Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Product of epinephrine O-methylation. It is a commonly occurring, pharmacologically and physiologically inactive metabolite of epinephrine.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.

Burden of infection on growth failure. (1/2636)

The high prevalence of infections among children living in poor areas of developing countries impairs linear growth in these populations. Acute, invasive infections, which provoke a systemic response (e.g., dysentery and pneumonia), and chronic infections, which affect the host over a sustained period (e.g., gut helminth infections), have a substantial effect on linear growth. Such infections can diminish linear growth by affecting nutritional status. This occurs because infections may decrease food intake, impair nutrient absorption, cause direct nutrient losses, increase metabolic requirements or catabolic losses of nutrients and, possibly, impair transport of nutrients to target tissues. In addition, induction of the acute phase response and production of proinflammatory cytokines may directly affect the process of bone remodeling that is required for long bone growth. Infection of cells directly involved in bone remodeling (osteoclasts or osteoblasts) by specific viruses may also directly affect linear growth. Many interventions are possible to diminish the effect of infection on growth. Prevention of disease through sanitation, vector control, promotion of breast-feeding and vaccination is crucial. Appropriate treatment of infections (e.g., antibiotics for pneumonia) as well as supportive nutritional therapy (again including breast-feeding) during and after recovery, is also important. Targeted therapeutic interventions to decrease the prevalence of gut helminth infections may also be appropriate in areas in which such infections are widespread. Such interventions are of public health benefit not only because they reduce the incidence or severity of infections, but also because they decrease the long-term detrimental effect of malnutrition on populations.  (+info)

Time sequential chemotherapy for primary refractory or relapsed adult acute myeloid leukemia: results of the phase II Gemia protocol. (2/2636)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High-dose cytarabine (HDAra-C), mitoxantrone and etoposide are the mainstay of several active regimens against relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We designed a phase II study to assess the efficacy and side effects of a time sequential application of mitoxantrone plus intermediate-dose Ara-C followed by HDAra-C plus etoposide (GEMIA) in adult patients with refractory or relapsed AML. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with refractory or relapsed AML were eligible for GEMIA salvage therapy, which comprised mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2/day on days 1-3, Ara-C 500 mg/m2/day as a 24-hour continuous infusion on days 1-3, followed by HDAra-C 2 g/m2/12-hourly on days 6-8 and etoposide 100 mg/m2/12-hourly on days 6-8. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was started on day 14. In patients above the age of 55 the dose of Ara-C in the first sequence (days 1-3) was reduced to 250 mg/m2. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included, of whom 12 achieved complete remission after GEMIA (60%, 95% CI 40-80%), one was refractory and five died early from infection. Two additional patients achieved partial remission after GEMIA and complete remission after consolidation chemotherapy, for a final CR rate of 70% (95% CI 48-88%). Neutrophils recovered at a median of 27 days (range, 22-43) and platelets 46 days (range, 25-59) after the start of treatment. The median duration of remission was 133 days (range, 36-417+) whereas overall survival time lasted for a median of 153 days (range, 13-554+). Treatment-associated toxicity was comprised predominantly of infection, mucositis and diarrhea that reached World Health Organization grades III-V in 40%, 40% and 30% of patients, respectively. Despite the intention to rapidly proceed to a hematopoietic stem cell transplant in patients in remission, only five patients reached the transplant. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The GEMIA time sequential chemotherapy regimen appears effective in obtaining remissions in refractory and relapsed adult AML. The high toxicity seen, however, suggests that its design is amenable to further improvements, especially in more elderly patients. Since remissions are short-lived, more innovative post-remission strategies are needed.  (+info)

Diagnostic approach to lymph node enlargement. (3/2636)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: How to reach the correct diagnosis of a lymph node enlargement is still a problem which strongly challenges the knowledge and experience of the clinician. Organized and specifically oriented literature on the right sequential steps and the logical criteria that should guide this diagnostic approach is still lacking. METHODS: The authors have tried to exploit available knowledge and their personal experience by correlating a large body of information regarding size, physical characteristics, anatomical location of enlarged lymph nodes, and the possible epidemiological, environmental, occupational and clinical categorization of this condition. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was intended that such material would have constituted the basis of a hypothetic decision-making tree, but this was impossible because of the lack of epidemiological investigation and registry data. Nevertheless, we present this preparatory work here in order to stimulate the interest of concerned readers and because of its possible direct usefulness in hematologic practice.  (+info)

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in hematologic complete remission. (4/2636)

The authors describe the cases of three patients affected by acute myeloid leukemia, in complete remission, who rapidly developed neurologic symptoms leading to death. Neither clinical characteristics, nor radiological or microbiological procedures, allowed an etiological diagnosis of the neurologic syndrome. Post-mortem examination of the brain showed both macroscopic and microscopic findings compatible with acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. The difficulty in distinguishing this entity from other CNS disease-related complications (e.g. leukemia infiltration, drug toxicity, hemorrhages) should not lead to an underestimation of the true incidence of this complication. We believe that with more attention to the possibility of this complication there would probably be both a greater possibility of collecting clinical informations about the real impact of this dramatic disease and a stronger hope of finding the right treatment for it.  (+info)

Early childhood infection and atopic disorder. (5/2636)

BACKGROUND: Atopy is of complex origins but the recent rise in atopic diseases in westernized communities points to the action of important environmental effects. One candidate mechanism is the changing pattern of microbial exposure in childhood. This epidemiological study investigated the relationship between childhood infections and subsequent atopic disease, taking into account a range of social and medical variables. METHODS: A total of 1934 subjects representing a retrospective 1975-84 birth group at a family doctor practice in Oxfordshire were studied. Public health and practice records were reviewed; temporal records were made of all diagnoses of infections and their treatments, all immunisations, and diagnoses of asthma, hay fever and eczema; maternal atopy and a number of other variables were documented. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis identified three statistically significant predictors of subsequent atopic disease: maternal atopy (1.97, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.66, p < 0.0001), immunisation with whole-cell pertussis vaccine (1.76, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.23, p < 0.0001), and treatment with oral antibiotics in the first two years of life (2.07, 95% CI 1.64 to 2.60, p < 0.0001). There was no significant association found for maternal smoking, bottle feeding, sibship size, or social class. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction of atopic disease by maternal atopy mainly reflects the effect of acknowledged genetic factors. Interpretation of the prediction of atopic disorders by immunisation with wholecell pertussis vaccine and treatment with oral antibiotics needs to be very cautious because of the possibilities of confounding effects and reverse causation. However, plausible immune mechanisms are identifiable for the promotion of atopic disorders by both factors and further investigation of these association is warranted.  (+info)

Differential tumor necrosis factor alpha production in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques coinfected with Mycobacterium avium. (6/2636)

Mycobacterium avium infections are the third most common opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques naturally acquire M. avium infections from the environment, and their clinical symptoms are similar to those observed in AIDS patients. We characterized concurrent infection with SIV and M. avium in monkeys on the basis of the growth of the bacteria in macrophages (Mphis) from rhesus macaques and the ability of M. avium to induce SIV replication and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production. The simian M. avium isolate grew significantly better than did an isolate from an AIDS patient or a chicken isolate (P = .001); it induced significantly more TNF-alpha production in Mphis from SIV-positive and SIV-negative monkeys than did the isolate from an AIDS patient (P = .013). No significant increase in SIV replication was seen in the M. avium isolates, and no correlation was found between increased SIV replication and increased TNF-alpha production. In addition, Mphis from monkeys infected with M. avium during late-stage SIV disease produced less TNF-alpha when stimulated with virulent M. avium.  (+info)

Study of infectious intestinal disease in England: rates in the community, presenting to general practice, and reported to national surveillance. The Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive. (7/2636)

OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence and aetiology of infectious intestinal disease in the community and presenting to general practitioners. Comparison with incidence and aetiology of cases reaching national laboratory based surveillance. DESIGN: Population based community cohort incidence study, general practice based incidence studies, and case linkage to national laboratory surveillance. SETTING: 70 general practices throughout England. PARTICIPANTS: 459 975 patients served by the practices. Community surveillance of 9776 randomly selected patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of infectious intestinal disease in community and reported to general practice. RESULTS: 781 cases were identified in the community cohort, giving an incidence of 19.4/100 person years (95% confidence interval 18.1 to 20.8). 8770 cases presented to general practice (3.3/100 person years (2.94 to 3.75)). One case was reported to national surveillance for every 1.4 laboratory identifications, 6.2 stools sent for laboratory investigation, 23 cases presenting to general practice, and 136 community cases. The ratio of cases in the community to cases reaching national surveillance was lower for bacterial pathogens (salmonella 3.2:1, campylobacter 7.6:1) than for viruses (rotavirus 35:1, small round structured viruses 1562:1). There were many cases for which no organism was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Infectious intestinal disease occurs in 1 in 5 people each year, of whom 1 in 6 presents to a general practitioner. The proportion of cases not recorded by national laboratory surveillance is large and varies widely by microorganism. Ways of supplementing the national laboratory surveillance system for infectious intestinal diseases should be considered.  (+info)

Clinical and scientific importance of source control in abdominal infections: summary of a symposium. (8/2636)

In May 1997, a panel of surgeon-investigators met to discuss the clinical importance and research implications of controlling the source of abdominal infections. It was concluded that source control is critical to therapeutic success and that antimicrobial therapy and other adjunctive interventions will fail if the source of infection is not controlled by resection, exteriorization or other means. The panelists presented different definitions of source control, depending on the scientific purpose of the definition. All participants agreed that failure to consider the adequacy of source control of infection has limited the value of most clinical trials of therapeutic anti-infective agents. Besides recognizing source control as an essential goal of patient care, the panelists emphasized the need for further investigative work to define, record and stratify the adequacy of source control in clinical trials of therapeutic agents for abdominal infections.  (+info)

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Hemagglutinins are glycoprotein spikes found on the surface of influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the viral infection process by binding to sialic acid receptors on host cells, primarily in the respiratory tract. After attachment, hemagglutinins mediate the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified in influenza A viruses, which naturally infect various animal species, including birds, pigs, and humans. The specificity of hemagglutinins for particular sialic acid receptors can influence host range and tissue tropism, contributing to the zoonotic potential of certain influenza A virus subtypes.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are commonly used in virology and epidemiology to measure the antibody response to influenza viruses and determine vaccine effectiveness. In these assays, hemagglutinins bind to red blood cells coated with sialic acid receptors, forming a diffuse mat of cells that can be observed visually. The addition of specific antisera containing antibodies against the hemagglutinin prevents this binding and results in the formation of discrete buttons of red blood cells, indicating a positive HI titer and the presence of neutralizing antibodies.

A pharmacopoeia is a book or electronic resource that contains official standards and information regarding the quality, purity, composition, and testing of medicines, drugs, and other medical substances. It is used as a reference by healthcare professionals, pharmacists, and manufacturers to ensure the safety, efficacy, and consistency of medications.

Pharmacopoeias often include monographs for individual drugs, which specify their proper manufacturing process, dosage forms, and acceptable limits for impurities or degradation products. They may also provide guidelines for the preparation and compounding of medicinal formulations.

Pharmacopoeias are established and maintained by national or international organizations, such as the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), and the British Pharmacopoeia (BP). These organizations regularly update their pharmacopoeias to reflect advances in medical research, new drug approvals, and changes in regulatory requirements.

In summary, a pharmacopoeia is an essential resource for maintaining the quality and safety of medicines and drugs, providing standardized guidelines and reference materials for healthcare professionals and manufacturers alike.

Hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins are surface proteins found on influenza viruses. They play a crucial role in the virus's ability to infect and spread within host organisms.

The HAs are responsible for binding to sialic acid receptors on the host cell's surface, allowing the virus to attach and enter the cell. After endocytosis, the viral and endosomal membranes fuse, releasing the viral genome into the host cell's cytoplasm.

There are several subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) identified so far, with H1, H2, and H3 being common in human infections. The significant antigenic differences among these subtypes make them important targets for the development of influenza vaccines. However, due to their high mutation rate, new vaccine formulations are often required to match the circulating virus strains.

In summary, hemagglutinin glycoproteins on influenza viruses are essential for host cell recognition and entry, making them important targets for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of influenza infections.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Metanephrine is a catecholamine metabolite, specifically a derivative of epinephrine (adrenaline). It is formed in the body through the metabolic breakdown of epinephrine by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Metanephrines, including metanephrine and normetanephrine, are primarily produced in the adrenal glands but can also be found in other tissues in smaller amounts.

Elevated levels of metanephrines in the blood or urine may indicate a pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, or a paraganglioma, a similar type of tumor located outside the adrenal glands. These tumors can cause excessive production of catecholamines, including epinephrine and norepinephrine, leading to increased metanephrine levels.

It is essential to differentiate between metanephrine and normetanephrine as they have distinct clinical implications. Normetanephrine is a derivative of norepinephrine (noradrenaline), while metanephrine originates from epinephrine. The measurement of both free metanephrines and normetanephrines in plasma or urine is often used to diagnose and monitor pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

Hemagglutinins are proteins found on the surface of some viruses, including influenza viruses. They have the ability to bind to specific receptors on the surface of red blood cells, causing them to clump together (a process known as hemagglutination). This property is what allows certain viruses to infect host cells and cause disease. Hemagglutinins play a crucial role in the infection process of influenza viruses, as they facilitate the virus's entry into host cells by binding to sialic acid receptors on the surface of respiratory epithelial cells. There are 18 different subtypes of hemagglutinin (H1-H18) found in various influenza A viruses, and they are a major target of the immune response to influenza infection. Vaccines against influenza contain hemagglutinins from the specific strains of virus that are predicted to be most prevalent in a given season, and induce immunity by stimulating the production of antibodies that can neutralize the virus.

Urinary tract infection Skin infection Respiratory tract infection Odontogenic infection (an infection that originates within a ... An infection that is inactive or dormant is called a latent infection. An example of a latent bacterial infection is latent ... Persistent infections occur because the body is unable to clear the organism after the initial infection. Persistent infections ... Primary pathogens often cause primary infection and often cause secondary infection. Usually, opportunistic infections are ...
Aeromonas infections can sometimes be spread by leech bites. Aeromonas Chromobacteriosis infection Skin lesion James, William D ... Aeromonas infections include skin infections such as cellulitis, pustules, and furuncles.: 279 Aeromonas species can also cause ... Maetz, Benjamin; Abbou, Ralph; Andreoletti, Jean Baptiste; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine (2012). "Infections following the ...
An odontogenic infection is an infection that originates within a tooth or in the closely surrounding tissues. The term is ... Odontogenic infection starts as localised infection and may remain localised to the region where it started, or spread into ... Odontogenic infection can be managed relatively easily if treated in the early stages of infection. However, there are some ... infections of maxillary dentition, or maxillary dental trauma. Infections associated with teeth may be responsible for ...
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses) that take advantage of ... Since opportunistic infections can cause severe disease, much emphasis is placed on measures to prevent infection. Such a ... Opportunistic infections caused by feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus retroviral infections can be treated ... which can lead to pulmonary infection as well as nervous system infections, like meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum is a ...
A staphylococcal infection or staph infection is an infection caused by members of the Staphylococcus genus of bacteria. These ... Staph infection is typically characterized by redness, pus, swelling, and tenderness in areas of the infection. But, each type ... A few common skin infections caused by staph bacteria are: Boils - Boils are the most common type of staph infection, they are ... Treatment for staph infection varies depending on the type and severity of infection. Common treatments are antibiotics, ...
A subclinical infection-sometimes called a preinfection or inapparent infection-is an infection by a pathogen that causes few ... Subclinical infections can occur in both humans and animals. Depending on the pathogen, which can be a virus or intestinal ... Because subclinical infections often occur without eventual overt sign, in some cases their presence is only identified by ... In other cases, a host may develop more symptoms as the infection progresses beyond its incubation period. These hosts create a ...
Infection can affect many parts of the body, but infections typically target the respiratory tract, the renal system, the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pseudomonas infections. Elkin S, Geddes D (2003). "Pseudomonal infection in cystic ... Pseudomonas infection refers to a disease caused by one of the species of the genus Pseudomonas. P. aeruginosa is a germ found ... Treatment of such infections can be difficult due to multiple antibiotic resistance, and in the United States, there was an ...
Mouth infections, also known as oral infections, are a group of infections that occur around the oral cavity. They include ... The complications that arise from mouth infections depend on how long the infection has persisted and where the infection has ... and deep neck space infections. Mouth infections that persist for months have the potential to cause a chronic infection of the ... If the infection is drained with a needle or scalpel, then a swab of the infection is collected to identify the microbes ...
2007) 43% infection rate of predominantly N. americanus although with some A. duodenale infection Both hookworm infection load ... Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm. Initially, itching and a rash may ... Hookworm infection is most concentrated among the world's poorest who live on less than $2 a day. While hookworm infection may ... Additionally, both malaria and helminth infection can cause anemia, but the effect of co-infection and possible enhancement of ...
Infections within the skin or under the skin may present with a lump and skin changes. Less common deeper fungal infections may ... Fungal infections can mimic COVID-19, occur at the same time as COVID-19 and more serious fungal infections can complicate ... A fungal infection may occur after antibiotics for a bacterial infection which has occurred following COVID-19. The most common ... There is usually a rash with superficial infection. Fungal infection within the skin or under the skin may present with a lump ...
"Immaculate Infection", a wry pun on Immaculate Conception, may refer to: A 2012 episode of the Big Rich Texas reality ... from the 2009 Trash Talk album Shame This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Immaculate Infection. If ...
They comprise a category of infections termed skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs), or skin and soft tissue infections ( ... a potentially life-threatening infection. Fungal skin infections may present as either a superficial or deep infection of the ... A skin infection is an infection of the skin in humans and other animals, that can also affect the associated soft tissues such ... In rare cases, the infection can progress into necrotizing fasciitis, a serious and potentially fatal infection. Erysipelas, a ...
Sometimes the infection can be observed; the most common symptoms include diarrhea, stomach pains, loss of appetite, nausea, ... Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases caused by organisms formerly classified in the kingdom Protozoa. They are usually ... Symptoms of this infection include diarrhea with blood and mucus, and can alternate between constipation and remission, ... Plasmodiophorids cause infections in crops such as Spongospora subterranea. They cause powdery scabs and galls and disrupt ...
... may refer to: Vector (epidemiology), the method by which a disease spreads Vector (malware), the method by ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Infection vector. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
However, the infection can usually be attributed to poor husbandry practices, so is much more likely to occur in captive ... The second type is more serious, where an infection has penetrated the skin. The third type involves the bird having a severe ... Topical antiseptics in addition to oral or injected antibiotics may be used to combat the infection, which if left untreated ... Consequently, in cases of lameness, the good leg(s) should be examined for potential cuts and infections. Overweight animals ...
143-4. ISBN 978-3-642-83752-4. H.K.F. van Saene; G. Sganga; L. Silvestri (6 December 2012). Infection in the Critically Ill: an ... In medicine, an endogenous infection is a disease arising from an infectious agent already present in the body but previously ... Ledingham (6 December 2012). Infection Control in Intensive Care Units by Selective Decontamination: The Use of Oral Non- ... ISBN 978-88-470-2242-3. Laura Ester Ziady; Nico Small (December 2005). Prevent and Control Infection: Application Made Easy. ...
... is the fifth studio album by American heavy metal band Chimaira. Released in the US on April 20, 2009 and ... The members of the band chose their favorites and the prizes went as follows: 1st Place: The Infection (Deluxe Tin Box) and two ... On April 16, 2009 Chimaira released the first nine tracks of The Infection on their MySpace profile for listening. The song, " ... link link link Archived 2009-05-05 at the Wayback Machine "A Really Long Review of Chimaira's the Infection". 21 April 2009. ...
... a horror film Infection (2003 film), a Croatian film Infection (2004 film), a Japanese horror film Infection (2019 film), a ... "Infection", by Lacuna Coil from Broken Crown Halo, 2014 "Infection", by Rx Bandits from Progress, 2001 "The Infection", by ... "Infection" (Babylon 5), a 1994 episode "Infection" (Chicago franchise), a 2019 crossover event "Infection" (Stargate Atlantis ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. Infection, infected, or infectious may ...
Chromobacteriosis infections are a cutaneous condition caused by chromobacteria characterized by fluctuating abscesses.: 279 ... Aeromonas infection Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
Balamuthia infection James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology ... Acanthamoeba infection is a cutaneous condition resulting from Acanthamoeba that may result in various skin lesions.: 422 : ...
Pinworm infections commonly occur in all parts of the world. They are the most common type of worm infection in Western Europe ... Pinworm infection occurs worldwide, and is the most common helminth (i.e., parasitic worm) infection in the United States and ... Pinworm infection (threadworm infection in the UK), also known as enterobiasis, is a human parasitic disease caused by the ... Pinworm infection is not classified as a neglected tropical disease unlike many other parasitic worm infections. Garlic has ...
... is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. S. pneumoniae is a common member of ... or sickle-cell disease predisposes one to a more severe course of infection (overwhelming post-splenectomy infection) and ... Pneumonia occurs if the organisms are inhaled into the lungs and not cleared (again, viral infection, or smoking-induced ... The World Health Organization estimates that in 2005 pneumococcal infections were responsible for the death of 1.6 million ...
"Infection (Societies)". Springer Science+Business Media. Retrieved 2011-07-17. "Infection". 2018 Journal Citation Reports. Web ... Infection is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. It covers research on ... Infection is the official publication of the following societies: German Society for Infectious Diseases Paul Ehrlich Society ...
... is a cutaneous condition resulting from Balamuthia that may result in various skin lesions.: 422 ... Acanthamoeba infection James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ... It is one of the causes of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), a serious infection of the brain and spinal cord. ... Since then, more than 200 cases of Balamuthia infection have been diagnosed worldwide, with at least 70 cases reported in the ...
Infection may be via direct interactions between managed and wild bees or via shared flower use and contamination. One study ... Spillover infection, also known as pathogen spillover and spillover event, occurs when a reservoir population with a high ... Rates and incidence of infection decline dramatically the further away from the greenhouses the wild bees are located. ... Viruses portal Medicine portal Cross-species transmission Reverse zoonosis Epidemic Infection Outbreak List of Legionellosis ...
Rate of infection = K × the number of infections the number of those at risk of infection {\displaystyle {\text{Rate of ... the number of infections}}{\text{the number of those at risk of infection}}}} The number of infections equals the cases ... Calculating the infection rate is used to analyze trends for the purpose of infection and disease control.An online infection ... An infection rate (or incident rate) is the probability or risk of an infection in a population. It is used to measure the ...
... the clinical spectrum of disease associated with infection varies depending on the site of infection; for example, infection ... Adenovirus infection accounts for up to 10% of respiratory infections in children. Most cases are mild and by the age of 10- ... Most adenovirus infections get better without any treatment. After recovery from adenovirus infection, the virus can be carried ... Adenovirus infection is a contagious viral disease, caused by adenoviruses, commonly resulting in a respiratory tract infection ...
Often, infection of the vaccinated individual results in milder symptoms and shorter duration than if the infection were ... Brown, Catherine M. (2021). "Outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Infections, Including COVID-19 Vaccine Breakthrough Infections, Associated ... A breakthrough infection is a case of illness in which a vaccinated individual becomes infected with the illness, because the ... Additionally, infection in unvaccinated individuals tends to last for a longer period of time than in individuals who have been ...
A nematode infection is a type of helminthiasis caused by organisms in the nematode phylum. An example is enterobiasis. Several ... antinematodal agents are available.[citation needed] "Nematode Infections: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". 10 July ...
The infection ratio is used to work out the relationship between the non-performing part of the portfolio (i.e., loans not ... In finance, the infection ratio describes the relationship between non-performing portfolios and the total loan portfolio. ... "What is Infection ratio". capital.com. Retrieved 2013-11-20. "Glossary , DataBank". databank.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2013-11- ... The ratio is used to evaluate infection in the loan portfolio between two different time periods, or amongst various ...
What is an ear infection?. There are different types of ear infections. Middle ear infection (acute otitis media) is an ... Antibiotics are sometimes not needed for middle ear infections. However, severe middle ear infections or infections that last ... Viruses, like those that cause colds can cause middle ear infection. Symptoms. Common symptoms of middle ear infection in ... Is your childs ear hurting? It could be an ear infection. Children are more likely than adults to get ear infections. Talk to ...
Find out about urinary tract infections (UTIs), including what the symptoms are, when to get medical advice, how theyre ... Check if its a urinary tract infection (UTI). Symptoms of a urinary tract infection (UTI) may include:. *pain or a burning ... How to prevent urinary tract infections (UTIs). There are some things you can try to help prevent a urinary tract infection ( ... Causes of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the ...
... lives are lost because of the spread of hospital infections. Read about the preventive steps you can take, such as proper ... Infection Prevention and You (Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology) - PDF ... These steps are part of infection control.. Proper hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infections ... Article: Developing an infection prevention and control intervention to reduce hospital-acquired infections... ...
CDI causes one of the most widespread and serious health care associated infections acquired in a hospital or long-term care ... difficile infection (CDI) can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammations of the colon. ...
See also thefull version of the "Infection Control" section of the "Consensus Statement"external icon (JAMA 2001; 285(21):2763- ... Infection Control (from Abstract of "Consensus Statement: Tularemia as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health ...
All 4 genera cause CNS infections that are frequently fatal. ... The free-living amoebae that cause human infections include ... Diseases & Conditions Acanthamoeba Infection * 2003/viewarticle/what-extent-does-exposure-affect-risk-covid-19-infection- ... encoded search term (Acanthamoeba Infection) and Acanthamoeba Infection What to Read Next on Medscape ... Acanthamoeba Infection. Updated: Jul 06, 2021 * Author: Theresa M Fiorito, MD, MS, FAAP, CTH®; Chief Editor: Pranatharthi Haran ...
... and laboratory-based surveillance system conducted through CDCs Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Healthcare-Associated ... The Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) surveillance program is an active population- ... Trends in U.S. Burden of Clostridioides difficile Infection and Outcomes. *EIP HAI C. difficile Infection Surveillance Fact ... Clostridioides Difficile Infection (CDI) Surveillance Emerging Infection Program Case Report (print only) [PDF - 4 pages] ...
Salmonella enteritidis Infection. How Eggs Become Contaminated. Who Can Be Infected. What is the Risk. What You Can Do to ... Salmonella enteritis Infection National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases Publication ... Reducing the Risk of Salmonella Enteritidis Infection. What Else is Being Done. Further information on this and other food ... Salmonella enteritidis Infection. Egg-associated salmonellosis is an important public health problem in the United States and ...
... the study aims to identify undetermined risk factors for HCV infection experienced by WTCHP members, and factors associated ... especially to persons born during 1945-1965 who are at high risk of HCV infection. ...
... infection - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags emergencies, infection, prevention, tB, tuberculosis The Hidden Dangers of Getting Inked. The practice of tattooing has ...
An infection that is inactive or dormant is called a latent infection.[51] An example of a latent bacterial infection is latent ... Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, viral infections are systemic. This means they involve many ... Chain of infection; the chain of events that lead to infection. There is a general chain of events that applies to infections, ... Respiratory tract infection. *Odontogenic infection (an infection that originates within a tooth or in the closely surrounding ...
Urinary tract infection Skin infection Respiratory tract infection Odontogenic infection (an infection that originates within a ... An infection that is inactive or dormant is called a latent infection. An example of a latent bacterial infection is latent ... Persistent infections occur because the body is unable to clear the organism after the initial infection. Persistent infections ... Primary pathogens often cause primary infection and often cause secondary infection. Usually, opportunistic infections are ...
Pinworm infections commonly occur in all parts of the world.[1][5] They are the most common type of worm infection in Western ... Pinworm infection (threadworm infection in the UK), also known as enterobiasis, is a human parasitic disease caused by the ... Pinworm infection occurs worldwide,[10] and is the most common helminth (i.e., parasitic worm) infection in the United States ... Trematode infection). Blood fluke. *Schistosoma mansoni / S. japonicum / S. mekongi / S. haematobium / S. intercalatum * ...
PRNewswire/ -- Infection Control market worldwide is projected to grow by US$8.3 Billion, driven by a compounded growth of 6.2 ... Table 45: Infection Control Market Share Shift in Japan by. End-Use: 2009 VS 2019 VS 2025. CHINA. Table 46: Chinese Infection ... Table 50: Infection Control Market Review in China in US$. Million by End-Use: 2009-2017. Table 51: Chinese Infection Control ... Table 77: Infection Control Market Review in Italy in US$. Million by End-Use: 2009-2017. Table 78: Italian Infection Control ...
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Library of infection control guidelines and recommendations for healthcare settings. ... International Infection Control Program (IICP). *Global Safe Healthcareplus icon *Global Action in Healthcare Network (GAIHN) ... CDCs Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All Settings ... Global Action in Healthcare Network Healthcare-Associated Infection Module (GAIHN - HAI module) ...
... the number of new infections is finally in decline. WHO is supporting health authorities to respond to the outbreak, from ... Encounters with plague: tracing and preventing infection 30 November 2017. November 2017 - In Madagascar, where a severe plague ... epidemic has unfolded since August 2017, the number of new infections is finally in decline. WHO is supporting health ...
How can I help prevent hantavirus infection?. Because hantavirus infection can be serious, even deadly, it is important to know ... Healthcare-Associated Infections. *. Cancer. *. Communicable Diseases. *. Diabetes. *. Disease ... Healthcare-Associated Infections Program. *. Licensing and Certification. . **. Center for Health Statistics and ... Symptoms of hantavirus infection can be mild or severe, depending on whether a persons lungs become infected. There is no ...
DistributionTreatment and PreventionImpacts and IssuesBIBLIOGRAPHY Source for information on Cryptococcus neoformans Infection ... The infection begins in the lungs following the inhalation of the microorganism, particularly the small form of the organism ... Prospects for recovery are good if the infection is identified and treated while it is still confined to the lungs. However, ... "Cryptococcus neoformans Infection ." Infectious Diseases: In Context. . Retrieved November 19, 2023 from Encyclopedia.com: ...
... infection prevention, guidelines, recommendations, bsi, peripheral and midline catheters, intravascular catheter ... Bloodstream infection associated with needleless device use and the importance of infection-control practices in the home ... Infections and infection risks in home care settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992; 13:535-9. ... CDC/NHSN surveillance definition of health care-associated infection and criteria for specific types of infections in the acute ...
... signs of a possible infection. Learn more about how doctors diagnose and treat these cases. ... If an infection causes serious complications, fluid remains in the ear for a long time, or your child has ear infections that ... These are signs of a possible infection.. Call your doctor so she can find out for sure whats going on. If it is an infection ... Ear Infections: Diagnosis and Treatment Medically Reviewed by Sabrina Felson, MD on August 04, 2022 ...
Viral infection is the invasion of the body by a small agent known as a virus. Viruses replicate inside host cells and can ... A mouse model identifies FcγRIIIa engagement on splenic macrophages as a driver of disease severity during dengue infection. ... compared the humoral immune responses induced by MPXV infection and Smallpox vaccination. Although comparable responses were ... T cells play an important part in the immediate immune response to breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas the B cell and ...
A young womans sex life may influence her risk of kidney infection. ... Recent urinary tract infection. Women with kidney infections were more than four times as likely to have recently had a urinary ... So preventing infections of the bladder, which have many of the same risk factors, may help avoid kidney infections, say the ... Mother with a history of urinary tract infections. Participants with kidney infections were about 1.5 times as likely to have a ...
ECG Challenge: C diff Infection With Irregular Pulse * Time Out! A Close Look at Antibiotic Use in Post-acute and Long-term ... Clostridium difficile Infection Among Veterans Health Administration Patients Young-Xu Y, Kuntz JL, Gerding DN, et al. Infect ... The first was the earlier establishment of a VHA bundle for infection control,[1] and the second was the implementation of PCR ... Sensitive Test, Low Infection Rate. Two recent publications highlight the success of the national Veterans Health ...
... an infection (such as thrush) caused by a yeast fungus or a yeast-like fungus. ... The meaning of YEAST INFECTION is infection of the vagina with an overgrowth of a normally present candidal fungus (Candida ... 2023 What is the fastest way to get rid of a vaginal yeast infection? Home remedies for yeast infections Home remedies to avoid ... 2023 Yes, people with penises can get a yeast infection down there-called a penile yeast infection or penile thrush-just as ...
  • When they cause infections, they're more often bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Attributable cost of catheter-associated bloodstream infections among intensive care patients in a nonteaching hospital. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical and economic outcomes in critically ill patients with nosocomial catheter-related bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
  • An educational intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections in a non-teeaching community medical center. (cdc.gov)
  • A multicenter intervention to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Higuera F, Rosenthal VD, Duarte P, Ruiz J, Franco G, Safdar N. The effect of process control on the incidence of central venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections and mortality in intensive care units in Mexico. (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of an education program on decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections in the surgical intensive care unit. (cdc.gov)
  • So we've set a bold goal -- zero bloodstream infections. (3m.com)
  • Help reduce the risk of bloodstream infections at all access points. (3m.com)
  • Catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) can be acquired at the time of the initial insertion or anytime throughout the duration of intravenous access - creating the potential for longer hospital stays¹⁻⁵, increased care costs²'⁷ and higher patient mortality⁶. (3m.com)
  • 3M™ Tegaderm™ CHG Chlorhexidine Gluconate I.V. Securement Dressing* is the only transparent dressing cleared by the FDA to reduce catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and vascular catheter colonization, aligning with evidence-based guidelines and practice standards. (3m.com)
  • Decided to adopt the WHO global strategy on infection prevention and control. (who.int)
  • Mermel LA. Prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Eggimann P, Harbarth S, Constantin MN, Touveneau S, Chevrolet JC, Pittet D. Impact of a prevention strategy targeted at vascular-access care on incidence of infections acquired in intensive care. (cdc.gov)
  • References for the Updated Recommendations on the Use of Chlorhexidine-Impregnated Dressings for Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections (2017) . (cdc.gov)
  • Comparison of Oligon catheters and chlorhexidine-impregnated sponges with standard multilumen central venous catheters for prevention of associated colonization and infections in intensive care unit patients: a multicenter, randomized, controlled study. (cdc.gov)
  • Prevention of central venous catheter related infections with chlorhexidine gluconate impregnated wound dressings: a randomized controlled trial. (cdc.gov)
  • Chlorhexidine-impregnated sponges and less frequent dressing changes for prevention of catheter-related infections in critically ill adults: a randomized controlled trial. (cdc.gov)
  • A randomized trial comparing povidone-iodine to a chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated dressing for prevention of central venous catheter infections in neonates. (cdc.gov)
  • Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection, 1999. (medscape.com)
  • However, the use of these agents in the prevention and management of rejection is closely interrelated to the development of infection. (medscape.com)
  • Some ear infections, such as middle ear infections, need antibiotic treatment, but many can get better without antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotics are sometimes not needed for middle ear infections. (cdc.gov)
  • However, severe middle ear infections or infections that last longer than 2-3 days need antibiotics right away. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term antibiotics do not work and urine tests do not show an infection. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In these patients, the infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
  • There are still other antibiotics available to treat MRSA infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics , antivirals , antifungals , antiprotozoals , [3] and antihelminthics . (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] Distinguishing the two is important, since viral infections cannot be cured by antibiotics whereas bacterial infections can. (wikipedia.org)
  • Often, a virus causes an ear infection, in which case antibiotics won't help. (webmd.com)
  • If they think that bacteria might be causing a sinus infection, doctors might wait for a few days to see if it clears up on its own or they may prescribe antibiotics. (kidshealth.org)
  • Feline respiratory infections are usually treated with antibiotics which act mainly on secondary bacterial infections, but are also efficient against the agents causing the viral infections. (vetinfo.com)
  • High fever with chills that does not get better after taking antibiotics may be a sign of a C auris infection. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Once a course of antibiotics has been completed, herbs may be used to speed convalescence, hopefully to avoid any recurrence of the infection and prevent secondary problems that may result from the temporarily weakened immune response. (healthy.net)
  • Potential causes of yeast infections include taking antibiotics, pregnancy and health conditions, such as diabetes. (livestrong.com)
  • ive had courses of antibiotics for the past 3 months they wont take my teeth out until the infection goes. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to distinguish which is the cause of a specific infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] The itching leads to continuously scratching the area around the anus, which can further result in tearing of the skin and complications such as secondary bacterial infections , including bacterial skin inflammation , and hair follicle inflammation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms that last longer than that or get worse about a week after the cold starts can be a sign of a bacterial sinus infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • Rarely, a bacterial sinus infection can start suddenly, with a high fever and stuffy nose that lasts for 3-4 days in a child who looks very ill. (kidshealth.org)
  • The severely immune-compromised patient is prone to fungal as well as bacterial blood stream infections. (hindawi.com)
  • Feline respiratory problems, usually manifested through sneezing, can be either a simple flu or a more serious infection of the upper respiratory tract. (vetinfo.com)
  • Feline rhinotracheitis and the calicivirus are responsible for 90% of cat respiratory infections. (vetinfo.com)
  • Respiratory infections spread easily among cats, so it is really important to isolate the cat diagnosed with a respiratory infection from other animals. (vetinfo.com)
  • Feline respiratory infections are caused by viruses: the feline herpes virus causing feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) and the calicivirus are responsible for the infections in most of the cases. (vetinfo.com)
  • Respiratory infections in cats can lead to more serious health problems such as pneumonia and even death. (vetinfo.com)
  • However, if your cat does not have any contact with other infected cats, his risk of being exposed to any of these viruses and developing a respiratory infection is extremely low. (vetinfo.com)
  • Fungal diseases, including histoplasmosis, continue to produce new respiratory infections during outbreaks or pandemics of other respiratory infections (eg, COVID-19). (cap.org)
  • Providers need to consider fungal respiratory infections in appropriate settings, particularly when COVID-19 testing is negative. (cap.org)
  • A BSI is primary when the central line is the only probable source of infection and secondary when there is an underlying cause for the BSI (genitourinary/respiratory infection or any other obvious source of infection in the body). (hindawi.com)
  • Simcere Zaiming Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. has divulged 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) (SARS-CoV-2) inhibitors reported to be useful for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. (bioworld.com)
  • People living with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are at a higher risk of obtaining respiratory infections. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Those who live with CF patients should also remain 6 feet from anyone with any type of respiratory infection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • One of the commonest sights for infection in the body, but infections of the upper and lower respiratory system often respond well to herbal therapy. (healthy.net)
  • Cranberry juice is also purported to contain vitamin C , which may help with upper respiratory infections, although these claims are unsubstantiated. (livestrong.com)
  • Hookworm Infection Hookworm infection is a roundworm infection of the intestines that can cause an itchy rash, respiratory and gastrointestinal problems, and eventually iron deficiency anemia due to ongoing loss. (msdmanuals.com)
  • bacteria when a skin biopsy sample was positive by qPCR however, bacteria with different genotypes have not been and there was no evidence of infection with another agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Coxiella -like bacteria have been associated with infection cal signs (fever, skin eschar, local lymph node enlargement) in birds ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is the scientific name for the bacteria that cause "staph" infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Infections can be caused by a wide range of pathogens , most prominently bacteria and viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • If, based on the history, your doctor suspects that bacteria may have caused the infection, she may prescribe an antibiotic. (webmd.com)
  • If a virus or bacteria are causing the infection and you have to wait for it to get better, you don't need to live with the pain. (webmd.com)
  • Infections caused by cephalosporin- or penicillin-resistant gram-negative bacteria may respond to cefoxitin. (medscape.com)
  • Listeriosis infection, which comes from eating food contaminated with listeria monocytogenes bacteria, can cause severe illness or even death in vulnerable people. (yahoo.com)
  • A sinus infection occurs when the tissues around these hollow areas swell or get infected by bacteria, fungi, or a virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sinus infections caused by bacteria have a few additional symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In a paper published online in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, a multi-institutional research team reports that treatment with the preparation, containing the spores of approximately 50 species of beneficial bacteria, successfully prevented recurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI) in patients with a history of multiple recurrent disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Collection of specimens of anaerobic bacteria is important because documentation of an anaerobic infection is through culture of organisms from the infected site. (medscape.com)
  • Inadequate techniques or media can lead to missing the presence of anaerobic bacteria or the assumption that only aerobic organisms are present in a mixed infection. (medscape.com)
  • 2023 The most common cause of yeast infections is a fungus called Candida albicans. (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2023 Yes, people with penises can get a yeast infection down there-called a penile yeast infection or penile thrush-just as people with vaginas can get a yeast infection. (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2023 What is the fastest way to get rid of a vaginal yeast infection ? (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2023 If not properly treated, yeast infections can worsen. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Elizabeth Pratt, Health , 21 Aug. 2023 This is what makes yeast infections pretty darn regular during pregnancy, explains Dr. Dweck. (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2023 According to the Urology Care Foundation, a yeast infection is one of the most common medical annoyances that is caused by an overgrowth of the candida fungus. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Cruse PJ, Foord R. The epidemiology of wound infection. (medscape.com)
  • Patients have difficulty deciphering complex numeric data on healthcare-associated infections used by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to help consumers choose hospitals, according to a new study published online today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). (news-medical.net)
  • Diabetic patients are at considerably increased risk for developing surgical site infections (SSIs) while undergoing most types of surgeries, compared to non-diabetic patients, according to a new study published online today in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, the journal of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. (news-medical.net)
  • Are Sinus Infections Contagious? (kidshealth.org)
  • Sinus infections aren't contagious, but they often happen after a person has a cold, and that illness can spread to family and friends. (kidshealth.org)
  • The infections are highly contagious and they can be transmitted through direct contact, through sneezing or coughing. (vetinfo.com)
  • Given the highly contagious nature of the infection, the cat has to be isolated from other animals. (vetinfo.com)
  • Norovirus infection is highly contagious. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Sinus infections, also known as sinusitis, can be easily mistaken for the very contagious common cold. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, just because the symptoms of sinus infections and colds are very similar does not mean that all sinus infections are as contagious as the common cold. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Whether or not a sinus infection is contagious will vary depending on the cause. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are several causes of sinus infections, some of which are contagious. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A sinus infection that is caused by a virus is contagious and spreads easily from person to person. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sinus infections caused by a deformity, a blockage in the nasal passages, or allergies are not contagious. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. (medscape.com)
  • National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) report, data summary from October 1986-April 1996, issued May 1996. (medscape.com)
  • A report from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. (medscape.com)
  • An overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the microbiology laboratory. (medscape.com)
  • They represent about 15% of all nosocomial infections and affect approximately 1% of all hospitalized patients [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vaginal yeast infection is also called vaginal candidiasis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Home remedies may or may not work to treat a vaginal yeast infection . (medicinenet.com)
  • Michigan Medicine asserts that a vaginal yeast infection is normally treated with an antifungal cream or suppository inserted into the vagina, or with a prescription antifungal pill that you only take once. (livestrong.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web Both are common during pregnancy and offer up either grayish-white (BV) or yellowish-white ( yeast infection ) discharge. (merriam-webster.com)
  • 2022 In other cases, however, spotting during pregnancy can indicate something else, such as a yeast infection or a miscarriage. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Home remedies for yeast infections Home remedies to avoid Can a yeast infection go away on its own? (merriam-webster.com)
  • These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word 'yeast infection. (merriam-webster.com)
  • In the case of recurrent episodes, the following home remedies can help treat yeast infections. (medicinenet.com)
  • How to prevent vaginal yeast infections? (medicinenet.com)
  • Yeast infection or not? (medhelp.org)
  • I don't have insurance and can't afford to go to the doctor but most signs are pointing to a yeast infection so I bought Monistat. (medhelp.org)
  • I got my first yeast infection Friday Night. (medhelp.org)
  • Cranberry juice can help treat and prevent yeast infections. (livestrong.com)
  • apple cider for yeast infection, coconut oil for yeast infection, and the most common, cranberry juice for yeast infection. (livestrong.com)
  • But are these claims of cranberry juice preventing yeast infections substantiated? (livestrong.com)
  • First: what exactly is a yeast infection? (livestrong.com)
  • According to Michigan Medicine , a yeast infection indicates that an overabundance of yeast cells are growing in the vagina. (livestrong.com)
  • There are claims that cranberry juice can help prevent yeast infections. (livestrong.com)
  • So how do you treat yeast infections? (livestrong.com)
  • Boric capsules may also be used to treat yeast infections. (livestrong.com)
  • Cranberry juice consumption is often associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) rather than yeast infections. (livestrong.com)
  • Cranberry juice for yeast infection may not hold up, but that doesn't mean we should scrap cranberry juice altogether. (livestrong.com)
  • Even though cranberry juice will not cure or prevent your yeast infection, it may be worth ingesting for its other benefits. (livestrong.com)
  • If an infection causes serious complications, fluid remains in the ear for a long time, or your child has ear infections that keep coming back, your doctor might want to do a procedure called a myringotomy . (webmd.com)
  • Blood stream infection (BSI) is one of the most devastating preventable complications in Critical Care Units. (hindawi.com)
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect your urinary tract, including your bladder (cystitis), urethra (urethritis) or kidneys (kidney infection). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Because urine tests do not always pick up the infection and the symptoms can be similar to other conditions, chronic UTIs can be hard to diagnose. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In the general adult population, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are 30 times more common in women than in men. (bcm.edu)
  • If a GP thinks you may have a urinary tract infection (UTI), they may do a urine test, although this is not always needed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnant woman. (who.int)
  • Diabetes, urinary incontinence, and a history of a urinary tract infection are also important, according to a study in the Jan. 4 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine. (foxnews.com)
  • Recent urinary tract infection. (foxnews.com)
  • Women with kidney infections were more than four times as likely to have recently had a urinary tract infection. (foxnews.com)
  • Symptoms of a C auris infection are similar to those caused by other fungal infections. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • However, the lack of diagnostic tools for early detection of candidemia and other fungal infections limits the number of studies on this issue. (hindawi.com)
  • November 2017 - In Madagascar, where a severe plague epidemic has unfolded since August 2017, the number of new infections is finally in decline. (who.int)
  • The risk of bloodstream infection in adults with different intravascular devices: a systematic review of 200 published prospective studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Incorporating evidence-based standards to infusion therapy can help protect against the factors that may lead to increased risk of bloodstream infection. (3m.com)
  • One-third of individuals with pinworm infection are totally asymptomatic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections, particularly in pregnancy ternity hospital for the period from January and in the elderly, can be asymptomatic [ 1 ], to June 2002. (who.int)
  • Most patients with chronic HCV infection are asymptomatic. (cmaj.ca)
  • Infection in men is usually asymptomatic and it is likely that most men resolve infection without developing disease. (nih.gov)
  • An infection is the invasion of tissues by pathogens , their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agent and the toxins they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The impact of biofilms on microbial infection stems from their ability to protect pathogens from antimicrobial drugs and disinfectants (intrinsic resistance), to help to retain nutrients and to protect microbes from host immune responses (antibodies can penetrate biofilms and phagocytes engulf them but the resulting immune reactions are reduced). (ivis.org)
  • Infection begins when an organism successfully enters the body, grows and multiplies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection begins in the lungs following the inhalation of the microorganism, particularly the small form of the organism called a basidiospore. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dose and route of administration depend on condition of patient, severity of infection, and susceptibility of causative organism. (medscape.com)
  • Manifestations of infection are very diverse, varying with the organism involved, sight of infection, and the bodily response of the person involved. (healthy.net)
  • Overview of Parasitic Infections A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism (the host) and benefits (for example, by getting nutrients) from the host at the host's expense. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Education of physiciansin-training can decrease the risk for vascular catheter infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Every year, lives are lost because of the spread of infections in hospitals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Proper hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infections in hospitals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, spread of the infection beyond the lungs, especially to the central nervous system , is a serious complication, and can threaten the life of someone who is immunocompromised. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Feline rhinotracheitis is a wide spread infection and kittens infected with this virus can develop a permanent sensibility of the nasal mucous membrane. (vetinfo.com)
  • C auris infections that spread to the bloodstream and organs in very ill people can often lead to death. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Noroviruses can also spread through close contact with a person who has norovirus infection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • That means the norovirus infection can easily spread to others. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Find out about infections that teens can get, with information about how they're spread, signs & symptoms, when to go to the doctor, and more. (kidshealth.org)
  • Detachment and expulsion of aggregates of biofilm allows the spread of infection and may facilitate thromboembolic disease. (ivis.org)
  • Our center at Johns Hopkins All Children's follows strict guidelines to avoid the spread of infection. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • EBV is transmitted from person to person and then infects human B cells, which in turn spread the infection throughout the entire reticuloendothelial system (RES, or the liver , spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes ). (medicinenet.com)
  • A study published by Cell Press on May 7th in the Biophysical Journal reveals how the most abundant protein making up the Ebola virus-viral protein 40 (VP40)-allows the virus to leave host cells and spread infection to other cells throughout the human body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Altogether, the findings reveal how VP40's C-terminal domain allows the Ebola virus to spread infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • A visit to the dentist as infection can spread to the nodes in your throat. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • Adequate sanitation and good personal hygiene help prevent spread of the infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acanthamoeba keratitis is a sight-threatening infection with a favorable prognosis when diagnosed and treated early, though surgical intervention and/or corneal transplantation may occasionally be necessary. (medscape.com)
  • For more severe infections, double the dose. (medscape.com)
  • Knowledge of the pattern of antibiotic resistance prevalent in severe infections could also motivate and direct new drug discovery. (hindawi.com)
  • Those with compromised or weakened immune systems have an increased susceptibility to chronic or persistent infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 Patients with a positive anti-HCV antibody test require polymerase chain reaction testing for HCV RNA levels to confirm chronic infection. (cmaj.ca)
  • 3 Chronic HCV infection develops in about 70% of patients exposed to the virus. (cmaj.ca)
  • Allergies and chronic exposure to pollutants can also lead to sinus infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In instances of chronic or recurrent sinus infections, treatment will also aim to correct the underlying cause and reduce the duration or frequency of the infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In cases of chronic sinus infections caused by allergies, a doctor may recommend allergy shots. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If there is a chronic focus of infection it may take some form of colitis, please refer to that section. (healthy.net)
  • While a few organisms can grow at the initial site of entry, many migrate and cause systemic infection in different organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many sinus infections are caused by viruses and usually go away without medical treatment. (kidshealth.org)
  • Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and one of the most common healthcare-associated infections in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The Clostridioides difficile infection surveillance program is an active population- and laboratory-based surveillance system conducted through CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Healthcare-Associated Infections Community Interface (HAIC). (cdc.gov)
  • Results from a Phase 1b/2 trial suggest that an investigational microbiome-based, oral therapeutic drug is effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Mobidiag Ltd, a Finnish molecular diagnostics company specialized in the development of innovative diagnostics solutions for infectious diseases, today announced the launch of Amplidiag C. difficile+027, a qualitative qPCR-based test performed from DNA extracted from stool in suspected cases of C. difficile infection (CDI). (news-medical.net)
  • Synthetic Biologics, Inc., a developer of pathogen-specific therapies for serious infections and diseases, with a focus on protecting the microbiome, today announced the initiation of a Phase 2a clinical trial to evaluate the gastrointestinal (GI) antibiotic-degrading effects and the safety of SYN-004, the Company's investigational oral beta-lactamase enzyme designed to protect the microbiome and prevent C. difficile infection (CDI). (news-medical.net)
  • However, testing the susceptibility of isolates recovered from sterile body sites and/or those that are clinically important (ie, blood cultures, bone, CNS, serious infections) and have variable susceptibilities, especially those isolated in pure culture from properly collected specimens, is important. (medscape.com)
  • It's likely that infections can travel up to the kidneys from lower parts of the urinary tract, such as the bladder. (foxnews.com)
  • So preventing infections of the bladder, which have many of the same risk factors, may help avoid kidney infections, say the researchers. (foxnews.com)
  • What Is a Sinus Infection? (kidshealth.org)
  • Germs can grow there and lead to a sinus infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sometimes other things can block the sinuses and lead to a sinus infection, like enlarged adenoids or nasal polyps (small growths of tissue inside the nose). (kidshealth.org)
  • Sinus infection symptoms can look like those of a simple cold, such as a stuffy or runny nose or a cough that gets worse at night. (kidshealth.org)
  • But a cold and the viral sinus infection that happens with it usually get better without treatment in about 7-10 days. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cold-related headaches in young kids usually aren't sinus infections. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Are Sinus Infections Treated? (kidshealth.org)
  • Can Sinus Infections Be Prevented? (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child gets a fever 7-10 days after cold symptoms begin, it could be a sign of a sinus infection or another infection (such as pneumonia or an ear infection). (kidshealth.org)
  • There are several types of sinus infections, which are classified by duration. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sinus infections often feel like a bad cold. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It may be difficult for people to distinguish between a cold and a sinus infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For most sinus infections, treatment focuses primarily on symptom relief. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In some cases, a person may want to self-treat the sinus infection at home. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People can use over-the-counter medications that relieve symptoms until the sinus infection clears up. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • On imaging of the brain, single or multiple ring-enhancing lesions may be appreciated that can resemble brain abscesses, Toxoplasma infection, or other diseases, and as such biopsy may be required for definitive diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Pinworm infections commonly occur in all parts of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney infection was nearly four times more likely to occur in women with a history of diabetes. (foxnews.com)
  • Fetal infection can occur via transplacental transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Vertical transmission can also occur from mother to infant via passage through an infected birth canal or ascending infection through ruptured amniotic membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Listeria infections occur most often in newborns and elderly patients. (medscape.com)
  • Postnatal infections usually occur in immunocompromised children and are less common than neonatal infections. (medscape.com)
  • Because HPV is a skin-to-skin infection, intercourse isn't required for transmission to occur. (healthline.com)
  • A strong immune system can reduce the recurrence of an infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Listeriosis infection usually starts with fever and muscle aches, with the disease then spreading to the blood or central nervous system, causing sudden onset of fever, intense headache, stiff neck, confusion or delirium, convulsions, loss of balance or a coma. (yahoo.com)
  • Support the body in dealing with any fever that might accompany the infection, using diaphoretics where appropriate. (healthy.net)
  • Middle ear infection (acute otitis media) is an infection in the middle ear. (cdc.gov)
  • RING OF PROTECTION Two large studies find that a vaginal ring containing an antiviral drug can help protect women against HIV infection. (sciencenews.org)
  • A vaginal ring infused with an antiviral drug appears to offer protection against HIV infection, although not as much as doctors had predicted. (sciencenews.org)
  • Any part of the infection and replication cycle is a potential target for antiviral intervention, and the connection of the spike protein's receptor binding domain to the human cell surface receptor ACE2 is a critical step in that cycle," van Breeman said. (forbes.com)
  • Individuals who have a suppressed immune system are particularly susceptible to opportunistic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second-generation cephalosporin indicated for infections caused by susceptible gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods. (medscape.com)
  • People are considered susceptible to EBV infection if they do not have antibodies to the VCA (viral capsid antigen). (medicinenet.com)
  • Staph infections most frequently are skin infections, such as boils. (cdc.gov)
  • When this happens, staph infections can be life threatening. (cdc.gov)
  • Methicillin resistance by itself is not an added problem for the individual who has a staph infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, reducing the number of staph infections caused by MRSA is important in the fight against antibiotic resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • It's important to know, though, that staph don't always cause infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Both studies were released during the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Mass. (sciencenews.org)
  • Retired infection control guidelines can be found on CDC Stacks . (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, such data guides the policy on implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and standardized infection control guidelines. (hindawi.com)
  • The body's immune system can often fight off middle ear infection on its own. (cdc.gov)
  • This gives the immune system time to fight off the infection. (cdc.gov)
  • People who are immunocompromised-their immune system is not functioning properly due to infection with, for example, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or deliberate suppression to lessen the rejection of a transplanted organ-can are at particular risk for a potentially fatal infection with C. neoformans . (encyclopedia.com)
  • How severe a viral infection is depends on how much the virus is replicating, damaging cells as it does so, and on the response of the immune system. (bioworld.com)
  • Because of the similarity of immune system involvement in bodily response to infection, it is possible to make some herbal generalizations. (healthy.net)
  • You have a weakened immune system and you're experiencing symptoms of CMV infection. (mayoclinic.org)
  • But they can cause deeper infections, getting into the bloodstream and spreading around the body to cause abscesses, meningitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Older children with Listeria infections frequently develop meningitis. (medscape.com)
  • She will look at the eardrum with an instrument called an otoscope for signs of infection. (webmd.com)
  • Signs of infection include a red eardrum or a bulging eardrum with fluid behind it. (webmd.com)
  • She might also look for signs of infection with another instrument. (webmd.com)
  • Our conversation is based on his study about trends in invasive MRSA infection in Connecticut, which appears in CDC's journal, Emerging Infectious Diseases . (cdc.gov)
  • [4] The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious diseases . (wikipedia.org)
  • NIAID-supported researchers have found evidence that although HIV infection may adversely affect the thymus, the gland continues to produce new T cells after the infection is suppressed by intensive anti-HIV therapy. (sciencedaily.com)
  • But the community strains tend to produce more toxins, enabling them to cause skin infections and abscesses. (cdc.gov)
  • [1] [5] They are the most common type of worm infection in Western Europe , Northern Europe and the United States . (wikipedia.org)
  • Kidney infections are common. (foxnews.com)
  • Trichuriasis is a common infection, occurring mainly in the subtropics and tropics, where poor sanitation and a warm, moist climate provide the conditions needed for Trichuris eggs to incubate in the soil. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If it is an infection, she can recommend the best treatment for your case. (webmd.com)
  • For treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal infections. (medscape.com)
  • Tell your provider right away if you or a loved one has an infection that is not getting better, even after treatment. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Treatment will vary depending on the individual and how serious the infection is. (bcm.edu)
  • However, over the past 20 years, biofilms have become recognized as a serious problem for public health as they facilitate many important microbial infections in humans and animals, including wound and implant-related infections, and substantially complicate their treatment. (ivis.org)
  • Changes in thymic function with age and during the treatment of HIV infection. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Improved techniques for organ preservation , surgical procedures, rejection management, and posttransplant infection prophylaxis and treatment have contributed to this success. (medscape.com)
  • The development of drugs with increased antimicrobial activity, improved pharmacokinetic profiles, decreased interactions with other medications, and decreased side effects makes the treatment of infection even more successful. (medscape.com)
  • Posttransplant infection prophylaxis, combined with early identification and treatment strategies for infection, is key to decreased length of stay, diminished cost, and increased patient survival. (medscape.com)
  • Diseases caused by helminths are sometimes termed infestations, but are sometimes called infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • But there's no evidence they help ease symptoms or treat a UTI if the infection has already started. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Boric acid is a powerful antiseptic that can help treat infections that are resistant to other remedies. (medicinenet.com)
  • Boric acid vaginal suppositories were used to treat vaginal infections in the past. (medicinenet.com)
  • Since it is better to prevent than to treat, it is recommended to consult your veterinarian on vaccination schedules , especially if your cat is exposed to contracting infections (i.e. he spends time outside and gets into contact with other cats). (vetinfo.com)
  • This makes it very hard to treat the infection. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Infections with C auris can be hard to treat because of its resistance to antifungal medicines. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • By binding to the spike protein, the compounds can prevent the virus from entering cells and causing infection, potentially offering new avenues to prevent and treat the disease. (forbes.com)
  • Orally bioavailable and with a long history of safe human use, these cannabinoids, isolated or in hemp extracts, have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2," the researchers wrote in an abstract of the study. (forbes.com)
  • They have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2. (forbes.com)
  • An antiparasitic drug such as albendazole is used to treat the infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This can create a problem when you have a more serious infection. (bcm.edu)
  • All 4 genera cause serious CNS or ocular infections. (medscape.com)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ocular infection: a 10-year hospital-based study. (medscape.com)
  • This condition occurs when fluid builds up in the middle ear without causing an infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Although most infected hens have been found in the northeastern United States, the infection also occurs in hens in other areas of the country. (cdc.gov)
  • Norovirus infection occurs most frequently in closed and crowded environments. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Women who develop an active CMV infection during pregnancy can pass the virus to their babies, who might then experience symptoms. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Increased resource use associated with catheter-related bloodstream infection in the surgical intensive care unit. (cdc.gov)
  • Surgical site infection in English hospitals: a national surveillance and quality improvement program. (medscape.com)
  • The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization, and extra costs. (medscape.com)