An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
Care of infants in the home or institution.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Centers for acquiring, storing, and distributing human milk.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
Female parents, human or animal.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Anemia characterized by appearance of immature myeloid and nucleated erythrocytes in the peripheral blood, resulting from infiltration of the bone marrow by foreign or abnormal tissue.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Measurement or recording of contraction activity of the uterine muscle. It is used to determine progress of LABOR, OBSTETRIC and assess status of pregnancy. It is also used in conjunction with FETAL MONITORING to determine fetal response to stress of maternal uterine contractions.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Size and composition of the family.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Male parents, human or animal.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

Accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. (1/987)

OBJECTIVE: Fetal outcome is inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Therefore, in very small fetuses, estimated weight may play an important role in clinical management. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SUBJECTS: We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive infants with a birth weight of < 1000 g, at a gestational age between 24.0 and 34.0 weeks, in which biometric data < 2 weeks prior to delivery were available for analysis. METHODS: We estimated fetal weight with the use of two methods--by those of Hadlock and colleagues and Scott and colleagues--and compared the estimated values with measured birth weights. RESULTS: The infants had a mean birth weight of 742 +/- 173 (SD) g, at a gestational age of 28.1 +/- 2.0 (SD) weeks. With Hadlock's method, the mean estimated fetal weight (EFW) was 736 +/- 186 (SD) g, which was not significantly different from birth weight; the mean EFW error was 0.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) %. With Scott's method, the mean EFW was 780 +/- 185 (SD) g, which was significantly increased above birth weight; the mean EFW error was 5.7 +/- 12.5 (SD) %. The accuracy of the weight estimates was not significantly affected by the period between ultrasound examination and delivery if < 2 weeks, or by fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: In our population of small fetuses, Hadlock's estimates of fetal weight correlated well with measured birth weight, whereas Scott's method tended to overestimate.  (+info)

The influence of day of life in predicting the inpatient costs for providing care to very low birth weight infants. (2/987)

The purpose of this study was to test, refine, and extend a statistical model that adjusts neonatal intensive care costs for a very low birth weight infant's day of life and birth weight category. Subjects were 62 infants with birth weights below 1,501 g who were born and cared for in a university hospital until discharged home alive. Subjects were stratified into 250-g birth weight categories. Clinical and actual daily room and ancillary-resource costs for each day of care of each infant were tabulated. Data were analyzed by using a nonlinear regression procedure specifying two separate for modeling. The modeling was performed with data sets that both included and excluded room costs. The former set of data were used for generating a model applicable for comparing interhospital performances and the latter for comparing interphysician performances. The results confirm the existence of a strong statistical relationship between an infant's day of life and both total hospital costs and the isolated costs for ancillary-resource alone (P < 0.0001). A refined series of statistical models have been generated that are applicable to the assessment of either interhospital or interphysician costs associated with providing inpatient care to very low birth weight infants.  (+info)

Stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants. (3/987)

AIM: To serially characterise aerobic and anaerobic stool microflora in extremely low birthweight infants and to correlate colonisation patterns with clinical risk factors. METHODS: Stool specimens from 29 infants of birthweight <1000 g were collected on days 10, 20, and 30 after birth. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were performed. RESULTS: By day 30, predominant species were Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterbacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp were identified in only one infant. In breast milk fed (but not in formula fed) infants, the total number of bacterial species/stool specimen increased significantly with time (2.50 (SE 0.34) on day 10; 3.13 (0.38) on day 20; 4.27 (0.45) on day 30) as did quantitative bacterial counts; Gram negative species accounted for most of the increase. On day 30, significant inverse correlations were found between days of previous antibiotic treatment and number of bacterial species (r=0.491) and total organisms/g of stool (r=0.482). Gestational age, birthweight, maternal antibiotic or steroid treatment, prolonged rupture of the membranes, and mode of delivery did not seem to affect colonisation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The gut of extremely low birthweight infants is colonised by a paucity of bacterial species. Breast milking and reduction of antibiotic exposure are critical to increasing fecal microbial diversity.  (+info)

Determination of resonance frequency of the respiratory system in respiratory distress syndrome. (4/987)

AIM: To measure tidal volume delivery produced by high frequency oscillation (HFO) at a range of frequencies including the resonance frequency. METHODS: Eighteen infants with respiratory distress syndrome were recruited (median gestation 28.7 weeks). Each was ventilated at frequencies between 8 and 30 Hertz. Phase analysis was performed at various points of the respiratory cycle. HFO was provided by a variable speed piston device. Resonance frequency was determined from the phase relation between the cyclical movements of the piston and pressure changes at the airway opening. Tidal volume was measured using a jacket plethysmograph. RESULTS: The results were most reproducible when analysis was performed at the end of inspiration (within 1 Hz in nine out of 10 cases). Comparison between tidal volume delivery at 10 Hz and resonance frequency was made in 10 subjects. Delivery was significantly higher at resonance than at 10 Hertz (mean percentage increase 92%, range 9-222%). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that there is improved volume delivery at resonance frequency.  (+info)

Trends in incidence of cranial ultrasound lesions and cerebral palsy in very low birthweight infants 1982-93. (5/987)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of changing perinatal practice on outcome in terms of cranial ultrasound appearances and subsequent cerebral palsy rates in survivors. METHODS: A tertiary neonatal centre based prospective cohort study was undertaken of very low birthweight infants, in three 4 year periods: 1982-5, 1986-9, 1990-3. Rates of survival, parenchymal cerebral haemorrhage (PH), and leucomalacia on cerebral ultrasound scans, and cerebral palsy (CP) at the age of 3 years were compared. Antenatal steroid prophylaxis and postnatal surfactant use were also compared. RESULTS: VLBW infants (1722) were admitted over the 12 years, of whom 1268 (73.6%) were discharged home. Neonatal survival increased significantly over the three periods (69.2%, 72.9%, 79.7%; p < 0.0001). PH declined from 14.9% to 10.5% (p = 0.032) after 1990 as did CP rate (10.9% to 7.3%; p = 0.046). The use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant greatly increased during this period. Steroid use was significantly associated with increased survival (OR 3.34, 2.31-4.79), decreased PH (OR 0.44, 0.28-0.71), and decreased risk of CP in survivors (OR 0.47, 0.27-0.81) after standardising for gestation, birthweight, sex, place and mode of delivery. Similar effects for surfactant did not remain significant after steroid use had been accounted for. CONCLUSION: Improved survival in VLBW infants since 1990 has been accompanied by a fall in PH and subsequent CP rates in survivors. This change is most likely to be due to the greater use of antenatal steroid prophylaxis.  (+info)

Interobserver agreement for grating acuity and letter acuity assessment in 1- to 5.5-year-olds with severe retinopathy of prematurity. (6/987)

PURPOSE: To evaluate interobserver test-retest reliability of the Teller Acuity Card procedure for assessment of grating acuity at ages 1, 2, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years, for HOTV letter acuity at 3.5 and 4.5 years, and for Early-Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letter acuity at 5.5 years in the multicenter study of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP). METHODS: Subjects were the 73 participants in the CRYO-ROP study who had acuity assessed at one or more ages by two of the seven study visual acuity testers as part of a quality control procedure. All subjects had birth weights of less than 1251 g, and all had severe (threshold) ROP in one or both eyes. RESULTS: For sighted eyes, interobserver agreement for grating acuity (across all five test ages) was 0.5 octave or better in 57% of eyes and 1.0 octave or better in 85% of eyes. Interobserver agreement for letter acuity (3.5-, 4.5-, and 5.5-year test ages) was 0.5 octave or better in 71% of eyes and 1.0 octave or better in 93% of eyes. For all eyes (sighted and blind), Kendall rank correlation coefficients (Tau) were 0.86, 0.83, and 0.94 for grating, HOTV, and ETDRS acuity, respectively. Kappa statistics on data from all eyes indicated excellent interobserver agreement for grating, HOTV, and ETDRS acuity (0.73, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively). Interobserver agreement was not related to age or to severity of retinal residua of ROP. CONCLUSIONS: Excellent interobserver agreement for grating acuity measurements and for letter acuity measurements was obtained. Results suggest that with careful training and implementation of quality control procedures, high reliability of visual acuity results is possible in clinical populations of young children.  (+info)

Outcome following pulmonary haemorrhage in very low birthweight neonates treated with surfactant. (7/987)

AIM: To determine if pulmonary haemorrhage after surfactant treatment increases short and long term morbidity and mortality in neonates weighing <1500 g at birth. METHODS: Neonates weighing <1500 g at birth who developed pulmonary haemorrhage after surfactant treatment were identified from a database. Based on the change in FIO2, pulmonary haemorrhage was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Controls were matched for birthweight, gestational age, Apgar scores and hospital. Chronic lung disease (CLD) was defined as the need for supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks of corrected gestational age. RESULTS: From January 1990 to May 1994, 94 of 787 (11.9%) neonates treated with surfactant developed pulmonary haemorrhage. Ten were excluded because of incomplete data or lack of controls. Eighty four were included for further analysis; two acceptable matches were found in 75, while only one match was possible in nine. For the pulmonary haemorrhage group, the mean (SD) birthweight was 917 (238) g, gestational age 27 (1.9) weeks. Pulmonary haemorrhage was severe in 39 (46%), moderate in 22 (26%), and mild in 23 (27%). Moderate and severe pulmonary haemorrhage were associated with chronic lung disease or death, OR 4.4 (confidence interval 1.3-15.7) and OR 7.8 (CI 2.6-28), respectively, while mild pulmonary haemorrhage was not, OR 1.8 (CI 0.55-5.8). pulmonary haemorrhage was associated with major intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), OR 3.1 (CI 1.5-6.4), but not with minor IVH, OR 1.3 (CI 0.6-2. 6). In the survivors who could be assessed at >/=2 years, the differences in neurodevelopmental outcome among the two groups were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In neonates treated with surfactant moderate and severe pulmonary haemorrhage is associated with an increased risk of death and short term morbidity. Pulmonary haemorrhage does not seem to be associated with increased long term morbidity.  (+info)

Vitamin A supplementation for extremely-low-birth-weight infants. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. (8/987)

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation may reduce the risk of chronic lung disease and sepsis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. The results of our pilot study suggested that a dose of 5000 IU administered intramuscularly three times per week for four weeks was more effective than the lower doses given in past trials. METHODS: We performed a multicenter, blinded, randomized trial to assess the effectiveness and safety of this regimen as compared with sham treatment in 807 infants in need of respiratory support 24 hours after birth. The mean birth weight was 770 g in the vitamin A group and 769 g in the control group, and the respective gestational ages were 26.8 and 26.7 weeks. RESULTS: By 36 weeks' postmenstrual age, 59 of the 405 infants (15 percent) in the vitamin A group and 55 of the 402 infants (14 percent) in the control group had died. The primary outcome - death or chronic lung disease at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age - occurred in significantly fewer infants in the vitamin A group than in the control group (55 percent vs. 62 percent; relative risk, 0.89; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.80 to 0.99). Overall, 1 additional infant survived without chronic lung disease for every 14 to 15 infants who received vitamin A supplements. The proportions of infants in the vitamin A group and the control group who had signs of potential vitamin A toxicity were similar. The proportion of infants with serum retinol values below 20 microg per deciliter (0.70 micromol per liter) was lower in the vitamin A group than in the control group (25 percent vs. 54 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Intramuscular administration of 5000 IU of vitamin A three times per week for four weeks reduced biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency and slightly decreased the risk of chronic lung disease in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: In recent trends, there is increasing number of babies born with very low birth weight. These VLBW babies are at risk of developing Hypoglycemia, Sepsis, Hyperbilirubinemia, Respiratory distress when compared to term babies. By studying the risk factors leading to very low birth weight and their morbidities, health professionals will be able to anticipate and manage them accordingly. Identification of morbidity and mortality in VLBW neonates will help us in formulating and implementing interventions to reduce neonatal mortality rate. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the morbidity and mortality profile in very low birth weight neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Coimbatore Medical College Hospital. OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the morbidity and mortality pattern in very low birth weight neonates. 2. To study the maternal risk factors leading to very low birth weight neonates. 3. To establish targeted preventive and advanced treatment strategies in specific areas. 4. To plan for future ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A hearing screening in very low birth weight preterm infants by auditory brainstem response. AU - Wu, J. L.. AU - Huang, C. C.. AU - Kao, C. C.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Background: ABR has been used as an objective, non-invasive tool to screen neonatal deafness. In this article, we evaluated the prevalence of deafness in VLBW preterm newborns by ABR, and attempted to search for a suitable failed/passed criterion. Methods: ABR screening test was performed in 88 VLBW preterm newborns. The infants whose threshold was ≤ 35dB nHL were classified as Group A; those whose threshold was ≤ 25dB nHL were classified as Group B. All of the newborns of either Group A or Group B received the successive ABR screening test and behavioral audiometry to confirm whether they have hearing impairment or not. Results: Fourteen newborns (16%) were included in Group A and 19 newborns (22%) in Group B. There were five newborns who belonged to Group B, but not to Group A; all of them were found ...
MUDAHEMUKA, J C e BALLOT, D E. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving to discharge from Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital. S. Afr. j. child health [online]. 2014, vol.8, n.4, pp.149-153. ISSN 1999-7671. http://dx.doi.org/10.7196/SAJCH.709.. BACKGROUND: The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been associated with poor postnatal weight gain. OBJECTIVE: To provide current information on the postnatal growth of VLBW infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of VLBW infants surviving to discharge from CMJAH neonatal unit from August to October 2013. RESULTS: Sixty-nine infants were included in the study. The mean GV was 13.2 g/kg/day, the median weight loss was 7.69% and the median time for regaining birth weight was 16 days. Fifty-one infants (73.9%) regained their birth weight at or before 21 days. There was a decrease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of early dexamethasone therapy on pulmonary mechanics and chronic lung disease in very low birth weight infants. T2 - A randomized, controlled trial. AU - Durand, M.. AU - Sardesai, S.. AU - McEvoy, C.. PY - 1995/4/24. Y1 - 1995/4/24. N2 - Objective. To determine the changes in pulmonary mechanics before and during early dexamethasone therapy, and to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone on the duration of mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight (VLBW) ventilator-dependent infants at risk for chronic lung disease (CLD). Methods. A prospective randomized trial was conducted. Forty-three patients (birth weight 600 to 1500 g, gestational age 24 to 32 weeks) who failed to be weaned from the respirator at 7 to 14 days of age were enrolled; 23 infants received a 7-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg/day intravenously for 3 days, 0.25 mg/kg/day for 3 days, and 0.1 mg/kg/day for 1 day), and 20 patients were in the control group. At similar mean airway pressure (MAP) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hyperglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. AU - Garg, Ruchira. AU - Agthe, Alexander G.. AU - Donohue, Pamela K.. AU - Lehmann, Christoph U.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003/4. Y1 - 2003/4. N2 - Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remains a leading cause of morbidity in the very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant. This study investigates a possible association between serum/blood glucose and the development of ROP. Methods: A retrospective case - control study of all infants born between 1992 and 1997 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with birth weights less than 1000 g who developed Stage 3 or 4 ROP was conducted. Controls either had Stage 1 ROP or no eye disease and were matched 2:1 with ROP patients for gestational age, birth weight and year of birth. Odds ratios (ORs) of ROP were calculated for multiple exposures over the first month after birth, including oxygen concentration (FiO2), blood ...
The Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers. The purpose is to collect baseline and outcome data in a uniform manner on a large cohort of VLBW and other sick infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units.. The GDB collects observational baseline data on both mothers and infants, and the therapies used and outcomes of the infants. The information collected is not specific to a disease or treatment (i.e., it is generic). Baseline data is collected soon after admission to the NICU; outcome data is collected at the time of death or discharge from the hospital. The data collected includes information on:. ...
The Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) centers. The purpose is to collect baseline and outcome data in a uniform manner on a large cohort of VLBW and other sick infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units.. The GDB collects observational baseline data on both mothers and infants, and the therapies used and outcomes of the infants. The information collected is not specific to a disease or treatment (i.e., it is generic). Baseline data is collected soon after admission to the NICU; outcome data is collected at the time of death or discharge from the hospital. The data collected includes information on:. ...
A new method for direct measurement of airway pressure using a fiber optic pressure sensor (FOPS) has been tested in very low birth weight infants during mechanical ventilation. Airway pressure and ventilatory flow was recorded in an initial investig
Programs Calendar with Balancing the Nutritional Needs of Very Low Birth Weight Infants with the Protective Properties of Human Milk - June ...
Interventions for treatment of neonatal hyperglycemia in very low birth weight infants: Cochrane systematic review answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Abstract. BACKGROUND: Newborn infants with birth weight less than 1500 grams defining very low birth weight (VLBW) constitute 1.2-1.5% of total live births and 15-20% of all admissions to neonatal units. Advances in antenatal care, care at delivery, and neonatal practice over the past few decades, have substantially improved outcomes in VLBW infants, and reduced neonatal mortality.. METHODS: A retrospective single tertiary care center cohort study of VLBW infants with gestational age between 23-33 weeks admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah (KAMC-J) between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2019 (26 years). The trends of survival of VLBW infants and major changes in clinical practice of premature care over a period of 26 years were evaluated.. RESULTS: Over a period of 26 years, 1,247 VLBW infants were admitted to the NICU that represents 1.43% (1.25-1.83%) of total live births. 50.80% (n = 634) were male, whereas the 49.2% (n = 613) were ...
Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm infants Edited (no change to conclusions) answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Very low birth weight infants (newborns who weigh less than 3 pounds 2 ounces) require intensive medical care. While these infants represent less than 2 percent of all live births, they also account for about two-thirds of the infants who die in the first year of life. Interventions that reduce the very low birth weight rate will also reduce Medicaid expenditures during the first year of life and reduce the infant mortality rate.. The integrated delivery of the WIC and FCM programs is having a significant impact on the states infant mortality rate and health care expenditures. Nine consecutive annual program evaluations have shown that the health status of infants born to Medicaid-eligible women who participated in both WIC and FCM has been substantially better than that of infants born to Medicaid-eligible women who did not participate in either program. In particular, the rate of premature birth is more than 60 percent lower among participants in both programs. The rate of low birth weight is ...
Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age,
OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine the effect of training in newborn care and resuscitation on 7-day (early) neonatal mortality rates for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that these training programs would reduce neonatal mortality rates for VLBW infants.
Breastfeeding a very low birth weight baby is a challenging and exhausting experience for the mother. A better teaching protocol for breastfeeding and an improved breastfeeding ethos need to be implemented in the neonatal intensive care unit and special care nursery to support families of very low b …
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants have low plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO), providing a rationale for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to prevent or treat anaemia and to provide neuro protection and protection against necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Darbepoetin (Darbe) and EPO are currently available ESAs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of ESAs (erythropoietin (EPO) and/or Darbe) initiated early (before eight days after birth) compared with placebo or no intervention in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, adverse neurological outcomes, and feeding intolerance including necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm and/or low birth weight infants ...
BACKGROUND Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. DESIGN Comparative cohort study. SETTING Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during their first week of life. Half of them were designated as cases in view of having various early neonatal illnesses. The remaining 28 being clinically stable were taken as controls. These two groups had comparable birthweights, sex distribution and gestational ages. Their sodium intakes were also similar during the
Dietary protein is needed for normal growth and development. The protein intake required for growth of the low birth weight infant has been estimated by the growth rate of the fetus to be 3.5 to 4.0 g/kg/d. Controlling the amount of protein given to low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) fed with formula is important. Too much protein can raise blood urea and amino acid (phenylalanine) levels, and this may harm neurodevelopment. Too low protein intake may limit the growth of these infants. The review authors searched the medical literature to identify studies that compared protein intake as follows: between 3 and 4 g of protein per kg of infant body weight each day versus less than 3.0 g/kg/d or greater than 4.0 g/kg/d by low birth weight infants fed formula during their initial hospital stay. Increased protein intake resulted in greater weight gain of around 2.0 g/kg/d. Based on increased body incorporation of nitrogen, this was associated with increased lean body mass. The present conclusion was
Dietary protein is needed for normal growth and development. The protein intake required for growth of the low birth weight infant has been estimated by the growth rate of the fetus to be 3.5 to 4.0 g/kg/d. Controlling the amount of protein given to low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) fed with formula is important. Too much protein can raise blood urea and amino acid (phenylalanine) levels, and this may harm neurodevelopment. Too low protein intake may limit the growth of these infants. The review authors searched the medical literature to identify studies that compared protein intake as follows: between 3 and 4 g of protein per kg of infant body weight each day versus less than 3.0 g/kg/d or greater than 4.0 g/kg/d by low birth weight infants fed formula during their initial hospital stay. Increased protein intake resulted in greater weight gain of around 2.0 g/kg/d. Based on increased body incorporation of nitrogen, this was associated with increased lean body mass. The present ...
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Results. Postnatal growth curves suitable for clinical and research use were constructed for body weight, length, head circumference, and midarm circumference. Once birth weight was regained, weight gain (14.4-16.1 g/kg/d) approximated intrauterine rates. However, at hospital discharge, most infants born between 24 and 29 weeks of gestation had not achieved the median birth weight of the reference fetus at the same postmenstrual age. Gestational age, race, and gender had no effect on growth within 100-g birth weight strata. Appropriate-for-gestational age infants who survived to hospital discharge without developing chronic lung disease, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, or late onset-sepsis gained weight faster than comparable infants with those morbidities. More rapid weight gain was also associated with a shorter duration of parenteral nutrition providing at least 75% of the total daily fluid volume, an earlier age at the initiation of enteral feedings, and an ...
This report documents the temperature on admission of a recent large cohort of very low birth weight infants born within 15 academic centers and transferred directly to the NICU from the labor and delivery department. The principal findings of this study are as follows: (a) low temperatures on admission are common; (b) there are important associations between the admission temperature and variables antecedent to admission that may be amenable to change; and (c) there is a prominent association between the extent of reduced temperature on admission and both late-onset sepsis and in-hospital mortality.. Efforts to limit heat loss are important initial steps in the stabilization of newborns immediately after birth and are incorporated in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program12 and the World Health Organizations guide to thermal control of the newborn.13 Minimizing heat loss in low birth weight and premature infants is difficult because of high evaporative heat loss exacerbated by a large temperature ...
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with variable degrees of brain injury, adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and continuing special health care needs. STUDY AND AIMS: This observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study aims to describe the functional features of VLBW infants using the ICF-CY classification and to identify the association between gender, twinship, birth weight, gestational age, adjusted age and functioning as defined by the ICF biopsychosocial model. SAMPLE: 56 VLBW infants (corrected age of 12-24 months) were consecutively enrolled. INSTRUMENTS: Three assessment tools were used: a neuro-functional assessment (NFA); the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Revised: Birth to 2 years (Griffiths 0-2) to evaluate psychomotor development and the ICF-CY questionnaire for ages 0-3. RESULTS: A two-step cluster component analysis with the Bayesian information criterion was conducted based on NFA and Griffiths 0-2 scores and four groups of infants functioning (very low, low, ...
Results Forty-one infants for both groups were recruited. Neonatal and socio-demographic characteristics of both groups were similar except for the confounders caesarean section, antenatal corticosteroids (higher in AREDF group, p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively), and mothers age (lower in AREDF group, p = 0.01). Mean (SD) mental development index of children with AREDF in the UA (81.8, 16.3) was significantly lower (p = 0.02) compared to controls (92.4, 16.3). This result remains significant after adjustment for confounders. No significant differences in the psychomotor development index or in the distribution of cerebral palsy were observed between the two groups.. ...
Results The mean i-FABP concentration in the second group (1.75±0.62 ng/ml) was elevated in 1.4 times compared with the first group (1.23±0.23 ng/ml). Significant high urine i-FABP concentration was observed in died infants of second group (2.39±0.88 ng/ml, p,0.05). In contrast the serum LBP level in newborns of second group was lower (23.1±4.5 ng/ml) in 1.4 time compared to newborns of first group (32.1±2.3 ng/ml).. ...
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Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Pediatrics. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping. ...
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Background: One of the most common methods of identifying mortality risk is the Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB- II). The aim of this study was assessing the value of CRIB- II in predicting mortality risk in preterm and low birth weight infants in East Azerbaijan- Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out in 2013-2014 during 6 months in NICUs of Alzahra, Taleqani and Children hospitals of Tabriz-Iran. All infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age or ≤ 1500gr birth weight were included in the study using consecutive method. After calculating CRIB- II score, the infants were followed up at 3 months of age and their outcome was determined. The data was analyzed using SPSS-13, t- test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) and relative risk (RR). Results: Of total 215 infants, 64 infants (29.7%) died in the hospital and one infant (0.4%) died after discharging from the hospital. 150 (68.8%) infants, were alive at 3 months age
Background: Neonates with less than 32-34 weeks of gestation are prone to feeding intolerance and Necrotizing Entrocolitis (NEC).Different methods for feeding have been used in the world and several studies have been made to evaluate the outcomes of these methods.Objective: To compare two methods of feeding of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature neonates in two hospitals(both affiliated to Iran,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences)and to evaluate the effects of these methods on feeding tolerance as well as risk of NEC.Methods: This prospective case-control Analytic study was performed on 68 healthy premature neonates in each hospitals(that we said above) in 2003.In method which we used in Beheshti hospital(No.1 method),feeding initiated with 2-3 ml of breast milk every 2 hr and advanced daily 15-25 ml/kg. In method which we used in Alzahra hospital(No.2 method),feeding initiated with 1-2 ml of breast milk every 1 hr. And advanced daily 1 ml to each feeding,until 150 ml/kg/24 hr. We filled a
Much remains unknown about the consequences of very low birth weight (VLBW) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on adult lungs. Although survival has improved significantly in recent years,...
• We evaluated the nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in all infants with very low birth weight admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit from 1983 to 19
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most prevalent chronic lung disease in infants and presents as a consequence of preterm birth. Due to the lack of effective preventive and treatment strategies, BPD currently represents a major therapeutic challenge that requires continued research efforts at the basic, translational, and clinical levels. However, not all very low birth weight premature babies develop BPD, which suggests that in addition to known gestational age and intrauterine and extrauterine risk factors, other unknown factors must be involved in this diseases development. One of the main goals in BPD research is the early prediction of very low birth weight infants who are at risk of developing BPD in order to initiate the adequate preventive strategies. Other benefits of determining the risk of BPD include providing prognostic information and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment. In this article, we describe new opportunities to address BPDs complex pathophysiology by ...
Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate ...
Comment on Increased caesarean section rate over time (1994-2006) is not associated with improved outcomes in very low birth weight infants ...
Sodium and potassium levels were measured weekly in mothers milk and in serum and urine of 41 supplemented and 25 unsupplemented very-low-birth-weight infants whose mean birth weights were 1390g and 1332g, respectively (mean gestational age, 31 weeks). Sodium intake was 5.95mmol/kg/day for the supplemented group and 2.75mmol/kg/day for controls. None of the infants in either group was hyponatremic during the 6-week period of study. Urinary sodium in the supplemented group was 15.7mmol/L as compared with 7.5mmol/L in controls. Human milk sodium was significantly lower than reported elsewhere. Growth in the supplemented group was greater than in the unsupplemented group. Since no episode of hyponatremia occurred, it was concluded that routine sodium supplementation was ...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD)/chronic lung disease occurs primarily in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) often without antecedent severe respiratory distress syndrome. The BPD in these VLBW infants results in less fibrosis than the traditional BPD but the normal process of alveolarization seem …
Very Low Birth Weight Very low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 3 pounds, 4 ounces. It is very rare that babies are born this tiny. Only about 1 in 100 babies born in the U.S. are very low birth weight.. ...
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Handling of Healthy Very Low birth Weight Infants during Their Initial Hospitalization Effects on Motor Behavior. Prof. Paul J.M. Helders , Wilhelmina Childrens Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands, July 1991. Scope of Study. The study was carried out at the high care unit of the Department of Neonatology of the Wilhelmina Childrens Hospital in premature infants with gestational age at birth of 32 weeks or less and/or a birth weight of less than 1500 grams.. We chose a non-moving position of both hammock and other means of positioning, thus excluding among other vestibular stimulation. Our program aimed to simulate the intra-uterine tactile stimulation by the inner surface of the uterus as it occurs towards the end of gestation... Summary of Findings and Assumptions. ..For this study a hammock was designed in which the experimental infants, when in the supine position, were nursed for three consecutive weeks. In the lateral position, they were supported by flannelette blankets. Control ...
ළදරු ආසාදන ලෙස සලකණු ලබනුයේ උපතේ සිට පළමු සති 04 ඇතුලත සෑදෙන රෝගාබාධ වේ.[1] මේවා වර්ග තුනකින් සලකා බැලිය හැක. එනම් මව් කුස තුලදී, උපත සිදුවන විට කුහරය තුලදී (perinatal),හො උපතින් පසු.[2] සමහර ආසාදන උපත සිදුවන විට බලාපොරුත්තු විය හැක, නමුත් අනෙක් ආසාදන උපතින් පසු සතියකින් හො මසකින් ඇතිවිය හැක. HIV, hepatitis B, malaria වැනි ආසාදන උපතට පෙර ඇතිවන නමුත් බොහො කලක් යනතෙක් නොපෙනේ. There is a higher risk of infection with preterm or low birth weight neonates. Respiratory tract ...
Spontaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in very low birth weight infants following discharge from the neonatal unit ...
Being born at a low birth weight puts black women at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, a new study suggests.. The findings may partly explain high diabetes rates among black Americans, a population that has a high prevalence of low birth weight, the researchers added.. Their study of more than 21,000 black women found that those with a low birth weight were 13 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those with a normal birth weight. The risk of diabetes was 40 percent higher in those with a very low birth weight.. Low birth weight was defined as less than 5.5 pounds and very low birth weight as less than 3.3 pounds.. A womans body weight did not appear to affect the link between low birth weight and increased diabetes risk. Those who werent obese still had a higher risk of diabetes if they had a low or very low birth weight.. While the study found an association between birth weight and diabetes risk, it did not prove a cause-and-effect link.. The researchers pointed to two ...
This thesis examines the associations between personality traits and sleep quantity and quality in young adults. Additionally the possible effects of birth status on these associations are examined. The data used in this thesis is part of a birth cohort study (Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults). The personality traits are based on the five-factor model of personality. The sleep quantity and quality are based on actigraphy assessments. Four hypothesis were made about the personality and sleep associations: (1) neuroticism is related to a lesser quality of sleep, (2) there will be more significant associations between personality traits and sleep quality than between personality traits and sleep quantity, (3) the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) as well as, (4) the Small for Gestational Age (SGA) status will affect the associations. Linear regressions were used to study the associations between personality traits and sleep quality and quantity. Whenever an association was significant, it ...
An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks gestational age or younger.
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to examine qualities of caregiver-child interactions during daily activities of healthy children born full-term and of children born prematurely and very low birth weight with and without white matter disorder.. METHOD. Three groups of 12 caregiver-child dyads, representing three levels of child biological risk, were matched on birth history, maternal education, ethnicity, and child gender. Ten expert clinicians used videotapes to rate behaviors of caregivers and their 30-month-old children engaging in dressing and snack activities. Correlations between ratings of three qualities were examined: caregiver directiveness, caregiver engagement, and child engagement.. RESULTS. There were no significant differences between groups for the average caregiver and child ratings. However, correlations between caregiver directiveness and caregiver engagement ranged across the three groups from greatest to least biological risk (i.e., r = .63, .35, -.67, respectively). ...
The Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) was a multisite, randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention until three years of age for low birth weight preterm infants born in 1984-1985. There were three components to the intervention: (1) an educational program delivered through home visits (weekly during the first year and every other week during the second and third years of life), (2) a daily center-based program beginning at 12 months corrected for duration of gestation, and (3) parent support groups coinciding with the start of the center-based program. Previously, the subjects were assessed at baseline up to age 3 (Phase I), age 5 (Phase II), and age 8 (Phase III). Phase IV assessed them at age 18. This data collection contains selected variables from all four phases that were used in analyses reported in two articles by the principal investigators and others: McCormick, Marie C., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen L. Buka, Julie Goldman, Jennifer Yu, Mikhail Salganik, David ...
CUNHA, Gicelle S.; MEZZACAPPA FILHO, Francisco and RIBEIRO, José D.. Maternal and neonatal factors affecting the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight newborns. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.) [online]. 2003, vol.79, n.6, pp.550-556. ISSN 0021-7557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0021-75572003000600015.. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with the disease, and to determine the correlation between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the progress of newborns. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected on 153 infants born in Campinas (state of São Paulo, Brazil) from September 2000 to April 2002 weighing less than 1,500 g and treated at the University Hospital. The ratio of incidence rates with 95% CI, Breslow-Cox regression, Students t test, linear regression and the Fishers exact test were utilized. RESULTS: Among the 124 babies who survived until 28 days of age, 33 (26.6%) developed bronchopulmonary ...
The landmark study, whose lead author was Sandra Sullivan M.D. with the department of pediatrics at the University of Florida, Gainesville, concludes that for very low-birth-weight preterm infants weighing less than 1250 grams, an exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and surgical NEC, when compared to a very low-birth-weight preterm infant who received a diet that includes bovine milk-based products. NEC is a severe complication that often affects preterm infants, in which the intestinal tissue disintegrates. It is a serious disease with a mortality rate approaching 25%1. The results of the study are significant because, until recently, the standard of care and the only human milk fortifiers available were bovine-based (cows milk). This posed challenges for the nutritional care of very low-birth-weight preterm infants in the NICU because of the occurrence of intolerance to feedings, possibly as a result of exposure to ...
We sought to determine whether there are sex-based differences in the requirements for calories or protein for optimal growth during the transition phase (TP) when an extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant, defined as a preterm infant with a birth weight of | 1000 g, is progressing from parenteral to enteral feeds. A retrospective review of ELBW infants born from 2014 to 2016 was performed at a tertiary NICU. Infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, short bowel syndrome, or chromosomal anomalies were excluded. TP was defined as the period when the infants enteral feeds were increased from 30 up to 120 ml/kg/day while weaning parenteral nutrition (PN). Effects of sex and protein-calorie intake on the change in growth parameters from the beginning to the end of TP were analyzed. Pre-TP growth percentiles and calorie and protein intake were similar in both sexes. There was a significant (r = 0.22, p = 0.026) correlation of total calorie intake with a change in weight percentiles (wt.pc) for the whole
Objective: This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a 100% human milk-based diet composed of mothers milk fortified with a donor human milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF) versus mothers milk fortified with bovine milk-based HMF to initiate enteral nutrition among extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).. Methods: A net expected costs calculator was developed to compare the total NICU costs among extremely premature infants who were fed either a bovine milk-based HMF-fortified diet or a 100% human milk-based diet, based on the previously observed risks of overall necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and surgical NEC in a randomized controlled study that compared outcomes of these two feeding strategies among 207 very low birth weight infants. The average NICU costs for an extremely premature infant without NEC and the incremental costs due to medical and surgical NEC were derived from a separate analysis of hospital discharges in the state of California in ...
Objective : In this study, we aimed to produce basic data on the prenatal environmental risk factors of low birth weight infants at a community level. Methods : In 2000, we conducted the direct interview using questionnaire about prenatal environmental risk factors with low birth weight infant-delivered mothers and normal weight infant-delivered mothers in Asan-city, Chungcheongnamdo Province, Korea. The questionsgiven to the mothers included past pregnancy history, menstrual status, disease history before and during the pregnancy, family history, environmental risk factors and exposure history. The responses of the twogroups were compared to calculate the prenatal environmental risk factors of each group. Results : Mothers smoking was significantly associated with low birth weight infants (adjusted odds ratio(AOR) 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-8.56) and preterm baby (AOR 4.20; 95% CI, 1.21-14.61). Other environmental risk factors were not significantly different between the two ...
Experts believe breast milk contains a number of immune-boosting compounds which jump-start the infants immune system and assist the infant in fighting off infections. In this study, researchers found that preterm infants fed breast milk developed significantly fewer infections. 212 preterm, very low birth weight infants (under 3 pounds) were fed either breast milk or formula. After adjusting for all other factors, researchers determined that infants fed breast milk decreased their odds of infection by 57% - a dramatic decrease. Also, many immune system agents normally found in breast milk are in higher concentrations in the breast milk of mothers who deliver prematurely compared with mothers who delivery at term ...
Experts believe breast milk contains a number of immune-boosting compounds which jump-start the infants immune system and assist the infant in fighting off infections. In this study, researchers found that preterm infants fed breast milk developed significantly fewer infections. 212 preterm, very low birth weight infants (under 3 pounds) were fed either breast milk or formula. After adjusting for all other factors, researchers determined that infants fed breast milk decreased their odds of infection by 57% - a dramatic decrease. Also, many immune system agents normally found in breast milk are in higher concentrations in the breast milk of mothers who deliver prematurely compared with mothers who delivery at term ...
Introduction Exposure to tobacco during pregnancy is a risk to the mothers health and their unborn babies. It has been observed to be an important independent risk factor for the low birth-weight of newborns which may lead to fetal death. In Africa, Uganda is one of the countries with high prevalence of low birth weight newborns and is also experiencing an increasing trend in tobacco consumption. However, there is little evidence about the relationship between the prevalence of low birth weight and exposure to tobacco during pregnancy in Uganda. Study Objectives: To determine the association between exposure to tobacco during pregnancy and low birth weight in Arua district so as to generate information that will be used by the district health team and other stake holders in designing appropriate strategies for preventing mothers from exposure to tobacco during pregnancy. Methods: This was a facility based un-matched case control study conducted in Arua district, West Nile region. The cases were ...
Authors: Vats, K. , Choudhary, S.K. , Kumar, D. , Maria, A. , Bandopadhyay, T. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is known that small for gestational age (SGA) babies may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. There is paucity of literature regarding comparative cardiac functions of SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies in neonatal period. The present study was conceived to compare the cardiac function of term small and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) babies through a relatively novel echocardiographic index in early neonatal period. OBJECTIVES: To compare values of myocardial performance index (MPI) index (MPI = IVCT + IVRT/ET) at 48-72 hours of age among AGA and SGA babies. METHODS: Morphological …and anthropometric assessment of serially born term babies was done at time of birth to recruit hundred each of AGA and SGA babies. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) was done between 48-72 hours for each enrolled baby to assess both ...
A recent article in the journal Pediatrics has gathered a lot of news coverage this week. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adolescents Born Weighing|2000 Grams Here is the abstract: Objective: To estimate the diagnostic prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in a low birth weight (LBW) cohort. Methods: Participants belonged to a regional birth…
Complications from premature birth contribute to 35 % of neonatal deaths globally; therefore, efforts to improve clinical outcomes of preterm (PT) infants are imperative. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a low-cost, effective way to improve the respiratory status of preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. However, bCPAP remains largely inaccessible in resource-limited settings, and information on the scale-up of this technology in rural health facilities is limited. This paper describes health providers adherence to bCPAP protocols for PT/VLBW infants and clinical outcomes in rural Rwanda. This retrospective chart review included all newborns admitted to neonatal units in three rural hospitals in Rwanda between February 1st and October 31st, 2013. Analysis was restricted to PT/VLBW infants. bCPAP eligibility, identification of bCPAP eligibility and complications were assessed. Final outcome was assessed overall and by bCPAP initiation status. There were 136 PT/VLBW
THURSDAY, Oct. 10, 2019 (HealthDay News) - For very preterm or very low-birth-weight infants, advancing feeding volume in faster increments versus slower increments is not associated with a difference in survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months, according to a study published in the Oct. 10 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.. Jon Dorling, M.D., from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and colleagues randomly assigned very preterm or very low-birth-weight infants to daily milk increments of 30 mg/kg body weight (faster increment, 1,224 infants) or 18 mL/kg body weight (slower increment, 1,246 infants) until they reached full feeding volumes. Survival without moderate or severe neurodevelopmental disability at 24 months was assessed as the primary outcome.. The researchers found that the primary outcome occurred in 65.5 and 68.1 percent of infants assigned to the faster- and slower-increment groups, respectively (adjusted risk ...
Importance Postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) is typically benign in term infants but, in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, can cause pneumonitis and sepsis-like illness. Whether postnatal CMV infection results in long-term pulmonary sequelae in these infants is unknown. Objective To investigate the relationship between postnatal CMV infection and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality in a large, multicenter cohort of VLBW infants. Design Propensity-matched retrospective cohort study. Setting 348 neonatal intensive care units in the United States from 1997-2012. Participants Hospitalized VLBW ...
Read the article here Women who have large birth weight infants (9 pounds or more) most likely had gestational diabetes, or glucose intolerance at the least. These women had the genetic predisposition to insulin imbalance BEFORE pregnancy…they just didnt know it. Most found out they had insulin imbalance and blood sugar issues at the 24th-28th…
In this study, we found that one in four VLBW children and one in six SGA children had motor problems at 14 years of age. For VLBW children the increased risk was consistent among boys and girls, whereas for SGA children the risk was particularly high for boys with respect to manual dexterity. Analyses excluding children with cerebral palsy and/or low IQest suggest that poor motor skills are prevalent among low birthweight children without known physical and/or mental deficiencies.. The 10th centile definition of SGA is crude, and a certain proportion of normal small infants could have been classified as SGA, whereas some infants who may have been growth retarded in utero could have been classified as controls. Nonetheless, we found that the SGA group had a fivefold increased risk of motor problems compared with the control group. If SGA children were classified as controls, or vice versa, this would probably have resulted in smaller differences between the groups. The VLBW children were ...
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Study looks at variability of VLBW infant practices, outcomes. Very low birth weight babies born in Swiss Neonatal Network units had significantly higher odds of delivery room mortality due to a priori comfort care practice, but had a lower death or major morbidity risk, compared with those born in U.S. units in the Vermont Oxford Network, Swiss researchers reported in Pediatrics ...
Avroy A Fanaroff, Barbara J Stoll, Linda L Wright, Waldemar A Carlo, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Ann R Stark, Charles R Bauer, Edward F Donovan, Sheldon B Korones, Abbot R Laptook, James A Lemons, William Oh, Lu-Ann Papile, Seetha Shankaran, David K Stevenson, Jon E Tyson, W Kenneth Poole
The tiniest babies need special follow-up care when they go home from the hospital after birth. But, of the thousands of very-low-birth-weight babies born in California during 2010 and 2011, 20 percent were not referred to the states high-risk infant follow-up program, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.. Babies who weigh less than 3.3 pounds at birth, nearly all of whom are born prematurely, are at risk for a variety of neurologic and developmental problems in childhood. In California, all babies with a very low birth weight who received care in a California Childrens Services-approved neonatal intensive care unit qualify for a state-supported, follow-up program that provides diagnostic assessments and services until they turn 3.. If we cannot succeed in that first step of getting these babies referred to follow-up, were at a critical disconnect for what we can offer them as they grow and develop, said Susan Hintz, MD, professor of ...
The kangaroo care method in newborn is a way of protecting the baby through skin to skin contact between newborn and their parents. This review study was done by using the keywords including kangaroo mothre care, neonatal, skin to skin contact and preterm. All related articles were published in Pubmed, Sience direct, Google scholar, SID, and Magiran were studied during 2000 to 2016. Finally, 36 articles were reviewed which were similar according to objectives, method of work, sample size, analysis method, and conclusion. Reviewing the selected articles showed that skin to skin contact among newborn and their parents regulated the body temperature of the neonate, increased the newborns immune system, reduced infection and mortality rate, regulated heart and respiratory rate, increased the growth and weight gain in low birth weight neonates, reduced the stress and crying, increased prolong and stable periods of sleep, and also creates an emotional bond between the parents and the neonates. Kangaroo care
Your healthcare provider may also use fetal ultrasound to check your babys growth and development. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create a picture of your fetus. It is a more accurate than checking fundal height. Measurements can be taken of your babys head, belly (abdomen), and upper leg bone (femur). These measurements are used to estimate his or her weight.. Babies are weighed within the first few hours after birth. The weight is compared against the number of weeks of pregnancy (gestational age). If your baby weighs less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces), he or she has a low birth weight. Babies weighing less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces) at birth are considered very low birth weight. ...
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of early high doses parenteral nutrition (PN) versus early low dose with progressive increments PN regimens, we performed a prospective randomized study in very low birth-weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-one appropriate gestational age preterm infants with birth weights ranging from 750-1500 g were randomly assigned into two groups. In Group 1, infants started on 3.0 g/kg/day amino acids (AA) and 3 g/kg/day of 20% lipid; in Group 2, AA and lipid were started on 1 g/kg/day, and advanced over 3 days to a maximum 3 g/kg/day ...
Clinical interventions for resuscitation and stabilization in the first 90 minutes of life affect infant outcomes. Hospital teams participating in the Golden Hour Initiative work to improve outcomes of infants requiring resuscitation and stabilization by implementing evidenced-based practices for the first hours of life. Appropriate fetal and newborn interventions at the time of delivery and immediately after delivery are critical to improve the outcomes and applicable to neonates of all gestational ages. Those interventions include delayed cord clamping, thermoregulation and oxygenation and require well-coordinated care among the services and providers, particularly within the first 90 minutes of life, referred to as the Golden Hour. ILPQC has successfully implemented the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) hypothermia project and has sustained the effect of this initiative since 2009. ILPQCs past experience ensure the success of the Golden Hour initiative.. The Neonatal Advisory Group has ...
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) is designed to provide decision makers, researchers, child care providers, teachers, and parents with detailed information about childrens early life experiences. The birth cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B) looks at childrens health, development, care, and education during the formative years from birth through first grade. This second wave of the data was collected when the cohort was approximately two years of age. During the two-year collection, the BSF-R again was used to measure cognitive and motor development. A different taped interaction, the Two Bags Task, was used to assess childrens socioemotional development. A modified Q-sort was included in the two-year collection to assess the quality of childrens attachment to their primary caregiver. Again, all children had their height, weight, and middle-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured, and children born with very low birth weight had their head circumference ...
DUARTE, CA--(Marketwired - May 25, 2017) - Prolacta Bioscience®, the pioneer in human milk-based neonatal nutritional products for premature infants, announced today that it passed the halfway point in a clinical trial evaluating the effect of adding Prolact CR®, a caloric fortifier made from 100 percent human milk cream, to...
Greater likelihood of low birth weight, particularly for unwanted pregnancies.[5][18] This may be through increased risk of ... 5,000 fewer infant deaths, and the infant mortality rate would have been 10% lower.[5] ... eliminating all unwanted pregnancies would reduce rate of low birth weight by 7% for blacks, and 4% for whites, helping to ... Among lower-class women, the rate of unintended pregnancy and unintended birth rose from 1994 to 2001, while it declined for ...
Ziegler EE, Carlson SJ (March 2009). "Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants". J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 22 (3 ... "Slow advancement of enteral feed volumes to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants". The Cochrane ... "Delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants". The ... of very low-birth-weight infants (,1,500g).[9] ... Increasing amounts of milk by 30 to 40 mL/kg is safe in infant ...
This may be important for low birthweight infants. If pumping, it is helpful to have an electric, high-grade pump so that all ... Medications that are non-protein bound, low in molecular weight, or highly lipid-soluble are more likely to enter the breast ... feeding an infant breast milk is associated with lower insulin levels and higher leptin levels compared feeding an infant via ... A lower risk of child-onset diabetes may be more applicable to infants who were born from diabetic mothers. The reason is ...
Gaylord MS, Thieme RE, Woodall DL, Quissell BJ (1985). "Predicting mortality in low-birth-weight infants with pulmonary ... Hart SM, McNair M, Gamsu HR, Price JF (1983). "Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in very low birthweight infants". Arch Dis ... Yu VY, Wong PY, Bajuk B, Szymonowicz W (1986). "Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in infants less than 1000 g at birth". Aust ... Infants suffering from pulmonary interstitial emphysema are typically recommended for admission to a neonatal intensive care ...
"Association between Bacterial Vaginosis and Preterm Delivery of a Low-Birth-Weight Infant". New England Journal of Medicine. ... women symptomatic with BV before 22 weeks of gestation the risk of pre-term birth before 37 weeks of gestation is lower.[42] ... Some steps suggested to lower the risk include: not douching, avoiding sex, or limiting the number of sex partners.[38] ... preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum endometritis.[23] Women with BV who are treated with in vitro ...
A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants". Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine. 1 (1 ... Associated with premature birth and low birth weight[6]. Cause[edit]. Because plaque-induced gingivitis is by far the most ...
Low pre-pregnancy BMI increases the risk of low birth weight infants, but the risk can be balanced by an appropriate ... Their babies are least likely to either be low-birth weight or high-birth weight. It is advised that women with a normal weight ... The infant would likely suffer hypoglycemia (low glucose level in the blood) after birth. The infant would also have difficulty ... On the other hand, insufficient consumption will result in lower birth weight. Maintaining a healthy weight during gestation ...
Air pollution has been associated with low birth weight infants.[116] Conditions of particular severity in pregnancy include ... Weight gain. The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies.[101] Weight gain is related to the weight of the baby ... low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease and ... Final weight gain takes place, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy. The woman's abdomen will transform in ...
December 1995). "Association between bacterial vaginosis and preterm delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. The Vaginal ... Low pH is generally accepted to be the main mechanism controlling the composition of the vaginal microflora. Although the ... This implies that not all communities may be equally resilient, so that if the resilience of a vaginal community is low then ... Mirmonsef P, Gilbert D, Veazey RS, Wang J, Kendrick SR, Spear GT (January 2012). "A comparison of lower genital tract glycogen ...
The presence of glucocorticoids has contributed to the relatively low infant birth weight. A decrease in HSD-11β Type 2 in the ... "Diminished 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Activity Is Associated With Decreased Weight and Weight Gain Across the ... Infants born underweight are susceptible to having metabolic disease throughout their lives. ... placenta can lead to infant restriction in growth, specifically during the first 12 months of an infant's life. The reason for ...
1995). Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants. In: The Future of Children: Low Birth Weight. Vol. 5(1):19 ... Evaluation of the Black Infant Health program has suggested that BIH clients have lower amounts of birth defects, infant ... Rates of gestational age, pre-term birth weight, and infant mortality were higher in HBI clients when compared to LA County ... Although comparisons of infant mortality and pre-term birth rates between HBI clients and the outside community were not ...
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is common in infants with low birth weight (. ... Another purpose is the management of respiratory distress and apnea, particularly in infants. Analeptics can be used to ... Analeptics can also be used as convulsants, with low doses causing patients to experience heightened awareness, restlessness ... and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborn infants. Caffeine is a weak bronchodilator, which explains the relief of the effects ...
Severely premature infants can be born before descent of testes. Low birth weight is also a known factor. A contributing role ... In the even smaller minority of cryptorchid infants who have other obvious birth defects of the genitalia, further testing is ... It is the most common birth defect of the male genital tract. About 3% of full-term and 30% of premature infant boys are born ... In many infants with inguinal testes, further descent of the testes into the scrotum occurs in the first six months of life. ...
"Is chronic lung disease in low birth weight infants preventable? A survey of eight centers". Pediatrics. 79 (1): 26-30. PMID ... The nasal prongs can be secured by putting on an appropriate sized hat which rests on the lower part of the infant's ears and ... Not all infants with IRDS are candidates for initial treatment with CPAP and not all those who are given CPAP can be ... Short and wide nasal prongs allow for a low resistance to air flow. It is important that the nasal interface be applied to the ...
Low birth-weight, preterm infants are susceptible to Mycoplasma infections. Several species of Mycoplasma are frequently ... Jiang S, Zhang S, Langenfeld J, Lo SC, Rogers MB (May 2008). "Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces ... Tsai S, Wear DJ, Shih JW, Lo SC (October 1995). "Mycoplasmas and oncogenesis: Persistent infection and multistage malignant ... Zhang S, Tsai S, Lo SC (May 2006). "Alteration of gene expression profiles during mycoplasma-induced malignant cell ...
2009-05-25). "Fosfluconazole for antifungal prophylaxis in very low birth weight infants". International Journal of Pediatrics ...
Even job-related stress has been found to be associated with low birth weight and preterm birth. Working long hours, having ... "How a major immigration raid affected infant health". "Immigration fears among Latinos can impact baby size at birth". Delisle ... "Depression during pregnancy increases risk for preterm birth and low birth weight". UW Today. Retrieved 13 November 2015. " ... The effect was slightly larger at a lower birth weight of 20-25 grams if Ramadan fell somewhere in the first or second ...
S Scott, P Lucas, T Cole and M Richards, Weight gain and movement patterns of very low birthweight babies nursed on lambswool. ... While it is now accepted that infants perceive pain in the same way as adults [27], we are not aware of any research into how ... found that low birthweight babies in incubators had greater daily weight gain when on a 22 mm lambswool pile fabric with ... The Merino Kids sleep sack's higher weight and lower thickness are a result of it comprising of two layers of a flat-knitted ...
... may cause a woman to deliver a low-birth-weight or premature infant. The role of Trichomonas infection in ... In rare cases, lower abdominal pain can occur. Symptoms usually appear within 5 to 28 days of exposure. Sometimes ... This method is cheap but has a low sensitivity (60-70%) often due to an inadequate sample, resulting in false negatives. The ... Trichomonas vaginalis culture tests are relatively cheap; however, sensitivity is still somewhat low (70-89%). The third method ...
... more acculturated Latina women experience a higher infant mortality rate and give birth to more low-birth weight infants. ... Inadequate use of prenatal care is a strong predictor of low infant birth weight, prematurity, and infant mortality. Although ... found a positive association with the number of prenatal care visits and birth weight. Low birth weight are associated with ... give birth to significantly fewer low birth weight infants and lose fewer babies to any and all causes during infancy in ...
"Early versus late erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants". The ... "Early erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in preterm or low birth weight infants". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. ... Infants born early often require transfusions with red blood cells and have low levels of erythropoietin. Erythropoietin has ... Treating infants less than 8 days with erythropoietin old may slightly reduce the need for red blood cell transfusions, but ...
Intimate partner abuse also contributes to low birth weight of infants. Overall decreasing national infant mortality trends ... a risk factor for low birth weight in Nicaragua". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 100 (4): 700-705. doi:10.1097/00006250-200210000- ... Life expectancy in Nicaragua at birth was 72 years for men and 78 for women in 2016. While communicable diseases such as dengue ... In addition to income levels, it has been shown that violence against mothers increases the risk of infant and child mortality ...
These are found in premature infants, associated with low birth weight. The atrophic form is more frequent. Inflammation of the ...
Multicentre study on low birth weight and infant mortality in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka(1994). New Delhi: World Health ... The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... Most babies are bathed (92%) and wrapped (94%) within an hour of birth. 59% of infants born outside of health facilities were ... believing birth is in God's hand. As such, pregnancy and birth needed no preparation. Due to the societal expectation of women ...
"Early-onset sepsis with Staphylococcus auricularis in an extremely low-birth weight infant - an uncommon pathogen". Journal of ...
Low birth weight Low birth weight increases an infants risk of long-term growth and cognitive and language deficits. It also ... A slow growth rate and preterm birth are the two factors that can cause a low birth weight. Low birth weight (below 2000 grams ... When using drugs (narcotics), there is a greater risk of birth defects, low birth weight, and a higher rate of death in infants ... "Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: ...
Low birth weight is at 27% while breastfeeding is at 65%. Nepal has reduced maternal mortality rate to 229, from 901 in 1990; ... infant mortality is down to 32.2 per thousand live births compared to 139.8 in 1990. Contraceptive prevalence rate is 53% but ... In the lower hills (700 m - 2,000 m), subtropical and temperate deciduous mixed forests containing mostly Sal (in the lower ... and all of it wrapped around the lower body. For men, a similar but shorter length of cloth, the dhoti, has served as a lower- ...
Children born with a low birth weight (. ... The infant mortality rate is high, in 2019 it was 66.5 (per ... The average life expectancy at birth in Lesotho is 53.7 years (51 years for males and 57 years for women) (2018). In 2005 life ... Lesotho's Human development index value for 2018 is 0.518 - which put the country in the low human development category- ... Under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying between birth and exactly 5 years of age, expressed per 1,000 live births ...
Major causes of PEM in Nepal is low birth weight of below 2.5 kg, due to poor maternal nutrition, inadequate dietary intake, ... Under-five mortality:From 136.9 per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 39.5 in 2015. Infant Mortality: From 97.70 to 29.40 in 2015. ... Around a quarter of babies are born low birth weight. As per the findings of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011), ... Maternal mortality rate was reduced from 748 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 190 per 100,000 live births on 2014. Nepal also ...
Mannix, Loretta H.; Stratton, Julius Adams (2005). Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 190-92. ISBN ... Heavy Internet use is also displayed in the school lower grades of those who use it in excessive amounts [70]. It has also been ... Continuous studies have shown that increased BMI and weight gain are associated with people who spend long hours online and not ... as infants no longer needed to be carried, as nomadic ones must. Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising ...
While a minimal amount of thyroid hormones are found in breast milk, the amount does not influence infant plasma thyroid levels ... Dosages vary according to the age groups and the individual condition of the person, body weight and compliance to the ... It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered ... and premature birth.[20] ... Side effects from excessive doses include weight loss, trouble ...
2001). "Growth and Development in the Normal Infant and Child, Table 7.1". Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and ... The cost of treatment depends on the amount of growth hormone given, which in turn depends on the child's weight and age. One ... The anthropometric measurements include height, sitting height, arm span, upper/ lower-body segment ratio, sitting height/ ... being small for gestational age at birth, Prader-Willi syndrome, Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome, or other conditions. Genetic ...
Lower birth rate. *Higher infant mortality and child mortality[29]. *Smaller adult size ... Fareed M, Afzal M (2014). "Evidence of inbreeding depression on height, weight, and body mass index: a population-based child ... consanguineous parents possess a high risk of premature birth and producing underweight and undersized infants.[75] Viable ... Diamond JM (1987). "Causes of death before birth". Nature. 329 (6139): 487-8. doi:10.1038/329487a0. PMID 3657971. S2CID 4338257 ...
At birth[edit]. Main article: Sex assignment § Assignment in cases of infants with intersex traits, or cases of trauma ... but trans men had a lower level of sexual satisfaction to non-trans men. Moreover, trans men also had a lower sexual ... Surgeons may require overweight patients to reduce their weight before surgery, any patients to refrain from hormone ... Infants born with intersex conditions might undergo interventions at or close to birth.[45] This is controversial because of ...
Average global birth rates are declining fast, but vary greatly between developed countries (where birth rates are often at or ... "Global weight gain more damaging than rising numbers". BBC. June 18, 2012. Retrieved February 12, 2013.. ... Alternative scenarios for 2050 range from a low of 7.4 billion to a high of more than 10.6 billion.[69] Projected figures vary ... Another critical factor for such an estimate is the question of pre-modern infant mortality rates; these figures are very ...
After the 40th day, the effects of radiation exposure are likely to include low birth weight, delayed growth, and possible ... While reducing the radioactive intake of their infants is an important preventative measure, it denies women the opportunity to ... Pregnancy and birth outcomes[edit]. Evidence about radiation-related pregnancy and birth outcomes comes from studies of nuclear ... "Genetic radiation risks: a neglected topic in the low dose debate". Environmental Health and Toxicology. 31: e2016001. doi ...
... infant mortality in Cuba had fallen to 4.83 deaths per 1,000 live births compared with 6.0 for the United States and just ... In 2003 Cuba had the lowest HIV prevalence in the Americas and one of the lowest in the world.[47] Education in Cuba concerning ... cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality have been related to sustained population-wide weight loss as a result of ... The mortality rate was the third lowest in the world.[12] According to the World Health Organization, the island had the lowest ...
Low-lactose and lactose-free versions of foods are often available to replace dairy-based foods for those with lactose ... This test can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical.[40] ... by weight) may not be very reliable. Kosher products labeled pareve or fleishig are free of milk. However, if a "D" (for "dairy ... Congenital lactose intolerance is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which little or no lactase is made from birth.[1] The ...
The role of obstetrical medical technology in preventing low birth weight. Future Child. 1995 spring; 5(1):71-86.[5] ... The impact of extreme prematurity and congenital anomalies on the interpretation of international comparisons of infant ... "The Role of Obstetrical Medical Technology in Preventing Low Birth Weight". The Future of Children. 5 (1): 71-86. doi:10.2307/ ... Vaginal birth after cesarean: a health policy perspective. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Sep;44(3):553-60. ...
... at birth, but not as coordinated as ungulates (hoofed mammals).[47] Infant care by the mother is relatively prolonged compared ... Instead, their lower incisors varied in orientation-from somewhat procumbent to somewhat vertical-and the lower canines were ... but otherwise lemurs show very little if any difference in body size or weight between sexes. This lack of sexual dimorphism is ... The toothcomb consists of either two or four procumbent lower incisors and procumbent lower canine teeth followed by a canine- ...
Infant mortality in Kerala is 12 per thousand live births, but in Assam it is 56. According to World Bank, the total ... which can lead to serious mental or physical complaints Foliate deficiency can lead to insufficient birth weight or congenital ... Due to their lower social status, girls are far more at risk of malnutrition than boys their age. Partly as a result of this ... The under five mortality and infant mortality rates have been declining, from 202 and 190 deaths per thousand live births ...
... of mothers to develop pyelonephritis and increases risk of low birth weight and preterm birth.[77] Some also support treatment ... Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.[1] When it affects the lower urinary ... In a group of children with a fever, ranging in age between birth and two years, two to 20% were diagnosed with a UTI.[20] ...
"Costs of caregiving: weight loss in captive adult male cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) following the birth of infants" ... Its lower canine teeth are longer than its incisors, creating the appearance of tusks.[13] Like other callitrichids, the cotton ... This burden may cause some male cotton-tops to lose up to 10-11% of their total body weight.[28] The large weight loss may ... Infants are thought to imitate adult speakers, which use differing calls in various contexts, but by using solely the infant ...
Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong ... Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome ( ... Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant's history. The death ... babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds), ...
... studies have found that overall rates of congenital malformations in infants exposed to lamotrigine in utero are relatively low ... Many studies have found no association between lamotrigine exposure in utero and birth defects, while those that have found an ... weight loss, missed or painful menstrual periods, and vaginitis. The side effect profile varies for different patient ... lower doses (and lower plasma levels) are usually needed, as even moderate doses of this drug can induce seizures, including ...
If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, such as birth weight and ... such as strings with low Jaro-Winkler or Levenshtein distance). This value would be 1.0 in the case of perfect data, but given ... If a value of 0.95 were to be estimated for the m probability, then the match/non-match weights for the birth month identifier ... the match weight is added to the running total whenever a pair of identifiers agree, while the non-match weight is added (i.e. ...
And this is quite in order or in the order of things and of existence, since a human being, even if from the moment of birth ... Yes, everything is soon turned upside-down: communication is indeed soon brought to its lowest point in regard to meaning, and ... compulsory infant baptism was abolished. Debates sprang up over the King's position as the head of the Church and over whether ... carries the preponderant ethical weight against the state, government, and a united public opinion, when they are wrong. The ...
... insufficient sleep may also play a role in weight gain or, conversely, in impeding weight loss.[46] Additionally, in 2007, the ... linked to lower overall health and well being.[26] It has been demonstrated that increased time spent in natural environments ... especially to the health of infants and children.[14][25] Some studies have shown that a lack of neighborhood recreational ... Life expectancy at birth, accessed 20 April 2011. *^ Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2008). Health in Everyday Living. ...
This is thought to be due to a rise in low birth weight of infants and the increased survival rate of these infants. The ... often just after birth.[48] Multiple-birth infants are also more likely than single-birth infants to have CP.[53] They are also ... Term infants[edit]. In babies that are born at term risk factors include problems with the placenta, birth defects, low birth ... more likely to be born with a low birth weight. In those who are born with a weight between 1 kg and 1.5 kg CP occurs in 6%.[2] ...
Containing All the Lawyers in the United States and Canada-about 85,000 in all-with Date of Birth, Date of Admission, and ... see Infants; GUARDIAN AND WARD - See also Infants; Heirs , see Descent and Distribution; HOLIDAYS - See also Bills and Notes; ... Size and Weight Limits, Equipment Required, Inspection, Traffic Regulation, Accidents, Liability of Owner, Guests, Proof of ... "Britain's Low-Profile Publishing Giant". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-11-21 ...
People with schizophrenia generally have lower levels of vitamin D.[17] The environmental risk factors of seasonality of birth ... with this dosage being doubled for premature infants, dark-skinned infants and children, children who reside in areas of ... within certain body weight limits, to body weight.[54] ... The lower the 25(OH)D serum concentration is before treatment, ... causing overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth.[9][14] ...
... and premature birth: premature infants are those born after the stage of viability but prior to 37 weeks." Stedman's Medical ... "Expulsion from the uterus an embryo or fetus prior to the stage of viability (20 weeks' gestation or fetal weight ,500g). A ... and high and low estimates of the numbers of unsafe abortion developed by WHO.. ... An alternative definition is delivery of a fetus with a weight of less than 500 g. If abortion occurs before 12 weeks' ...
When the Lo-Jack is activated on the car, Pete has Badger take Pete's car to the Mexico border, the opposite direction Jesse is ... Due to an argument with Jimmy, Chuck kills himself later the same day, and Howard comes to bear the weight of causing Chuck's ... Holly White (played by Elanor Anne Wenrich) is Skyler and Walt's infant daughter and Walt Jr.'s younger sister. Walt is not ... and he blames Jesse for making him miss the birth. Ted Beneke, Skyler's boss, takes Skyler to the hospital when she goes into ...
Bag-valve masks come in different sizes to fit infants, children, and adults. The face mask size may be independent of the bag ... kg body weight) as outlined by the American Heart Association [1] and European Resuscitation Council.[15] Numerous studies have ... drawing in either ambient air or a low pressure oxygen flow supplied by a regulated cylinder, while also allowing the patient's ... making manual resuscitators among the very first therapeutic medical devices encountered upon birth. As previously stated, ...
... which has low oxygen affinity and releases oxygen in the tissues. Conversely, a high pH, low CO2, or low 2,3 BPG favors the ... Each subunit has a molecular weight of about 16,000 daltons,[41] for a total molecular weight of the tetramer of about 64,000 ... In human infants, the hemoglobin molecule is made up of 2 α chains and 2 γ chains. The gamma chains are gradually replaced by β ... Gene expression of hemoglobin before and after birth. Also identifies the types of cells and organs in which the gene ...
In other people who stutter, there could be added impact due to stressful situations such as the birth of a sibling, moving, or ... In addition, potentially serious side effects of pharmacological treatments were noted,[66] such as weight gain, sexual ... Proposed causes of stuttering have included tickling an infant too much, eating improperly during breastfeeding, allowing an ... low self-esteem, being a possible target of bullying (especially in children), having to use word substitution and rearrange ...
... a systematic review and meta-analysis on birth weight, placental weight and length of gestation". Nutr J. 11: 75. doi:10.1186/ ... Infants (AI) Infants (UL) Children and adults (RDA) Children and adults (UL) Pregnant women (RDA) Pregnant women (UL) Lactating ... Shiroky JB; Frcp(c) (1997). "The use of folates concomitantly with low-dose pulse methotrexate". Rheum. Dis. Clin. North Am. 23 ... Georgia used data from 23 birth defect registries covering about half of United States births, and extrapolated their findings ...
... infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). Most extremely low birth weight infants are also ... encoded search term (Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant) and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant What to Read Next on Medscape ... Infants with extremely low birth weight are at higher risk for hearing impairment because of their low birth weight. [150] ... First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. [2] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW ...
Fungal Colonization in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant. Jill E. Baley, Robert M. Kliegman, Bernard Boxerbaum, Avroy A. ... Fungal Colonization in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant. Jill E. Baley, Robert M. Kliegman, Bernard Boxerbaum, Avroy A. ... Fungal Colonization in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant. Jill E. Baley, Robert M. Kliegman, Bernard Boxerbaum and Avroy A. ... For very low birth weight (,1,500 g) infants, we prospectively determined the fungal colonization rate to be 26.7%. In one ...
... of cases in this weight category, 56% of all cases of atypical hypothyroidism). In addition, screening programs using a primary ... Of these, 98 were normal birthweight (NBW, , or = 2,500 g), 9 were low birthweight (LBW, 1,501-2,499 g), and 11 were very low ... Atypical hypothyroidism and the very low birthweight infant.. Mandel SJ1, Hermos RJ, Larson CA, Prigozhin AB, Rojas DA, ... During this period, 118 infants were found to have typical hypothyroidism, characterized by a low thyroxine (T4) and an ...
... employment and independence as normal birth-weight infants, according to a study by researchers at the Michael G. DeGroote ... the majority of extremely low birth-weight infants are attaining similar levels of education, ... The low birth-weight infants have been followed from birth, the normal birth-weight children were recruited at age eight years ... 82 percent of low birth weight infants compared to 87 percent of those with normal birth weight). Overall, no statistically ...
Effect of birthplace on infants with low birth weight. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :981 doi:10.1136/bmj.293.6553.981 ... Effect of birthplace on infants with low birth weight.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ... These differences were significant, but when they were corrected for gestation, birth weight, and mode of delivery there was no ... From December 1983 to June 1985, 162 infants of less than 32 weeks gestation or weighing less than 1,500 g, or both, were ...
Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight. Jo Ann Blaymore Bier, Anne E. Ferguson, Yesenia Morales, Jill A. ... Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight. Jo Ann Blaymore Bier, Anne E. Ferguson, Yesenia Morales, Jill A. ... Breastfeeding Infants Who Were Extremely Low Birth Weight Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Pediatrics ...
Because VLBW black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals. ... Minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. ... This study investigated whether the proportion of black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated ... Mortality Among Very Low-Birthweight Infants in Hospitals Serving Minority Populations. * * Publisher: American Public Health ...
... Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva ... Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," ...
The goal of the study was to assess how accurately patient volume predicts quality of care for VLBW infants and to compare ... Birth Weight, *Child Health, *Children, Families, and Communities, *Health Care Organization and Administration, ... Is Patient Volume a Useful Quality Measure for Very Low Birthweight Infants?. by Jeannette Rogowski, Jeffrey Horbar, Douglas ... Is Patient Volume a Useful Quality Measure for Very Low Birthweight Infants?, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RB-4559, ...
Indirect Vs Direct Hospital Quality Indicators for Very Low-Birth Weight Infants. Published in: JAMA, The Journal of the ... OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential usefulness of volume as a quality indicator for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and ... Is Patient Volume a Useful Quality Measure for Very Low Birthweight Infants?. Jan 1, 2004 ... In contrast, hospitals in the lowest mortality quintile between 1995 and 1998 were found to have significantly lower mortality ...
RESULTS Low-birth-weight infants (,2.5 kg) showed a significantly earlier onset of diabetes (4.3 [3.2-6.0] years vs. 9.0 [5.3- ... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from infant records of 232 patients with IDDM, including birth weight, birth length, ... Infants with corrected birth weight: length ratio below the 10th percentile had earlier onset, as did infants with corrected 6- ... Infants small for gestational age also had earlier onset than those with birth weight above the 10th percentile after ...
... reporting premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weight. ... Low birthweight infants five times more likely to have autism. 17.10.2011 ... Further reports about: , ASD , Autism , Nursing , autism spectrum disorders , health challenge , low birthweight ... Links between low birthweight and a range of motor and cognitive problems have been well established for some time, but this is ...
Infants who received a 14-day course of dexamethasone initiated at 2 weeks of age were more likely to develop a bloodstream or ... Dexamethasone therapy increases infection in very low birth weight infants Pediatrics. 1999 Nov;104(5):e63. doi: 10.1542/peds. ... We recently reported the results of a multicenter trial of dexamethasone initiated at 14 or 28 days in very low birth weight ( ... whereas cesarean section delivery and increasing birth weight were associated with decreased risk. ...
... to explore the relationship between activity level of a womans occupation and her risk of delivering a low-birth-weight infant ... Previous studies of the effect of mothers employment on infant birth weight have shown mixed results. This study was designed ... Activity level of mothers usual occupation and low infant birth weight J Occup Med. 1985 Nov;27(11):841-7. doi: 10.1097/ ... No association was detected between activity level of mothers usual occupation and delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. ...
... infants and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A better understanding of the adherence factors, molecular ... Fungal infections are prevalent in very low birthweight (,1500 g) ... Infant, Premature, Diseases / epidemiology, microbiology, prevention & control*. Infant, Very Low Birth Weight*. Risk Factors. ... Identifying the highest risk very low birthweight infants for prophylaxis and empiric therapy may lead to better outcomes. ...
... is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NR... ... Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) ... More From BioPortfolio on "Generic Database of Very Low Birth Weight Infants". *Related Companies*Related Events*Related ... The Generic Database (GDB) is a registry of very low birth weight infants born alive in NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) ...
Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study BMJ 2007; 334 :836 ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2007; 334 doi: ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study ... Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study ...
... indicate significant and substantial effects of aggregate fluctuations on maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight, ... Finally, provincial public expenditures on health and education are correlated with the incidence of low birth weight and ... Keywords: crisis; infant mortality; maternal mortality; low birth weight; poverty; Argentina; Other versions of this item:. * ... "Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentinas Downturns," ...
Infant, Newborn Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Small for Gestational Age Infant, Premature ... Outcome of extremely-low-birth-weight infants at highest risk: gestational age , or =24 weeks, birth weight , or =750 g, and 1- ... Maternal age, multiple birth, and extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2009 Apr;154(4):498-503.e2. doi: 10.1016/j. ... Malloy MH, Onstad L, Wright E. The effect of cesarean delivery on birth outcome in very low birth weight infants. National ...
... low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. Data were collected through a retrospective chart review of 30 low-birth ... Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, ... The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to ... A Comparison of Blood Pressure in Term, Low Birth-Weight Infants of Smoking and Nonsmoking Mothers ...
Neonatal transport of very low birth weight infants in Jerusalem, revisited.. Arad I1, Baras M, Bar-Oz B, Gofin R. ... Our data suggest that very low birth weight outborn infants may share an outcome comparable with that of inborn babies, if ... of inborn and outborn very low birth weight infants, accounting for sociodemographic, obstetric and perinatal variables, with ... We compared 129 premature infants with birth weights of 750-1250 g delivered between 1996 and 2000 in a hospital providing ...
Eight infants, with a mean birth weight of 712 +/- 161 g, had a diffuse burn-like dermatitis, usually within the first three ... The cutaneous manifestations of 18 infants treated for systemic candidiasis during a 3 3/4-year period were examined. ... Eight infants, with a mean birth weight of 712 +/- 161 g, had a diffuse burn-like dermatitis, usually within the first three ... Nine additional infants had monilial diaper rashes, which spread to the trunk and extremities in four infants. These infants ...
Infant Infant, Low Birth Weight Infant, Newborn Male Maternal Age Membranes Mortality Parity Parturition Placenta Placenta ... High incidence of low-birth-weight infant was found in group of gestational period, 31-33 weeks and birth weith, 1501~1750 gm ... 3) Incidence of low-birth-weight infant by maternal age was in order of the group of 26-30 years old, the group of 20-25 years ... 5) Etiology of low-birth-weight infant was in order of multiple pregnancy, toxemia, placenta previa and abruptio placenta, ...
Gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms are common challenges for very low-birth-weight infants (< ... Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants struggle with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in ... Gastroesophageal reflux in very low birth weight infants: association with chronic lung disease and outcomes through 1 year of ... Association of H2-blocker therapy and higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. ...
... and some are born full-term but at a low weight (1). Infants with a low birthweight (less than 5.5 lbs) have increased risks of ... for infants born at low birthweight, 1.4% for infants born at very low birthweight, and 9.4% for infants born preterm. ... Infants Born at Low Birthweight (change indicator) View Infants Born at Low Birthweight. by Mothers Age. by Mothers Race/ ... for infants born at low birthweight and from 0.6% to 2% for infants born at very low birthweight. Statewide, women ages 45 and ...
... we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-beta levels. We further hypothesized that because fetal ... inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC ... Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 ... 2014). Cytokines associated with necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. Pediatric Research, 76(1), ... and low blood TGF-beta levels are associated with higher risk of NEC. Infants who developed NEC did not start with high blood ...
We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or ... It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with ... extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less). METHODS: ... conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth ... conservative phototherapy for infants with extremely low birth weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 359(18), 1885-1896. ...
... as plasticizers in a wide variety of personal care product and childrens toys might contribute to low birth weight in infants ... Low birth weight may case many other problems too.. My Grand daughter is low birth weight. she was kept in ICU for 10 days. ... Of the 201 infants studied, 88 were born with low birth weight. The researchers analyzed samples of the infants meconium, the ... They found that Infants with low birth weight had consistently higher levels of phthalates. "The results showed that phthalate ...
Open Access journal that provides a forum for pediatricians who diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and ... In summary, sepsis-related mortality is very high in low birth weight infants, mainly in extreme low birth infants. This is ... 1000 g, classified as extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants. The mean VLBW infants age for all sepsis events was 12.9 (12.1 ... B. J. Stoll, N. I. Hansen, R. D. Higgins et al., "Very low birth weight preterm infants with early onset neonatal sepsis: the ...
... and some are born full-term but at a low weight (1). Infants with a low birthweight (less than 5.5 lbs) have increased risks of ... for infants born at low birthweight, 1.4% for infants born at very low birthweight, and 9.4% for infants born preterm. ... for infants born at low birthweight and from 0.6% to 2% for infants born at very low birthweight. Statewide, women ages 45 and ... Low and very low birthweight infants. Retrieved from: https://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=low-and-very-low-birthweight- ...
  • Infants born with a birth weight less than 1500 g are defined as very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (medscape.com)
  • This phenomenon occurred in 18 infants, of whom 4 were NBW, 4 were LBW, and 10 were VLBW. (nih.gov)
  • VLBW, 1:153, with the highest incidence of atypical hypothyroidism in the VLBW category (48% of cases in this weight category, 56% of all cases of atypical hypothyroidism). (nih.gov)
  • In view of these results, it is suggested that T4 measurements be obtained routinely in all LBW and VLBW infants, with additional routine repeat blood specimens. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated whether the proportion of black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated with neonatal mortality for black and white VLBW infants. (rwjf.org)
  • The authors analyzed medical records linked to secondary data sources for 74,050 black and white VLBW infants (501 g to 1500 g) treated by 332 hospitals participating in the Vermont Oxford Network from 1995 to 2000. (rwjf.org)
  • Hospitals where more than 35 percent of VLBW infants treated were black were defined as "minority-serving. (rwjf.org)
  • The authors conclude that minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. (rwjf.org)
  • Because VLBW black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals, higher neonatal mortality rates at these hospitals may contribute to racial disparities in infant mortality in the U.S. (rwjf.org)
  • The goal of the study was to assess how accurately patient volume predicts quality of care for VLBW infants and to compare volume with direct indicators, such as patient mortality. (rand.org)
  • This network includes 40 percent of the NICUs in the United States and accounts for 50 percent of annual VLBW infant admissions. (rand.org)
  • The study found that referrals for VLBW infants that rely on indirect measures such as volume are at best minimally effective for predicting outcomes and may unfairly penalize high-quality providers that have lower volumes. (rand.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the potential usefulness of volume as a quality indicator for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and compare volume with other potential indicators based on readily available hospital characteristics and patient outcomes. (rand.org)
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective study of 94 110 VLBW infants weighing 501 to 1500 g born in 332 Vermont Oxford Network hospitals with neonatal intensive care units between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 2000. (rand.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Referral of VLBW infants based on indirect-quality indicators such as patient volume may be minimally effective. (rand.org)
  • Physicians must consider this increased risk of infection when deciding whether to treat VLBW infants with dexamethasone. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose is to collect baseline and outcome data in a uniform manner on a large cohort of VLBW and other sick infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants struggle with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and beyond discharge. (nursingcenter.com)
  • The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of GER/GERD and share an evidence-based GER algorithm for consistent assessment and care of VLBW infants postdischarge to 12 months corrected age presenting with reflux-like symptoms. (nursingcenter.com)
  • However, insufficient evidence exists with regard to GER/GERD symptom identification and management in preterm infants, especially the VLBW infant. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Neonatal sepsis is a frequent complication of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and it is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • VLBW infants develop 2.7 times more sepsis than other infants since their immune system and skin barrier are immature and they are exposed to many invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors involved in the mortality caused by sepsis of a VLBW infants population with sepsis, in particular, the role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa , a very aggressive pathogen. (hindawi.com)
  • The study objectives were to identify the probiotic products used in VLBW infants within the US, and to determine whether their use was supported by reliable evidence. (nature.com)
  • A phone survey of all neonatal intensive care units (NICU) participating in VON within the US was conducted between May and September 2015 to identify NICUs that are using probiotics in VLBW infants. (nature.com)
  • An evidence based literature search, limited to randomized controlled trials in VLBW infants, was conducted to determine whether the use of identified probiotics were supported by reliable evidence. (nature.com)
  • During the survey period, 14.0% of NICUs were using probiotics in VLBW infants (70/500). (nature.com)
  • Probiotics were routinely given to all VLBW infants in 8.8% (44/500) NICUs, while it was given in selected VLBW infants in 5.2% (26/500) of NICUs. (nature.com)
  • The probiotics use in VLBW infants within the US is increasing, but is still limited. (nature.com)
  • More than 8 million children aged under 5 die every year, and neonatal mortality and especially very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant mortality are among the six factors to which over 90% of these deaths are attributed. (scielo.org.za)
  • Early neonatal hyperglycemia is common among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. (cochrane.org)
  • We studied 127 VLBW infants during the early neonatal period. (cambridge.org)
  • Using logistic regression, we evaluated nutrient intake and other relevant factors associated with extra-uterine growth restriction in the subgroup of VLBW infants with adequate weight for gestational age at birth. (cambridge.org)
  • Extra-uterine growth restriction is common in VLBW infants fed primarily fortified human milk. (cambridge.org)
  • HealthDay News) - For very low birth weight (VLBW) babies, there is good stability of cognitive development over time, with a strong correlation between assessments at 2 years of corrected age and at age 5, according to a study published online Feb. 27 in Pediatrics . (empr.com)
  • Petriina Munck, from the Turku University Hospital in Finland, and colleagues studied a regional cohort of 120 VLBW children born between 2001 and 2004 and assessed them using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition, at 2 years of corrected age, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised at the age of 5 years. (empr.com)
  • Thus, this report's focus is using fortified pasteurized donor milk as a supplement to or replacement for a mother's breast milk for feeding her very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant. (ecri.org)
  • VLBW infants who survive are 'at significantly increased risk of severe long-term health and developmental problems, including physical and sensory difficulties, developmental delays, and cognitive impairment. (ecri.org)
  • The mothers of approximately 80% of VLBW infants and 60% LBW infants initiated breast milk feeding. (mdpi.com)
  • While more work is needed to more completely understand the cost savings of human milk across other potentially avoidable morbidities in VLBW infants, results from these two studies suggest that both the avoidance of formula and the dose of human milk are important for reducing the incidence of both late onset sepsis and NEC. (medela.us)
  • For many very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, there is insufficient mother's milk, and a supplement of pasteurized donor human milk or preterm formula is required. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To determine if nutrient-enriched donor milk compared with formula, as a supplement to mother's milk, reduces neonatal morbidity, supports growth, and improves neurodevelopment in VLBW infants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In this pragmatic, double-blind, randomized trial, VLBW infants were recruited from 4 neonatal units in Ontario, Canada, within 96 hours of birth between October 2010 and December 2012. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Among VLBW infants, use of supplemental donor milk compared with formula did not improve neurodevelopment at 18 months' corrected age. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Despite the common occurrence of anemia in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the erythropoiesis and Hb production rates and their relationship to plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations remain unknown in these subjects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To determine these quantities, all blood removed by phlebotomy and administered by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion over the first 30 days of life was recorded in 14 ventilated VLBW infants born at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Its incidence is 2-3% in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and 5% in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW). (scielo.org.ar)
  • Oropharyngeal administration of colostrum (OAC) has been proposed to provide mother's early milk to very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the first few days of life. (ovid.com)
  • Overall, 30 VLBW infants randomized to receive OAC or sterile water had salivary sampling for SsIgA on the day of life (DOL) 2, 7, and 14. (ovid.com)
  • A large, multicenter trial is needed to determine if OAC decreases LOS or NEC in VLBW infants. (ovid.com)
  • Background and objectives Serum creatinine (SCr)-based AKI definitions have important limitations, particularly in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. (asnjournals.org)
  • We assessed the association between 14 different urine biomarkers and AKI in VLBW infants. (asnjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical factors most predictive of red blood cell transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. (jefferson.edu)
  • STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of VLBW infants cared for at a single level III NICU during a two year period, n = 199. (jefferson.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data characterize the population of VLBW infants with the greatest blood transfusion and donor requirement. (jefferson.edu)
  • Systemic fungal infection and early-onset bacterial sepsis are described to be associated with the development of ROP in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. (arvojournals.org)
  • The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. (scielo.org.za)
  • To provide current information on the postnatal growth of VLBW infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH). (scielo.org.za)
  • This was a longitudinal study of VLBW infants surviving to discharge from CMJAH neonatal unit from August to October 2013. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study showed a GV in VLBW infants approaching recommended standards. (scielo.org.za)
  • To determine rates of at least 1 high-risk infant follow-up (HRIF) visit by 12 months corrected age, and factors associated with successful first visit among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in a statewide population-based setting. (cpqcc.org)
  • Multivariable logistic regression examined independent associations of maternal, sociodemographic, neonatal clinical, and HRIF program factors with a successful first HRIF visit among VLBW infants born in 2010-2011. (cpqcc.org)
  • However, the combination of one of these chromosomal anomalies and very low birth weight (VLBW) presents greater challenges. (uiowa.edu)
  • In the NICHD NRN database (n=52,259), 133 (0.26%) VLBW infants were diagnosed with T21, 132 (0.25%) with T18 and 40 (0.08%) with T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • The current studies evaluated the largest cohorts of VLBW infants with T21, T18 or T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • These data are important to help families and care providers make informed decisions involving the care of their VLBW infants with these chromosomal anomalies. (uiowa.edu)
  • Objective: To analyse the survival and perinatal risk factors of early neonatal death in very low birth weight (VLBW) new-borns (500-1499 g). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Results: Odds of surviving increased from 1.6 in the infants with the extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (≤ 999 g) to 2.5 times in the VLBW infants (≤ 1499 g). (alliedacademies.org)
  • The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale-level and item-level associations with health care-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. (cpqcc.org)
  • Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6,663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. (cpqcc.org)
  • Of the infants whose outcomes were known at 18-22 months, 49% died, 61% died or had profound impairment, and 73% died or had impairment. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Saroj Saigal, professor of pediatrics, conducted a study over two years to determine the outcomes at young adulthood of extremely low birth-weight infants, in comparison to a group of normal birth-weight children. (news-medical.net)
  • Identifying the highest risk very low birthweight infants for prophylaxis and empiric therapy may lead to better outcomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The GDB collects observational baseline data on both mothers and infants, and the therapies used and outcomes of the infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Milk Trial seeks to determine the effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 22-26 months of donor human milk as compared to preterm infant formula as the in-hospital diet for infants whose mothers choose not to provide breast milk or are able to provide only a minimal amount. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Our long-term goal is to optimize neurodevelopmental and health outcomes for ELBW infants, maximizing their quality of life and societal functionality throughout their lives. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants has been correlated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, Owen and colleagues reported. (healio.com)
  • Regarding secondary outcomes, there was a slight improvement in haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in supplemented infants at 2 months of age compared with infants receiving no supplementation. (who.int)
  • Available evidence is insufficient to assess the effect of enteral iron supplementation on the neurodevelopmental and long-term growth outcomes for preterm and low-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • The team found no evidence that the doses of hydrocortisone used in the study prevented BPD, but Parikh suggests even though lower doses of hydrocortisone do not appear to benefit the lungs, they may improve cognitive outcomes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely preterm infants randomized to stress dose hydrocortisone. (healthcanal.com)
  • Several epidemiological studies ( 7 - 12 ) suggest that, for both men and women, those born with low birth weight were at an elevated risk for type 2 diabetes and other health outcomes during adulthood. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding (with fortified breast milk or formula). (mdpi.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of breast milk feedings and formula on the growth and short-term outcomes of preterm infants in Hong Kong. (mdpi.com)
  • Preventing an infant from acquiring one or more of these morbidities thereby improves outcomes, reduces the NICU length of stay and ultimately decreases costs. (medela.us)
  • Feeding preterm and low birth weight infants with formula milk compared to donor breast milk was found to be associated with a higher rate of short-term growth, but no effect was observed on rate of long-term growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes. (who.int)
  • Future trials may compare growth, development and adverse outcomes in infants who receive formula milk versus nutrient-fortified donor breast milk given as a supplement to maternal expressed breast milk or as a sole diet. (who.int)
  • SCr was measured on postnatal days 1, 2, 3, and 4 and was combined with clinically measured SCr to determine AKI according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes AKI definition (increase in SCr ≥0.3 mg/dl or ≥50% increase from previous lowest value). (asnjournals.org)
  • AKI in premature infants is common and predicts poor clinical outcomes ( 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVES Outcomes of very preterm infants vary considerably between health care facilities. (uzh.ch)
  • Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for the composite "death or major morbidity" (aRR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.62) and all other outcomes were either comparable or lower in SNN except for mortality, for which aRR was higher (aRR: 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.50). (uzh.ch)
  • Maternal smoking has been found to adversely affect birth outcomes, such as increasing the odds of having low birth weight infants. (springer.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS A higher PCO2 target did not influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in mechanically ventilated extremely preterm infants. (uzh.ch)
  • Autism researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing have found a link between low birthweight and children diagnosed with autism, reporting premature infants are five times more likely to have autism than children born at normal weight. (innovations-report.com)
  • We compared 129 premature infants with birth weights of 750-1250 g delivered between 1996 and 2000 in a hospital providing neonatal intensive care to 99 premature babies delivered in a referring hospital. (nih.gov)
  • The Infant Health and Development Program was a collaborative, randomized, longitudinal, multisite clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive early intervention in reducing the developmental and health problems of low birth weight, premature infants. (umich.edu)
  • Advances in medical care have improved the survival of very low birth weight premature infants but at the same time have also led to an increased number of surviving infants with reduced cerebral growth and long-term neurodevelopmental motor, cognitive, and social morbidities. (harvard.edu)
  • Early Intervention for Low Birth Weight, Premature Infants: Participation and Intellectual Development. (ed.gov)
  • The Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), an eight-site randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive intervention program combining home visits, child centers, and parent meetings with pediatric follow-up and referral, effectively reduced the incidence of health and developmental problems in a sample of 377 low birth weight, premature infants when compared to a control group of 608 infants during the first 3 years of life. (ed.gov)
  • A spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is a single intestinal perforation typically involving the antimesenteric border of distal ileum, which usually occurs without a defined prodrome in extremely premature infants in the first 1-2 weeks of life. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Medical Staff Guidelines for Periviability Pregnancy Counseling and Medical Treatment of Extremely Premature Infants. (aappublications.org)
  • In evaluation of urine biomarkers of AKI in neonates, it is critical to adjust for differences in GA. Prior literature has shown that in premature infants without AKI, urine proteins will be highest among those with the lowest GA, probably because of the passive loss of proteins in the context of immature tubular function ( 6 - 8 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Purpose of review: Obviously, the ultimate goal in neonatology is to achieve a functional outcome in premature infants that is comparable to healthy term-born infants. (eur.nl)
  • However, many premature infants are catabolic during the first week of life, which has directly been linked to growth failure, disease, and suboptimal long-term outcome. (eur.nl)
  • This review describes the progress in research on parenteral nutrition for premature infants with a focus on amino acids and the influence of nutrition on later outcome. (eur.nl)
  • Recent findings: Although randomized clinical trials on early nutrition for premature infants remain relatively sparse, evidence is accumulating on its beneficial effects both on the short-term and long-term. (eur.nl)
  • Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and sight problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the mortality rate has greatly diminished with the use of surfactants, the proportion of surviving infants with severe sequelae, such as chronic lung disease, cognitive delays, cerebral palsy, and neurosensory deficits (ie, deafness and blindness), has not improved as significantly. (medscape.com)
  • According to data from a 2011 cohort study, infants born at 23-25 weeks' gestation who received antenatal exposure to corticosteroids had a lower rate of mortality and complications compared with those who did not have such exposure to corticosteroids. (medscape.com)
  • These differences were significant, but when they were corrected for gestation, birth weight, and mode of delivery there was no difference in either the mortality or the incidence of intraventricular haemorrhage in the three study populations. (bmj.com)
  • By contrast, direct measures such as infant deaths are more useful quality indicators for the purposes of selective referral: They predict future mortality rates more accurately and could therefore save infant lives. (rand.org)
  • The percentage of hospital-level variation in mortality in 1999-2000 that was forecasted by the highest and lowest quintiles based on patient mortality was 34% compared with only 1% for the highest and lowest quintiles of volume. (rand.org)
  • Infection is a major complication of preterm infants, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
  • 1500 g) infants and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this trial is determine whether a 50,000 IU oral dose of vitamin A delivered to newborn infants within the first days of life, reduces six-month infant mortality by at least. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These results indicate significant and substantial effects of aggregate fluctuations on maternal and infant mortality and low birth weight, with countercyclical though not significant patterns for enrollment rates. (repec.org)
  • Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina's Downturns ," IZA Discussion Papers 6096, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina's Downturns ," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0121, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. (repec.org)
  • Economic Crises, Maternal and Infant Mortality, Low Birth Weight and Enrollment Rates: Evidence from Argentina's Downturns ," MPRA Paper 42936, University Library of Munich, Germany. (repec.org)
  • A delay in diagnosis or therapy resulted in mortality, whereas promptly treated infants survived. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 6) Mortality rate by weight-gestational age was lower in the group of apprepriate for gestational age infant than in the group of small for gestational age infant and in the group of large for gestatonal age infant. (koreamed.org)
  • 7) Higher mortality rate was noted in the group of lower birth weight infant, the group of more shortened gestational period and the group of lower Apgar score. (koreamed.org)
  • This reduction may be offset by an increase in mortality among infants weighing 501 to 750 g at birth. (rti.org)
  • birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. (hindawi.com)
  • Mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis expressed by birth weight categories. (nature.com)
  • In the United States, the anticipated mortality rate for infants weighing less than 500 g who were born in the 1980s was nearly 100%, according to researchers. (healio.com)
  • In South Africa, perinatal mortality and low-birth-weight rates have in the past generally been reported only for infants weighing ≥ 1 000 g at birth, because smaller infants are often regarded as miscarriages and not recorded. (scielo.org.za)
  • Anaemia, especially in areas of malaria transmission, retards intrauterine growth, resulting in low birth weight, which is a major contributor to neonatal mortality (3, 4). (who.int)
  • HealthDay News - For infants with a birth weight of 1.0 kg to 1.799 kg, receiving immediate kangaroo mother care reduces mortality at 28 days, according to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine . (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • For analysis of morbidity and mortality, infants were matched for gestational age and birth weight. (omicsonline.org)
  • Initial ventilator settings, ventilator days, mortality, and morbidity were not different between ELBWIs with EI/MV in the DR and infants with secondary EI/MV attributable to RDS in the intensive care unit. (omicsonline.org)
  • ELBWIs with no EI/MV that was caused by RDS had a lower morbidity (ie, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage >grade 2 and/or periventricular leukomalacia), mortality, and fewer hospital days (mean: 79 vs 105 days). (omicsonline.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our setting, the individualized intubation strategy in the DR restricted EI/MV to those ELBWIs who ultimately needed it, without increasing morbidity or mortality in infants with secondary EI/MV attributable to RDS. (omicsonline.org)
  • There was no statistically significant difference in infants positive for the mortality and morbidity index (43% in donor milk group, 40% in formula group) or changes in growth z scores. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As a result, an increase in SIDS deaths could be expected in the lower birth weight infants because of the decreased competing mortality pressures during the neonatal period. (bmj.com)
  • 35% of all deaths in the first month of life are due to prematurity and the neonatal mortality rate is eight times higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) than in Europe. (bmj.com)
  • ABSTRACT Low birth weight is a key determinant in the risk of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and during childhood. (who.int)
  • In-hospital mortality occurred for 33.1% of infants with T21, 89.0% with T18, and 92.4% with T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • The variables significantly associated with new-born mortality were congenital abnormalities (ORadj=7.8), birth weight (ORadj=3.4) and placental abruption (ORadj=2.1) and Apgar score ≤ 6 at 5 min (ORadj=2.1). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Conclusion: The neonatal mortality risk was significantly higher in the cases of neonatal birth weight ≤ 1000 g, gestational age up to the 31st GW, Apgar score of 6 points at fifth min, congenital abnormalities and placental abruption. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Mother's milk has many benefits for very low-birth-rate infants, including reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and chronic lung disease, and improvement in later childhood development. (news-medical.net)
  • Rates of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis are also lower in human milk fed ELBW infants, and they experience shorter hospital stays and fewer re-hospitalizations in the first year of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Data from multiple clinical trials, mostly conducted outside the US, indicate that probiotic prophylaxis is an effective intervention for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • AlFaleh K, Anabrees J . Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. (nature.com)
  • Probiotic administration can prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: a meta-analysis. (nature.com)
  • Not enough evidence to support administering antibiotics through a feeding tube for low birth weight and new born babies to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis. (cochrane.org)
  • To evaluate the benefits and harms of enteral antibiotic prophylaxis for necrotizing enterocolitis in low birth weight and preterm infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Bury RG, Tudehope D. Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • These infants are more susceptible to morbidities, including late onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), chronic lung disease and severe retinopathy of prematurity. (medela.us)
  • Length of hospital stay, days of mechanical ventilation, requirement for dopamine support, birth weight, initial hematocrit, periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis all independently correlated with number of transfusions and donors. (jefferson.edu)
  • 1500 g) infants. (hindawi.com)
  • 1500 g) infants fed fortified human milk, and examined the association between nutrient intake, medical factors and growth during hospitalisation lasting on average 70 d. (cambridge.org)
  • Very low birth weight infants are those weighing less than 1500 grams, or about 3.3 pounds, at birth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • METHODS Retrospective observational study including all live-born infants with a birth weight between 501 and 1500 g as registered by SNN and US-VON between 2012 and 2014. (uzh.ch)
  • A prospective cohort study was conducted of preterm infants with clinical early-onset sepsis whose birth weight (BW) was ≤1500 g and gestational age (GA) was ≤32 weeks. (arvojournals.org)
  • Participants included 1950 mothers of stable LBW infants (weighing 1500-2250 g) in rural and semiurban low-income populations in North India enrolled between April 2017 and March 2018. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to smoking mothers to the blood pressure values of term, low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • 2500 g) infants receiving enteral iron supplementation (≥1 mg/kg/day) with a control group (placebo or ≥ 1 mg/kg/day of iron). (who.int)
  • 2500 g) Swedish infants (N = 70) at discharge from a neonatal unit and at the postnatal ages of 2, 4, 6, and 8 months. (diva-portal.org)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect on iron status and growth in marginally LBW (2000-2500 g) infants, of iron supplements given until 6 months of life. (diva-portal.org)
  • low-birth-weight infant one that weighs less than 2500 grams at birth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To compare the neonatal outcome (survival, intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia) of inborn and outborn very low birth weight infants, accounting for sociodemographic, obstetric and perinatal variables, with reference to earlier published data. (nih.gov)
  • Despite advances in perinatal care, one of every two extremely low birth weight infants develops bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or neurodevelopmental impairments," says Nehal Parikh, DO, principal investigator in the Center for Perinatal Research at The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital. (healthcanal.com)
  • An extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infant is defined as one with a birth weight of less than 1000 g (2 lb, 3 oz). (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are more susceptible to all complications of premature birth, both in the immediate neonatal period and after discharge from the nursery. (medscape.com)
  • The proposed study will be the first US multicenter randomized trial of the health and developmental effects of donor milk as compared to preterm formula in ELBW infants receiving little or no maternal milk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If donor human milk has similar effects to maternal milk, the public health benefit of donor milk feedings in ELBW infants unable to receive maternal milk would be considerable. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) refers to those babies who are born at less than 1,000 g," Okito said in an interview. (healio.com)
  • The problems that affect ELBW infants can vary - from neurosensory (blindness and other visual problems, hearing loss and cerebral palsy), cognitive (speech and learning difficulties) and behavioral issues (such as autism spectrum disorder). (healio.com)
  • Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • Survival of ELBW infants is low. (scielo.org.za)
  • Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants has improved markedly over the past decade, largely owing to improved care, availability of antenatal steroids, provision of surfactant and establishment of appropriately equipped intensive care units (ICUs) where resources permit. (scielo.org.za)
  • ELBW infants who have no access to an ICU are therefore managed in a busy high-care ward. (scielo.org.za)
  • A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) Pediatrics provides evidence that extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants run a higher risk of suffering from adverse events such as fever, breathing problems (apnea), abnormally slow heart rates (bradycardia), and fever soon after being vaccinated. (prn.fm)
  • Herein we present an ELBW infant with RDS who underwent surgery for spontaneous intestinal perforation due to segmental absence of intestinal muscle accompanied by an ileal web. (scielo.org.ar)
  • To quantify the importance of successful endotracheal intubation on the first attempt among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who require resuscitation after delivery. (cdc.gov)
  • Tara R Allen and Orlando P da Silva, "Choice of Antibiotics in Late Neonatal Sepsis in the Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant," Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 28-31, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • This study is an in-depth analysis of bacteremia/sepsis and meningitis among infants enrolled in the trial. (nih.gov)
  • Over the 6-week study period, 47% of those cultured had at least one positive blood culture result (53% in group I vs 41% in group II) and 25% of the infants had at least one episode of definite bacteremia/sepsis/meningitis (29% in group I vs 21% in group II). (nih.gov)
  • Clinical information was correlated with blood cytokine levels on postnatal day 1 (D1), D3, D7, D14, and D21.Results:Male gender, non-Caucasian/non-African American ethnicity, sepsis, lower blood TGF-beta and interleukin (IL)-2 levels, and higher IL-8 levels were associated with NEC. (rti.org)
  • Overall 21 of 71 infants with sepsis (29.6%) died. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, the critical window for human milk feedings is at least the first 28 days post-birth to reduce the incidence of both late onset sepsis and NEC. (medela.us)
  • To prospectively study the association of high cytokine plasma levels with later development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in preterm infants with early-onset sepsis to assess a laboratory test to detect ROP. (arvojournals.org)
  • There is a relationship between high plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the first days of life with the later development of ROP severe enough to treat in preterm infants with early-onset sepsis. (arvojournals.org)
  • 8 suggested that neonatal sepsis, oxygen exposure, and low gestational age (GA) are not only independently associated with ROP occurrence, they interact and have a multiplicative effect on development of ROP. (arvojournals.org)
  • [ 3 ] The study reported that 83% of infants born at 22-25 weeks' gestation received intensive care (consisting of mechanical ventilation). (medscape.com)
  • From December 1983 to June 1985, 162 infants of less than 32 weeks' gestation or weighing less than 1,500 g, or both, were cared for at the regional neonatal intensive care unit in Leeds. (bmj.com)
  • We present a clinical case of a premature birth from a mother of 33+5 weeks gestation where the newborn was admitted to the neonatal unit due to her low weight, chest retraction and prematurity, despi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 37 weeks gestation) infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Technological and therapeutic advances have improved during the past 2 decades, increasing survival among the smallest, most immature infants, some as young as 22 to 23 weeks' gestation. (aappublications.org)
  • PTB is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestation, very early PTB is before 32 weeks, early PTB occurs around 32-36 weeks, late PTB is between 34-36 weeks' gestation and early-term birth is delivered at 37-38 weeks' gestation Late PTB accounts for 75% of all PTB. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from infant records of 232 patients with IDDM, including birth weight, birth length, gestational age, weight at 6 months of age, and feeding history during the first 6 months of life, were analyzed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We further hypothesized that because fetal inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants who develop NEC have elevated blood cytokine levels in early neonatal period.Methods:Data on 104 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with NEC and 893 without NEC from 17 centers were analyzed. (rti.org)
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned 1974 infants with extremely low birth weight at 12 to 36 hours of age to undergo either aggressive or conservative phototherapy. (rti.org)
  • Data were extracted using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two reviewer authors, and synthesis of data using relative risk, risk difference and weighted mean difference. (who.int)
  • Methods We conducted an observational study to understand current practices for monitoring of preterm infants at a large national referral hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: Eligible infants were randomized within 3 h of birth into the following three groups: chlorhexidine, normal saline or no skin cleansing. (ivteam.com)
  • METHODS Infants (n=359) between 400 and 1000 g birth weight and 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks gestational age who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of birth were randomly assigned to high PCO2 or to a control group with mildly elevated PCO2 targets. (uzh.ch)
  • Materials and methods: A retrospective cohort study (2000-2010) was used to analyse data from the Medical Birth Register. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Methods: This was an observational, cohort study including extremely low birth weight infants that who developed BPD and those who did not. (elsevier.com)
  • Involvement of prolactin in newborn infant irritability following maternal perinatal anxiety symptoms. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 3) Incidence of low-birth-weight infant by maternal age was in order of the group of 26-30 years old, the group of 20-25 years old and the group of 31-35 years old and the incidence by parity was higher in multiparity than in primiparity. (koreamed.org)
  • Linda D. Wallen, MD, associate division chief of clinical operations at Seattle Children's, said a combination of simple interventions - like the increased use of breast milk and the control of maternal infection - have contributed enormously to the survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants. (healio.com)
  • However, with improving maternal and neonatal care, more infants weighing 500 - 1 000 g are expected to survive. (scielo.org.za)
  • however, poor fetal growth can also cause LBW, usually because of problems with the placenta, maternal health, or birth defects. (ecri.org)
  • When sufficient maternal breast milk is not available, the alternative sources of enteral nutrition for preterm or low birth weight infants are donor breast milk or artificial formula milk. (who.int)
  • Prone sleeping (placing an infant to sleep on his/her stomach), bed sharing, parents not sleeping in the same room as the infant, an infant not using a pacifier during sleep, overheating, and maternal smoking during pregnancy have been suggested as contributing factors for SIDS. (bmj.com)
  • Subsequently, we tested for the interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes polymorphisms with birthweight by adding all the product terms in the regression models. (vdu.lt)
  • The interaction effect of maternal smoking, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes was marginally significant on birthweight (−234.5 g, P = 0.078). (vdu.lt)
  • This study merged two nationally representative datasets in the United States (US)-the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and the NLSY79 Child and Young Adult (NLSYCYA)-to examine whether maternal weight status before pregnancy serves as a biological mechanism. (springer.com)
  • We found that maternal body mass index (BMI) (in kg/m 2 ), a widely used measure of weight status, reduces the odds of delivering a low birth weight infant, and this mechanism explains about 10.2% of the adverse impact of maternal smoking on having a low birth weight child. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, when categorizing maternal pre-pregnancy BMI into four weight statuses (i.e., underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), we found that, in contrast to mothers with normal weight status, underweight mothers are 70% more likely to have a low birth weight child. (springer.com)
  • Our findings suggest that maternal weight status plays a role in understanding how maternal smoking affects low birth weight outcome, indicating that maintaining a proper weight status for women who plan to give birth may be a possible policy to promote infant health. (springer.com)
  • Maternal smoking and its association with birth weight. (springer.com)
  • Association between maternal smoking and low birth weight in Switzerland: The EDEN study. (springer.com)
  • Even when controlling for confounding factors, racial disparities in low birth weight odds did not significantly vary according to neighborhood risk level.ConclusionRacial disparities can remain in low birth weight odds among infants born to adolescent mothers when controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy behaviors, and neighborhood risk. (uncg.edu)
  • Maternal sociodemographic data, pregnancy history, anthropometric data and cord plasma zinc level were collected from 134 mothers of low-birth-weight infants and 134 mothers of normal infants at the time of delivery. (who.int)
  • Significant differences in maternal characteristics namely gravida, parity, body mass index, maternal weight gain during pregnancy and plasma cord blood zinc were found between low- and normal-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • There were no significant differences in maternal age, maternal education, maternal occupation, family income, previous abortion, previous preterm labour, birth interval, type of clinic and place of residence between the 2 groups. (who.int)
  • citation needed] Maternal tobacco smoking doubles risk of LBW for the infant. (wikipedia.org)
  • A correlation between maternal exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and low birth weight has been reported that the effect on birth weight of increased ambient CO was as large as the effect of the mother smoking a pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical charts were reviewed of all infants born younger than 30 weeks of gestation who were free of congenital heart disease, and who underwent PDA ligation at the La Paz University Hospital in Madrid, Spain, between January 2005 and November 2009. (frontiersin.org)
  • postmature infant ( postterm infant ) one born any time after the beginning of the forty-second week (288 days) of gestation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The SNN units had a significantly lower risk ratio for death or major morbidity. (uzh.ch)
  • The study population included all 94,110 infants between 501 and 1,500 grams born in network hospitals between 1995 and 2000. (rand.org)
  • Candidiasis should be more frequently considered, and prompt systemic therapy should be instituted when cutaneous candidiasis occurs within the first few days of life in infants who weigh less than 1,500 g. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Percentage of infants born weighing less than 1,500 grams (approximately 3 lbs, 5 oz). (kidsdata.org)
  • The study sample of infants was stratified by birth weight (2,000 grams or less, 2,001-2,500 grams) and randomized to the Intervention Group or the Follow-Up Group. (umich.edu)
  • day(-1) until 6 months of life effectively reduces the risk of ID during the first 12 months of life and is an effective intervention for preventing early ID in marginally LBW infants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusion: Single skin cleansing with 0.25% chlorhexidine did not adversely affect skin condition or temperature in hospitalized preterm infants and reduced axillary-skin colonization at 24 h after the intervention. (ivteam.com)
  • The mothers in the intervention group were supported to practice ciKMC until 28 days after birth or until the infant wriggled out of the KMC position (ie, was no longer staying in the KMC position). (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • The infants were born between September 1984 through July 1987 in Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean counties in New Jersey at birthweights from 500 to 2000 grams or a maximum of about 4.4 pounds. (innovations-report.com)
  • In 2000, these infants comprised just 1.4 percent of U.S. births but 51 percent of infant deaths. (bio-medicine.org)
  • National, regional, and worldwide estimates of low birthweight in 2015, with trends from 2000: A systematic analysis. (springer.com)
  • Objective: To examine if single skin cleansing with 0.25% chlorhexidine affects skin condition, temperature and bacterial colonization in stable preterm (28-36 weeks gestational age) low birth weight (1001-2000 g) infants admitted in a health facility. (ivteam.com)
  • In India the criterion for normal birth weight is 2150 grams and in Malaysia it is 2000 grams. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It isn't clear what factors contributed to the positive outcome beyond adolescence, as all through childhood the low birth weight cohort was significantly compromised in comparison with their peers. (news-medical.net)
  • Data are analyzed to find associations and trends between baseline information, treatments, and infant outcome, and to develop future NRN trials. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In the statistical analysis, variables with a statistical significant association with the outcome variables and dissimilar distribution in the two hospitals were identified and entered together with the hospital of birth as explanatory variables in a logistic regression. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest that very low birth weight outborn infants may share an outcome comparable with that of inborn babies, if adequate perinatal care including surfactant administration is provided prior to transportation to a tertiary center. (nih.gov)
  • The primary outcome was a composite of death or neurodevelopmental impairment determined for 91% of the infants by investigators who were unaware of the treatment assignments. (rti.org)
  • Multiple regression analyses showed that the best fitting model for predicting adverse outcome included PLCS and low birth weight, p = 0.018. (frontiersin.org)
  • A retrospective analysis of the outcome of inborn very low birthweight infants admitted to the neonatal unit of the University Hospital of the West Indies pre- (period 1) and post- (period 2) establishment of a neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. (uwi.edu)
  • Conclusion EWS may standardise documentation and identify infants who are at higher risk of an adverse outcome. (bmj.com)
  • For example, a retrospective multicenter cohort study published in April in JAMA Pediatrics showed that with active treatment, about 26% of infants weighing less than 400 g - or slightly less than 1 lb - survived to discharge. (healio.com)
  • Infectious Diseases in Children spoke with experts in neonatology and pediatrics about the challenges these babies face immediately after birth and later on in life, the specific advances that have increased their survival and how those developments have changed the conversation physicians are having with parents. (healio.com)
  • 2012-12-10] In a study published today in Pediatrics, scientists at Umeå University conclude that giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the risk of behavior problems like ADHD later in life. (umu.se)
  • Finally, provincial public expenditures on health and education are correlated with the incidence of low birth weight and school enrollment for teenagers, with worsening results associated with GDP declines. (repec.org)
  • 2) The incidence of low-birth weitht infant was 8.4% and there was no different distribution between male and female. (koreamed.org)
  • 4) Incidence of low-birthpweight infant by the type of delivery was in order of normal vaginal delivery, breech delivery and C-section delivery. (koreamed.org)
  • Reported incidence of GER in preterm infants varies from 22% to 85% depending on criteria used for diagnosis. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Evidence suggests that oral antibiotics reduce the incidence of NEC in low birth weight infants. (cochrane.org)
  • The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • LBW infants had a high breastfeeding incidence but a significantly shorter duration than controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • High SIDS incidence among low birth weight, very low birth weight, and extremely low birth weight infants persists despite increased overall survival within these infant populations. (bmj.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) and Extra Uterine Growth Retardation (EUGR) and provide more approaches for appropriate nutritional support for preterm infants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The incidence of IUGR in birth weight, length and head circumference was 61.11%, 20.83% and 25.69%, respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Aggressive parenteral nutrition can promote physical development and decrease the incidence of EUGR in low birth weight infants. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The incidence of hyperkalemia and associated clinical features in extremely preterm infants were determined by reviewing medical records of 32 infants with birth weights of less than or equal to 800 g born during a 1-year period. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effective Communication Strategies for Nurses to Discuss Infant Feeding with New Mothers during Postpartum Hospitalization. (bioportfolio.com)
  • During prenatal care and postpartum hospitalization, nurses have an important role in assisting new mothers to make informed decisions about feeding their newborn infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Fifteen of the infants were born to women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, while another 15 infants were born to mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • While hospitalized at birth, the infants of smoking mothers shared a trend toward higher blood pressure readings for all measures, with the t -test differences reaching statistical significance for systolic arm ( p = .024), diastolic leg ( p = .03), and mean arterial pressure of the arm ( p = .038). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A study led by physician researchers at Boston Medical Center has shown that first milk expression within eight hours of giving birth is associated with the highest probability of mothers of very low-birth-weight infants being able to provide milk throughout hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit. (news-medical.net)
  • The study results, published in Obstetrics and Gynecology, help better inform perinatal providers and new mothers how to prioritize the many aspects of perinatal care after delivery of a very low-birth-weight infant. (news-medical.net)
  • However, mothers of very low-birth-rate infants often have challenges making milk. (news-medical.net)
  • Because of these challenges, lactation support for mothers of very low-birth-weight infants is crucial. (news-medical.net)
  • Mothers who have recently delivered very low-birth-weight infants have a number of competing needs. (news-medical.net)
  • They found 70 percent of infants whose mothers expressed first milk within eight hours of delivery were being fed any mother's milk at discharge or transfer, compared with 52 percent of infants whose mothers expressed first milk 9-24 hours after delivery. (news-medical.net)
  • The authors note that given these results, randomized control trials are needed to further establish the causal relationship between timing of first milk expression and long-term lactation success among mothers of very low-birth-weight infants. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers looked at data from more than one-million births in all Pennsylvania counties over a period of ten years, and found that babies born to mothers who lived within about half a mile of a well site were 25 percent more likely to have a low birth weight. (alleghenyfront.org)
  • Does Neighborhood Risk Explain Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight among Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers? (uncg.edu)
  • Study ObjectiveTo test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers.DesignRetrospective cross-sectional study. (uncg.edu)
  • A "neighborhood risk" index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). (uncg.edu)
  • This unmatched case-control study in Hamadan, Islamic Republic of Iran, compared the characteristics of mothers of low- and normal-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • Approximately 1 in 5 women in low- and middle-income countries experience postpartum depression, and the risk is higher among mothers of low-birth-weight (LBW) infants. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is effective in improving survival among LBW infants, but the benefits of KMC for mothers are not well described. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • Salivary cortisol concentration was measured in a subsample of 550 mothers before and after breastfeeding on day 28 after birth. (healthynewbornnetwork.org)
  • Previous studies of the effect of mother's employment on infant birth weight have shown mixed results. (nih.gov)
  • No association was detected between activity level of mother's usual occupation and delivery of a low-birth-weight infant. (nih.gov)
  • County-level data reflect the mother's county of residence, not the county in which the birth occurred. (kidsdata.org)
  • In a study of the effect on infant health of a mother's experience of adversity in childhood by researcher Deborah Kim and colleagues, both adversity in childhood (such as physical abuse or the loss of a parent) and stress during pregnancy were associated with low infant birth weight and lower gestational age at birth . (bipolarnews.org)
  • Infants were fed either donor milk or formula for 90 days or to discharge when mother's milk was unavailable. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, the mechanisms explaining how a mother's smoking is linked to a child's low birth weight status are underexplored. (springer.com)
  • Survival correlates with gestational age for infants who are appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (medscape.com)
  • First year survival was 15.5% for infants with a birth weight less than 500g. (medscape.com)
  • Increased survival was observed also in these infants receiving surfactant, more so among the outborn. (nih.gov)
  • The number of these infants who are born every year may be small, but the problems they continue to face - despite technological and pharmacologic advances that have improved their chances for survival - are not. (healio.com)
  • This study aimed to establish the determinants of survival in this weight category of neonates, who, owing to limited intensive care facilities, were not mechanically ventilated. (scielo.org.za)
  • [2-4] Yet survival of these infants in a resource-limited setting like South African public hospitals is still low. (scielo.org.za)
  • The aims of this study were to review the survival of these infants and to evaluate factors determining their survival. (scielo.org.za)
  • In low birth weight and normal birth weight infants, we would anticipate a less marked increase in survival and, because of their increased maturity, a less apparent effect on SIDS rates. (bmj.com)
  • Increasing survival among extremely preterm infants has focused more attention on these babies, who are smaller in birthweight and lower in gestational age. (aappublications.org)
  • Propensity score matching and restricting the analysis to infants for which we expect no survival bias, because both networks routinely initiate intensive care at birth, revealed comparable aRR. (uzh.ch)
  • There was improved survival during period 2 when 81 (69%) infants survived compared to period 1 when 73 (55%) survived (p = 0.02). (uwi.edu)
  • further improvement in survival of these infants will be dependent on increased accessibility to surfactant therapy, initiation of total parenteral nutrition and availability of trained personnel. (uwi.edu)
  • Previous studies have addressed interventions, morbidities and survival in term or near-term infants with T21, T18 or T13, or were limited by a small number of patients. (uiowa.edu)
  • Median survival time was 4 days (95% CI: 3-4) among infants with T18 and 3 days (95% CI: 2-4) among infants with T13. (uiowa.edu)
  • It is estimated that at least 75% of preterm infants would survive with appropriate treatment, and the survival rate is highest among the infants born the latest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chances of survival without any long-term difficulties are lower. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest gestational age at which the infant has at least a 50% chance of survival is referred to as the limit of viability. (wikipedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether aggressive phototherapy to prevent neurotoxic effects of bilirubin benefits or harms infants with extremely low birth weight (1000 g or less). (rti.org)
  • Fluconazole prophylaxis should be strongly considered in the most immature infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Summary: Despite the fact that substantially improved nutritional therapies for preterm neonates have been implemented, still, some reluctance exists when it comes to providing high amounts of nutrition to the most immature infants. (eur.nl)
  • CONCLUSIONS Weight and growth parameters in utero and early infancy may influence the age at onset of IDDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -A U-shaped relationship between birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes was found in the schoolchildren aged 6-18 years in Taiwan. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We conducted a prospective cohort study including very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) admitted to our NICU between January 2015 and January 2017 in which we determined serial NTproBNP levels on days 1 and 3 and then weekly, until 49 days of life. (springer.com)
  • 5 Gastroesophageal reflux is common in infants, particularly those born prematurely. (nursingcenter.com)
  • A score of 2 or higher on the ACE was associated with lower gestational age at birth, indicating infants born prematurely. (bipolarnews.org)
  • Results Infants who are born prematurely or who have low birthweight have up to four times the risk of SIDS than those infants born at term, and this risk increases with decreasing gestational age or birthweight. (bmj.com)
  • Prematurely born infants are also at greater risk for having subsequent serious chronic health problems as discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infants were hospitalized in the NICU of a high-risk maternity in a tertiary-level public hospital specialized in caring for highly complex patients. (hindawi.com)
  • 1500g) infants, who frequently have very long stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)? (medela.us)
  • One safe, effective and low cost strategy to reduce the prevalence of these morbidities is the use of human milk feedings during the NICU hospitalization. (medela.us)
  • 25 ml/kg/day) had significantly higher NICU costs than infants receiving higher doses of human milk. (medela.us)
  • We also found that each additional ml/kg/day of human milk in the first 14 days post-birth was associated with a cost savings of $534 in NICU-related costs. (medela.us)
  • The study examined differences in death rates across hospitals with different NICU levels and their volume (how many very low birth weight infants they care for in a year). (bio-medicine.org)
  • Low-birth-weight and very-low-birth-weight infants require special care and support, preferably in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), until sufficient weight is gained and the infants have matured and are able to thrive without elaborate support systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Teamwork in the NICU Setting and Its Association with Health Care-Associated Infections in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants. (cpqcc.org)
  • 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.92, = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. (cpqcc.org)
  • Infants born with LBW have added health risks which require close management, often in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (wikipedia.org)
  • Percentage of infants born weighing less than 2,500 grams (approximately 5 lbs, 8 oz). (kidsdata.org)
  • The review of trials found there was not enough evidence to support the use of antibiotics to prevent NEC in preterm and low birth weight babies. (cochrane.org)
  • This review (6) aimed to evaluate the effects of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neural development in preterm and low-birth-weight infants. (who.int)
  • In preterm and low birth weight infants, feeding with formula milk compared with donor breast milk results in a higher rate of short-term growth but also a higher risk of developing necrotising enterocolitis. (who.int)
  • Against our expectations and many odds, a significant majority of young adults who were low birth weight infants have overcome earlier difficulties to become functional members of society," said Dr. Saigal, a neonatologist with the McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton. (news-medical.net)
  • The risk of diabetes was still 64% higher in the high birth weight group [odds ratio (OR) 1.64 (95% CI 0.91-2.96)], even after adjustment for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cox regression analysis showed that multiparity was a significant predictor associated with shorter breastfeeding in LBW infants (odds ratio = 2.51. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neurodevelopmental impairment was observed in 6 in the PLCS group (75%) and in 6 infants in the no PLCS group (37%), p = 0.08]. (frontiersin.org)
  • Preterm infants undergoing surgical closure of PDA who fulfill the criteria of PLCS according to this study seem to have a tendency toward higher risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. (frontiersin.org)
  • BACKGROUND Tolerating higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in mechanically ventilated extremely low birthweight infants to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury may have long-term neurodevelopmental side effects. (uzh.ch)
  • This study analyses the results of neurodevelopmental follow-up of infants enrolled in a randomised multicentre trial. (uzh.ch)
  • Neurodevelopmental follow-up examinations were available for 85% of enrolled infants using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and the Child Development Inventory (CDI). (uzh.ch)
  • Lok KYW, Chau PH, Fan HSL, Chan KM, Chan BH, Fung GPC, Tarrant M. Increase in Weight in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Fortified Breast Milk versus Formula Milk: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (mdpi.com)
  • Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are specialized hospital facilities offering medical care for newborn infants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The comparisons were enteral iron supplementation versus no iron supplementation, early versus late commencement of supplementation, a high dose versus a low dose as well as duration of supplementation. (who.int)
  • Nutritional impairment, which can cause slow rates of weight gain, may result from gut immaturity/delayed motility, delayed enteral feeding (i.e., feeding through tube placed in the stomach or upper small bowel), inability to nipple feed, and increased caloric needs. (ecri.org)
  • When breast milk was categorized by percent of total enteral intake, significant differences were seen among LBW infants, with lower percentages of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) status at discharge with increased proportions of breast milk intake. (mdpi.com)
  • Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The Journal of Perinatal Education is the official journal of Lamaze International , whose mission is to promote, support, and protect natural, safe, and healthy birth through education and advocacy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Using a chart adopted from the EWS developed by the British Association of Perinatal Medicine, we plotted infants' vital signs. (bmj.com)
  • Low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants are specifically more susceptible to BSI during hospitalization due to a higher requirement of vascular lines for administration of parenteral nutrition, blood products, or intravenous medications ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ozek, Eren 2018-06-27 00:00:00 AbstractBackground:In this case report, we present a preterm newborn with persistent lactic acidosis who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) that lacked thiamine.Case presentation:A 28-week-old, 750 g female infant was born with an Apgar score of 8 at the 5th minute. (deepdyve.com)
  • Neonates admitted at birth between January 2006 and December 2010 with birth weights of ≤ 900 g. (scielo.org.za)
  • To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the low birth weight infant, fungal colonization represents a significant risk factor for cutaneous or systemic candidiasis in these infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Emerging studies suggest that low birthweight may be a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders. (innovations-report.com)
  • Links between low birthweight and a range of motor and cognitive problems have been well established for some time, but this is the first study that establishes that these children are also at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (innovations-report.com)
  • Group I assignment and H(2) blocker therapy (before study entry) were associated with increased risk of definite infection, whereas cesarean section delivery and increasing birth weight were associated with decreased risk. (nih.gov)
  • This study was designed to explore the relationship between activity level of a woman's occupation and her risk of delivering a low-birth-weight infant. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that active work is not associated with an increased risk of having a low-birth-weight baby. (nih.gov)
  • SUMMARY: Preventative strategies against fungal colonization and infection are critical in high-risk very low birthweight infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The diagnosis of NEC was associated with elevated IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC-motif ligand-2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta/CC-motif ligand-3, and C-reactive protein.Conclusion:Clinical characteristics, such as gender and ethnicity, and low blood TGF-beta levels are associated with higher risk of NEC. (rti.org)
  • Low birth weight is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age and increases the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. (medindia.net)
  • The results showed that phthalate exposure was ubiquitous in these newborns, and that prenatal phthalate exposure might be an environmental risk factor for low birth weight in infants," said Dr. Ge. (medindia.net)
  • Data were synthesized using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). (who.int)
  • Hydrocortisone as prescribed in our trial did not reduce the risk of BPD when compared to placebo, possibly because we used anti-inflammatory doses that were not sufficiently high and/or the enrolled population of extremely preterm infants was too sick," Dr. Parikh says. (healthcanal.com)
  • In follow-up work, Dr. Parikh and his team at Nationwide Children's are examining the relationship between hydrocortisone and risk of a common inflammatory brain abnormality - diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) - which occurs in up to 75 percent of extremely preterm infants. (healthcanal.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To study the effect of birth weight on risk of type 2 diabetes in the schoolchildren in Taiwan. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, studies in Pima Indians revealed a U-shaped relationship between birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Because GDM is frequently complicated with macrosomia ( 20 ), a link between high birth weight and risk of diabetes can be anticipated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Low birth weight infants have a significantly higher risk of SIDS, a risk tightly correlated with prematurity. (bmj.com)
  • Predicting red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight infants based on clinical risk factors. (jefferson.edu)
  • For the univariate analysis of the known risk factors for ROP, all infants without ROP were designated as the No ROP group, patients with any stage of ROP formed the ROP group, and all treated patients formed the Severe ROP group. (arvojournals.org)
  • Factors Associated with Successful First High-Risk Infant Clinic Visit for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in California. (cpqcc.org)
  • The adjusted relative risk, estimated using Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators, showed an increased risk of death, PDA, NEC, LOS, and BPD among infants with T21 relative to infants with no BD. (uiowa.edu)
  • Relative to infants with non-chromosomal BD, infants with T21 were at increased risk of PDA and NEC. (uiowa.edu)
  • A trend toward a lower risk of ROP was observed among infants with T21 compared to infants with non-chromosomal BD and infants without major BD. (uiowa.edu)
  • Infants with T18 had increased risk of PDA compared to infants with T13, infants with T21 and infants without BD and increased risk of BPD compared to infants with T21 and infants without BD. (uiowa.edu)
  • Risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among very low birth weight infants in Latvia. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Very-low-birth-weight newborns and infants are at significant risk for hypothermia because of their small body mass, large surface area, thin skin, minimal subcutaneous tissues, and posture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • citation needed] In general, risk factors in the mother that may contribute to low birth weight include young ages, multiple pregnancies, previous LBW infants, poor nutrition, heart disease or hypertension, untreated celiac disease, substance use disorder, excessive alcohol use, and insufficient prenatal care. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prominent risk factor for preterm birth is prior history of preterm delivery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter, a component of ambient air pollution, is associated with increased risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particulate matter exposure can cause inflammation, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and impaired oxygen transport access to the placenta, all of which are mechanisms for heightening the risk of low birth weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preterm birth may be prevented in those at risk, if the hormone progesterone is taken during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • As young adults, the majority of extremely low birth-weight infants are attaining similar levels of education, employment and independence as normal birth-weight infants, according to a study by researchers at the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster University in the February 8 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) . (news-medical.net)
  • This is good news for the infants and their parents, as more than a quarter of low birth weight children have development difficulties such as cerebral palsy, blindness and delayed development, compared to two per cent of normal birth-weight infants. (news-medical.net)
  • Most extremely low birth weight infants are also the youngest of premature newborns, usually born at 27 weeks' gestational age or younger. (medscape.com)
  • In future studies, Penn researchers will investigate possible links between brain hemorrhage, a complication of premature birth, and autism by examining brain ultrasounds taken of these children as newborns. (innovations-report.com)
  • Very low birth weight infants are significantly more likely to survive when delivered in hospitals with high-level neonatal intensive care units that care for more than 100 such newborns annually than are those delivered in comparable facilities that provide care to fewer than 100 such children every year. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Authors studied the physiologic course of bilirubinaemia in 513 low birth weight newborns and then related it to gestational age, birth weight and intrauterine growth. (eurekamag.com)
  • Subgroup analyses included evaluating the effects by type of milk-feeding, age of start of iron supplementation after birth, daily dose of supplemental iron administered, duration of supplementation, and gestational age as well as birth weight of infants. (who.int)
  • The optimal dose and duration of iron supplementation to LBW infants are, however, unknown. (diva-portal.org)
  • The study, Effects of Iron Supplementation on LBW Infants on Cognition and Behavior at 3 Years , is published in the January 2013 issue, released online Dec. 10, 2012. (umu.se)
  • Study authors conclude the results demonstrate long-term health benefits of early iron supplementation of otherwise healthy, marginally low birth weight infants. (umu.se)
  • Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). (mdpi.com)
  • 25 ml/kg/day compared with infants receiving ≥50 ml/kg/day of human milk in the first 28 days of life and 16.2% higher compared with infants receiving 25-49.99 ml/kg/day of human milk. (medela.us)
  • That is, increasing the average daily dose of human milk by 17.9 ml/kg/day in the first 14 days post-birth (a 1 standard deviation increase) is associated with a cost savings of $9,559. (medela.us)
  • 5) Etiology of low-birth-weight infant was in order of multiple pregnancy, toxemia, placenta previa and abruptio placenta, premature repture of membrane and congenital syphilis. (koreamed.org)
  • Adequate nutrition of women before pregnancy is essential to ensure optimal birth weight of the infant (2). (who.int)
  • Greater stress during pregnancy was associated with lower gestational age at birth and lower infant birth weight. (bipolarnews.org)
  • A male infant with a birth weight of 815 g and gestational age of 24 5/7 weeks was delivered through the spontaneous vaginal route following the first pregnancy of a 23-year-old mother. (scielo.org.ar)
  • We conducted a case-control study of 543 women who delivered singleton live births in Kaunas (Lithuania), examining the association between low-level tobacco smoke exposure (mean: 4.8 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy, GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms and birthweight of the infant. (vdu.lt)
  • Exposure of pregnant women to airplane noise was found to be associated with low birth weight via adverse effects on fetal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] The infants in this study had back-up mechanical ventilation provided for failed NCPAP. (scielo.org.za)
  • The proportion of growth restriction was 33 % at birth and increased to 58 % at discharge from hospital. (cambridge.org)
  • 500 kJ/kg per d) and intra-uterine growth rate (15 g/kg per d) were not met, neither in the period from birth to 28 weeks post-conceptional age (PCA), nor from 37 weeks PCA to discharge. (cambridge.org)
  • When compared with no breast milk intake, LBW infants that received breast milk were significantly more likely to have growth z-scores closer to the median of the reference population on admission and experienced slower weight gain from birth to discharge. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results suggest that LBW infants fed breast milk had better growth z-scores and lower SGA status at discharge compared with those predominately fed preterm formula. (mdpi.com)
  • Ninety-three percent of the LBW infants were fed breast milk at discharge and 36% at 6 months, compared to 97% and 75%, respectively, of the county population. (diva-portal.org)
  • There was a decrease in mean z -scores for weight (ZSWs) from -0.32 (standard deviation 1.25) at birth to -1.94 (1.35) at discharge. (scielo.org.za)
  • Cow and Gate Nutriprem 2 Post Discharge Formula (For Preterm and Low Birthweight Infants) 800g has been specially formulated to meet the increased nutritional requirements of preterm and low birthweight infants when they are discharged from hospital. (expresschemist.co.uk)
  • Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants. (mdpi.com)
  • The study included 166 extremely low birth-weight people who weighed 1.1 to 2.2 lbs. at birth and were born between 1977 and 1982 as well as 145 socio-demographically comparable normal birth-weight participants. (news-medical.net)
  • Extremely low birth weight, ventilator-dependent infants between 10 and 21 days old were administered a seven-day taper of hydrocortisone or a saline placebo while being treated at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital in Texas. (healthcanal.com)
  • As a result of this work, Dr. Parikh suggests neonatologists be more liberal with the use of stress dose hydrocortisone for relative adrenal insufficiency in extremely preterm infants (a common condition that can result in refractory hypotension) as the current data do not indicate adverse effects on neurodevelopment. (healthcanal.com)
  • Delivery room management of extremely low birth weight infants: spontaneous breathing or intubation? (omicsonline.org)
  • Change of renal function during vancomycin therapy in extremely low birthweight infants. (curehunter.com)
  • Twenty extremely low birthweight infants were treated with vancomycin (VCM). (curehunter.com)
  • Vancomycin is effective and safe in the treatment of serious infections in extremely low birthweight infants. (curehunter.com)
  • Segmental absence of intestinal muscle with ileal web in an extremely low birth weight infant. (scielo.org.ar)
  • It is seen 2-3% in very low birthweight infants and 5 % of extremely low birthweight infants. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Herein we report an extremely low birthweight infant with spontaneous intestinal perforation, segmental absence of intestinal muscle and an ileal web as an underlying cause. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Motor and Executive Function at 6 Years of Age after Extremely Preterm Birth. (aappublications.org)
  • Successful resuscitation and stabilization of the extremely preterm infant requires clinicians trained in delivery room preparation and management as well as immediate newborn care needs of such infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Early onset hyperkalemia in extremely low birth weight infants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Kilbride1988EarlyOH, title={Early onset hyperkalemia in extremely low birth weight infants. (semanticscholar.org)