Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Infant, Premature, DiseasesChild Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Milk, HumanGestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Infant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.BangladeshUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Housing: Living facilities for humans.IndiaCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Schools: Educational institutions.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.BrazilPilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Metapneumovirus: A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.EnglandIncubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Lead PoisoningHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
"Integrated treatment approaches for young children with multisystem developmental disorder". Infants & Young Children. 8 (3): ... Increasing Interaction with Children with Multisystem Developmental Disorder (MSDD), Developmental Delay Resources Wieder, S ( ... Multisystem developmental disorder (MSDD) is a term used by Stanley Greenspan to describe children under age 3 who exhibit ... Scheeringa, MS (2001). "The differential diagnosis of impaired reciprocal social interaction in children: A review of disorders ...
"Building Medical Homes for Children With Special Health Care... : Infants & Young Children". LWW. Retrieved 23 February 2015. [ ... Child Health in America. Retrieved 23 February 2015. "Emergency Medical Services for Children". ... Lessons learned from this project were subsequently adopted by the Office of Children and Youth of the Governor's Office of ... The Future of Children -". Retrieved 23 February 2015. The Future of Children (Princeton University- ...
"Young travelers". 24 August 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012. "Children and Infants". 24 August ... Special assistance is provided for travelling with pets, young travellers and infants, and special service, for example for ... "Unaccompanied Children". 24 August 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2012. "Special Service". 24 August ... Another company called Loftleiðir had been formed in 1944 by three young pilots returning from their flight training in Canada ...
Infants & Young Children. 18 (1): 16-24. doi:10.1097/00001163-200501000-00003. Currie; Thomas (1995), Head Start, LRA, archived ... The tester tested children at home and in a school or office setting. The Head Start children scored higher than the controls ... Control group children optionally enrolled in non-Head Start programs. Nearly half of the control-group children enrolled in ... A sample of 1,260 children ages three to four were selected as the final sample. Of these children, 446 had entered Head Start ...
Infants and Young Children. 12: 17-26. doi:10.1097/00001163-199910000-00003. Rogers S (1998). "Neuropsychology of autism in ... the Lovaas technique used for very young children, was substantially more effective for preschool children with autism than the ... Intervention can start when a child is as young as three and can last from two to six years. Progression through goals of the ... Should the child fail to respond to a prompt, a "prompter," seated behind the child, uses either a partial-, a simple nudge or ...
Infants and Young Children. 5: 58-77. doi:10.1097/00001163-199304000-00009. "New Hope for Detecting World's Fastest Growing ... These include children with Down syndrome, preterm infants, and children with cerebral palsy. His work on emotional development ... Professor Lewis argues that children's environments, at whatever age, determine how children behave, and he suggests that ... The Society of Research in Child Development, the leading academic child development organization, announced the 2013 award for ...
Infants and Young Children. 6 (4): 54-63. doi:10.1097/00001163-199404000-00008. Reeves, K. (2000). Preschool in the public ... Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: Relationship to beliefs about goodness. Child Development, 63, ... "Making Investments in Young Children: What the Research on Early Care and Education Tells Us". National Association of Child ... The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Child Care Professionals ( ...
Understanding Infants and Young Children. London: Dickens Press, 1969. Expanded edition Thinking about Infants and Young ... The Story of Infant Development - supervisions with Martha Harris following the development of a young child from birth onwards ... Thinking about Infants and Young Children (1975) has been translated into French, Spanish and Italian. ... See M. Rustin, 'Esther Bick's legacy of infant observation at the Tavistock - some reflections 60 years on', Infant Observation ...
"WHO , WHO Global Data Bank on Infant and Young Child Feeding". Retrieved 2015-05-19. [1] Archived April 5, 2007, at ... A history of Infant Feeding about examples from the 9th to 15th centuries of children getting animal's milk. In the 17th and ... Lower-class women breastfed their infants and used a wet nurse only if they were unable to feed their own infant. Attempts were ... In the Qur'an it is stated that a child should be breastfed if both parents agree: Mothers may breastfeed their children two ...
de Weerth, C. & Buitelaar, J.K. (2007). "Childbirth complications affect young infants' behavior." European Child and ... Most parents also have a better ability to distinguish their own infant's cries than those of a different child. A 2009 study ... French infants wail on a rising note while German infants favor a falling melody. Carlo Bellieni found a correlation between ... Based on these various findings, Aletha Solter has proposed a general emotional release theory of infant crying. When infants ...
Their first child, David William Garrow, was born on 15 April 1781, and their second, Eliza Sophia Garrow, was born on 18 June ... His younger brother William became a successful doctor, leaving most of his estate (£30,000) to Garrow. On 5 June 1748 David ... The first two Williams died as infants; the third, born on 13 April 1760, survived. William Garrow was educated at his father's ... The money was divided between Joseph Garrow, Garrow's nephew, who received £1,000, £200 to each of the children of Garrow's ...
"International Travel with Infants and Young Children". Travelers' Health - Yellow Book. Centers for Disease Control. 8. March ... to keep out of the reach of children, and to allow use by children only under adult supervision. According to the American ... If ingested, alcohol-based hand sanitizers can cause alcohol poisoning in small children. However, the U.S. Centers for Disease ... "Hand Sanitizers Could Be A Dangerous Poison To Unsupervised Children". NBC News Channel. Retrieved 2007-07-15. " ...
Infants have an understanding of causal power. They know that certain causes have particular effects. Young children, from late ... Children ask "why" to understanding mechanism and causality. The ability to understand and reason about causality at a young ... Children ask "why?" at an early age to understand mechanism and, in turn, causality. A child's first "why" question often ... some research suggests that children as young as eight months can understand cause and effect. An understanding of mechanism ...
Household contacts and caregivers for children younger than 6 months of age, because younger infants are at higher risk of ... Children, while disproportionately affected, tend to make full recoveries. The vaccine is ineffective in young infants. The ... Vaccination of those in close contact with infants younger than 6 months old might help protect infants by "cocooning" them ... Falco, Mariam (15 December 2009). "800,000 H1N1 vaccine doses for young children recalled; safety not a concern". CNN. ...
"The Impact of the Great Society Upon The Lives of Families and Young Children" (PDF). Infant & Toddler Coordinators Association ... Johnson gave his children names with the LBJ initials; his dog was Little Beagle Johnson. His was the LBJ Ranch; his initials ... He was the oldest of five children born to Samuel Ealy Johnson Jr. and Rebekah Baines. Johnson had one brother, Sam Houston ... At age 15, Johnson was the youngest member of his class. Pressured by his parents to attend college, he enrolled at a " ...
Pravda, September 20, 2004 Passman, R. H., & Halonen, J. S. (1979). "A developmental survey of young children's attachments to ... Evidence for the same in premature infants or infants that are not healthy is lacking. It may have clinical benefits for ... However, some children continue these habits over long periods of time. In these children, the upper front teeth may tip toward ... "A Guide on Young Children"). In England in the 17th-19th centuries, a coral meant a teething toy made of coral, ivory or bone, ...
The rotavirus is most commonly found in infants and young children, but older children and adults can also become infected. ... Apnea is when the child stops breathing momentarily. Approximately half of the infants, younger than one year of age, who get ... The younger the child is, the greater their chance of developing a chronic infection and this risk goes down as the child gets ... This can cause severe infection which occurs mostly in infants and children younger than 5 years old, can cause lifelong ...
Imamura E (1997). "Phimosis of infants and young children in Japan". Acta Paediatr Jpn. 39 (4): 403-5. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200x. ... In young children, it is normal to not be able to pull back the foreskin. In more than 90% of cases, this inability resolves by ... Efforts to pull back the foreskin during the early years of a young male's life should not be attempted. For those in whom the ... Phimosis in older children and adults can vary in severity, with some able to retract their foreskin partially (relative ...
Younger children and infants may require tube feeding. However, dietary cholesterol does not reduce the levels of 7DHC, cannot ... For example, infants often show feeding problems or feeding intolerance, and patients may require increased caloric intake due ... young mice) homozygous for the mutated allele. Although these pups died within the first day of life due to their inability to ...
Similarly, infants around the age of 7 months can also match up images of random objects. Although children as young as 49 ... Around the age of three and a half years children lose some of their numerical sense. Whereas children younger than three can ... Infants as young as 49 hours can accurately match up images with a certain amount of objects, with sounds that contain the same ... Because the sounds are abstract, or visibly there, we can see that infants as young as 49 hours have some abstract numerical ...
The younger the child, the more exaggerated the adult's CDS is. The attention of infants is held more readily by CDS over ... Child-directed speech (CDS) is the term preferred by researchers, psychologists and child development professionals. Infant- ... As a result, infants who experience CDS are able to recall words more effectively than infants who do not. Infants can pick up ... ISBN 978-1-57607-213-4. developmental psychologists refer to this kind of language to young children as child-directed speech ...
"Interventions in diarrheas of infants and young children". J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173 (5 Pt 2): 649-53. PMID 359524. DeWitt, T ... If necessary, a doctor may have to reserve antibiotics for those at highest risk for death, including young children, people ... Insufficient data exists, but Shigella is estimated to have caused the death of 34,000 children under the age of five in 2013, ... particularly among children in low-resource settings. For example, Shigella is a longstanding World Health Organization (WHO) ...
What can the matter be? Therapeutic interventions with parents, infants and young children'. Karnac Books, 2008. (co-edited ... Louise Sharon Emanuel (10 December 1953 - 7 May 2017) was a pioneering child psychotherapist who developed new methods of ...
Lieberman, A. F., Van Horn, P. (2005). Don't Hit My Mommy!: A Manual for Child-Parent Psychotherapy With Young Witnesses of ... Grienenberger J, Kelly K, Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, mother-infant affective communication and infant ... the reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 13, 201- ... Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(5), 429-448. Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Moran, G., Steele, H., & Higgit, A. (1991). The capacity ...
"Publications: Infant and Young Child Feeding". World Health Organization. Retrieved November 5, 2013. "Infant and Young Child ... The policy hopes to validate young mothers' wishes to continue breastfeeding their infant children without shame. On a global ... The World Health Organization's Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding recommend education authorities help form ... v97.html Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, World Health Organization. Geneva, 2003.[page needed] All About La ...
Ruth also had a fascination with death as a young child. When she was four years old her grandmother took her to see an infant ... Young, Virginia Heyer. 2005. Ruth Benedict : Beyond Relativity, Beyond Pattern. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0- ... Upon seeing the dead child's face, Ruth claimed that it was the most beautiful thing she had ever seen.[5] ... "Culture and Personality In Henry's Backyard: Boasian War Allegories in Children's Science Writ Large Stories" in Darnell, Regna ...
Each year in the United States, an estimated 57,000 children younger than 5 years old are hospitalized due to RSV infection. ... RSV can be dangerous for some infants and young children. ... RSV in Very Young Infants. *What you should do if your child is ... RSV can be dangerous for some infants and young children. Each year in the United States, an estimated 57,000 children younger ... If you have contact with an infant or young child, especially those who were born prematurely, are very young, have chronic ...
Young children are less likely to wash their hands well.. Infants and young children are more likely to get a serious illness ... How to Keep Children Healthy Around Animals. Infants and children younger than 5 years old are more likely to get sick from ... Follow these steps to keep infants and young children healthy around animals. *Always supervise children around animals. ... Because young children are more likely to get sick from harmful germs that animals can carry, CDC recommends that children ...
Prevention of HIV infection in infants and young children is now a high priority and has been the rallying point for enhanced ... Prevention of HIV in infants and young children. Review of evidence and WHOs activities. 31 July 2002 ... The overwhelming majority of infected children acquire the infection through mother-to-child transmission. ... HIV among children is a growing problem, particularly in the countries hardest hit by the AIDS epidemic. ...
... the most critical period for child nutrition after which sub-optimal growth is hard to reverse. ... It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age - ... Infant and young child feeding. Model chapter for textbooks for medical students and allied health professionals. ... Infant and young child feeding: model chapter for textbooks pdf 3.12Mb ...
Chronic Diarrhea in Infants and Young Children. Medically reviewed by Melanie Santos - Written by Ann Pietrangelo on August 20 ... In infants and young children, dehydration can progress rapidly. It can lead to more serious health complications if it isnt ... Diarrhea in infants and young children can quickly lead to dehydration, which is a dangerous condition. Dont hesitate to call ... Infants and young children are especially vulnerable to dehydration caused by diarrhea. During episodes of diarrhea, the body ...
His organizational skills and commitment to high-quality ECI for all infants and young children who have, or are at risk for, ... Infants & Young Children: October/December 2016 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p 247-248 ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Infants & Young Children.. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Infants & Young Children.. ...
... especially infants and young children. Care providers and food handlers who care for those with rotavirus can easily spread the ... Rotavirus is a human fecal pathogen that is shed in the diarrhea of ill persons, especially infants and young children. Care ... Anyone can get rotavirus, but infants and young children who are not yet toilet trained are most susceptible. The reason is ... We connect with people in all stages of life, from young children to older adults. We work with families and children, farmers ...
Stable isotope techniques are used to evaluate activities to improve infant and young child feeding practices. ... Infant and Young Child Feeding, World Health Organization (WHO). * Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, World ... The IAEA supports the application of stable isotopes to assess activities to improve infant and young child feeding practices: ... Stable isotope techniques are used to evaluate activities to improve infant and young child feeding practices. ...
A new test was developed to assess stereopsis in young children. This test was modified based on the results of previous pilot ... Vision screenings were performed on 109 children from 6 to 65 months who were subsequently tested using either an operant (OPL ... or forced choice preferential looking (FPL) procedure depending on each childs age, cognitive skills and attentional levels. ...
... is the leading cause of fatal head injuries in children younger than 2 years. A multidisciplinary team bases this diagnosis on ... Palusci VJ (2011) Risk factors and services for child maltreatment among infants and young children. Child Youth Serv Rev 33: ... Palusci VJ, Smith EG, Paneth N (2005) Predicting and responding to physical abuse in young children using NCANDS. Child Youth ... Servaes S, Brown SD, Choudhary AK et al (2016) The etiology and significance of fractures in infants and young children: a ...
Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children.. Fernandes RM1, Bialy LM, Vandermeer B, Tjosvold L ... Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010] ... Glucocorticoids for acute viral bronchiolitis in infants and young children. [JAMA. 2014] ... To review the efficacy and safety of systemic and inhaled glucocorticoids in children with acute viral bronchiolitis. ...
Useful testing for the microbiological safety and quality of dry foods for infants and young children is discussed. Ingredient ... Codex Alimentarius (2006) Codex standard for processed cereal-based foods for infants and young children. (STAN 074-1981, Rev. ... Codex Alimentarius (2008) Code of hygienic practice for powdered formulae for infants and young children (CAC/RCP 66-2008). ... Codex Alimentarius (1991) Guidelines on formulated supplementary foods for older infants and young children (CAC/GL 08-1991). ...
Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Genitals and Urinary Tract > Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in Infants & Young ... an infant or young child under 2 years who has had 2 or more UTIs with fever. ... Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create an image of a childs kidneys and bladder. It is recommended for all infants ... About 1-3% of all infants and children have a condition called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), which means some of their urine ...
Developmental Surveillance and Screening of Infants and Young Children. Committee on Children With Disabilities ... Developmental Surveillance and Screening of Infants and Young Children Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... All infants and young children should be screened for developmental delays. Screening procedures should be incorporated into ... This statement provides recommendations for screening infants and young children and intervening with families to identify ...
... it can be difficult to define what is normal from child to child. ... is a sign of good health and proper nutrition in infants and ... Infants and Young Children Normal development is a sign of good health and proper nutrition in infants and young children; ... Infants and Young Children *Lifestyle Suggestions to Enhance Development -- Infants and Young Children *Beneficial Dietary ... Lifestyle Suggestions to Enhance Development -- Infants and Young Children *Hold the baby as much as possible. Touch, cuddle, ...
Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Infants & Young Children.. ... Infant-Toddler Early Learning Guidelines: The Content That States Have Addressed and Implications for Programs Serving Children ...
Eye Examination in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians. Pediatrics Apr 2003, 111 (4) 902-907; DOI: 10.1542/ ... Eye Examination in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... All children who are found to have an ocular abnormality or who fail vision assessment should be referred to a pediatric ... Examination of the eyes should be performed beginning in the newborn period and at all well-child visits. Newborns should be ...
A pharmaceutical company is recalling dozens of medications for infants and young children that are used to treat ailments like ... A pharmaceutical company is recalling dozens of medications for infants and young children that are used to treat ailments like ... Dozens of medications for infants and young children recalled for possible microbial contamination. ... Kids Bed Wetting (NP). 2 oz. bottle. 357955501220. 111717C. 101615B. Kids Candida 4 oz. 4 oz. bottle. 357955332244. 011416G. ...
Hospitalization and antibiotics are encouraged for infants and young children who are thought to have a serious bacterial ... ceftriaxone and cefotaxime for young infants; and cefixime, amoxicillin, or azithromycin for older infants. ... With an increase in the incidence of urinary tract infections in children, urine testing is important in those with unexplained ... lumbar puncture and chest radiography are no longer recommended for older children with fever but no other indications. ...
Visual acuity development in infants and young children, as assessed by operant preferential looking.. Mayer DL, Dobson V. ...
Background- Infants and young children with certain types of heart disease are at increased risk for thromboses. Clopidogrel 75 ... The present study demonstrates that clopidogrel doses of 0.20 mg · kg−1 · d−1 in infants and young children 0 to 24 months of ... Infants and young children with certain types of heart disease (including those with single ventricle after palliation with a ... Dosing of Clopidogrel for Platelet Inhibition in Infants and Young Children. Jennifer S. Li, Eric Yow, Katherine Y. Berezny, ...
American College of Surgeons have released the following infant and child safety comments on feeding infants and young children ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Patients Advisory: Do Not Feed Peanuts to Infants and Young Children ... Advisory: Do Not Feed Peanuts to Infants and Young Children at Risk for Peanut Allergy. ... seeds and other hard foods can be very dangerous for infants and young children. In fact, peanuts are one of the leading food ...
Term and preterm infants on prolonged PN in the NICU and post-discharge and young children on home PN and age-matched controls ... Neurodevelopment and Neuroimaging in Parenterally-fed Infants and Young Children. The safety and scientific validity of this ... older infants and young children on home PN.. Mn neurotoxicity will be investigated by longitudinal assessments of cognitive ( ... infants and young children receiving prolonged Mn-supplemented PN will have increased deposition of Mn in their brains and ...
2010)‎. Infant and young child nutrition: quadrennial progress report: report by the Secretariat. World Health Organization. ... Infant and young child nutrition: quadrennial progress report: report by the Secretariat. ...
Infants and young children need all the same things in an emergency kits as adults do PLUS additional items unique to being ... For more information on how to plan for infants and young children during an emergency, visit these sites:. ... Make emergency planning fun for children. Bring the family together, maybe over a pizza or before watching your favorite movie ... When building or updating your emergency kit, think about what else your child might need. ...
  • Adults should supervise handwashing for young children. (
  • It's important to note that over-the-counter medications used to treat diarrhea in adults shouldn't be given to infants or children. (
  • The objectives of the present study were (1) to determine the dose of clopidogrel needed in infants and young children to achieve a mean 30% to 50% inhibition of 5-μmol/L ADP-induced platelet aggregation (ie, inhibition similar to that observed with 75 mg in adults) and (2) to assess the safety and tolerability of clopidogrel in infants and young children. (
  • Conclusions- Clopidogrel 0.20 mg · kg −1 · d −1 in children 0 to 24 months of age achieves a platelet inhibition level similar to that in adults taking 75 mg/d. (
  • 11-15 Although the appropriate doses of antithrombotic drugs in children are known to differ from adults, 16 the appropriate dose of clopidogrel in children is unknown. (
  • In the present study, we therefore sought to determine in infants and young children (aged ≤24 months) at risk for arterial thrombosis the appropriate dose of clopidogrel that would achieve similar levels of ADP-induced platelet aggregation as 75 mg in adults. (
  • Infants and young children need all the same things in an emergency kits as adults do PLUS additional items unique to being younger. (
  • Parents who choose not to vaccinate their children on time increase the risk of disease and death not only for their children, but also for other children and adults throughout the entire community. (
  • This policy statement and its accompanying clinical report, "Procedures for the Evaluation of the Visual System by Pediatricians," 1 supplant the 2012 policy statement "Instrument-Based Pediatric Vision Screening," 2 the 2003 policy statement "Eye Examination in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians," 3 and the policy statement "Red Reflex Examination in Neonates, Infants, and Children. (
  • continues to be the primary cardiology text for those who care for infants, children, adolescents, young adults, and fetuses with heart disease. (
  • A comprehensive text covering basic science theory through clinical practice of cardiovascular disease in the young, this edition includes an expanded special section on young adults and a greatly expanded genetics section. (
  • Toxicity of pesticides in infants and young children may differ quantitatively and qualitatively from that in adults. (
  • Quantitative differences exist in absorption, metabolism, detoxification, and excretion, which may make infants more or less sensitive to various xenobiotics than adults. (
  • 5 These differences need to be related to the specific food intakes of infants and young children that are much higher per kg body weight than in adults. (
  • The Ross procedure, first described in 1967 ( 1 ), is an attractive alternative to mechanical, porcine, and homograft valves in the treatment of aortic valve disease in infants, children, and young adults. (
  • Adults often find they gain a very different perspective on a place when visiting with children, and in many parts of the world travelling with children opens up many opportunities to be welcomed by and get to know locals. (
  • Young Adults 18 and up. (
  • Just take a look at the ACE study ( Adverse Childhood Experiences ) which estimates that 2/3 of American adults had adverse experiences as children that are negatively affecting their health and wellbeing. (
  • Children are more susceptible than adults to infections by these viruses . (
  • As some of you may know, cardiomyopathy in very young children is extremely rare, and the progression of the disease can be different than in adults. (
  • Anyone may become dehydrated, but the condition is especially dangerous for young children and older adults. (
  • Médecins Sans Frontières' approach in Qayyarah does not run counter to World Health Organization and UNICEF policy on infant feeding in emergencies as at no stage did we undertake blanket distribution of infant formula. (
  • The IFE Core Group is an international community of practice around infant and young child feeding in emergencies (IYCF-E) that functions as an interagency collaboration, with members including the likes of UNICEF, ENN (Emergency Nutrition Network), Save the Children, International Rescue Committee, etc. (
  • While Alive & Thrive could provide support in building the evidence base for policy change, UNICEF brought its experience as a child rights focused organization, and the Viet Nam National Assembly's Institute of Legislative Studies, took the lead in addressing questions and concerns relating to the two policies. (
  • Alive & Thrive and UNICEF have hosted regional advocacy workshops to share lessons learned, and will work over the next two years along with Save the Children in seven countries across the region - Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Timor Leste and Viet Nam - to develop and implement tailored road maps and strategies for creating policies that support, promote and and protect infant and young child nutrition throughout the region. (
  • The WHO, in collaboration with UNICEF, WFP and UNHCR, hosted a second consultation to discuss the programmatic aspects of the management of moderate malnutrition in children. (
  • In her remarks, UNICEF Representative in Afghanistan, Ms Adele Khodr, said "The death toll from rotavirus infections in the developing world is enormous, it infects nearly every child in this country before the age of 5. (
  • In 2003, the WHO and UNICEF published their Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, which restated that "processed-food products for. (
  • UNICEF estimates that a formula-fed child living in unclean conditions is between 6 and 25 times more likely to die of diarrhea and four times more likely to die of pneumonia than a breastfed child. (
  • It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age - the most critical period for child nutrition after which sub-optimal growth is hard to reverse. (
  • Each incident deprives the child of nutrition needed for growth. (
  • The objectives of this project are to identify neonatal and young pediatric populations that are at increased risk of excessive brain Mn deposition and altered cognitive and motor development based on their dietary parenteral Mn exposure, and to make sound and evidence-based recommendations for appropriate Mn supplementation and monitoring of infants and young children receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). (
  • It was hypothesised that early pulmonary inflammation and infection in infants with CF is associated with worse nutrition. (
  • The Somali nutrition cluster and its stakeholders are calling for support to enhance appropriate infant and young child feeding during this pre-famine/drought, and caution against the unnecessary use of breastmilk substitutes. (
  • The Somali nutrition cluster and its stakeholders are particularly concerned about potential donations of infant formula, powdered milk, and baby bottles during the current crisis. (
  • The Somali nutrition cluster reiterates that exclusive breastfeeding is the best way to ensure the survival of infants between 0 and 6 months old. (
  • Continuing to breastfeed children between 6 and 24 months and older, combined with a varied diet, is the best way to ensure optimal nutrition and health. (
  • Provision of infant formula was therefore an essential first step of re-nutrition, and was accompanied by promotion of breastfeeding and training of staff to provide the necessary support to mothers. (
  • We have recently launched a Baby Friendly Space (BFS) as a component of the nutrition response intervention, to help the family to adapt their infant feeding practices to the emergency and post-emergency context. (
  • Ms. Phan Thi Hong Linh and Ms. Manini Sheker at Alive & Thrive Viet Nam write for Eldis on the strategies used to influence policy around infant and young child nutrition in Viet Nam. (
  • Extending paid maternity leave was important for ensuring that mothers did not have to choose between their careers and the best nutrition for their children. (
  • By Britni Burkhardsmeier (Programme Coordinator, Save the Children USA), Nicki Connell (Emergency Nutrition Advisor, Save the Children USA) and Sarah Butler (Emergency. (
  • Save the Children are looking for an intern to support their Emergency Nutrition programming in the US office from June 5, 2017 to August 11, 2017. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the importance of IYCF practices as determinants of child growth outcomes in this context, and reinforce the need for interventions that address the spectrum of IYCF practices, from exclusive breast-feeding to age-appropriate complementary feeding, especially diet diversity, in efforts to improve nutrition of infants and young children. (
  • The study found that growing up in severe poverty-in environments that are more likely to be unpredictable and unstable, where access to quality health care and child care are out of reach, and where nutrition is more likely to be compromised-can put children at a lifelong disadvantage. (
  • Campaigns to change health and nutrition behaviour are needed to meet the Complementary feeding substantial unmet needs of these children. (
  • Focusing on this package of essential nutrition actions (ENA), policy-makers could reduce infant and child mortality, improve physical and mental growth and development, and improve productivity. (
  • In the United States, mothers of lower socio-economic status have been found less likely to breastfeed, although this may be partly related to adverse effects of government nutrition supplementation programs that provide subsidies for infant formula. (
  • One to two out of every 100 children younger than 6 months of age with RSV infection may need to be hospitalized. (
  • The new CSC Test uses a happy face as a stimulus on a homogenous random dot BACKGROUND: Vision screenings were performed on 109 children from 6 to 65 months who were subsequently tested using either an operant (OPL) or forced choice preferential looking (FPL) procedure depending on each child's age, cognitive skills and attentional levels. (
  • Methods and Results- We performed a prospective, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in children (0 to 24 months) with a cardiac condition at risk for arterial thrombosis. (
  • Instrument-based screening, if available, should be first attempted between 12 months and 3 years of age and at annual well-child visits until acuity can be tested directly. (
  • Forced expiratory flows and volumes in steroid naïve young children with ⩾3 episodes of physician confirmed wheeze and healthy controls, aged 8-20 months, were measured using the tidal and raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression manoeuvres. (
  • A high proportion of these children has been malnourished infants less than six months of age. (
  • Three days later, Viet Nam's leadership made another unprecedented decision - to expand the ban on advertising breast milk substitutes for infants and young children, from birth to 24 months of age. (
  • Merely 54% of women initiate breastfeeding in the first hour of birth and less than a quarter of children are exclusively breastfed in the first six months. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between indicators of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children aged 0-23 months in a nationally representative data set. (
  • For example, the estimated 95th centiles of consumption of manufactured baby foods in infants aged 12 months are as high as almost 50 g/kg body weight per day. (
  • Therefore, the current study aimed to assess breastfeeding practices among children aged 0-23 months. (
  • Complementary food was introduced at exactly 6 months for 34.5% of infants. (
  • Appropriate breastfeeding contains initiation of breastfeeding within 1 h of delivery, exclusive breastfeeding for the 1st 6 months of life, introducing sound complementary feeding at the age 6th month, predominantly breastfeed, increase feeding when the child is sick and continues on-demand breastfeeding to the age of 2 years or above [ 4 ]. (
  • Two diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines -- ACEL-IMUNE{Registered} * and Tripedia{Registered} ** -- have been licensed for several years, but (until recently) only for administration of the fourth and fifth doses in the series to children aged 15 months-6 years who previously had received three or more doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and whole-cell pertussis (DTP) vaccine. (
  • Published reports indicate that, when administered to infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months, acellular pertussis vaccines are effective in preventing pertussis disease and associated with fewer local, systemic, and certain more serious adverse events than whole-cell pertussis vaccines. (
  • Because of the increased intake of conventional food by young children, these have the highest exposure to pesticide residues, whereas infants 3?6 months of age generally have lower exposure. (
  • Almost all children are born with low stores of vitamin A. During the first six months of life, mothers need to breastfeed exclusively to increase their babies' vitamin A stores. (
  • In the first six months of life, breastmilk protects the infant against infectious diseases that can deplete vitamin A stores and interfere with vitamin A absorption. (
  • From birth to at six months of life, exclusive, frequent breastfeeding can provide the infant with all the vitamin A needed for optimal health, growth, and development. (
  • In each cluster, a name list was used to select 13 children aged 0-23 months. (
  • After approval by the local ethics committee (Basel, Switzerland) and obtaining parental written informed consent, two groups of patients were studied: 14 healthy infants aged 0-6 months (corrected to gestational age) and 25 healthy children, aged 2-6 yr. (
  • The WHO defines CF as: 'The process starting when breast adopted in Pakistan, emphasize as a global public health milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional recommendation that infants should be exclusively breast- requirements of infants, and therefore other foods and liquids fed for the first 6 months of life. (
  • If you have infants under 6 months old on a long-haul flights (over 5 hours) you can request a sky cot bassinet which attaches to the bulkhead. (
  • However, if the body temperature is above 100.4° F or 38° C, it is an abnormal condition requiring medical attention, especially in infants below three months. (
  • Very young infants who develop a fever, especially those below 2 months old, require immediate medical attention. (
  • Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 24 Months) Preoperational Stage (24 Months to 7 Years) Concrete Operational Stage (7 Years to 12 Years) Formal Operational Stage (12 Years and Up) Infant cognitive development occurs in the Sensorimotor stage which starts at birth and extends until the infant is about 2 years of age. (
  • Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder (mixed with water) or liquid (with or without additional water). (
  • An upswing in breastfeeding in many countries has been accompanied by a deferment in the average age of introduction of baby foods (including cow's milk), resulting in both increased breastfeeding and increased use of infant formula between the ages of 3- and 12-months. (
  • Breastfeeding, including exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, is widely advocated as "ideal" for babies and infants, both by health authorities - and accordingly in ethical advertising of infant formula manufacturers. (
  • Despite the recommendation that babies be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, less than 40% of infants below this age are exclusively breastfed worldwide. (
  • The overwhelming majority of American babies are not exclusively breastfed for this period - in 2005 under 12% of babies were breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months, with over 60% of babies of 2 months of age being fed formula, and approximately one in four breastfed infants having infant formula feeding within two days of birth. (
  • Although an extensive diagnostic evaluation is still recommended for neonates, lumbar puncture and chest radiography are no longer recommended for older children with fever but no other indications. (
  • Strouse PJ (2016) Child abuse: we have problems. (
  • The current refugee crisis has displaced millions of people and brought tens of thousands of children and pregnant women to Europe (over 88K children in 2016 alone according to UNHCR figures). (
  • Signes-Pastor, AJ , Carey, M & Meharg, AA 2016, ' Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children ', Food Chemistry , vol. 191, pp. 128-134. (
  • For infants below 16 weeks of age, the EFSA PPR Panel concluded that pesticide residues at the default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg for food for infants and young children are not likely to result in an unacceptable exposure for active substances for which a health-based guidance value (HBGV) of 0.0026 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day or higher applies. (
  • U.S. Senators Rob Portman (R-OH) and Tim Kaine (D-VA), a member of the Senate Health, Education, Labor & Pensions (HELP) Committee, today praised the passage of their bipartisan legislation - the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Act - to reauthorize current research and improve public health programs for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of hearing loss in newborns, infants, and young children. (
  • This bill takes important steps to improve early hearing detection and intervention for newborns, infants, and young children. (
  • The Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Act is a necessary step to improve health programs that can detect, diagnose, and address hearing loss in newborns, infants, and young children," Kaine said . (
  • The Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Act reauthorizes current research and public health activities related to early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of hearing loss in newborns and infants. (
  • Examination of the eyes should be performed beginning in the newborn period and at all well-child visits. (
  • Newborn infants should be examined using inspection and red reflex testing to detect structural ocular abnormalities, such as cataract, corneal opacity, and ptosis. (
  • Similar referral to a specialist should be made for newborn infants with family histories of congenital cataracts, retinoblastoma, or metabolic disease or in whom systemic disease associated with serious ocular abnormalities is suspected. (
  • Many countries have now incorporated newborn screening programmes for CF, and attention is focusing on improving quality and extent of life by earlier intervention in children. (
  • Leading international experts describe state-of-the-art diagnostic and interventional techniques for young patients with congenital and acquired heart diseases and for adult survivors of congenital heart disease.This edition's section on pediatric cardiac intensive care has new chapters on interventricular and cardiopulmonary interactions and on the extreme premature, premature, and normal newborn. (
  • Call your child's doctor or go to the hospital immediately if your child shows signs of dehydration. (
  • Call your child's doctor right away if you think your child is dehydrated. (
  • Use the free CDC Catch-Up immunization scheduler and work with your child's doctor to get your child safely back on track. (
  • If this is your child's first daycare experience, it may be that your son wanted some reassurance or needed to be guided and at that age holding a hand can be very comforting and reassuring to the child. (
  • Some do it in order to get a discount on their own child's care, some because they genuinely love children and want to have a positive affect in their lives, and some because that is the job that they could find. (
  • Through his research Vygotsky suggested that a child's performance differs depending on whether they are solving a problem alone or if another child or adult is assisting them. (
  • This Model Chapter brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire as part of their basic education. (
  • Dworkin defined developmental surveillance as "a flexible, continuous process whereby knowledgeable professionals perform skilled observations of children during the provision of health care. (
  • The potential for increased brain Mn accumulation in infants, and by inference, the potential health risks associated with elevated brain Mn burden, represents crucial, unexplored issues of exposure and susceptibility. (
  • IDA is a widespread serious public health problem, especially for infants in developing countries mainly because of inadequate intake of iron due to the poor bioavailability of dietary iron in predominately cereal based diets. (
  • being discharged back to home region from Starship Child Health. (
  • Where the transport involves the Starship Child Health NICU and PICU designated transport teams please refer to service specific transport guidelines. (
  • This guideline does not specifically detail the process for the transport of children from home to Starship Child Health for elective admission. (
  • However Starship Child Health recommends that every effort be made to ensure that infants, children and young people are securely restrained in any moving vehicle whether it is the family's private vehicle, an ambulance or other service vehicles. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Child health" applicable to this article? (
  • Specifically, this bill expands early hearing detection and intervention programs to include young children, improves access to appropriate follow-up and intervention services when hearing loss is identified, and clarifies the roles of the Centers for Disease Control and the Health Resources and Services Administration. (
  • Caregivers can obtain support on infant and young child feeding in health facilities from skilled counsellors. (
  • The impact of infant feeding on child health in wealthy contexts was discussed and compared to the impact in resource poor contexts. (
  • Breast milk has the perfect combination of nutrients to provide infants with adequate health and development [ 1 ]. (
  • Adding rotavirus vaccine to our immunization schedule will have a tremendous impact on child health. (
  • As we introduce this vaccine, we welcome the ongoing support of our partners who are working with the Ministry of Public Health to improve the lives of children in Afghanistan. (
  • We actually already know what to do-more and better early education, expanding access to health care for children and parents, and restoring refundable tax credits for working families are all steps state policy makers can take right now to help assure appropriate brain development for all children. (
  • Infants and young children need vitamin A for optimal health, growth, and development. (
  • The As i concentration in rice-based products may pose a health risk for infants and young children. (
  • As research methods improve on gauging health effects of life experiences, we're finding out that there are longterm effects of undercare on children. (
  • The World Health Organization congratulates the Ministry of Public Health, and all partners and champions who worked relentlessly over the past years to ensure successful passage of the Control of Marketing of Infant and Young Child Food Act. (
  • By passing this law, the government has demonstrated its strong commitment to protect the health and development of Thai children and future prosperity of the nation. (
  • WHO commends the Ministry of Public Health and all partners for their efforts and reassure of WHO's full support to promote breastfeeding and end inappropriate promotion of foods for young children. (
  • A 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) report found that infant formula prepared in accordance with applicable Codex Alimentarius standards was a safe complementary food and a suitable breast milk substitute. (
  • In particular, the use of infant formula in less economically developed countries is linked to poorer health outcomes because of the prevalence of unsanitary preparation conditions, including lack of clean water and lack of sanitizing equipment. (
  • FAO/WHO (2004) Enterobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms in powdered infant formula. (
  • FAO/WHO (2006) Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella in powdered infant formula: Meeting report. (
  • Rarely, use of powdered infant formula (PIF) has been associated with serious illness, and even death, due to infection with Cronobacter sakazakii and other microorganisms that can be introduced to PIF during its production. (
  • Methods Weight, height and pulmonary inflammation and infection in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assessed shortly after diagnosis in infants with CF and again at 1, 2 and 3 years of age. (
  • METHODS: This paper presents a more succinct account of a study of treatments for extravasation injuries in infants and children which has also been reported in full as an NIHR HTA report. (
  • Since Piaget's contribution to the field, infant cognitive development and methods for its investigation have advanced considerably, with numerous psychologists investigating different areas of cognitive development including memory, language and perception, coming up with various theories-for example Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development. (
  • Anyone can get rotavirus, but infants and young children who are not yet toilet trained are most susceptible. (
  • A population of 24 infants and young children followed prospectively during the first 3 years of life was studied for the occurrence of rotavirus infection by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect virus in stools. (
  • Speaking at the event, WHO Representative in Afghanistan Dr Richard Peeperkorn said, "Rotavirus takes the lives of around 4000-5000 Afghan children under the age of 5 each year. (
  • The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine will help Afghanistan consolidate its gains in reducing infant mortality and ending preventable child deaths. (
  • Abstract Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) prepared a scientific opinion to provide a comprehensive evaluation of pesticide residues in foods for infants and young children. (
  • His organizational skills and commitment to high-quality ECI for all infants and young children who have, or are at risk for, disabilities have been the contributing force for the accomplishments and outcomes of these conferences. (
  • The potential contribution of Mn toxicity to the poor outcomes of infants dependent for an extended time on PN has not been fully acknowledged or studied. (
  • Human milk TGF-β appears to be essential in developing and maintaining appropriate immune responses in infants and may provide protection against adverse immunological outcomes, corroborating findings from experimental animal studies. (
  • Studies of children with extravasation injuries receiving any treatment for extravasation injury were eligible, providing they reported one of the following outcomes: wound healing time, infection, pain, scarring, functional impairment, and requirement for surgery. (
  • Carol A Mcclure, Michael W Ford, Jeff B Wilson, and Jeff J Aramini, "Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Canadian Infants and Children Younger than Five Years of Age: Recommendations and Expected Benefits," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology , vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 19-26, 2006. (
  • Tripedia{Registered}, ACEL-IMUNE{Registered}, and Infanrix TM are now recommended for routine vaccination of infants and young children, although whole-cell pertussis vaccines remain acceptable alternatives. (
  • Tripedia{Registered}, ACEL-IMUNE{Registered}, and Infanrix TM are recommended for all remaining doses in the schedule for children who have started the vaccination series with one, two, three, or four doses of whole-cell pertussis vaccines. (
  • Vaccines of this type, prepared from suspensions of inactivated Bordetella pertussis bacterial cells, have been licensed for routine vaccination of infants since the mid-1940s. (
  • Pediatric nephrologist s: Kidney experts who treat children with kidney problems. (
  • All children who are found to have an ocular abnormality or who fail vision assessment should be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist or an eye care specialist appropriately trained to treat pediatric patients. (
  • Pediatric otolaryngologists and surgeons are concerned with parents getting the wrong message regarding the safety/desirability of letting babies and young children eat peanuts to prevent them from developing peanut allergies. (
  • Keep children away from animals while they are eating to prevent the risk of bites or other injuries. (
  • Children with kidney problems are at higher risk for high blood pressure. (
  • Background- Infants and young children with certain types of heart disease are at increased risk for thromboses. (
  • 1,2 Infants and young children with certain types of heart disease (including those with single ventricle after palliation with a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, Kawasaki disease, and intracardiac stents or devices) are likewise at risk for thrombotic events, including shunt thrombosis, coronary artery thrombosis, and thromboembolic arterial stroke. (
  • It is promising that we may be able to decrease peanut allergy in children by introducing peanut butter, in a controlled setting, to at-risk babies, but it is not safe to feed babies and young children peanuts! (
  • Airway inflammation is also observed in these children with wheezing, but it is not associated with the number of wheezing episodes, presence or absence of high-risk factors for asthma, or results of pathogen detection. (
  • Although several risk factors for asthma have been identified in infants and young children with recurrent wheeze, the relevance of assessing lung function in this group remains unclear. (
  • Wheezy children with risk factors for asthma (n = 15) had significantly lower z scores for FVC (−0.7 (−1.4 to −0.04)) and FEF 25-75 (−0.6 (−1.2 to −0.1)) than those without such risk factors (n = 29). (
  • Compared with healthy controls, airway function is reduced in young children with recurrent wheeze, particularly those at risk for subsequent asthma. (
  • Results were organized as a checklist for assessment of at-risk infants. (
  • 6 The important premise for paediatricians is that infants should not be exposed to any unnecessary risk. (
  • For infants below 16 weeks of age the approach may not be appropriate and the application of the EFSA guidance on risk assessment of substances present in food intended for infants below 16 weeks of age is recommended. (
  • The impact of cumulative exposure to pesticide residues on infants and young children is not different from the general population and the EFSA cumulative risk assessment methodology is also applicable to these age groups. (
  • Prior to the rapid expansion of vitamin A capsule distribution programs in recent years, WHO estimated that more that 250 million preschool children were at risk of being vitamin A deficient. (
  • Compared with children raised in smoke-free environments, ETS-exposed children have a higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory infection, ear infection, asthma, meningitis and reduced lung growth. (
  • Adding to this body of evidence, the systematic review found that children exposed to ETS had increased risk of respiratory adverse events during the perianaesthetic period of surgery. (
  • 2 Beyond those risks, children with at least one smoking parent are about 60% more likely to take up smoking in adulthood themselves and the risk of uptake is much higher if both parents smoke 3 compounding the risks of childhood ETS exposure with personal smoking in adulthood. (
  • Conclusions Simple clinical syndromes effectively target children admitted with invasive bacterial infection and those at risk of death. (
  • This seems to be supported by findings that those with a family history of the condition are at higher risk for being born with it, or passing it along to their children. (
  • Although C. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, infants are believed to be at greatest risk of infection. (
  • The IAEA also supports the application of stable isotope techniques to assess the success of refeeding programmes for severely undernourished children. (
  • A new test was developed to assess stereopsis in young children. (
  • Prior to transport, the clinical team currently responsible for patient care will assess the infant, child or young person's clinical condition for suitability to transport, and determine the specific transport requirements. (
  • A selective IgA deficiency should alert physicians to assess affected children with respect to diverse phenotypes of food allergy. (
  • The purpose of the current study was to increase the understanding of the impact of neuromuscular blockade on FRC in anesthetized infants and children who have healthy lungs, and to assess the impact of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to reverse the changes induced by neuromuscular blockade. (
  • Aim 1 will assess the relative benefit of an extended bandwidth hearing-aid vs. a frequency-lowering scheme to improve the audibility of high-frequency speech components for children with hearing loss. (
  • Studies show that in communities where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, improving vitamin A status reduces child deaths by an average of 23 percent. (
  • Codex Alimentarius (2008) Code of hygienic practice for powdered formulae for infants and young children (CAC/RCP 66-2008). (
  • The IFE Core Group's work to date has centred on development of policy guidance and capacity building tools, capturing and learning from what happens in emergency response with regard to infant and young child feeding and promoting policy and practice change in the context of preparedness and response. (
  • Useful testing for the microbiological safety and quality of dry foods for infants and young children is discussed. (
  • While the desire to decrease or eliminate an important food allergy is great, peanut, nuts of any kind, seeds and other hard foods can be very dangerous for infants and young children. (
  • Pesticides in dietary foods for infants and young children. (
  • 3-5 In this article we wish to comment from a paediatric perspective on the choices, which have recently been debated, for defining reliably safe maximum residue limits for pesticides in dietary foods for infants and young children in the European Union. (
  • 6 Such maximum concentrations are also required for organically grown baby foods which may contain residue concentrations exceeding those acceptable for infants. (
  • But the period is often marked by growth faltering, micronutrient deficiencies and common childhood illnesses following sub-optimal breastfeeding and infant transition from exclusive breastfeeding to additional foods [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • The rate of non-IgE mediated allergic sensitization to foods in the population of infants and young children is high and clinically relevant. (
  • The contribution of conventional food to the total exposure to pesticide residues is much higher than that from foods intended for infants and young children. (
  • Breastmilk is generally higher in nutritional value than alternative foods and liquids fed to children in developing countries. (
  • Only 32.5% of children were given iron-rich or iron-fortified foods. (
  • Standard infant formulas are not meant for this purpose. (
  • The most commonly used infant formulas contain purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source, a blend of vegetable oils as a fat source, lactose as a carbohydrate source, a vitamin-mineral mix, and other ingredients depending on the manufacturer. (
  • In addition, there are infant formulas using soybean as a protein source in place of cow's milk (mostly in the United States and Great Britain) and formulas using protein hydrolysed into its component amino acids for infants who are allergic to other proteins. (
  • The recommendations, now called key action statements, include important changes for family physicians and others who treat infants and young children. (
  • 6 Children and families are best served when pediatricians' screening efforts are coordinated with tracking and intervention services available in the community. (
  • An infant, child or young person who is assessed as physiologically stable with no safety concerns and no requirement for nursing intervention (e.g. intravenous fluids in progress, continuous nasogastric fluid in progress, oxygen therapy) or nursing surveillance during the transport, can be transported in the sole care of parents / caregiver as long as guidance is provided. (
  • Because INS is an early-onset disease and because, at least hypothetically, intervention at an early age may yield significant benefits to the patient, a feasible, quantitative ocular motor outcome measure would be of great value for young patients with nystagmus. (
  • These infants do not need anything apart from breastmilk - not even water. (
  • While stress can temporarily interfere with flow of breastmilk, it is not likely to stop breastmilk production, and a moderately malnourished woman can still produce enough breastmilk for her infant. (
  • Breastmilk is a hygienic source of energy, essential nutrients, water, immune factors, and many other components that are beneficial for infants and young children. (
  • Vitamin A intake of a breastfed child depends on the vitamin A status of the mother, the stage of lactation, and the quantity of breastmilk consumed. (
  • Infants and young children are more likely to get a serious illness from germs that animals can carry because their immune systems are still developing. (