to Equid alphaherpesvirus 9 at Wikispecies v t e v t e. ...
Horses up to six months of age are the most susceptible to infection. After this time, infection rates begin to decline and is ... Mating occurs in the small intestine of the equid. The female is able to lay over 170,000 eggs in a day, and 60,000,000 eggs in ... However, when an infection is found in an adult horse, both the worm and egg counts are substantially low. Deworming can begin ...
Equid alphaherpesvirus 1
Abortion usually occurs in the last four months of gestation, two to four weeks after infection of the mare. Perinatal (around ... Equid alphaherpesvirus 1, formerly Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), is a virus of the family Herpesviridae that causes abortion, ... More signs of the infection of this virus include depression, anorexia, nasal and ocular discharges. Fever is the most common ... Even though a horse has been vaccinated, infection and clinical disease still continues to occur. New vaccines to help prevent ...
Equine viral arteritis
Following infection, the first sign is fever, peaking at 41 °C (106 °F), followed by various signs such as lethargy, nasal ... Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by a virus of the species Alphaarterivirus equid, an RNA virus. It ... Most horses with EVA infection do not show any signs; if a horse does show signs, these can vary greatly in severity. ... not possible to distinguish between antibodies produced as a result of vaccination and those produced in response to infection ...
... leading to a middle ear infection. Recurring and chronic cases of sinus infection can result in Eustachian tube dysfunction ... In the equids (horses) and some rodent-like species such as the desert hyrax, an evagination of the Eustachian tube is known as ... Ear infections are more common in children because the tube is horizontal and shorter, making bacterial entry easier, and it ... Upper respiratory tract infections or allergies can cause the Eustachian tube, or the membranes surrounding its opening to ...
... with antibiotics used to prevent or slow infection. If the infection has set in and there is a discharge, antibiotic treatment ... Poll evil is a traditional term for a painful condition in a horse or other equid, that starts as an inflamed bursa at the ... It can be caused by infection from Actinomyces bovis or Brucella abortus organisms, but may also occur due to parasite ...
The means of infection influences which tissues will be affected first and the incubation time before symptoms show. Typically ... Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), and Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). Anatid alphaherpesvirus 1, similar to ... If host organisms survive primary infection, they enter a latent stage lasting up to 4 years. Latent stage leads to vertical ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controlled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ...
"Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan edited by Patricia D. Moehlman (2002), ix + 190 pp ... Chapman's zebras are also carriers of nematode parasites which reside in their large intestine and cause an infection called ... When compared to other equids in the region Chapman's zebras are relatively abundant in number, however its population is now ... Equus quagga, IUCN Ransom, J. I.; Kaczensky, P. (2016). Wild Equids: Ecology, Management, and Conservation. Johns Hopkins ...
Cattle are also susceptible, but more resistant to the disease than equids. See also glanders and equine lymphangitis. In the ... Control of the disease is usually through elimination of the infection. This is achieved by culling infected horses and ...
Parasitic flies of domestic animals
These infestations and infections cause distress to companion animals, and in livestock industry the financial costs of these ... Larval Gasterophilus stomach-bots infest the upper gastric tract and stomach of horses and other equids. Larval Hypoderma ... Infections with Trypanosoma species are treated, either prophylactically or to treat acute cases with synthetic chemical drugs ... Infections with nematode worms causing filariosis may be treated with the avermectin class of biologically derived drugs ( ...
... infection in dogs: a new parasite for Spain". Parasites & Vectors. 4 (148): 1756-3305. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-148. Retrieved 6 ... "Prevalence of selected species of internal parasites in equids at necropsy in central Kentucky (1995-1999)". Veterinary ... Thelazia is one of the few nematode infections which can be treated topically. Topical treatment of livestock, dogs and cats ...
Infection occurs if the bacterium is ingested.. M. bovis is usually transmitted to humans by consuming raw, ... it rarely affects equids or sheep. The disease can be transmitted in several ways; for example, it can be spread in ... M. bovis infections in cattle herds in the United States is not common. M. bovis is endemic in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus ... In the 1930s, 40% of cattle in the UK were infected with M. bovis and there were 50,000 new cases of human M. bovis infection ...
The mallein test is a sensitive and specific clinical test for glanders, a common bacterial disease of equids (horses, donkeys ... which is a bacteria-caused contagious upper respiratory tract infection of equines. This resulted in false- ...
Viral proteins are synthesized 2-14 days after initial infection. New virons self-assemble within the cytoplasm and are then ... equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores, and humans. The three economically most ... which mediate cell-attachment and penetration during initiation of infection. The outer-capsid proteins are more variable than ...
Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected ... Additionally, the following three species are unassigned to a genus: Equid gammaherpesvirus 7 Phocid gammaherpesvirus 2 ... The gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, and RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes. ... Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. Surprisingly, latency- ...
Captive sand cats are highly sensitive to respiratory diseases and infection of the upper respiratory tract. This is the main ... Equids and Rhinoceroses. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 199-202. ISBN 978-1408189962. Pocock, R. I. (1938). "A new race of ... With sand cats being very susceptible to respiratory infections, they have to be kept in very arid enclosures, where humidity ...
Foreign animal disease
Cattle (both Bos taurus and Bos indicus) are the primary hosts, but infections have also been reported in Asian buffalo ( ... The clinical signs in equids is categorized into nasal, pulmonary, and cutaneous forms. Nasal glanders begins clinically with a ... Dourine Dourine (Covering sickness) is a serious protozoal venereal disease of equids, mainly horses, donkeys, and mules, ... a neglected disease of equids". Tropical Animal Health and Production. 49 (5): 887-897. doi:10.1007/s11250-017-1280-1. PMC ...
... and are often from Staphylococcus infection. Foals often develop septic arthritis secondary to systemic infection and ... Tnibar, M. A. (2002). "Medial Patellar Ligament Splitting for the Treatment of Upward Fixation of the Patella in 7 Equids". ... Both cytology and bacterial culture can be used to help identify the cause of infection. In adult horses, septic arthritis or ... Diffuse sensitivity occurs with fracture or infection of the coffin bone, and laminitis. More localized sensitivity can be ...
Common infections in humans caused by members of this order include cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, and ... equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, ...
Walzer C (2014). "52 Nondomestic Equids". In West G, Heard D, Caulkett N (eds.). Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and ... Paul IM (February 2012). "Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children". Lung. 190 (1): ...
"Late quaternary equids (genus Equus) of South-western and South-central Siberia". In M. Mashkour (ed.). Equids in time and ... Second, the pathogen must have a high infection rate, such that it is able to infect virtually all individuals of all ages and ... Ransom, Jason I.; Kaczensky, Petra (2016-05-15). Wild Equids: Ecology, Management, and Conservation. JHU Press. ISBN ...
Moehlman, P. D. R. (2002). Equids: zebras, asses, and horses: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN. Marshall ... Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1985). Helminth infections of humans: mathematical models, population dynamics, and control. ... or are deadly only as vectors of disease or infection, such as snails, rats and mosquitos. Regional reportage from numerous ... populations as this lessens their exposure to diseases and infection. Frogs are regionally significant prey for small, young ...
Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. ... In Mashkour, M (ed.). Equids in Time and Space. Oxford: Oxbow "BBC NEWS - Programmes - From Our Own Correspondent - China's ... Spoilage is caused by the practically unavoidable infection and subsequent decomposition of meat by bacteria and fungi, which ...
... equids, cats and dogs and in 2005 the Animal Procedures Committee (set up by the act) ruled that testing on mice was preferable ... and this can lead to ear infections. Beagles may also be affected by a range of eye problems; two common ophthalmic conditions ...
Hoof pick: All four feet of the horse need to be cleaned out and inspected for signs of injury or infection. See "Hoof care and ... Worldwide, horses and other equids usually live outside with access to shelter for protection from the elements. In some cases ... Horses, ponies, mules, donkeys and other domesticated equids require attention from humans for optimal health and long life. ... Some steps to reduce parasite infection include regularly removing droppings from the animal's stall, shed or field; breaking ...
Horses (and other equids such as mules) are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or ... Infection, and Critical Care. 65 (2): 447-60. doi:10.1097/ta.0b013e31817dac43. PMID 18695484. "Traumatic Brain Injury in ...
Endothelial cell infection and thrombosis in paralysis caused by equid herpesvirus-1: equine stroke. - PubMed - NCBI
Endothelial cell infection and thrombosis in paralysis caused by equid herpesvirus-1: equine stroke.. Edington N, Bridges CG, ... Eight mares were infected with equid herpesvirus-1 subtype 1 isolated from a case of equine paresis. In two mares killed at 4 d ... i. immunofluorescence showed endothelial cell infection together with thrombosis in the rete arteriosus of the nasal mucosa and ...
Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids - Volume 21, Number 1-January 2015 - Emerging Infectious...
To investigate equids for signs of infection with MERS-CoV, we collected 1,053 serum samples from MERS-CoV-endemic and - ... Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(1):181-182. doi: ... Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids On This Page ... of primary horse cells to MERS-CoV infection and searched for serologic evidence of infection with MERS-CoV in equids ...
a Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) infection of equine mesenchymal stem cells induces a pUL56-dependent downregulation of select cell ... Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) infection of equine mesenchymal stem cells induces a pUL56-dependent downregulation of select cell ... Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) infection of equine mesenchymal stem cells induces a pUL56-dependent downregulation of select cell ... "Equid Herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) Infection of Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces a pUL56-dependent Downregulation of Select Cell ...
Development and Validation of a Quantitative PCR Method for Equid Herpesvirus-2 Diagnostics in Respiratory Fluids | Protocol
Brault, S. A., et al. The immune response of foals to natural infection with equid herpesvirus-2 and its association with ... Diallo, I. S., et al. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and differentiation of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and equid ... Genetic heterogeneity and variation in viral load during equid herpesvirus-2 infection of foals. Vet.Microbiol. 147, (3-4), 253 ... Immunology and Infection. A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of ...
Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports | Volume 6 - Dove Press
Gammaherpesvirus infections in equids: a review Marenzoni ML, Stefanetti V, Danzetta ML, Timoney PJ ... Schmallenberg virus infection of ruminants: challenges and opportunities for veterinarians Claine F, Coupeau D, Wiggers L, ... The role of badgers in the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection (tuberculosis) in cattle in the United Kingdom and the ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection risks from companion animals: current perspectives ...
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health - a cross-sectional sero-survey of some infectious diseases of working equids...
Infection of equids with more than one infectious disease was diagnosed. Out of the 208 equids tested for herpes, 11.1% were ... The overall sero-prevalence for all equids were 10.5% (n=288) for African horse sickness (AHS), 0.7% (n=997) for Dourine, 3.8 ... Sera collected from 1007 equids selected by simple random sampling technique were tested using the Office Internationale des ... Key words: Working equids, infectious diseases, epidemiology, sero-prevalence, Ethiopia. ...
Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Mycobacterium microti Infections in Free-Ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) [PDF - 3.53 MB - 8 pages] G. Ghielmetti et al. View ... West Nile Virus Seroprevalence among Equids, Brazil E. F. de Oliveira-Filho et al. ... This experimental approach can measure aspects of the infection processes not observed in the conventional pneumonic infection ... Natural Human Infections with Plasmodium cynomolgi, P. inui, and 4 other Simian Malaria Parasites, Malaysia [PDF - 1.19 MB - 5 ...
Prevalence Factors Associated With Equine Herpesvirus-1 Infection in Equids With Upper Respiratory Tract Infection From 2008 to...
Rickettsial infection in equids, opossums and ticks in the municipality of Monte Mor, state of São Paulo, Brazil | Rev. bras....
Rickettsial infection in equids, opossums and ticks in the municipality of Monte Mor, state of São Paulo, Brazil / Infecção por ... Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate rickettsial infection in equids, opossums and ticks in the municipality of ... Rickettsial infection in equids, opossums and ticks in the municipality of Monte Mor, stat ... The ticks collected from the animals were identified and Amblyomma sculptum ticks from the equids were tested using PCR for ...
Figure - Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids - Volume 21, Number 1-January 2015 - Emerging...
Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids Benjamin Meyer, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Ulrich Wernery, ... Serologic Assessment of Possibility for MERS-CoV Infection in Equids. ... A, B) Cells were seeded at densities of 2 × 105 cells/mL and infected in triplicate with a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 ...
USDA APHIS | Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
Infection is often in-apparent and results in a lifelong carrier state if the horse survives the acute phase of the infection. ... USDA recommends testing every equid annually.. There is no vaccine approved for use in the U.S.. ... Actions to take if you Suspect Infection. *Call your veterinarian *Move suspected horse at least 200 yards away from other ... Reducing exposure to biting flies through management practices may reduce the spread of infection. To prevent iatrogenic spread ...
USDA APHIS | Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)
Infection is often in-apparent and results in a lifelong carrier state if the horse survives the acute phase of the infection. ... USDA recommends testing every equid annually.. There is no vaccine approved for use in the U.S. ... Reducing exposure to biting flies through management practices may reduce the spread of infection. To prevent iatrogenic spread ... should be performed only by licensed veterinarians using donor horses tested negative for EIA and other blood-borne infections ...
Dictyocaulus - Wikipedia
Treatment of lungworm infections. Lungworms can be treated with ivermectin, albendazole, fenbendazole, febantel and other ... D. arnfieldi is similar to D. viviparus in cattle, but only affects equids. Donkeys usually show no disease and can be silent ... D. viviparus is the most common lungworm of cattle; the infection is also known as husk or parasitic bronchitis. Although ... 2003). "Dictyocaulus species: cross infection between cattle and red deer". New Zealand Veterinary Journal. 51 (2): 93-98. doi: ...
Factsheet about West Nile virus infection
WNV infections among equids are usually asymptomatic. Approximately 10% may show neurological signs that can range from mild ... Transmission of WNV occurs when mosquitoes are active (i.e. between spring and autumn) and most infections in humans and equids ... Most WNV infections in humans are asymptomatic. About 20% of WNV infections in humans may cause WNF and less than one percent ... an acute flavivirus infection may boost cross-reactive antibodies due to previous infection with or vaccination against another ...
A Review of Eimeria infections in horses and other equids.. Veterinary Parasitology 256 (2018) 58-70 (https://doi.org/10.1016/j ... Coccidial infections in housed lambs: oocyst excretion, antibody levels and genetic influences on the infection. Veterinary ... The degree of infections of meat products of slaughter horses by strongylid larvae in the Akmola region (in Russian).. Bulletin ... Eimeria infections in cows in the periparturient phase and their calves: oocyst excretion and levels of specific serum and ...
Equine encephalosis virus - Wikipedia
Occasionally, antibiotics are prescribed in order to prevent the appearance of secondary infections. Some equids show no ... midges affecting all equids. Since then the disease has become both widespread and prevalent, taking on epidemic proportions in ... Although the majority of infections result only in mild clinical signs, in more severe cases clinical signs include a short ... This is achieved by analysing the interaction between VP(2), and the antibodies generated by the host during infection. The ...
Equine herpesviruses: antigenic relationships and deoxyribonucleic acid densities. - Semantic Scholar
Gammaherpesvirus infections in equids: a review. *Maria Luisa Marenzoni, Valentina Stefanetti, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Peter ... Study of equid herpesviruses 2 and 5 in Iceland with a type-specific polymerase chain reaction.. *Einar G Torfason, Lilja ... Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infection in thoroughbred horses in Argentina. *María Isabel Craig, María Edith Barrandeguy, F. M ... 1973 in Infection and immunity. Equine herpesviruses with a deoxyribonucleic acid density of 1.716 to 1.717 g/cm(3) were ...
Gasterophilosis: a major cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia | SpringerLink
Gasterophilus nasalis infection: prevalence and pathological changes in equids in south-west England. Veterinary Record 146, ... G. nasalis infection and the associated rectal prolapse were observed year round. However, the intensity of rectal larval ... Age and sex of the donkeys had no significant effect on the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal ... infection and incidence of rectal prolapse were significantly higher during the rainy season (P , 0.01). ...
Equine Enteric Coronavirus | Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine
Necrotizing enteritis and hyperammonemic encephalopathy associated with equine coronavirus infection in equids. Veterinary ... Equine coronavirus is seen as a mono-infection in adults, usually older than 2 years of age. When seen in foals, equine ... Disease associated with equine coronavirus infection and high case fatality rate. J Vet Intern Med. Vol 29. Pp 307-310. ... Seroprevalence and risk factors for infection with equine coronavirus in healthy horses in the USA. The Veterinary Journal. Vol ...
Frontiers | Recent Aspects on the Pathogenesis Mechanism, Animal Models and Novel Therapeutic Interventions for Middle East...
The severities of MERS-CoV infection highlight the necessity of effective approaches for the development of various therapeutic ... The severities of MERS-CoV infection highlight the necessity of effective approaches for the development of various therapeutic ... 2015). Serologic assessment of possibility for MERS-CoV infection in equids. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 21, 181-182. doi: 10.3201/ ... However, re-infection elicited the neutralizing antibodies (Nabs). Hence, it was suggested that upon re-infection, there might ...
Equine Cyathostominae can develop to infective third-stage larvae on straw bedding | Parasites & Vectors | Full Text
We use two different approaches to test whether equids could become infected with cyathostomines from the ingestion of deep ... where it is commonly presumed that there is no risk of infection from the nematodes that are associated with grazing at pasture ... The faecal pat used for each of the first plots was collected from a horse with no patent cyathostomine infection (to act as a ... Field studies on the epidemiology of mixed strongyle infection in the horse. VetRec. 1974;94:337-45.Google Scholar. ...
MRSA by Zareen Tasnim on Prezi
More serious MRSA infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat. In this case antibiotics can be used.. If it gets ... Equ ID Blog. 20 October 2008. Web. 27 April 2011.. David C. Dugdale. Pub Med Health. National Center for Biotechnology ... MRSA BACTERIA MRSA infection on the leg on the hand Fifty percent of patients who become infected with the new powerful strain ... But the little MRSA infection can be taken care of by taking antibiotics. Fatality rate How common is this disease MRSA may be ...
'encephalitis virus western equine' Protocols and Video...
Ex Vivo Infection of Murine Epidermis with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess ... Development and Validation of a Quantitative PCR Method for Equid Herpesvirus-2 Diagnostics in Respiratory Fluids, In Vivo ... The Extraction of Hemocytes from Drosophila Melanogaster Larvae for Microbial Infection and Analysis, Setting-up an In Vitro ... Fabrication and Characterization of Griffithsin-modified Fiber Scaffolds for Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections, ...
EHV Outbreak Linked to Cutting Horse Event, Multiple Western US States Alerted for Disease After Two Horses Euthanized - Expert...
Commentary from The Equid Blog. Drs Scott Weese and Maureen Anderson , authors of the Equid Blog, from the Ontario Veterinary ... Good general infection control practices to limit the spread of the virus when it is being shed by horses, and prompt ... Type in red is quoted from the Equid Blog. Both Dr Weese and Dr Anderson are large animal internal medicine specialists with ... of Agriculture is working with the Utah State Veterinarian to investigate the location as a point of interest for the infection ...
Equine Infectious Anemia | Manitoba Agriculture | Province of Manitoba
Equids are social animals and this strict quarantine can be very stressful for them and their owner. ... Once infected, members of the equine family remain carriers for life and are a potential source of infection for other horses, ... The disease is only occasionally fatal, with most equids showing few or no clinical signs. ... Because this is a lifelong infection, EIA is a reportable disease in Canada. ...
Hartley CA[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Virological and serological investigation of Equid herpesvirus 1 infection in New Zealand. ... Equine Transport and Changes in Equid Herpesvirus Status.. Muscat KE, Padalino B, Hartley CA, Ficorilli N, Celi P, Knight P, ... Mapping B lymphocytes as major reservoirs of naturally occurring latent equine herpesvirus 5 infection. ... Comparing the genetic diversity of ORF30 of Australian isolates of 3 equid alphaherpesviruses. ...
Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii propagated in specific pathogen free embryonated chicken egg, for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in...
In equids sera were examined by S-ELISA using soluble T. gondii antigen propagated in SPF-ECE showed the highest positive ... Que X, Wunderlich A, Joiner KA, Reed SL (2004) Toxopain-1 is critical for infection in a novel chicken embryo model of ... Saleh AM, Ali HA, Ahmed SA, Hosny SM, Morsy TA (2014) Screening of Toxoplasma gondii infection among childbearing age females ... Total of 220 serum samples from 170 equids (90 donkeys and 55 horses and 25 mules) and 50 humans were collected from different ...
Publications & Data | European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
West Nile virus in Europe in 2019 - infections among humans and outbreaks among equids and/or birds, updated 29 November 2019 ... West Nile virus infections in humans in the EU/EEA Member States and EU neighbouring countries, 2019 transmission season Map - ... West Nile virus in Europe in 2019 - outbreaks among equids and/or birds, updated 29 November 2019 Map - 29 Nov 2019. ... West Nile virus outbreaks among equids and birds in the European Union, 2019 transmission season Map - 5 Dec 2019. ...
Julia Kydd - The University of Nottingham
Failure to detect equid herpesvirus types 1 and 4 DNA in placentae and healthy new-born Thoroughbred foals. Journal of the ... Health knowledge and infection control by event horse owners In: International Equine Infectious Diseases Conference X. 39S. S4 ... Failure to detect equid herpesvirus types 1 and 4 DNA in placentae and healthy new-born Thoroughbred foals. Journal of the ... Equid herpesvirus-1 DNA polymerase-like sequence in wild African elephants Journal of Wildlife Diseases. (In Press.) ...
HerpesvirusDonkeysAmong equidsHorses and other equidsEqui2018MERS-CoVAcuteEIAVOutbreaksOrganismTrypanosomaVirus infectionHumans2019AsymptomaticSpeciesExperimentally infectedHerpesvirusesNeurologicalFoalsRisk of infectionTheileriaPrevalence of infectionVeterinaryEndemicPersistent infectionHelminth infectionsMaresAbstractSusceptibilityDiseaseImmunityVitroInapparentClinical signsAntibodiesDiagnosisPathogensEquine piroplasmosisImmunologyGondiiDourineInfectiveViral infectionELISAGeneticsLentiviral infectionTransmissionSerologicalBruceiFatalMortality
- Endothelial cell infection and thrombosis in paralysis caused by equid herpesvirus-1: equine stroke. (nih.gov)
- Eight mares were infected with equid herpesvirus-1 subtype 1 isolated from a case of equine paresis. (nih.gov)
- Sequence analysis of the equid herpesvirus 2 chemokine receptor homologues E1, ORF74 and E6 demonstrates high sequence divergence between field isolates. (semanticscholar.org)
- Failure to detect equid herpesvirus types 1 and 4 DNA in placentae and healthy new-born Thoroughbred foals. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Vaccination of foals with a modified live, equid herpesvirus-1 gM deletion mutant (RacHdeltagM) confers partial protection against infection Vaccine. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection has a signifcant economic impact on equine production, causing abortion, respiratory disease, neonatal death and neurological disorders. (scielo.org.ar)
- Infection by equine herpesvirus (EHV) strains (EHV-1, EHV-9) in ursid species, including polar bears ( Ursus maritimus), has been associated with neurological disease and death. (bioportfolio.com)
- Neurological disease due to EHV-1 infection is often referred to as equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy or EHM, and may present with a sudden onset of weakness, incoordination or imbalance, and bladder dysfunction (urine dribbling). (tufts.edu)
- Vengust M, Baird J, van Dreumel T, Ackerley C, Bienzle D . Equid herpesvirus-2 associated oral and esophageal ulceration in a foal. (uoguelph.ca)
- Analysis of MHC I and II presentation on Equid herpesvirus 1 infected cells Various Alphaherpesviruses are able to interfere with MHC class I presentation by reducing surface expression of these molecules. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection also results in MHC I downregulation on the respective cells, but other than the involvement of the viral UL49.5-protein, this process is not yet very well understood (Rappocciolo et al. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Temporal detection of equine herpesvirus infections of a cohort of mares and their foals. (lsh.is)
- Studies on equid herpesvirus 1 infection in mice. (nii.ac.jp)
- Histologic lesions consist of necrosis of vestibular and vaginal epithelium, with intranuclear inclusion bodies typical of herpesvirus infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
- 800,000 equids (horses, mules, and donkeys) are present on the Arabian Peninsula, but their role as putative MERS-CoV animal reservoirs has not been investigated. (cdc.gov)
- Routine deworming of horses and donkeys may help prevent cross infection when kept together. (wikipedia.org)
- Domesticated grazing animals including horses and donkeys are frequently housed using deep litter bedding systems, where it is commonly presumed that there is no risk of infection from the nematodes that are associated with grazing at pasture. (biomedcentral.com)
- Weekly samples were collected in a 'W'-shape pattern from deep litter straw bedded barns housing a large number of donkeys known to have patent cyathostomine infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- Several studies have shown that between 50 and 75% of South African equids (notably horses, donkeys and zebras) are seropositive for EEV or have anti-EEV antibodies indicating a prior infection, with serotype 1 being the most prevalent. (wikipedia.org)
- Once infected, members of the equine family remain carriers for life and are a potential source of infection for other horses, donkeys and mules. (gov.mb.ca)
- Total of 220 serum samples from 170 equids (90 donkeys and 55 horses and 25 mules) and 50 humans were collected from different governorates in Egypt during the period from October 2017 to March 2018. (springer.com)
- Mules and donkeys often develop subclinical forms, they could also act as a unapparent carrier, equids are the only natural reservoir known. (izs.it)
- Forms found in the USSR include dourine of equids and su-auru of camels, horses, donkeys, mules, and dogs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- WNV infections among equids are usually asymptomatic. (europa.eu)
- During the 2019 transmission season, 93 outbreaks among equids and 54 outbreaks among birds were reported by EU Member States through the Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS). (europa.eu)
- Spain reported one outbreak among equids. (europa.eu)
- During the past week, Spain reported one outbreak among equids to the Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS). (europa.eu)
- This week, 12 outbreaks among equids were reported by Hungary (15), Italy (9), Greece (1) and Germany (1). (europa.eu)
Horses and other equids2
- Equine piroplasmosis (EP), caused by the tick-borne protozoan parasites Theileria equi or Babesia caballi , is an infectious disease that affects equids worldwide. (springer.com)
- Infected horses remain lifelong carriers of T. equi or B. caballi , although horses appear able to occasionally eliminate B. caballi infection. (springer.com)
- This chapter presents life cycle differences between T. equi and B. caballi , the world distribution of competent tick vectors, efficacy of drug treatment to eliminate persistent infection, acaricide treatments to lower tick burden, and improvement of diagnostic assays to prevent dissemination of protozoan parasite strains throughout the world. (springer.com)
- Seroepidemiologic studies on Babesia caballi and Babesia equi infections in Japan. (springer.com)
- Infection dynamics of Theileria equi and Theileria haneyi, a newly discovered apicomplexan of the horse. (usda.gov)
- Evolution and diversity of the EMA families of the divergent equid parasites, Theileria equi and T. haneyi. (usda.gov)
- Therefore, comparison of the T. equi DNA genome to closely related parasites was undertaken to: 1) identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in the horse host, 2) identify genes involved in the infection of horse white blood cells, and 3) determine the relative position of the T. equi organism compared to similarly DNA genome sequenced apicomplexan parasites. (usda.gov)
- The continued risk of transmission of T. equi from clinically silent, persistently infected equids impedes the goal of returning the U. S. to non-endemic status. (usda.gov)
- Therefore comparative genomic analysis of T. equi was undertaken to: 1) identify genes contributing to immune evasion and persistence in equid hosts, 2) identify genes involved in PBMC infection biology and 3) define the phylogenetic position of T. equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites. (usda.gov)
- The Raytown Equestrian Park, home to 64 equids, was quarantined June 6, and equine piroplasmosis ( Theileria equi ) was confirmed in the affected horse June 10. (thehorse.com)
- Similar to bovine theileriosis caused by T . annulata , transmission of T . equi to equids eventually results in lysis of erythrocytes and prolonged anemia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Regarding neurological disorders in equids, in April-May 2018, at least 12 cases of equid mortality with acute neurological signs were reported in six farms from Espirito Santo state, Brazil. (cdc.gov)
- Recently, evidence of MERS-CoV infection in dromedaries was obtained from the Canary Islands, the Arabian Peninsula, and Africa ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, we assessed in vitro susceptibility of primary horse cells to MERS-CoV infection and searched for serologic evidence of infection with MERS-CoV in equids originating from Spain and the United Arab Emirates. (cdc.gov)
- Primary cells derived from the kidney of 2 horses (termed PN-R and PFN-R) and an interferon-deficient primate cell line (VeroB4) were infected with MERS-CoV at a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 PFUs. (cdc.gov)
- A, B) Cells were seeded at densities of 2 × 10 5 cells/mL and infected in triplicate with a multiplicity of infection of 0.5 infectious MERS-CoV units/cell. (cdc.gov)
- The severities of MERS-CoV infection highlight the necessity of effective approaches for the development of various therapeutic remedies. (frontiersin.org)
- Infection is often in-apparent and results in a lifelong carrier state if the horse survives the acute phase of the infection. (usda.gov)
- A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was presented to a veterinary hospital in Kansas June 2 for acute illness consistent with infection of a blood-borne pathogen. (thehorse.com)
- Serological assessments have generated substantial curiosity in its place or complement to RT- PCR and different Nucleic acid assessments within the analysis of acute an infection, as some is likely to be cheaper and simpler to implement on the level of care. (todayfinancialnews.com)
- Clinical signs of EIA (Equine Infectious Anemia), the EIAV-induced disease, are variable although infected equids often experience acute febrile episodes with concomitant thrombocytopenia and wasting syndrome followed by a chronic stage characterized by recurring disease episodes. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we mapped 477 integration sites of the EIAV strain EIAV FDDV13 in fetal equine dermal (FED) cells during in vitro infection. (mdpi.com)
- The chromosomal environment near LINEs or DNA transposons potentially influences viral transcription and may be related to the unique EIAV latency states in equids. (mdpi.com)
- The data on EIAV integration in its natural host will facilitate studies on lentiviral infection and lentivirus-based therapeutic vectors. (mdpi.com)
- Because of the aforementioned and the fact that all infected horses remain infected for life, disease control officials assume that all EIAV-infected equids pose the same high risk for transmission, regardless of their clinical status or history. (thehorse.com)
- Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) is a retrovirus that establishes a persistent infection in horses and ponies. (scirp.org)
- We developed a mathematical model of within-host EIAV infection dynamics that contains both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (scirp.org)
- We evaluated the potential of EIAV (Equine Infectious Anemia Virus) to induce pulmonary lesions in naturally infected equids. (biomedcentral.com)
- EIAV infection is endemic in horse populations throughout the world [ 2 ] including recent outbreaks in Belgium, Germany, Greece, France, Italy, Romania and UK (source OIE reports). (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study we described for the first time an interstitial lung disease in EIAV infected horses as well as infection of lung epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- While the vast majority of natural infections are inapparent, occasional outbreaks of EVA occur and are clinically characterized by influenza-like clinical signs in adult horses, abortion in pregnant mares, and fatal bronchointerstitial pneumonia or pneumoenteric syndrome in foals ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather infection requires another intermediate organism that will transmit the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
- For each equid that tested positive (case equid), 2 time-matched equids that tested negative for the organism (control equids) were identified. (lbemc.com)
- Endogenous infections or auto infections are caused by organisms that have been leading a commensal existence elsewhere in the patient s body.in exogenous infection the source of infecting organism is outside the body of patient who becomes infected. (petsdocbox.com)
- Dourine is a sexually transmitted parasitic disease of equids, caused by flagellated protozoan, belonging to Trypanosoma equiperdum species. (izs.it)
- Comparability of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and PCR for the analysis of an infection with Trypanosoma brucei ssp. (todayfinancialnews.com)
- An infection of equids with Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) ssp. (todayfinancialnews.com)
- Between 22 and 28 November 2019, one human case of West Nile virus infection has been reported by Turkey. (europa.eu)
- During the West Nile virus infection transmission season from June to November, ECDC publishes weekly updates each Friday. (europa.eu)
- This is the first time a West Nile virus infection was detected in an equid in Germany. (europa.eu)
- E. Schwartz, K. Pawelek, K. Harrington, R. Cangelosi and S. Madrid, "Immune Control of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection by Cell-Mediated and Humoral Responses," Applied Mathematics , Vol. 4 No. 8A, 2013, pp. 171-177. (scirp.org)
- Modeling Within-Host Dynamics of Influenza Virus Infection Including Immune Responses," PLoS Computational Biology, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2012, Article ID: e1002588. (scirp.org)
- Protective Effects of Broadly Neutralizing Immunoglobulin against Homologous and Heterologous Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Infection in Horses with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency," Journal of Virology, Vol. 85, No. 13, 2011, pp. 6814-6818. (scirp.org)
- Reggeti F, Ackerley C, Bienzle D . CD134 and CXCR4 expression correspond to feline immunodeficiency virus infection of lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. (uoguelph.ca)
- About 80% of WNV infections in humans are asymptomatic . (europa.eu)
- Most WNV infections in humans are asymptomatic. (europa.eu)
- About 20% of WNV infections in humans may cause WNF and less than one percent may cause WNND . (europa.eu)
- However, hybrids feed on both birds and mammals and likely play an important role as a bridge vector in the epizootic transmission of the virus to humans and equids . (europa.eu)
- Transmission of WNV occurs when mosquitoes are active (i.e. between spring and autumn) and most infections in humans and equids are observed between July and September [2,3]. (europa.eu)
- The viremia in humans is low, occuring one to three days after infection, can last up to 11 days  and is not considered to be infectious to mosquitoes. (europa.eu)
- West Nile virus (WNV) infection is notifiable in humans and equids in the European Union (EU). (eurosurveillance.org)
- In humans, tick infestations typically involve few specimens and the greatest risk for people bitten by a tick lies in infection due to a tick-borne pathogen (2). (thefreedictionary.com)
- DiagnosisDisorientation, pressing the forehead against a wall, fever and finally crashing into things are common symptoms shared by many encephalitic infections and also various hosts from rodents to humans. (powershow.com)
- This study describes the clinical and pathological findings of mice infected with WEEV by the aerosol route, and use as a model for WEEV infection in humans. (mdpi.com)
- Alphaviruses, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and WEEV are grouped geographically as New World viruses capable of causing disease in both equids and humans, exhibiting overt encephalitic features in a significant number of cases. (mdpi.com)
- This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. (deepdyve.com)
- In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed. (deepdyve.com)
- The majority of primary EAV infections are subclinical or asymptomatic. (aaep.org)
- In both locations, Ixodes species ticks transmit the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria species responsible for causing the infection. (cdc.gov)
- the 2 B. burgdorferi s.l. species collectively responsible for most infections in Europe, B. afzelii and B. garinii , are not found in the United States, where most infections are caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. (cdc.gov)
- Certain bird species, especially raptors and corvids, tend to be more sensitive to WNV infection and frequently develop clinical signs that lead to fatal outcomes. (europa.eu)
- Aedes albopictus and Aedes ( Ochlerotatus ) detritus are also competent vectors in laboratory setting but are considered to be of little importance for transmission as these species mainly bite mammals and are thus unlikely to acquire the infection from birds . (europa.eu)
- Some authors believe that urinary system infections occur less frequently in the equine than in other species such as dogs, cats, swine, bovines, ovine and caprine [ 2 , 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- J. R. Lichtenfels, "Helminths of domestic equids: illustrated keys to genera and species with emphasis on North American forms," Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington , vol. 42, pp. 1-92, 1975. (hindawi.com)
- Clinical signs are similar to those of type A infections in other species, with a rapid onset of neurologic changes followed shortly by death. (merckvetmanual.com)
- A horse hoof is a structure surrounding the distal phalanx of the 3rd digit (digit III of the basic pentadactyl limb of vertebrates, evolved into a single weight-bearing digit in equids) of each of the four limbs of Equus species, which is covered by complex soft tissue and keratinised (cornified) structures. (wikipedia.org)
- Resistance to antifungals can occur in different animal species that receive these drugs, although the true epidemiology of resistance in animals is unknown, and options to treat infections caused by resistant infections are limited. (deepdyve.com)
- Dogs, rabbits rats and mice, can be experimentally infected, rats and mice develop parasitemic infection and therefore they are used for the isolation of T.equiperdum and antigen production for diagnostic tests. (izs.it)
- In experimentally-infected equids, active viral replication has been detected in various tissues such as spleen, liver, lung, lymph nodes or bone marrow (reviewed in [ 1 ]), and viral tropism for mononuclear phagocytes is widely accepted. (biomedcentral.com)
- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 ( EHV-1 ) is an important pathogen of horses , associated with respiratory, neurological disease and abortions. (bvsalud.org)
- This is the first case of neurological disease in equids confirmed to be associated with WNV infection in Brazil. (cdc.gov)
- Although many infections go unrecognized, some are associated with respiratory disease of varying severity, abortion, neurological disease or newborn foal death. (tufts.edu)
- Neurological signs generally develop 4-9 days after the initial EHV-1 infection (1-4 days after resolution of fever). (tufts.edu)
- When seen in foals, equine coronavirus has been documented as a co-infection with Rotavirus or Clostridium perfringens (Pusterla et al. (cornell.edu)
- The resulting infected foals, when sexually mature may transmit the infection. (izs.it)
- Data are presented on the last 3 years of a 7-year study (1989-1995) on transmission of natural infections of internal parasites in horse foals (n = 27) born in 1993, 1994, and 1995 on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky. (semanticscholar.org)
- This was done in adult horses and foals, healthy and with various enteric infections. (lsh.is)
Risk of infection1
- Analysis of the risk factors concluded that the risk of infection from equids to people is very low, especially when consumption of horse meat is uncommon in Greece. (thepigsite.com)
Prevalence of infection4
- Prevalence of infection was 27% for data combined over years, seasons, ages, and sexes. (bioone.org)
- The seroprevalences of EAV infection of horses vary between countries and among horses of different breeds and ages, with marked disparity between the prevalence of infection among Standardbred (STB) horses and that among Thoroughbred (TB) horses ( 49 ). (asm.org)
- Freedom of infection was defined as a 95 per cent probability that the prevalence of infection was below 0.0001 per cent. (thepigsite.com)
- While various horse breeds appear equally susceptible to EAV, the prevalence of infection can vary widely with higher seropositivity rates occurring in Standardbred and Warmblood horses. (aaep.org)
- Attempts are also under way to complete a textbook on emerging and epidemic fungal infection by the end of 2017 and the Atlas of Veterinary Pathogenic Fungi by 2020. (deepdyve.com)
- EAV infection is considered endemic in STB horses but not in TB horses in the United States, with 77.5% to 84.3% of all STB horses but only up to 5.4% of TB horses being seropositive for the virus ( 5 , 32 , 49 ). (asm.org)
- Although endemic in most countries[ 3 ], the U. S., until recently, has been considered free of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Tick-transmitted single-cell parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa cause disease and result in death or persistent infection and represent a major challenge to global human and animal health. (usda.gov)
- Transmission of arthropod-borne apicomplexan parasites that cause disease and result in death or persistent infection represents a major challenge to global human and animal health. (usda.gov)
- Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. (asm.org)
- In the present study, we demonstrated that EAV elicits a mucosal antibody response in the reproductive tract during persistent infection with homing of plasma cells into accessory sex glands. (asm.org)
- Persistent infection is characterized by recurring viremic febrile episodes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Captive Agamid lizards in Germany: Prevalence, pathogenicity and therapy of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminth infections. (uni-giessen.de)
- In two mares killed at 4 d.p.i. immunofluorescence showed endothelial cell infection together with thrombosis in the rete arteriosus of the nasal mucosa and also in the spinal cord of one of these mares. (nih.gov)
- accordingly, this may result in infection of recipient mares upon transfer. (aaep.org)
- Abortion is a frequent sequel to infection in pregnant mares and can occur from 2 months gestation to term in the unprotected mare. (aaep.org)
- Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate rickettsial infection in equids, opossums and ticks in the municipality of Monte Mor, a place where a Brazilian spotted fever case occurred in 2005. (bvsalud.org)
- Here, we demonstrate that the differences in in vitro susceptibility of equine CD3 + T lymphocytes to EAV infection have a genetic basis. (asm.org)
- Biological pathway analysis revealed several cellular genes within this region of ECA11 encoding proteins associated with virus attachment and entry, cytoskeletal organization, and NF-κB pathways that may be associated with the trait responsible for the in vitro susceptibility/resistance of CD3 + T lymphocytes to EAV infection. (asm.org)
- Moreover, the prevalences of EAV infection differ markedly among different breeds of horses ( 68 ), strengthening the assumption of genetic influence on susceptibility to infection. (asm.org)
- A knowledge about the bacteriological profile and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern of wound infections will guide in appropriate treatment. (petsdocbox.com)
- Infection of equids with more than one infectious disease was diagnosed. (academicjournals.org)
- The disease is only occasionally fatal, with most equids showing few or no clinical signs. (gov.mb.ca)
- Because this is a lifelong infection, EIA is a reportable disease in Canada. (gov.mb.ca)
- This information may also help to prevent unnecessary administration of oxytetracycline to equids that are unlikely to test positive for the disease. (lbemc.com)
- EAV is the causal agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a disease of equids ( 12 , 13 ). (asm.org)
- This article is written to put EIA in perspective and to discuss options/give suggestions for modifying our approach to control of this infection/disease, especially in the Western States where EIA is rare and where routine testing for EIA occurs at lower rates. (thehorse.com)
- Gammaherpesviruses (γHVs) establish latent life-long infections but generally cause disease only in naive or immunosuppressed individuals ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- The parasites are not continually present in the genital tract throughout the course of the disease, therefore transmission of the infection does not necessarily take place at every copulation. (izs.it)
- Brucellosis, tuberculosis, and Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) have been identified in SACs, although the naturally occurring incidence of these infections is low. (merckvetmanual.com)
- EAV is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids ( 1 , 5 , 9 - 11 ). (asm.org)
- Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV), an RNA virus that is found in horse populations in many countries. (aaep.org)
- African horsesickness (AHS) is a highly fatal arthropod-transmitted viral disease affecting mainly equids. (up.ac.za)
- To summarize, we found lesions of interstitial lung disease similar to that observed during other lentiviral infections such as FIV in cats, SRLV in sheep and goats or HIV in children. (biomedcentral.com)
- A wound infection is defined by the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as surgical site infection (SSI). (petsdocbox.com)
- Now, what we have to be concerned with with the ticks is that they actually can transmit some diseases that are very detrimental to the equid, so things like Lyme disease can affect them, anaplasmosis, and there are some others that they do carry. (coursera.org)
- See the Animal Infection and Immunity web page for more information on virus research within SVMS. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- At various time-points p.i., a considerable reduction of MHC class I-molecules on the surface of EHV-1-infected cultured equine cells could indeed be confirmed and was also observed after in vitro-infection of equine PBMC. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Although the majority of infections result only in mild clinical signs, in more severe cases clinical signs include a short period (typically two to five days) of fluctuating fever, accompanied by varying degrees of inappetence. (wikipedia.org)
- Some equids show no clinical signs at all but are biliary carriers. (wikipedia.org)
- This is achieved by analysing the interaction between VP(2), and the antibodies generated by the host during infection. (wikipedia.org)
- It causes a persistent, incurable infection in equid hosts and is diagnosed by presence of antibodies against the virus in the Coggins test and approved ELISA test formats. (thehorse.com)
- infection in European equids accomplished by two complementary tests and gives evidence of the presence of specific antibodies in these populations. (beds.ac.uk)
- The present study aimed to detect the efficacy of soluble and whole T. gondii antigens propagated in specific pathogen-free of embryonated chicken egg (SPF-ECE) used to improve the potency of serological assays for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in equids and human. (springer.com)
- The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was assessed for the diagnosis of equine T. brucei infection for the first time in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (gla.ac.uk)
- Evaluation of potential predictor variables for PCR assay diagnosis of Anaplasma phagocytophilium infection in equids in Northern California. (lbemc.com)
- Diagnostic tools that provide an accurate serological diagnosis of cystogenic coccidia infections must overcome cross-reactions. (beds.ac.uk)
- Such a progression is of major concern to the worldwide livestock industry, primarily due to the similarity between EEV and other more devastating equid pathogens, such as the African horse sickness virus. (wikipedia.org)
- Persistently infected equids are a continuous source for transmission of the protozoal pathogens by tick vectors or iatrogenic transfer. (springer.com)
- Blood transfusions should be performed only by licensed veterinarians using donor horses tested negative for EIA and other blood-borne infections like equine piroplasmosis. (usda.gov)
- Your institution must subscribe to JoVE's Immunology and Infection section to access this content. (jove.com)
- Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections and associated factors in sheep from Costa Rica. (uni-giessen.de)
- SPF-ECE is considered an appropriate experimental model for isolation and propagation of T. gondii tachyzoites , and their soluble antigens used in serological tests (S-ELISA, LAT, and MAGPT) have sensitivity and specificity more than the whole antigen and provided reliable diagnostic tools for detection of toxoplasmosis in human and equids. (springer.com)
- Although the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in bovine tissues is rare, beef might be an important source of human infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The overall sero-prevalence for all equids were 10.5% (n=288) for African horse sickness (AHS), 0.7% (n=997) for Dourine, 3.8% (n=982) for Glanders, 0.1% (n=1002) for equine infectious anaemia (EIA), 13.5% (n=208) for equine herpes virus 1 (EHV-1), 88% (n=208) for equine herpes virus 4 (EHV-4) and 65% (n=20) for Piroplasmosis. (academicjournals.org)
- This has implications for parasite control in stabled equids and potentially in housed ruminants, and further investigation is required in order to establish the relative infective pressure from pasture versus straw bedding. (biomedcentral.com)
- EHV-1 is a common viral infection worldwide that is mostly spread by reactivation of virus in non-symptomatic, latently (silently) infected horses. (tufts.edu)
- Because ELISA optical density (OD) cutoff values for equid serum have not been established, we established a 2-stage algorithm for serologic testing that did not involve the determination of reactivity cutoff values. (cdc.gov)
- The most common diagnostic methods used to detect EHV-1 infection in equines have been traditionally performed by examination of tissues using immune fluorescence staining, virus isolation and serological testing (i.e., serum neutralization and ELISA) (Thomson et al. (scielo.br)
- Infection, Genetics and Evolution. (usda.gov)
- These findings have the potential to lead to immunological control measures for lentiviral infection. (scirp.org)
- To determine periods of natural transmission, seasonal patterns of infection were compared with previous month abundance of the biting fly vectors. (bioone.org)
- Sera collected from 1007 equids selected by simple random sampling technique were tested using the Office Internationale des Epizootic (OIE) approved serological tests. (academicjournals.org)
- Initial evidence for the involvement of the tsetse vector supports evaluation of vector control methods although further analysis of T. brucei populations in insect vectors and their relationships with those infecting equids is recommended. (gla.ac.uk)
- Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. (deepdyve.com)
- Wound infections are one of the most common hospital acquired infections and are an important cause of morbidity and account for 7-8% mortality. (petsdocbox.com)
- Infections arising in surgical wounds are one of the most common hospital acquired infections and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. (petsdocbox.com)