T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Lymphocyte Cooperation: T-cell enhancement of the B-cell response to thymic-dependent antigens.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred BALB CReceptors, CXCR5: CXCR receptors isolated initially from BURKITT LYMPHOMA cells. CXCR5 receptors are expressed on mature, recirculating B-LYMPHOCYTES and are specific for CHEMOKINE CXCL13.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Protein: A costimulatory receptor that is specific for INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR LIGAND. The receptor is associated with a diverse array of immunologically-related effects including the increased synthesis of INTERLEUKIN 10 in REGULATORY T-LYMPHOCYTES and the induction of PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.HemocyaninMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Cell SeparationMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Mice, Inbred C3HHistocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.HLA-DR5 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Mice, Inbred AHybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Mice, Inbred AKRLymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mice, Inbred CBAMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mice, Inbred DBALeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Receptors, OX40: A tumor necrosis family receptor with specificity for OX40 LIGAND. It is found on the surface of activated T-LYMPHOCYTES where it plays a role in enhancing cytokine production and proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Interleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Dinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6: A DNA-binding protein that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target genes by recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES. Aberrant Blc-6 expression is associated with certain types of human B-CELL LYMPHOMA.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.STAT6 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Inducible T-Cell Co-Stimulator Ligand: A B7 antigen that binds specifically to INDUCIBLE T-CELL CO-STIMULATOR PROTEIN on T-CELLS. It provides a costimulatory signal for T-cell proliferation and cytokine secretion.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Clonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Receptors, Interleukin: Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.
Use of HeLa cells in parvovirus testing. Testing for how feline parvovirus and canine parvovirus infect cells and what ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... mouse cells, cat and mouse hybrid cells, mink cells, dog cells, human cells, and HeLa cells. Both feline parvovirus and ... Parvovirus infects the oropharyngeal cells that come in immediate contact with the virus. It contains a plasmid that infects ...
... in order to avail for the virus to spread to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one. It is believed that the ... Trowsdale J, Betz AG (March 2006). "Mother's little helpers: mechanisms of maternal-fetal tolerance". Nat. Immunol. 7 (3): 241- ... Natural killer cells misinterpret the fetal cells as cancer cells and attack them. An individual that presents with ... These phospholipids are essential in the aiding the cells of the fetus to remain attached to the cells of the uterus with ...
... granzyme H helps granzyme B kill adenovirus-infected cells". Trends Immunol. 28 (9): 373-5. doi:10.1016/j.it.2007.08.001. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: GZMH granzyme H (cathepsin G-like 2, protein h-CCPX)". Waterhouse NJ, Trapani JA (2007). "H is for helper: ... Edwards KM, Kam CM, Powers JC, Trapani JA (1999). "The human cytotoxic T cell granule serine protease granzyme H has ... Johnson H, Scorrano L, Korsmeyer SJ, Ley TJ (2003). "Cell death induced by granzyme C". Blood. 101 (8): 3093-101. doi:10.1182/ ...
Some examples of pyroptosis include salmonella-infected macrophages and abortively HIV-infected T helper cells. The initiation ... First Line of the Immune Response to Cell Stress". Cell Press. 126 (4): 659-662. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.08.002. G. Fantuzzi & ... Cell lysis occurs upon the formation of pores, of an estimated diameter of 1.1-2.4 nm, in the cell membrane, which disrupts the ... In a healthy cell, caspase-1 activation helps to fight infection caused by Salmonella and Shigella via introducing cell death ...
HIV directly infects a small number of T helper cells, and also impairs other immune system responses indirectly. ... T cell deficiency, often causes secondary disorders such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... Medscape , T-cell Disorders. Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD. Updated: May 16, 2011 ... This includes many types of cancer, particularly those of the bone marrow and blood cells (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma ...
Waterhouse NJ (2007). "H is for helper: granzyme H helps granzyme B kill adenovirus-infected cells". Trends Immunol. 28 (9): ... Granzyme B is secreted by regulatory T cells to kill CD4+ T cells that have not been exposed to host cells that are restricted ... NK cells) and cytotoxic T cells. It is secreted by these cells along with the pore forming protein perforin to mediate ... It is produced by many types of cell to protect themselves from accidental granzyme B mediated cell death. PI-9 is metastable ...
Defective interfering RNA (DI) molecules are RNAs that are produced from the viral genome but are not competent to infect cells ... on their own; instead they require coinfection with an intact "helper" virus. TBSV infections often produce significant numbers ... The p22 protein is a movement protein that is required for the virus to spread from cell to cell. P22 is an RNA-binding protein ... Both proteins are associated with cell membranes. p41 (capsid protein). The viral capsid protein CP, or p41, is a ...
Once oropharyngeal cells become infected the virus spreads to dividing lymph cells and continues to work to the bone marrow and ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... scientists used cat cells, mouse cells, cat and mouse hybrid cells, mink cells, dog cells, human cells, and HeLa cells. Both ... Parvovirus infects the oropharyngeal cells that come in immediate contact with the virus. It contains a plasmid that infects ...
Lysis of virally infected cells and tumour cells 7% (2-13%) Helper T cells Release cytokines and growth factors that regulate ... T and B cells[change , change source]. T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone cells) are the main cells of the adaptive ... Some T cells, called T helper cells, produce cytokines that direct the immune response. Cytokines signal to other immune cells ... Cytotoxic T cells Lysis of virally infected cells, tumour cells and allografts 19% (13-32%) ...
Phage P4 infects Escherichia coli. It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2- ... The P4 genome can also exist on its own within the host cell and can replicate as a free plasmid. Pruss, G; Goldstein, RN; ... It is a satellite virus, requiring P2-related helper phage to grow lytically. The P4 virion has a tail and an icosohedral head ... related helper phage. It generally follows a lysogenic life cycle: after infection, the P4 genome integrates into that of its ...
Human Immunodeficiency virus uses CCR5 receptor to target and infect host T-cells in humans. It weakens the immune system by ... destroying the CD4+ T-helper cells, making the body more susceptible to other infections. CCR5-Δ32 is an allelic variant of ... This causes cell responses, including the onset of a process known as chemotaxis that traffics the cell to a desired location ... Many in vivo mouse studies have refuted this claim by showing no protective effects of CCR5-Δ32 allele in mice infected with Y ...
HIV directly infects a small number of T helper cells, and also impairs other immune system responses indirectly. Various ... Newer stem cell transplant technologies may lead to gene based treatments of debilitating and fatal genetic immune deficiencies ... T cell deficiency, often causes secondary disorders such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Granulocyte deficiency ... This includes many types of cancer, particularly those of the bone marrow and blood cells (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma ...
The phagemid used to transform E. coli cells may be "rescued" from the selected cells by infecting them with VCS-M13 helper ... The resulting phage particles that are produced contain the single-stranded phagemids and are used to infect XL-1 Blue cells.[2 ... In this set up the bait and prey harboring cells are mated in a random order. After mating and selecting surviving cells on ... coli XL-1 Blue cells which after amplification and infection with VCS-M13 helper phage, will yield a stock of library phage. ...
"Dominant recognition of a Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A peptide by T helper cells in patients with treatment- ... Infect. Immun. 63 (6): 2228-35. PMC 173290 . PMID 7768602. Kamradt T, Lengl-Janssen B, Strauss AF, Bansal G, Steere AC (April ... This outcome has been associated with an immunodominant T cell epitope of outer-surface protein A (OspA) of the spirochete. ... Infect. Immun. 61 (7): 2774-9. PMC 280920 . PMID 7685738. Kalish RA, Leong JM, Steere AC (June 1995). "Early and late antibody ...
HIV can infect a variety of cells such as CD4+ helper T-cells and macrophages that express the CD4 molecule on their surface. ... HIV tropism refers to the cell type that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and replicates in. HIV tropism of a ... HIV-1 entry to macrophages and T helper cells is mediated not only through interaction of the virion envelope glycoproteins ( ... T-tropic isolates, or syncitia-inducing (SI) strains replicate in primary CD4+ T-cells as well as in macrophages and use the ...
A functional and phenotypic assessment of T helper cells in HIV 1 infected patients offers independent prognostic information ... Shearer GM and Clerici M: Early T helper cell defects in HIV infection. AIDS 5: 245 253, 1991. Via CS and Shearer GM. T cell ... Specific T helper cell immunity to HIV 1 envelope peptides in seronegative individuals with recent exposure to HIV 1. J Infect ... in T helper cell dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1). J Clin Invest ...
... the seed is infected in the generative cells and the virus is maintained in the germ cells and sometimes, but less often, in ... The helper component will bind to the specific domain of the coat protein, and then the insect mouthparts - creating a bridge. ... One possibility is that the virus does not infect human cells directly. Instead, the naked viral RNA may alter the function of ... This is derived from the plant cell membrane as the virus particle buds off from the cell. Viruses can be spread by direct ...
... from the host cell and infect other cells.. Of particular interest here is mimivirus, a giant virus that infects amoebae and ... it uses the machinery of a helper virus to reproduce and inhibits reproduction of that helper virus. Sputnik reproduces in ... involves immune cells known as T cells: the body's cells constantly display short fragments of their proteins on the cell's ... eventually it leaves the host cell to infect other cells. The Hershey-Chase experiment in 1952 showed that only DNA and not ...
... s aid B cells to produce antibodies. Important lymphokines secreted by the T helper cell include: ... to an infected site and their subsequent activation to prepare them to mount an immune response. Circulating lymphocytes can ... They are protein mediators typically produced by T cells to direct the immune system response by signaling between its cells. ... Lymphokines are a subset of cytokines that are produced by a type of immune cell known as a lymphocyte. ...
Such a virus can efficiently infect cells but, once the infection has taken place, requires a helper virus to provide the ... of cells are infected without severely affecting cell viability. Furthermore, some viruses integrate into the cell genome ... AAV can infect both dividing and non-dividing cells and may incorporate its genome into that of the host cell. Moreover, AAV ... Cell type specificity: Most viral vectors are engineered to infect as wide a range of cell types as possible. However, ...
HIV infects T-Helper Cells, which leads to a reduction of the adaptive immune response of the host and eventually leads to an ... Typically, these host cell proteins are endocytosed and the bound virus then enters the host cell. Virulent viruses such as HIV ... Often, the host cell receptors for bacteria are essential proteins for other functions. Due to presence of mucous lining and of ... Virulence is a pathogen or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host. In the context of gene for gene systems, often in ...
The infected CD4+ cell may also receive the death signal from a cytotoxic T cell. Cells may also die as direct consequences of ... T helper cells. HIV decreases the production of molecules involved in marking the cell for apoptosis, giving the virus time to ... HeLa cells are an immortalized cancer cell line used frequently in research. The cell line was established by removing cells ... and analyzing the cells of the Sub/G1 cell population. When HeLA cells are infected with OROV, the cytochrome C is released ...
The virus activates a subset of T-helper cells called Th1 cells. The result is a proliferation of Th1 cells and overproduction ... The term viral tropism refers to which cell types HTLV-I infects. Although HTLV-1 is primarily found in CD4+ T cells, other ... including CD8+ T cells, dendritic cells and B cells. HTLV-I entry is mediated through interaction of the surface unit of the ... Like HIV, HTLV-1 predominately infects CD4+ T cells. The viral RNA is packed into the icosahedral capsid which is contained ...
... bacteria that might be infecting a wound or the blood). Class II molecules interact mainly with immune cells, like the T helper ... some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells. These cells are important in initiating immune responses. The ... cell (TCD4+) . The helper T cells then help to trigger an appropriate immune response which may include localized inflammation ... but may also be induced on other cells by interferon γ. MHC class II is also expressed on group 3 innate lymphoid cells. ...
... es make proteinacous inclusions in infected plant cells. These may be crystals in either the cytoplasm or in the ... This is processed into seven smaller proteins: P1, helper component (HC), P3, cylindrical inclusion (CI), nuclear inclusion A ( ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a ... These inclusions can be seen in the light microscope in leaf strips of infected plant tissue stained with Orange-Green (protein ...
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... "Infect. Immun. 61 (7): 2763-2773. eISSN 1098-5522. ISSN 0019-9567. Retrieved 18 June 2017.. ... These cells differentiate into epithelioid cells which wall off the infected cells, but results in significant inflammation and ... Walled off lesion containing macrophages and other cells. Some peripheral neuropathies. Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, ...
The CD4+ T-cell help requires the secretion of interferon-γ and the induction of local chemokine secretion. CD4+ T helper cells ... but rely on the CD4+ T cells to provide the necessary cue. CD4+ T helper cells control the migration of CTL indirectly through ... CD4+ T helper cells are well known for their role in providing critical signals during priming of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte ( ... Here, fully helped effector CTLs are shown to rely on CD4+ T cells to provide the necessary cue for entry into infected tissue ...
Computer simulations illustrate that latently infected cells become rapidly established during the first months of acute ... The population of latently infected cells is of particular interest as they represent the major barrier to a cure of HIV-1 ... such as the the number of virions produced by a single infected cell. The model further allowed investigation of HIV-1 dynamics ... the opportunity for strategies that aim to eradicate the virus during early cART as the pool of HIV-1 infected cells is ...
It will be referred to as RGD helper sequence (RHS). Competitive cell adhesion assays with recombinant wild type CagL and point ... It will be referred to as RGD helper sequence (RHS). Competitive cell adhesion assays with recombinant wild type CagL and point ... which binds to host cell β1 integrin, triggering subsequent delivery of CagA across the host cell membrane. Like the human ... which binds to host cell β1 integrin, triggering subsequent delivery of CagA across the host cell membrane. Like the human ...
J. Infect. Dis. 175, 756-763 (1997). This report confirmed the decades old clinical impression that scarification as a method ... T HELPER 2 CELL (TH2). A type of T cell that, through the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13 and other cytokines, can ... T HELPER 1 CELL (TH1). A type of T cell that, through the production of interferon-γ, interleukin-10 and other cytokines, can ... and resident innate immune cells (Langerhans cells (LCs), dermal dendritic cells (DCs) and mast cells), stimulating downstream ...
J Infect Dis. 2008 Dec 1;198(11):1590-8. doi: 10.1086/593017. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... M. tuberculosis-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells were studied in HIV negative (n=114) and chronically HIV infected (n=68) ... Naïve CD4 T cells (CD27+CD45-) were excluded for analysis of memory CD4 T cells. IFNγ positive memory CD4 T cells were detected ... CD4 T cells within different CD4 T cell subsets for 9 HIV-subjects who were latently infected with MTB. Statistical analysis ...
Recent findings suggested an interleukin-1 axis in the follicular T cell control of B cell responses, implicating interleukin-1 ... Recent findings suggested an interleukin-1 axis in the follicular T cell control of B cell responses, implicating interleukin-1 ... Clin Microbiol Infect. (2018) 24(Suppl. 2):S21-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2018.02.002 ... Antibody production by plasma cells is tightly regulated by follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Help by Tfh cells is essential for ...
Altered B cell subsets, with decreased naïve and resting memory B cells and increased activated and tissue-like memory B cells ... Dysregulation of Tfh-mediated B cell help weakens B cell responses in HIV infection. Moreover, Tfh cells in the lymph node and ... we identified memory pTfh cells, T cell activation markers, and B cell differentiation states using multi-parameter flow ... We examined peripheral Tfh (pTfh) cell frequencies and phenotype in HIV-infected children and their associations with disease ...
4-producing Th2 cells localize to the B cell follicles and exhibit a Tfh cell phenotype in the draining lymph nodes of infected ... T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells that migrate to B cell follicles after activation and promote ... Generation of T follicular helper cells is mediated by interleukin-21 but independent of T helper 1, 2, or 17 cell lineages. ... IL-4Rα−/− B cells (shaded) are shown for comparison. (D and E) mesLN CD19+ cells from H. polygyrus-infected 4get/KN2 and IL-4Rα ...
Th2 cells are, in fact, TFH cells. We find that in mice infected with S. mansoni, or in mice immunized with an extract of ... TFH cells) PD-1− GFP+ CD4+ T cells (Th2 cells) and GFP− CD4+ T cells (Naive T cells) sorted from the same LNs. Real-time RT-PCR ... Generation of T follicular helper cells is mediated by interleukin-21 but independent of T helper 1, 2, or 17 cell lineages. ... 4 A), with few huCD2+ cells in T cell zones (Fig. 4 B). Moreover, most of these cells within B cell follicles were associated ...
The observation that pre-treatment levels of CD4+ and of CD8+ T-cell activation are predictors of the magnitude of Th17 cell ... Results Eight months of cART increased intestinal CD4+ and Th17 cells and reduced levels of T-cell activation and proliferation ... Importantly, the magnitude of Th17 cells reconstitution correlated directly with blood CD4+ T-cell recovery. Conclusion Short- ... Methods This longitudinal single-arm pilot study evaluates CD4+ T cells, including Th1 and Th17, in gut and blood and soluble ...
IMMUNOLOGY • HIV selectively infects T-helper cells • Healthy individual - twice as many helper cells as suppressor cells • It ... Immunological tests • Lymphocyte count falls below 2000/cu mm • T helper cell count will be less than 200/cu mm • T4 : T8 cell ... AIDS • End stage of HIV infection • Tuberculosis and Kaposi sarcoma - seen early • When T helper cells dropped to 100: - ... Once infected, the virus remains in life-long • Risk of developing AIDS increases with time • Symptomless carrier can infect ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Circumvention of defective CD4 T helper cell function in HIV-infected individuals ... Circumvention of defective CD4 T helper cell function in HIV-infected individuals by stimulation with HLA alloantigens. ...
Absolute depression in CD4+ cells of 500 cells/mm3 or less.. *Decreased helper/suppressor ratio of 1.0 or less. ... A Study of Azidothymidine in HIV-Infected Children. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... This complication affects the vast majority of HIV infected children. A previous study of continuous intravenous administration ... This complication affects the vast majority of HIV infected children. A previous study of continuous intravenous administration ...
CD4+ Cell Count and PCP Among HIV-Infected Children Typically, T-helper lymphocyte (CD4+ cell) counts decline as HIV disease ... T helper cell responses in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Pediatr 1991 (in press). 14. Masur H, ... infected children can have marked depletion of CD4+ cells but have values that would fall within the normal range for CD4+ cell ... Among HIV-infected adults, a CD4+ cell count less than 200/mm3 is highly predictive of increased risk for PCP (1,14). Recent ...
What cells does the virus infect? CD4 T-helper cells 39 Describe the progression of HIV? ...
Virology: HCVs little helper. Amoils, Shannon // Nature Reviews Microbiology;Nov2005, Vol. 3 Issue 11, p828 The article ... Home » Negative-Strand Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Anti-HCV--Positive/HIV-Infected ... Negative-Strand Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Anti-HCV--Positive/HIV-Infected Women. ... Dendritic cells (DCs), as unique antigen-presenting cells able to induce a primary immune response, are prime... ...
Interaction within clusters of dendritic cells and helper T cells during initial Th1/Th2 commitment. ... Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005 Jun;5(2):87-93. Review. ... T helper cells and efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b ... Instruction of naive CD4+ T cells by polarized CD4+ T cells within dendritic cell clusters. ... T cell response of I-Aq mice to self type II collagen: meshing of the binding motif of the I-Aq molecule with repetitive ...
Infect Immun 73 : 5039-5047.. * Nagata T, Aoshi T, Uchijima M, Suzuki M, Koide Y, 2004. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and helper T- ... Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development of cell-mediated immunity after vaccination of inbred mice. Infect Immun ... The role of antigen and IL-12 in sustaining Th1 memory cells in vivo: IL-12 is required to maintain memory/effector Th1 cells ... Infect Immun 22 : 298-300.. * Seong SY, Huh MS, Jang WJ, Park SG, Kim JG, Woo SG, Choi MS, Kim IS, Chang WH, 1997. Induction of ...
... infected]? ,Are CD* cells dependant on cytokine factors for viability which may be ,abnormal due to infection of T-helper and ... genome from CD8 cells of HIV-infected individuals using PCR. Also it is known ,that CD8+ve cells isolated from HIV-infected ... My 1st question is 1) Do you believe that CD8+ve cells are infectable by HIV? ,2) How is it that they die by apoptosis [ ... This is not really my area, but does HIV normally access the thymus? If iit does, can it infect DP thymocytes (via CD4)? ...
ELISA antigen was prepared by infecting HEp-2 cells with RSV strain A2 at 1 pfu/cell. When significant cytopathic effect was ... T cells secreting interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 (T helper cell type 2 [Th2] cells) play a detrimental role in a variety of ... T cells but also on mast cells and fibroblasts 42, the knockout mice may not only reflect T helper cell phenotype modulation ... G/RSV-infected mice may indicate IL-4 production by an alternative cell type. CD4+NK1.1+ cells secrete IL-4 but are T1/ST2− 15 ...
T helper cell synonyms, T helper cell pronunciation, T helper cell translation, English dictionary definition of T helper cell ... n. Any of a class of T cells that are activated by interacting with antigen-presenting cells, such as a dendritic cells, and ... helper T cells are infected and killed by the AIDS virus. CD4 cell, CD4 T cell, helper cell ... helper T cell. (redirected from T helper cell). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. helper T cell. n.. Any of a class ...
1998) Cytokine- and T helper-dependent lung mucosal immunity in mice with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. J Infect Dis 178: ... The percentage of IL-17A+ cells within lung CD4+ T cells and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of IL-17A+ cells are indicated ... cells, whereas γδ T cells remained ∼10% of IL-17A+ cells in both strains (Fig. 2A). Systemic blockade of IL-17A in BALB/c mice ... T and γδ T cells represented ∼40% and ∼13% of IL-17A-producing cells, respectively (Fig. 2A). CD4+ T cells became a predominant ...
CTL cells) and the influenza virus infected epithelial cells. Since detailed and definite mechanisms that trigger CTL ... production and cell death are still debatable, we utilize two plausible mathematical models for the CTLs response to influenza ... Mathematical modeling on helper T cells in a tumor immune system. Discrete & Continuous Dynamical Systems - B, 2014, 19 (1) : ... A class of virus dynamic model with inhibitory effect on the growth of uninfected T cells caused by infected T cells and its ...
Helper T cells that become infected with HIV rapidly die. Soon after primary infection, the body is usually able to compensate ... The primary hosts for HIV are the white blood cells variously called helper T lymphocytes, helper T cells, or CD4+ T cells. ... the virus becomes increasingly acute and there is a slow decline of helper T cells. Consequently, the number of helper T cells ... HIV is a relatively complex virus that is able to infect helper T cells chiefly due to a glycoprotein embedded in its envelope ...
Use of HeLa cells in parvovirus testing. Testing for how feline parvovirus and canine parvovirus infect cells and what ... which only work with a helper virus such as adenovirus. Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as ... mouse cells, cat and mouse hybrid cells, mink cells, dog cells, human cells, and HeLa cells. Both feline parvovirus and ... Parvovirus infects the oropharyngeal cells that come in immediate contact with the virus. It contains a plasmid that infects ...
ImmunityVirusesCytokineAntibodiesThymusDestroysAIDSBody'sAntigen-preseBone marrowProteinTumorsDepletionAdaptiveMoleculesPeople infectedSecreteGeneRegulatory T celOrganismAsymptomaticAdenovirusSecretionParasitesStrainsMonocytesMembraneEffectorDestroyOpportunistic infectionsCD40Viral vectorLymphMalignantPathogenPatientsInducesAntigens on the surfaceIndividualsStimulatesMice infected
- Cognate CD4 + T cell licensing of dendritic cells in CD8 + T cell immunity. (nature.com)
- Those on adaptive immunity have been ascribed to a general amplification of T-cell responses ( 6 ) and to modulation of T cell plasticity toward Th17 cell differentiation ( 7 , 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Tuft cells captured the attention of immunologists with recent discoveries linking them to type 2 immunity in the small intestine. (nature.com)
- T cells mediate cell-mediated immunity , an immune reaction that utilizes the ability of T cells to kill other cells without the involvement of antibodies, proteins that can be secreted from or bound to the surface of B cells and recognize antigens. (coursehero.com)
- Whereas N. gonorrhoeae variant A with a terminal N-acetylglucosamine on its LOS was recognized by DC-SIGN and induced significantly more IL-10 production, phenotype C, carrying a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, primarily interacted with MGL and skewed immunity towards the T helper 2 lineage. (biomedsearch.com)
- The events set into motion when a patrolling naïve T-cell encounters an antigen that fits its TCR are key to understanding immunity. (thebody.com)
- The cells producing the antibody "remember" the infection and provide long-lasting immunity to it. (primaryimmune.org)
- Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize foreign structures of different pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, via a variety of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expressed on their cell surface and thereby activate and regulate immunity. (jove.com)
- Protection against all forms of leishmaniasis is dependent on cell-mediated immunity (CMI), but the contribution of some cells and cytokines in human disease deserves further scrutiny. (scielo.br)
- CD8 + T cells are major contributors to cell-mediated immunity to virally infected cells and tumors. (sciencemag.org)
- It is probably associated to the possibility that the innate immunity may clear the infection before the induction of the acquired T-cell response [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In order to achieve sustained protective immunity against AIDS, a vaccination strategy inducing a balanced immune response without an increase of CD4+ T helper cells must be developed ( Journal of Virology ). (eurekalert.org)
- Other viruses that can infect without helper viruses are called as autonomous parvoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
- Because the viruses require actively dividing cells to replicate, the type of tissue infected varies with the age of the animal. (wikipedia.org)
- Dependoviruses require helper viruses (e.g. herpesviruses) to replicate. (wikipedia.org)
- These include cytotoxic T cells (CD8+ T cells), whose functions include destroying cells infected by viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
- Viruses can be found either inside a cell (intracellular) or outside of a cell (extracellular). (omninoggin.com)
- Some viruses only affect a certain kind of host, animal, plant etc, and kind of cells within that host. (omninoggin.com)
- Some viruses infect a variety of cells in different hosts, like rabies. (omninoggin.com)
- Although viruses lack cell membrane, some viruses have a viral membrane surrounding its capsid. (omninoggin.com)
- Normally, when bacteria or viruses enter the body, some of the B cells will change into plasma cells. (oncolink.org)
- The immune system is a network of cells, organs and proteins that work together to defend and protect the body from potentially harmful, infectious microorganisms (microscopic life-forms), such as bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. (healthcentral.com)
- B cells secrete antibodies (proteins) into the body's fluids to ambush and attack antigens (foreign proteins such as bacteria, viruses or fungi). (healthcentral.com)
- Gradually, over many years or even decades, as the T cells become progressively destroyed or inactivated, other viruses, parasites or cancer cells (called 'opportunistic diseases') which would not have been able to get past a healthy body's defense, can multiply within the body without fear of destruction. (healthcentral.com)
- In order to successfully reproduce in infected cells, both viruses also require two regulatory proteins, known as Tat and Rev. The researchers gene therapy is designed to attack the RNA molecule that SIV uses to make the essential Tat and Rev proteins. (nih.gov)
- Many viruses contain double stranded RNAs and cells have developed mechanisms for destroying these double-stranded RNAs. (nih.gov)
- The treated monkeys had significantly fewer viruses in both their blood and their lymph nodes, no decrease in number of CD4 cells, and little disruption of the structure of their lymph nodes. (nih.gov)
- Viruses are not classified as living organisms, since they cannot grow and reproduce on their own, but rely on a host cell to make copies of themselves. (encyclopedia.com)
- Viruses have evolved a way of encapsulating and delivering their genes to human cells in a pathogenic manner. (scribd.com)
- Similarly, T-cells can remember viruses that the body has encountered and can make a more vigorous response when they encounter the same virus again. (primaryimmune.org)
- Viruses lack the chemical machinery that human cells use to support life. (howstuffworks.com)
- Viruses, including HIV, don't have cell walls or a nucleus. (howstuffworks.com)
- Like all viruses, HIV replicates inside host cells. (howstuffworks.com)
- If they are infected by EBV, the virus induces the cells to proliferate and thus to expand the reservoir of viruses. (eurekalert.org)
- They protect the organism from tumours and from cells infected by viruses . (wikipedia.org)
- B cells respond to pathogens by producing large numbers of antibodies which then destroy foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. (wikipedia.org)
- If they encounter a cell infected by viruses, they bind to it and secrete substances that ensure that the target cell dies. (innovations-report.com)
- Killer T-cells are able to find the cells with viruses and destroy them. (asu.edu)
- Cytotoxins go directly inside the cell through this pore, destroying it and any viruses inside. (asu.edu)
- Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them. (wikipedia.org)
- M. tuberculosis-specific T helper 1 (Th1) cells were studied in HIV negative (n=114) and chronically HIV infected (n=68) Tanzanian subjects by using early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT6) protein or tuberculin (purified protein derivative) with interferon-gamma ELISPOT and intracellular cytokine staining. (nih.gov)
- Shown are representative dot plots from one study participant for the detection of IFNγ (x axis) and activation marker CD69 within the CD4 T cell (left panels) and CD8 T cell (right panels) subsets after 6 hour stimulation of whole blood and intracellular cytokine staining for IFNγ. (nih.gov)
- However, in other cases, TFH cells have been shown to make the Th2 signature cytokine IL-4 ( 5 - 7 ), and it is thus possible that a relationship exists between Th2 and TFH cells. (rupress.org)
- IL-18 is a recently described cytokine capable of promoting T cell interferon (IFN)-γ production and facilitating Th1 cell polarisation. (bmj.com)
- A cell-intrinsic checkpoint restricts type 2 cytokine production by ILC2s and T H 2 cells at sites of tissue damage. (nature.com)
- We show that targeting of different C-type lectins with the N. gonorrhoeae LOS variants results in alterations in dendritic cell cytokine secretion profiles and the induction of distinct adaptive CD4(+) T helper responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- On the other hand, when the transgene is an immunostimulatory cytokine, the antitumor effect will be enhanced if the vector is able to induce apoptosis in the neoplastic cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Each cytokine regulates a different set of cells, suppressing the growth of some and stimulating the growth of others. (diagnose-me.com)
- now find that without both factors, CD8 + T cells fail to develop their normal cell-mediated functions and instead secrete the inflammatory cytokine IL-17, which has been characterized recently in helper T cells. (sciencemag.org)
- Intestinal protozoa and helminths induce polarizing CD4 + T-helper cell 1 (Th1) mediated cytokine responses within the host. (ajtmh.org)
- The current study evaluated the plasma cytokine profile in Ascaris and Giardia coinfected children compared with Giardia - and Ascaris -only infected children. (ajtmh.org)
- Vaccines work by exposing the body to the disease-causing agent or a fragment of it, which primes the immune system to produce a flood of antibodies that stick to the infecting organism and block it from entering cells. (scientificamerican.com)
- B Cells transform into plasma cells which secrete antibodies. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- As the number of multiple myeloma cells increases, more antibodies are made. (oncolink.org)
- Follicular T helper (TFH) cells fuel B cells to produce antibodies, which can be useful in fighting infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- But in lupus, TFH fuel B cells that produce dangerous antibodies that attack normal tissues (autoantibodies). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- each B cell makes antibodies that attack specific microbes. (poz.com)
- Helper T cells (also called CD4 T-cells) support them and also ensure the production of antibodies against the virus. (eurekalert.org)
- These antigens cause T-cells to become active and produce antibodies . (diagnose-me.com)
- These antibodies stay attached to the cell that created them and the whole antibody-bearing cell attacks the antigens. (diagnose-me.com)
- T cell specificity is determined in the thymus, an immune organ that is specialized for the production of T cells. (coursehero.com)
- In the thymus, T cells undergo both positive and negative selection. (coursehero.com)
- T cells must be able to engage with MHC-expressing cells in the thymus and receive a positive signal that allows their survival through the complete differentiation process. (coursehero.com)
- CD4 + T cells have TCRs with an affinity for Class II MHC , and CD4 is involved in determining MHC affinity during maturation in the thymus . (wikipedia.org)
- Both the TCR and CD4 or CD8 marker are acquired by T-cells in an organ called the thymus, located just behind your breastbone. (thebody.com)
- The thymus churns out billions of T-cells during childhood, but production slows in adulthood. (thebody.com)
- In a typical 20 year old, the thymus is thought to produce about 6 billion or so new T-cells each day. (thebody.com)
- When a new T-cell leaves the thymus, equipped with a freshly generated TCR, it is called a naïve T-cell. (thebody.com)
- T cells are in the thymus and account for about 40 to 75 percent of this white blood cell. (reference.com)
- The bone marrow and thymus represent training grounds for two cells of the immune system (B-cells and T-cells, respectively). (primaryimmune.org)
- When a T-cell leaves the thymus , it goes on the prowl for its enemy. (diagnose-me.com)
- RT-PCR did not amplify transcript from thymus, spleen, or peritoneal macrophage cells of homozygous mutant mice. (jax.org)
- T cells (thymus cells) and B cells (bone cells) are the main cells of the adaptive immune response . (wikipedia.org)
- The name T-cell comes from the organ where they mature, the thymus. (asu.edu)
- Most T-cells are made when you're young, so kids have a bigger thymus than adults. (asu.edu)
- HIV infects so-called helper T cells, which regulate the immune response, and slowly destroys them. (scientificamerican.com)
- Since HIV infects the helper cells first and destroys them, the body's natural immune system is eventually worn down and weakened. (encyclopedia.com)
- a T cell that directly kills infected cells by releasing chemicals that destroys them. (poz.com)
- Specifically, the virus destroys lymphocyte "T-Helper" cells. (unf.edu)
- While the transport of interferon-gamma is disturbed in the absence of Sortilin, the transport of granzyme A, which destroys diseased cells directly, is more effective. (innovations-report.com)
- After a Killer T-cell finds and destroys an infected cell, this Helper T-cell message tells it to copy itself, making an army of Killer T-cells. (asu.edu)
- At that time, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS had infected some 25 million people worldwide. (scientificamerican.com)
- Their work, which is being published in the February, 1998 issue of Nature Medicine, is may eventually benefit patients infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (nih.gov)
- The drugs work by interrupting the way the AIDS virus uses a healthy cell to make copies of itself. (encyclopedia.com)
- The AIDS virus has a favorite cell that it first attacks. (encyclopedia.com)
- HIV will slowly reduce the number of T-cells until the person develops AIDS. (howstuffworks.com)
- The continual destruction of immune system cells and the body's inability to fight pathogens and microorganisms eventually leads to the condition known as AIDS. (unf.edu)
- One T-cell may be subtly altered so that it responds to the polio virus, another to hepatitis-B, a third to the AIDS virus, and so on. (diagnose-me.com)
- The latter occur as opportunistic pathogens especially in immunocompromised patients like transplant recipients or human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals with advanced AIDS symptoms. (asm.org)
- A CD4+ cell count of fewer than 200 cells/mcL indicates acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a high risk for opportunistic infections. (wellspan.org)
- In fact, HIV-infected patients on a modern drug regimen can nowadays apparently look forward to a normal lifespan, provided the HIV condition is not allowed to deteriorate to AIDS. (motherearthnews.com)
- This is the body's way of ensuring that its T-cells are ready for anything. (thebody.com)
- They also work to stop the body's other white blood cells from fighting against good substances in the body, such as good gastrointestinal flora. (reference.com)
- T-helper cells play a vital role in the body's immune response. (howstuffworks.com)
- 2) Once in the body, the virus attacks cells of the immune system responsible for controlling the body's defenses. (unf.edu)
- Since SIV and HIV mainly replicate in the body's own activated CD4+ T helper cells that are critical for the immune defense, it is crucial that their level remains relatively low even after vaccination. (eurekalert.org)
- In order for the body's immune system to trigger an optimal immune response, CD4+ T helper cells are needed. (eurekalert.org)
- It binds to CD40 on antigen-presenting cells (APC), which leads to many effects depending on the target cell type. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigen-presenting cells are vital for effective adaptive immune response, as the functioning of both cytotoxic and helper T cells is dependent on APCs. (wikipedia.org)
- Antigen-presenting cells fall into two categories: professional and non-professional. (wikipedia.org)
- Those that express MHC class II molecules along with co-stimulatory molecules and pattern recognition receptors are often called professional antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
- T cells begin their life cycle in the bone marrow, where, like B cells, they are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. (coursehero.com)
- In humans, bone marrow in large bones produces new blood cells. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- Tests that examine the blood, bone marrow, and urine are used to detect (find) and diagnose multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. (oncolink.org)
- Multiple myeloma cells are abnormal plasma cells (a type of white blood cell) that build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in many bones of the body. (oncolink.org)
- This can cause the blood to thicken and keep the bone marrow from making enough healthy blood cells. (oncolink.org)
- In this type of plasma cell neoplasm , less than 10% of the bone marrow is made up of abnormal plasma cells and there is no cancer . (oncolink.org)
- In isolated plasmacytoma of bone, one plasma cell tumor is found in the bone, less than 10% of the bone marrow is made up of plasma cells, and there are no other signs of cancer . (oncolink.org)
- The development of all cells of the immune system begins in the bone marrow with a hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem cell ( Figure 2 ). (primaryimmune.org)
- Because of its ability to generate an entire immune system, this is the cell that is most important in a bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (primaryimmune.org)
- The bone marrow is the location where all cells of the immune system begin their development from primitive stem cells. (primaryimmune.org)
- Use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related (MR) peripheral blood stem cells conferred protection against early IA compared with use of MR bone marrow, but use of cord blood increased the risk of IA early after transplantation. (bloodjournal.org)
- Mammalian stem cells change or differentiate into several kinds of blood cell within the bone marrow . (wikipedia.org)
- T-cells are made in the bone marrow, like all red and white blood cells. (asu.edu)
- HIV+ children had higher programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression on pTfh cells, regardless of treatment status. (jax.org)
- Consistent with a relationship between Th2 and TFH cells, IL-4 protein production, reported by expression of huCD2 in IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, was a robust marker of TFH cells in LNs responding to helminth antigens. (rupress.org)
- This is accomplished by a specialized adhesin on the pilus surface, the protein CagL, a putative VirB5 ortholog, which binds to host cell β 1 integrin, triggering subsequent delivery of CagA across the host cell membrane. (frontiersin.org)
- We thus postulate that CagL is a versatile T4SS surface protein equipped with at least two motifs to promote binding to integrins, thereby causing aberrant signaling within host cells and facilitating translocation of CagA into host cells, thus contributing directly to H. pylori pathogenesis. (frontiersin.org)
- Resting murine Th2 cells constitutively express the multidrug resistance protein transmembrane pump, whereas expression on Th1 and Th2 cells is equal after antigenic stimulation 16 17 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Mature T h cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4 + T cells . (wikipedia.org)
- CD154 , also called CD40 ligand or CD40L , is a cell surface protein that mediates T cell helper function in a contact-dependent process and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, combination of high infectivity for tumor cells, strict tumor targeting, high production of the therapeutic protein inside tumor, and induction of selective apoptosis of cancer cells are four conditions for a vector to be successful against cancer in the clinical setting. (aacrjournals.org)
- This protein is part of a signaling pathway that directs the development of and turns on (activates) immune system cells called T cells . (medlineplus.gov)
- A loss of functional zeta-chain-associated protein kinase leads to the absence of CD8+ T cells and an excess of inactive CD4+ T cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- The abnormal plasma cells make M protein , which is sometimes found during a routine blood or urine test . (oncolink.org)
- The generation of a functional protein product from the therapeutic gene restores the target cell to a normal state. (scribd.com)
- 2. The host cell of claim 1, wherein the nuclease comprises the zinc finger protein that comprises recognition helix regions as shown in a single row of Table 1. (patents.com)
- These viral vectors accommodate nucleic acid inserts by direct in vitro ligation and facilitate the expression of foreign protein in eukaryotic cell systems. (patentgenius.com)
- If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
- Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
- An improved viral vector for cancer gene therapy should be capable of infecting tumors with high efficiency, inducing specific and high-level expression of transgene in the tumor and selectively destroying tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. (oncolink.org)
- Selective depletion of Th1 or Th2 cells would provide a novel therapeutic strategy but requires the identification of reliable markers and targets against which therapy could be directed. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Allergen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells is significantly reduced by antibody-mediated depletion of CRTH2 + cells 18 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this review, we discuss the interaction between the innate and adaptive immune systems in the skin as a model for immune function at epithelial-cell interfaces with the environment. (scribd.com)
- The T helper cells ( T h cells ), also known as CD4 cells , are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system , particularly in the adaptive immune system . (wikipedia.org)
- The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogenic growth. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- Some cancer therapies involve the creation of artificial APCs to prime the adaptive immune system to target malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This stimulation of innate immune cells induces the formation of the inflammasome, a molecular scaffold composed of many molecules such as NLRP3 ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- What are the new adhesion molecules of effector T cells? (brainscape.com)
- MHC molecules signal to the immune system whether a cell is healthy or has been infected through presentation of pathogenic antigens on the cell surface. (coursehero.com)
- First, positive selection identifies T cells that are capable of binding to MHC molecules. (coursehero.com)
- T cells that are unable to bind to MHC molecules die as a result of not receiving a signal during positive selection. (coursehero.com)
- Once only T cells that can bind to MHC molecules remain, the next step in the life cycle of a T cell is negative selection. (coursehero.com)
- In the case of the classical and the lectin pathways, collagen-containing pattern recognition molecules bind to Ag-Ab complexes and carbohydrate residues, respectively, on the surface of the pathogenic cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Antigens are surface molecules on a cell . (wikipedia.org)
- They can only recognize and respond to antigen that has been processed and presented by cells via carrier molecules like MHC molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Such cells express MHC class I and MHC class II molecules and can stimulate CD4+ helper T cells as well as cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- They can also perform cross-presentation, a process by which they present exogenous antigen on MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Prior to encountering foreign antigen, dendritic cells express very low levels of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules on their cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
- It also upregulates several co-stimulatory molecules required for T cell activation, including CD40 and B7. (wikipedia.org)
- Various receptors in and on the cells recognize certain molecules, pack them and ensure that they are transported to the right place. (innovations-report.com)
- a molecule on the surface of a cell that responds to specific molecules and receives chemical signals sent by other cells. (asu.edu)
- To do this they need to tell the difference between the infected cells and healthy cells with the help of special molecules called antigens. (asu.edu)
- These results suggest that CPR is a rapid and versatile approach that should facilitate functional analysis of gene function in mammalian cells. (pnas.org)
- Hybrid vectors containing murine interleukin-12 ( mIL-12 ) genes or reporter gene LacZ showed very specific and high-level expression of transgenes in AFP-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells, both in vitro and in an in vivo hepatocellular carcinoma animal model. (aacrjournals.org)
- The ZAP70 gene is important for the development and function of several types of T cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- The ZAP70 gene is also involved in the activation of helper T cells (CD4+ T cells). (medlineplus.gov)
- which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
- Drugmakers Merck and sanofi-aventis have each made versions of a T cell-stimulating vaccine by inserting HIV genes into a viral vector, or gene delivery system. (scientificamerican.com)
- Human gene therapy is an approach to treating human disease that is based on the modification of gene expression in cells of the patient. (google.com)
- All six monkeys became infected, but the three that had received antisense gene therapy displayed evidence of only limited SIV replication and less disease progression than the control monkeys. (nih.gov)
- Indirect killing by immunological response to infected foreign gene. (scribd.com)
- to deliver the therapeutic gene to the patient's target cells. (scribd.com)
- The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
- Histologic examination showed that 66.6% of infected mice had a discrete hyperemia and inflammatory infiltrate in the meninges, composed of mononuclear cells and neutrophils with no detectable parasites. (ajtmh.org)
- More than 2 billion people are infected with parasites globally, and the majority have coinfections. (ajtmh.org)
- Here, we demonstrate how monocytes are isolated by magnetic bead separation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells after density gradient centrifugation of human anti-coagulated blood. (jove.com)
- Following incubation for 5 days, human monocytes are differentiated into immature dendritic cells and are ready for experimental procedures in a non-clinical setting. (jove.com)
- The T cell recognizes and interacts with the antigen-class II MHC molecule complex on the membrane of the antigen-presenting cell. (wikipedia.org)
- To facilitate the transport of interferon-gamma from the interior of the T cell where it is produced to the cell membrane where it can be released, the cell uses its interior processing and transport system, to which the Golgi apparatus belongs. (innovations-report.com)
- Perforin first makes a pore, or hole, in the membrane of the infected cell. (asu.edu)
- Here we show that fully helped effector CTLs are themselves not self-sufficient for entry into the infected tissue, but rely on the CD4 + T cells to provide the necessary cue. (nature.com)
- What is different about an armed effector T cell? (brainscape.com)
- What important adhesive molecule do effector T cells not express? (brainscape.com)
- What are the three main types of effector T cells? (brainscape.com)
- T and B cells might be either memory or effector cells. (reference.com)
- Stephens R, Langhorne J (2010) Effector memory Th1 CD4 T cells are maintained in a mouse model of chronic malaria. (springer.com)
- 4. The host cell of claim 1, wherein the TALE-effector domain comprises hypervariable diresidues (RVDs) as shown in in a single row of Table 3. (patents.com)
- Over time, HIV can destroy CD4 cells, impairing the immune system's ability to fight off infections and diseases. (everydayhealth.com)
- CD8+ T cells ("killer T cells"), on the other hand, normally attack and destroy only infected cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- T cells directly attack and destroy infected or malignant cells in the body. (healthcentral.com)
- Killer T cells then destroy the antigen. (healthcentral.com)
- They have the ability to destroy and react against another cell in the body with ever being sensitized to it. (reference.com)
- They destroy cells by attaching to them and releasing chemicals with the ability to break up the cell after breaching its wall. (reference.com)
- The cytotoxic type destroy cancer cells, antigen-infected cells and foreign cells. (reference.com)
- T-Helper" cells recognize invading microorganisms and activate the immune system to destroy the invading microorganisms. (unf.edu)
- The NK cells then release cytotoxic (cell-killing) granules which then destroy the altered cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Moreover, Tfh cells in the lymph node and peripheral blood comprise a significant portion of the latent HIV reservoir. (jax.org)
- However, the localization and characterization of IL-4-producing T cells in the lymph nodes has not been assessed. (rupress.org)
- Using direct ex vivo analysis of IL-4 dual reporter (4get/KN2) mice, we have previously shown that IL-4-producing/huCD2 + cells represent only a subset of IL-4-expressing/GFP + Th2 cells in the draining mesenteric lymph nodes (mesLNs) of H. polygyrus -infected mice ( 20 ). (rupress.org)
- Once at the lymph nodes, the APCs begin to present antigen peptides that are bound to Class II MHC, allowing CD4 + T cells that express the specific TCRs against the peptide/MHC complex to activate. (wikipedia.org)
- Lymph nodes and the spleen provide structures that facilitate cell-to-cell communication. (primaryimmune.org)
- It moves from the tissue to lymph nodes, where it encounters and activates T cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Phagocytic cells are most important in defeating invading cryptococci after opsonization primarily by complement, as the response takes place without prior contact to the pathogen. (asm.org)
- Once they have identified an invader, the cells respond to remove pathogens or pathogen-infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Throughout the lifetime of an animal, these cells will 'remember' each specific pathogen encountered, and are able to make a strong response if the pathogen is detected again. (wikipedia.org)
- It enhances the activity of immune cells and induces other cells of the body to increasingly present fragments of the pathogen on their surface so that the T cells can find the affected cells more easily. (innovations-report.com)
- One study has found that DHEA therapy (75mg per day) increased CD4 and CD8 cell counts in the majority of HIV patients. (diagnose-me.com)
- 1994). The presence of cytotoxic CD8 + T cells has been reported in peripheral blood of MCL but not in LCL patients (Brodskyn et al. (scielo.br)
- To investigate if these changes are related to LTBI development and if they interfere in TST and IFN- γ production, we recruited 88 household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) pulmonary patients and compared blood cell counts with these tests' results. (hindawi.com)
- Note: Caution is advisable before patients experiment on their own with any homemade remedies that promise better T-cell counts. (motherearthnews.com)
- This longitudinal single-arm pilot study evaluates CD4 + T cells, including Th1 and Th17, in gut and blood and soluble markers for inflammation in HIV-infected individuals before (M0) and after eight (M8) months of cART. (plos.org)
- The observation that pre-treatment levels of CD4 + and of CD8 + T-cell activation are predictors of the magnitude of Th17 cell reconstitution following cART provides further rationale for an early initiation of cART in HIV-infected individuals. (plos.org)
- Indeed, persistent immune system activation/inflammation and higher levels of microbial translocation associate with a poor recovery of CD4 + T cells in individuals cART-suppressed for many years - . (plos.org)
- genome from CD8 cells of HIV-infected individuals using PCR. (bio.net)
- Other high risk activities include sharing needles for intravenous drug use with infected individuals and having unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV infected person. (healthtap.com)
- 1997). Expansion of CD8 + T cells occurs in the peripheral blood of individuals vaccinated against leishmaniasis (Mendonça et al. (scielo.br)
- On the other hand, it has been suspected that some exposed individuals take longer to be infected by M. tb compared to others despite similar exposure levels. (hindawi.com)