RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sense of Coherence: A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.RNA Virus InfectionsInsect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Orthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).RNA, Transfer, His: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Untranslated Regions: The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Bacteriophage phi 6: Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
... positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. When inhaled, virus will attach to glycoprotein receptors containing sialic acid on ... There is also evidence that IBV can infect other avian species. IBV affects the performance of both meat producing and egg ... de Vries, A.A.F.; Horzinek, M.C.; Rottier, P.J.M.; de Groot., R.J. (1997). "The genome organisation of the Nidovirales: ... Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA Veterinary virology Casais, R.; Thiel, V.; Siddell, S.G.; Cavanagh, D.; Britton, P. (2001). " ...
The genome of viruses from this family is unsegmented, -RT, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA and is 4200-9700 nucleotides ... Pseudoviridae is classified under group VI RNA Reverse Transcribing Viruses and infect fungi and invertebrates. Pseudoviridae ... The genome integrates into the host genome and gets transcribed by host cell enzymes such as eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerase ... The genome encodes structural proteins and non-structural proteins which codes for an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, replicase, ...
They are small RNA viruses with linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes that encode only four proteins. All phages ... of this family require bacterial pili to attach to and infect cells. The family has two genera, both of which currently have ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Bollback, JP; Huelsenbeck, JP (February 2001). "Phylogeny, genome evolution, and host specificity of single-stranded RNA ...
The viral genome is a single stranded, linear, positive-sense RNA molecule of around 8000 nucleotides. From 5' to 3' (typically ... Some MLVs may infect other vertebrates. MLVs include both exogenous and endogenous viruses. Replicating MLVs have a positive ... sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) genome that replicates through a DNA intermediate via the process of reverse transcription. ... The genome includes a conserved RNA structural element called a core encapsidation signal that directs packaging of RNA into ...
The Getah virus has a positive-sense single stranded RNA genome. According to Baltimore Classification System, this virus is in ... It has been known to infect pigs but more commonly affects horses. The virus was isolated near rubber plantations; the word ... Once the horse is infected, supportive therapy is the only treatment available. Horses usually make a full recovery after 1 to ...
The Orsay virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. It resembles ... Orsay virus has a (+)ssRNA genome consisting of two segments, termed RNA1 and RNA2. The RNA1 segment encodes an RNA-dependent ... The lysate of infected nematodes was added to healthy nematodes, which led to infection. Since for the lysate a filter was used ... Guo, Y.R., et al., Crystal structure of a nematode-infecting virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014. 111( ...
... (PMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA viral pathogen that infects plant species in the Panicoid ... PMV itself has a genome of 4,326 nucleotides, encapsulated into 30-nm particles by a capsid protein of 26 kDa. PMV was placed ... Members of Tombusviridae are transmitted as positive sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses, with an icosohedral ... It was originally noted to infect switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and was observed infecting St. Augustine Grass (Stenotaphrum ...
... have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes. So far there is only one true example of a single-stranded DNA ( ... genomes. To be a true mycovirus, they must demonstrate an ability to be transmitted - in other words be able to infect other ... genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) ... Yu, H. J.; Lim, D.; Lee, H. S. (2003). "Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA mycovirus in Pleurotus ostreatus". ...
TuMV is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, consisting of a non-enveloped, helical capsid that is filamentous and ... The TuMV genome is linear and monopartite (single particle). The virus has a thermal inactivation point (TIP) of 62°C, and ... Infected plants, especially the natural hosts, show symptoms such as chlorotic local lesions, mosaic, mottling, puckering or ...
CiLV-C has a bipartite, positive-sense, single stranded, RNA ((+)ssRNA) genome. Both RNAs had 3'-terminal poly(A) tails. CiLV-C ... Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type (CiLV-N) is found in the nuclei and cytoplasm of infected cells, while Citrus leprosis virus ... The CiLV-N genome is a bipartite, negative-sense, single stranded RNA ((-)ssRNA). Both RNAs have 3'-terminal poly(A) tails. ... Both RNAs also had 3'-terminal poly(A) tails. The structure of the CiLV-C2 genome closely resembles the genome organization of ...
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli ... The positive-stranded RNA genome serves as messenger RNA, and is translated upon viral uncoating within the host cell. Although ... The MS2 genome is one of the smallest known, consisting of 3569 nucleotides of single-stranded RNA. It encodes just four ... Replication of the plus-strand MS2 genome requires synthesis of the complementary minus strand RNA, which can then be used as a ...
... have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses able to infect various vertebrates such as ... The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single positive sense strand RNA. The total genome ... with cleavage at the P2/3 junction influencing RNA template use during genome replication. This site is located at the base of ... one-third of the genome. There are two open reading frames (ORF's) in the genome, non-structural and structural. The first is ...
... is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with the genome length of about 9,800 nucleotides. Its genomic ... It usually infects people who are already infected by HCV and has the prevalence of about 1-2% in such persons. Its prevalence ... It produces a single polyprotein translated from a single open reading frame, which is then cleaved by the viral protease into ... HPgV-2 was later independently discovered by another group in the blood of a HCV infected patient who had undergone multiple ...
... has a positive sense single-stranded RNA genome. The genome consists of a single open reading frame that is ... There is also at least one virus in this genus that infects horses. Several additional viruses in the genus have been described ... The negative strand RNA then serves as a template for the production of new positive strand viral genomes. Nascent genomes can ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family ...
WNV is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. Its genome is approximately 11,000 nucleotides long and is flanked by 5' ... "Fatal neurologic disease and abortion in mare infected with lineage 1 West Nile virus, South Africa". Emerging Infect. Dis. 17 ... the negative-sense strand serves as a template for synthesis of the final positive-sense RNA. Once the positive-sense RNA has ... Translation of the positive-sense single-stranded RNA occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum; the RNA is translated into a ...
They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of zoonotic origin. The coronavirus genera are each composed of ... As of May 2013, GenBank has 46 published complete genomes of the α-(group 1), β-(group 2), γ-(group 3), and δ-(group 4) CoVs. ... MERS-CoV is the first betacoronavirus belonging to lineage C that is known to infect humans. The alpha- and beta-coronavirus ... coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus OC43 MERS-CoV Pipistrellus Bat coronavirus HKU5 RNA virus SARS-CoV Positive/negative-sense ...
Pestiviruses have a single stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes. They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral ... Rhabdoviruses are a diverse family of single stranded, negative sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, from ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. They infect ... double-stranded RNA virus. The genome is segmented. Circoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses. There are to genera: ...
Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Upon entry into the target cell, the ... viral RNA genome is converted (reverse transcribed) into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded reverse transcriptase that is ... In the cell-free spread, virus particles bud from an infected T cell, enter the blood/extracellular fluid and then infect ... Alternatively, the virus may be transcribed, producing new RNA genomes and viral proteins that are packaged and released from ...
The positive sense single-stranded RNA genome is packaged in the capsid which is formed by the capsid protein. The outer ... Recently whole genome microarray research of neurons infected with the Japanese Encephalitis virus has shown that neurons play ... Once infected there is no specific treatment, with care being supportive. This is generally carried out in hospital. Permanent ... The genome also encodes several nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2a, NS2b, NS3, N4a, NS4b, NS5). NS1 is produced as secretory ...
These viruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect plant cells, in which RNA silencing forms a widespread ... The open reading frame encoding p19 was originally discovered in the late 1980s when the virus's genome was sequenced; it was ... to 21-nucleotide double-stranded RNAs that function as small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the RNA silencing system. By ... The p19 protein binds to double-stranded RNAs that function as short interfering RNA (siRNA) and is specialized for the 21- ...
The genome consists of two strands, a longer negative-sense strand and a shorter and positive-sense strand of variable length. ... Genome[edit]. Hepadnaviruses have very small genomes of partially double-stranded, partially single stranded circular DNA. ... Inside this capsid the genome is converted from RNA to pdsDNA through activity of the polymerase as an RNA-dependent-DNA- ... These new virions either leave the cell to infect others or are immediately dismantled so the new viral genomes can enter the ...
LDV has a genome that consists of single stranded positive sense RNA that is 14.1kb long. The genome is dominated by two large ... This is the theory for spread of virus in feral or wild mice which have been found to be infected in Europe, America, and ... The arteriviridae infect macrophages in animals and cause a variety of diseases. LDV specifically causes lifelong persistent ... Studies with male mice have shown that they seldom transmit the virus; however, when an infected male fathers a litter with an ...
This virus has positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. A short region (190 base pairs) in the viral genome was identified ... As part of the viral life cycle, within the infected cell, the viral genome becomes associated with viral proteins and ... Narayanan K, Makino S (2001). "Cooperation of an RNA packaging signal and a viral envelope protein in coronavirus RNA packaging ... Other RNA families identified in the coronavirus include the SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE), the coronavirus ...
... (DcPV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus of insects, in the picorna-like ... It asymptomatically infects the parasitic braconid wasp, Dinocampus coccinellae, and has been proposed to be associated with ... Within the family Iflaviridae, the DcPV genome is most closely related to Venturia canescens picorna-like virus and Nasonia ... DcPV's 10,138 nucleotide linear RNA has a single large open reading frame, predicted to encode a 3007 residue polyprotein with ...
Known leviviruses infect enterobacteria. Phage with RNA genomes are relatively rare and poorly understood, with only one other ... A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its ... Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. The positive- ... Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus Double-stranded RNA virus Baltimore classification Sense (molecular biology) Baltimore ...
The positive-sense, single-stranded RNA is around 11,000 nucleotides long and has a single open reading frame encoding a ... The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific ... The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by ... "An RNA Pseudoknot Is Required for Production of Yellow Fever Virus Subgenomic RNA by the Host Nuclease XRN1". Journal of ...
Host: Virus infects vertebrates and invertebrates. Genome: RNA. Single stranded. Linear; genomic nucleic acid positive sense. ... Genome monopartite. Total genome 7900 nucleotides long. 5 terminus has a genome-linked protein (VPg). 3 terminus has a poly ( ... Viral Diseases - Virus Names - Virus Families - Virus Hosts - Viruses By Genome Type Big Picture Book of Viruses - FAQ - Submit ... Morphology: Distinct viral structures visible in thin sections of infected tissue; virions not enveloped. Capsids isometric. ...
Host: Virus infects vertebrates. Genome: RNA. Single stranded. Linear; genomic nucleic acid mostly negative sense, or positive ... sense (template strands occur). Genome monopartite. Total genome 15200-15900 nucleotides long. Morphology: Virions enveloped; ... Viral Diseases - Virus Names - Virus Families - Virus Hosts - Viruses By Genome Type Big Picture Book of Viruses - FAQ - Submit ...
Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA viral pathogen that infects plant species in the Panicoid ... PMV itself has a genome of 4,326 nucleotides, encapsulated into 30-nm particles by a capsid protein of 26 kDa. PMV was placed ... Members of Tombusviridae are transmitted as positive sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses, with an icosohedral ... It was originally noted to infect switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and was observed infecting St. Augustine Grass (Stenotaphrum ...
Bacteria can acquire an accessory genome through the horizontal transfer of genetic elements from non-parental lineages. This ... The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.. Advertisement Quick Links. Advanced Search , Login , ... A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. ... genome of the multi-. drug resistant ocular isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA34.". Bacteria can acquire an accessory genome ...
Although the virus has been controlled in all of these normally FMD-free or sporadically infected countries, it appears to be ... FMDV has a genome consisting of a single strand of positive-sense RNA. Consequently, the virus has a high mutation rate and may ... Molecular analysis of foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses isolated in Saudi Arabia between 1983 and 1995. Epidemiol Infect. ... This RNA (5 μL) was used as the template in a 1-step RT-PCR (Ready-To-Go RT-PCR Beads; Amersham Pharmacia Biosciences, Chalfont ...
The enveloped virus contains a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry of ∼120 nm. ... Viruses harbored by bats and rodents, considered high-risk reservoirs, are no more likely to infect humans than viruses carried ... SARS-Cov-2 RNA found on particulate matter of Bergamo in Northern Italy: First preliminary evidence. Environ. Res., doi:10.1016 ... Recent measurements identified SARS-Cov-2 RNA on aerosols in Wuhans hospitals (18) and outdoor in northern Italy (21), ...
The family Caliciviridae includes viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 7.4-8.3 kb. The most clinically ... members of two genera infect birds (Bavovirus and Nacovirus), and members of two genera infect fish (Minovirus and Salovirus). ... were sputum culture-positive, 12/54 (22.2%) blood-culture positive, and 53/156 (34.0%) LAM-positive. Thus, LAM sensitivity was ... Four (6.8%) females with available HBV testing were HBsAg-positive, all aged 23-29 years. Sixteen (16, 84.2%) HBsAg-positive ...
Coronaviruses contain a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome ((+) ssRNA). The most well-known member of this virus family ... Virus particles are seen inside vacuoles in the cytoplasm of this infected cell. ...
... have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes. So far there is only one true example of a single-stranded DNA ( ... genomes. To be a true mycovirus, they must demonstrate an ability to be transmitted - in other words be able to infect other ... genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) ... Yu, H. J.; Lim, D.; Lee, H. S. (2003). "Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA mycovirus in Pleurotus ostreatus". ...
... a virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of 7.4 kb. The single serotype of RHDV is divided into 2 subtypes, ... Two routes of infection were used: 2 adult and 2 kits were infected subcutaneously, and 1 adult and 1 kit were infected ... Reverse transcription PCR was performed by using RNA extracted from 20 mg of liver samples using the mini RNAeasy RNA ... and intestine of infected rabbits. Data for RHDV-N11 antigen detection in the experimentally infected rabbits are shown in ...
The virus contains a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome of approximately 30,000 nucleotides. Four major structural ... SARS-CoV infected more than 8,000 people, with a worldwide mortality rate of 9.6% (8, 20). ... Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal. Biochem. 162:156-159. ... RNA isolation and reverse transcription (RT)-quantitative real-time PCR.Total RNA was isolated from culture cells by acid ...
The Orsay virus is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. It resembles ... Orsay virus has a (+)ssRNA genome consisting of two segments, termed RNA1 and RNA2. The RNA1 segment encodes an RNA-dependent ... The lysate of infected nematodes was added to healthy nematodes, which led to infection. Since for the lysate a filter was used ... Guo, Y.R., et al., Crystal structure of a nematode-infecting virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014. 111( ...
... single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. Infection of humans with Zika virus usually results in a mild illness with symptoms ... Studies involving infected arthropods. In areas where the Zika virus has not been established in the mosquito population, in ... The Brazil Ministry of Health has reported an increased number of people who have been infected with Zika virus who also have ... A USDA Permit is required for the importation of arthropods (infected or uninfected) that could serve as vectors for Zika virus ...
Routine testing is currently recommended only in patients who are most likely to be infected with HCV. ... but most of these persons are asymptomatic and do not know they are infected. To identify them, primary health care ... An estimated 3.9 million Americans are currently infected with HCV, ... 1 The HCV genome is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule approximately 9.5 kilobases (kb) in length. Like other RNA ...
... positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. When inhaled, virus will attach to glycoprotein receptors containing sialic acid on ... There is also evidence that IBV can infect other avian species. IBV affects the performance of both meat producing and egg ... de Vries, A.A.F.; Horzinek, M.C.; Rottier, P.J.M.; de Groot., R.J. (1997). "The genome organisation of the Nidovirales: ... Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA Veterinary virology Casais, R.; Thiel, V.; Siddell, S.G.; Cavanagh, D.; Britton, P. (2001). " ...
... positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses. Upon infection of the target-cell, the viral RNA genome is converted to double-stranded ... HIV-1 is composed of two copies of single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid, which is in turn surrounded by a plasma ... The surrounding tissues that are rich in CD4+ T-cells also become infected, and viral particles accumulate both in infected ... is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system, such as CD4 positive T (CD4+ T) cells, ...
... genome organization, and genome expression (26). The coronavirus genome consists of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ... The Coronaviridae are a large group of RNA-containing viruses that infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian species (22, 29 ... However, as the present study was based on a single isolate and only a relatively small portion of the coronavirus genome (1.5 ... RNA obtained from purified NC99 was amplified in an RT-PCR assay using synthetic primers that were based on N gene sequences of ...
These single-stranded positive-sense (ss(+)) RNA viruses are naturally maintained in a persistent infection of ixodid ticks and ... When we infected ISE6 cells, an Ixodes scapularis embryonic cell line, with Langat virus (LGTV) we observed that the infection ... Analysis of the viral genome at selected time points showed that no defective genomes were generated during LGTV persistence by ... This was in contrast to LGTV persistence in 293T cells in which defective viral genomes are detectable by five weeks of serial ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped virus with a 9.6-kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome. It infects about 185 ... S235- and S238-phosphorylated NS5A colocalized with double-stranded RNA.To dissect functions of NS5A phosphorylated at S222, ... 5A, bottom row)-phosphorylated NS5A distributed throughout the cytoplasm and colocalized with the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ... S235- and S238-phosphorylated NS5A colocalized with double-stranded RNA. Confocal immunofluorescence micrographs of NS5A ...
The bacteriophage MS2 is an icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli.- ... RNA can also be methylated.. RNA genomes Like DNA, RNA can carry genetic information. RNA virus. RNA virus ... Unlike DNA, most RNA molecules are single-stranded. Single-stranded RNA molecules adopt very complex three-dimensional ... Double-stranded RNA. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is RNA with two complementary strands, similar to the DNA found in all cells. ...
... positive-sense and single-stranded ribonucleic acid (ssRNA). Their genome size ranges from 26 to 32 kb, being the largest known ... This is an enveloped, positive-sense RNA virus with four main structural proteins, including spike (S) and membrane (M) ... Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of bovel Coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 382, 1199-1207 (2020). ... These structural proteins are crucial for RNA synthesis by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRP) in order to replicate the ...
The genome consists of a positive sense single strand of RNA encoding a varying array of structural proteins. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. Astroviruses belong ... Astrovirus has a non-segmented, single stranded, positive sense RNA genome within a non-enveloped icosahedral capsid.. Human ... that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small ...
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a small, enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (+ssRNA; the genome ... IgG1-positive (IgG1+), IgG3/5-positive (IgG3/5+), and IgG4/7-positive (IgG4/7+) plasma cells (Fig. 6 and 7). IgA+ plasma cells ... A positive/negative ratio (PNR) was then calculated for each sample, as follows: PNR = (mean OD for positive capture of the ... positive capture) or a gradient-purified protein preparation derived from mock-infected EECs (negative capture) at a ...
... complementary to a viral target sequence which spans the AUG start site of the first open reading frame of the viral genome. ... Genome 30 is a single linear molecule of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of approximately 11.7 kb, which is infectious. The ... single-stranded, positive sense RNA viruses can be achieved by exposing cells infected with the virus to antisense compounds (i ... The genome is a single molecule of infectious, single stranded, positive sense RNA of approximately 7.5 kb. As shown, the ...
Hypoviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA mycovirus that infect filamentous fungi. However, hypoviruses have not been ... The complete genome sequence of a novel hypovirus infecting Bipolaris oryzae. Li, Qin; Huang, Wanqin; Hai, Du; Wang, Yong; Xie ... The complete genome of BoHV1 consists of 13,596 nucleotides and a poly(A) tail at the 3 end. BoHV1 has single open reading ... positive Chinese patients. METHODS: A total of 605 HBeAg-positive Chinese CHB patients were screened and 590 eligible ...
  • Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A total of 38 genes were assayed by RT-qPCR and the correlation coefficients between Gfold and RT-qPCR were 0.82, 0.69, 0.81 for sweet orange plants infected with CTV-B2, CTV-B6 and CaLas-B232, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, genes within a genome have not all followed the same evolutionary path due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication and deletion, or recombination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human genome alone contains hundreds of thousands of HERVs (Human ERVs), outnumbering our genes. (asmblog.org)
  • HEV infections can also become chronic in immunocompromised patients, such as recipients of solid-organ transplants ( 8 - 10 ), those with hematologic diseases ( 11 , 12 ), and patients infected with HIV ( 13 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Patients infected with HCV mount an immune response to sites on the virus (epitopes) to which specific antibodies can bind. (aafp.org)
  • AGE patients infected with the GII.P17/GII.17 genotypes almost all had abdominal pain and watery stools. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, serum specimens from patients infected with either Powassan virus or La Crosse encephalitis virus were used to evaluate the cross-reactivity of seven mosquito-borne viral antigens. (asm.org)
  • The number of patients infected was small at first, but it increased substantially in the months before the detection of the outbreak. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large proportion of patients infected by HCV develop liver cirrhosis or cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • As per the screening test design and the positive prototype test results, patients infected with COVID-19 are expected to activate the COVID-19 probes and the universal coronavirus probes," XPhyto stated. (straight.com)
  • Patients infected with an alternate coronavirus strain or a highly mutated form of COVID-19 are expected to activate only the universal coronavirus probes. (straight.com)
  • The viral RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes in a specialized convoluted structure called "membranous web" derived from the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum [ 10 - 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This means that many errors, or mutations, occur when the RNA is copied to create new viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • The disease continues to cause huge economic losses (estimated at around US$10,000,000,000 per year) on a global basis 1 and can cause losses of this magnitude in a single country when incursions occur into a state that is normally FMD free (eg, in the UK in 2001). (dovepress.com)
  • Human-to-human transmission can occur via infected breast milk, organ transplantation, blood transfusion, and via vertical transmission (from mother to child during pregnancy) ( 11 ) . (canada.ca)
  • Like most IRESs, the RhPV IG-IRES, facilitates the cap-independent translation of viral RNAs and allows ribosomes to initiate translation from within rather than from the terminus of the RNA. (usda.gov)