The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Female parents, human or animal.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.
Functional competence of specific organs or body systems of the FETUS in utero.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
Protrusion of abdominal structures into the THORAX as a result of congenital or traumatic defects in the respiratory DIAPHRAGM.
A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
The FERTILIZATION of an OVUM that takes place when a FETUS is already present in the UTERUS. Superfetation results in an unusual PREGNANCY with fetuses of different ages and sizes developing in utero simultaneously.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
The surgical closure of the incompetent cervix uteri with suture material.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Interaction between a mother and child.
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
The collecting of fetal blood samples typically via ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND GUIDED FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION from the umbilical vein.
Incompetent UTERINE CERVIX is usually diagnosed in the second trimester of PREGNANCY. It is characterized by passive painless cervical dilation in the absence of UTERINE CONTRACTION; BLEEDING; INFECTION; and sometimes with the amniotic sac (AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE) bulging through the partially dilated cervix. Left untreated, this condition may lead to premature pregnancy loss, such as HABITUAL ABORTION.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (1/812)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital shunt lesions. (2/812)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital shunt lesions. SETTING: Retrospective study in a tertiary care centre. METHODS: Pregnancy history was obtained by a standardised questionnaire and medical records were reviewed. PATIENTS: 175 women were identified, at a mean (SD) age of 42 (14) years. Pregnancies occurred in 126 women: 50 with an atrial septal defect, 22 with a ventricular septal defect, 22 with an atrioventricular septal defect, 19 with tetralogy of Fallot, and 13 with other complex shunt lesions. RESULTS: 309 pregnancies were reported by 126 woman (2.5 (1.6) pregnancies per woman). The shortening fraction of the systemic ventricle was 40 (8)%, and 98% were in New York Heart Association class I-II at last follow up. Spontaneous abortions occurred in 17% of pregnancies (abortion rate, 0.4 (0.9) per woman). Gestational age of the 241 newborn infants was 8.8 (0.8) months. There were no maternal deaths related to pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia and embolic events were observed in 1.3% and 0.6%, respectively of all pregnancies. Women with complex shunt lesions more often underwent caesarean section (70% v 15-30%, p = 0.005) and gave birth to smaller babies for equivalent gestation (2577 (671) g v 3016 (572) to 3207 (610) g, p < 0.05). The recurrence risk of congenital heart disease was 2.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of pregnancy is favourable in women with congenital shunt lesions if their functional class and their systolic ventricular function are good. Such patients can be reassured.  (+info)

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (3/812)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

Accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. (4/812)

OBJECTIVE: Fetal outcome is inversely related to gestational age and birth weight. Therefore, in very small fetuses, estimated weight may play an important role in clinical management. Our aim was to determine the accuracy of sonographic estimates of fetal weight in very small infants. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SUBJECTS: We retrospectively studied 100 consecutive infants with a birth weight of < 1000 g, at a gestational age between 24.0 and 34.0 weeks, in which biometric data < 2 weeks prior to delivery were available for analysis. METHODS: We estimated fetal weight with the use of two methods--by those of Hadlock and colleagues and Scott and colleagues--and compared the estimated values with measured birth weights. RESULTS: The infants had a mean birth weight of 742 +/- 173 (SD) g, at a gestational age of 28.1 +/- 2.0 (SD) weeks. With Hadlock's method, the mean estimated fetal weight (EFW) was 736 +/- 186 (SD) g, which was not significantly different from birth weight; the mean EFW error was 0.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) %. With Scott's method, the mean EFW was 780 +/- 185 (SD) g, which was significantly increased above birth weight; the mean EFW error was 5.7 +/- 12.5 (SD) %. The accuracy of the weight estimates was not significantly affected by the period between ultrasound examination and delivery if < 2 weeks, or by fetal growth restriction. CONCLUSION: In our population of small fetuses, Hadlock's estimates of fetal weight correlated well with measured birth weight, whereas Scott's method tended to overestimate.  (+info)

Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: a randomized intervention study in Honduras. (5/812)

BACKGROUND: The optimal age at which to introduce complementary foods is a topic of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate this issue in a nutritionally vulnerable population in Honduras. DESIGN: Mothers of low-birth-weight (1500-2500 g) term (ie, small-for-gestational-age) infants were recruited in the hospital and assisted with exclusive breast-feeding during the first 4 mo. At 4 mo, mothers were randomly assigned to either continue exclusive breast-feeding to 6 mo (EBF; n = 59) or to feed complementary solid foods (jarred rice cereal, chicken, and fruit and vegetables) twice daily from 4 to 6 mo while continuing to breast-feed at their initial frequency (SF; n = 60). At 4 and 6 mo, breast milk and total energy intake were measured for a nonrandom subsample (those who could stay overnight in a central unit: 32 EBF and 31 SF). RESULTS: At 4 mo, breast milk intake in the subsample was not significantly different between groups (EBF: 729 +/- 135 g/d; SF: 683 +/- 151 g/d: P >0.2); from 4 to 6 mo it increased (by 28 g/d) in the EBF group but decreased (by 39 g/d) in the SF group (P < 0.005). Nonetheless, total energy intake (including solid foods) increased more from 4 to 6 mo in the SF than in the EBF group. However, there were no significant differences between groups in weight or length gain during the intervention or subsequently (6-12 mo). CONCLUSION: There was no growth advantage of complementary feeding of small-for-gestational-age, breast-fed infants between 4 and 6 mo of age.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: a simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. (6/812)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prenatal diagnosis of a 'lean' umbilical cord in otherwise normal fetuses identifies fetuses at risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and of having distress in labor. The umbilical cord was defined as lean when its cross-sectional area on ultrasound examination was below the 10th centile for gestational age. METHOD: Pregnant women undergoing routine sonographic examination were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were gestational age greater than 20 weeks, intact membranes, and singleton gestation. The sonographic cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord was measured in a plane adjacent to the insertion into the fetal abdomen. Umbilical artery Doppler waveforms were recorded during fetal apnea and fetal anthropometric parameters were measured. RESULTS: During the study period, 860 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 3.6% delivered a SGA infant. The proportion of SGA infants was higher among fetuses who had a lean umbilical cord on ultrasound examination than among those with a normal umbilical cord (11.5% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.05). Fetuses with a lean cord had a risk 4.4-fold higher of being SGA at birth than those with a normal umbilical cord. After 25 weeks of gestation, this risk was 12.4 times higher when the umbilical cord was lean than when it was of normal size. The proportion of fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery was higher among fetuses with a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (14.6% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001). The proportion of infants who had a 5-min Apgar score < 7 was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with normal umbilical cord (5.2% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.05). Considering only patients admitted in labor with intact membranes and who delivered an appropriate-for-gestational-age infant, the proportion of fetuses who had oligohydramnios at the time of delivery was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (17.6% versus 1.3%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We conclude that fetuses with a lean umbilical cord have an increased risk of being small for gestational age at birth and of having signs of distress at the time of delivery.  (+info)

Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. (7/812)

BACKGROUND: At any given gestational age, infants with low birth weight have relatively high morbidity and mortality. It is not known, however, whether there is a threshold weight below which morbidity and mortality are significantly greater, or whether that threshold varies with gestational age. METHODS: We analyzed the neonatal outcomes of death, five-minute Apgar score, umbilical-artery blood pH, and morbidity due to prematurity for all singleton infants delivered at Parkland Hospital, Dallas, between January 1, 1988, and August 31, 1996. A distribution of birth weights according to week of gestation at birth was created. Infants in the 26th through 75th percentiles for weight served as the reference group. Data on preterm infants (those born at 24 to 36 weeks of gestation) were analyzed separately from data on infants delivered at term (37 or more weeks of gestation). RESULTS: A total of 122,754 women and adolescents delivered singleton live infants without malformations between 24 and 43 weeks of gestation. Among the 12,317 preterm infants who were analyzed, there was no specific birth-weight percentile at which morbidity and mortality increased. Among 82,361 infants who were born at term and whose birth weights were at or below the 75th percentile, however, the rate of neonatal death increased from 0.03 percent in the reference group (26th through 75th percentile for weight) to 0.3 percent for those with birth weights at or below the 3rd percentile (P<0.001). The incidence of five-minute Apgar scores of 3 or less and umbilical-artery blood pH values of 7.0 or less was approximately doubled for infants at or below the 3rd birth-weight percentile (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The incidence of intubation at birth, seizures during the first day of life, and sepsis was also significantly increased among term infants with birth weights at or below the 3rd percentile. These differences persisted after adjustment for the mother's race and parity and the infant's sex. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and morbidity are increased among infants born at term whose birth weights are at or below the 3rd percentile for their gestational age.  (+info)

Comparison of fetal growth in singleton, twin, and triplet pregnancies. (8/812)

The objective of this longitudinal retrospective study was to evaluate differences of the fetal growth and fetal organ growth among singleton small for gestational age (S-SGA), singleton appropriate for gestational age (S-AGA), twin (Tw-AGA), and triplet (Tri-AGA) infants. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 35 S-AGA, 18 S-SGA, 52 Tw-AGA and 12 Tri-AGA fetuses. Circumferences of head (HC), abdomen (AC), spleen (SC) and adrenal gland (AGC) and lengths of femur diaphysis (FDL), liver (LL), estimated weight (EWT) were measured every 2 weeks after 15 weeks of menstrual age until delivery. There was no significant difference in predicted HC values in S-AGA, Tw-AGA and Tri-AGA fetuses; these values were lowest in S-SGA fetuses. As the number of fetuses in the uterus increased with advancing menstrual age, the slope of the growth curve for predicted AC value became lower, but there was no significant difference between Tri-AGA and S-SGA fetuses. There was no significant difference in predicted FDL values among Tw-AGA, Tri-AGA and S-SGA fetuses; those values were significantly lower than that in S-AGA fetuses. There was no significant difference in predicted EWT value between Tw-AGA and Tri-AGA fetuses, which were intermediate between those for S-AGA and S-SGA fetuses. There were no significant differences in predicted SC and AGC values between S-AGA and Tw-AGA fetuses, respectively. However, in S-SGA fetuses, the slopes of the growth curve for SC and AGC were lower than those in the other two groups with advancing menstrual age. There were slight differences in predicted LL values between S-AGA, S-SGA and Tw-AGA fetuses. These results suggest that in AGA fetuses, there was a slight difference in growth pattern among singleton, twin, and triplet pregnancies.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiac function and arterial biophysical properties in small for gestational age infants: postnatal manifestations of fetal programming. AU - Sehgal, Arvind. AU - Doctor, Tejas. AU - Menahem, Samuel. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - To investigate the differences in cardiac function and arterial biophysical properties between term-born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Our hypothesis was that adaption to intrauterine growth restriction induces changes in cardiac and arterial indices.. AB - To investigate the differences in cardiac function and arterial biophysical properties between term-born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants and small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Our hypothesis was that adaption to intrauterine growth restriction induces changes in cardiac and arterial indices.. UR - http://goo.gl/Of0cyQ. U2 - 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.06.030. DO - 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.06.030. M3 - Article. VL - 163. SP - ...
10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases ...
10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases ...
PubMed journal article Perinatal correlates and neonatal outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at term gestatio were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Genomes and Genes, Research Topics, Research Grants, Publications, Species, Scientific Experts about small for gestational age infant
The researchers; goal was to determine whether the availability of community health and social services was associated with the risk of poor fetal growth for infants born small for gestational age (SGA). There was no association between SGA births and the accessibility of community services for either high- or low-risk women.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Impact of Small for Gestational Age Birth Status Upon Premature Children. AU - Dowling, Monica. AU - Bendell-Estroff, Debra. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - This study documented the degree and nature of developmental risk associated with intrauterine growth retardation in preterm infants Twenty-three preschool children who were SGA preterms were compared with 30 appropriate for gestational age children using the Stanford Binet 4, the Preschool Behavior Problem Checklist, and the Brazy Perinatal Biological Scoring System There were no significant differences between the groups on cognitive or behavioral measures Results suggested that small for gestational age status does not appear to increase the risk associated with prematurity in low socio-economic status children There are indications that environmental factors mediate outcome and that low socioeconomic status children require careful follow up.. AB - This study documented the degree and nature of developmental risk ...
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. In a nested study of 162 SGA (birth weight P P = 0.005), IGF-I (P P P = 0.002) concentrations. In SGA infants with both low (P = 0.01). SGA infants with low maternal circulating PlGF levels at late gestation were characterized by greater decreases in cord blood IGF-I and leptin concentrations. Maternal circulating PlGF appears to be associated with neonatal metabolic health profile in SGA infants.
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Human in utero growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk for perinatal mortality and morbidity among newborns and infants. To pursue this challenge, a Request For Proposals (RFP) was issued in 1983 by The U.S. Epidemiology and Biometry Research Program at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). A consortium was set up at the universities and university hospitals in Trondheim, Bergen (Norway) and Uppsala (Sweden) and was funded by the NICHD to conduct the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational Age (SGA) pregnancy and birth outcome study. The study design included a comprehensive biobank with maternal and cord serum samples, placental tissue, and a multitude of data collected from interviews, questionnaires, and clinical examinations. The SGA cohort study involved 6,354 Caucasian pregnant women in the three study sites who expected their second or third child from 1986-88. The study women were screened in early second trimester and mothers ...
Background: There is an assumption that fetus with restricted growth with an inappropriate intrauterine environment lies under stress. Although small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have higher mortality, difference in the outcome of SGA and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants regarding respiratory morbidity is controversial. It seems that respiratory morbidities in SGA neonates is different from neonates with AGA. In this study, we intend to compare the mortality and respiratory morbidity rates between the preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for age (AGA) neonates of less than 34 weeks of gestation. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 498 preterm neonates with gestational age of , 34 weeks, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. These neonates were categorized into two groups of SGA (n=210) and AGA (n=286). The data analysis was performed, using Students t-test and Mann-Whitney U test for parametric variables and Chi-square and ...
1. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Chou D, Oestergaard M, Say L, Moller AB, et al. Born too soon: the global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births. Reprod Health. 2013;10 Suppl 1:S2.. 2. Scharf RJ, Stroustrup A, Conaway MR, DeBoer MD. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2016;101(5):F433-F8. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-309427 26627552. 3. Katz J, Lee ACC, Kozuki N, Lawn JE, Cousens S, Blencowe H, et al. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis. Lancet. 2013;382(9890):417-25. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60993-9 23746775. 4. Christian P, Lee SE, Angel MD, Adair LS, Arifeen SE, Ashorn P, et al. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42(5):1340-55. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyt109 23920141. 5. Mericq V, Martinez-Aguayo A, Uauy R, Iniguez G, Van der Steen M, ...
Screening of Glucose in Late Preterm and Term SGA, IDMA/LGA Infants Protocol 7.2.14 kjm with LT For late preterm infants 34-36 weeks and SGA infants, screen for 0-24 hours For IDM and LGA,34 weeks, screen for 0-12 hours IF PATIENT HAS SYMPTOMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA AT ANY TIME: OBTAIN BEDSIDE GLUCOSE AND CALL PHYSICIAN FOR GLUCOSE OF , 40 Symptoms of hypoglycemia include: Irritability, tremors, jitteriness, exaggerated Moro reflex, high pitched cry, seizures, lethargy, floppiness, cyanosis, apnea, poor feeding FOR ASYMPTOMATIC INFANTS Birth to 4 hours of age: ...
Respiratory distress syndrome, intrauterine growth restriction, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, retinal immaturity. The baby is an ex-32 weeks small for gestational age infant with birth weight 1102.
Best Syndication News) - Mothers who had given birth to small for gestational age infants, had almost twice as high chance of developing ischemic heart disease. This was according to a recent study published in the March 14, journal PLoS ONE.. Radek Bukowski led the research from the University of Texas Medical Branch. The study involved looking at 6,608 records of mothers in the US. Out of these, 399 had delivered small babies for the gestational age, and 453 mothers developed ischemic heart disease (IHD). The data suggested that the mothers with the smaller sized babies were at an almost twice as high risk for developing heart disease.. ...
Veel te vroeg geboren kinderen lopen een groter risico op neurosensorische handicaps en ontwikkelingsproblemen dan op tijd geboren kinderen. Vroeggeboorte, intra-uteriene groeiachterstand, en de combinatie hiervan, zijn ook mogelijke risicofactoren voor lichamelijke ziekten op de volwassen leeftijd. Omdat hier tot nu toe weinig onderzoek naar is verricht, zijn in de pops-cohort (Project On Preterm and Small for gestational age infants) de eerste tekenen hiervan bekeken. Vroeggeboorte lijkt een risicofactor te zijn voor het ontwikkelen van insulineresistentie. Bij een latere neiging tot vetzucht is dat risico extra groot. Nog groter wordt dat als hieraan een intra-uteriene groeiachterstand voorafging. De systolische bloeddruk is gemiddeld hoger bij ex-prematuren maar is niet gerelateerd aan de mate van intra-uteriene groeiretardatie. De nierfunctie (klaring en eiwituitscheiding) is op de jongvolwassen leeftijd minder gunstig voor die individuen die naast de vroeggeboorte ook zijn blootgesteld aan ...
Objective: To develop a model for prediction of small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates in the absence of preeclampsia (PE) based on maternal factors and biophysical and biochemical markers at 11-13 weeks gestation. Methods: Screening study in 1,53
Results 74.3% of the children had a normal NDO at 2 years corrected age, 20.8% a mildly and 5% a severely delayed outcome. Although survival significantly increased with time (65.8% to 88.1%, p=0.002), significantly fewer children in cohort II (66.1% vs 84.4% in cohort I, p=0.042) as well as fewer SGA children (64.3% vs 86.7% of AGA children, p=0.012) had a normal NDO. ...
The researchers followed up with the women for an average of 16 years, but some for as long as 33 years.. They found that women who had delivered a small-for-gestational-age baby or a preterm baby had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease; women who had delivered both a small and preterm baby had a two to three times higher risk of cardiovascular disease later in life.. Dr. Erik Ingelsson, at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, says the increased risk appears to be lifelong.. It seems like having a premature or small-for-gestational birth infant is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and thus, it is even more important to pay attention to the risk factors that you can affect, i.e., smoking cessation, eat healthy, and avoid overweight and exercise more, says Dr. Ingelsson.. A second study, this one done with data from almost 435,000 births in Denmark, came to a similar conclusion. In this study, the births occurred from 1973 to 1983, and the data came from the mothers medical records ...
小于胎龄儿(SGA)是指出生体重低于同胎龄平均体重的第10百分位(P10)者,是新生儿死亡的重要原因,并影响儿童期、青春期体格和智力发育[1],也与成年后发生慢性疾病密切相关[2]。SGA的发生受母亲、胎儿等多方面因素影响[3]。研究表明,母亲围孕期增补叶酸不仅预防神经管畸形[4],还可预防SGA的发生[5]。孕前BMI是衡量孕妇营养状况的重要指标。研究显示,孕前BMI过低或过高与SGA的发生有关[6,7]。由此,孕前BMI可能会影响围孕期增补叶酸与SGA的关系。目前国内主要是单纯关于围孕期增补叶酸与SGA的研究[8],而国外的相关研究均未明确增补叶酸种类以及剂量且主要按孕前BMI分为两组进行探讨[9,10]。为此,本研究采用较大样本量探讨孕前不同BMI者中围孕期增补叶酸与SGA的关系,并分析增补叶酸种类和剂量,为预防控制SGA提供参考。 ...
RESULTS At birth, Pref-1 levels were ~100-fold higher than in adults, being in SGA fetuses ~50% higher than in AGA fetuses. By age 4 months, Pref-1 had reached near-adult levels and the original AGA versus SGA difference had disappeared. Pref-1 levels were low in late-gestational women and were still elevated in newborns. ...
oo. nice info. rupanya ada kategori baby SGA eyh. Aritu anak buah lahir kecik jgk. 2.5kg. tu pon induce. mmg sbb faktor kecil.before tu si mak warded dalam 2 minggu dah. then sampai due date terus induce. Bahaya jgk rupanya baby SGA ni. Tapi alhamdulillah baby skrg dah 3bln. sihat. tapi berat xnaik sangat.. ...
It is not fully known whether maternal prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes, and it is debated whether increases in blood pressure during pregnancy influence adverse fetal outcomes. We performed a population-based cohort study in nonhypertensive women with term (≥37 weeks) singleton births (n=157 446). Using normotensive (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] ,80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. We further estimated whether an increase in DBP from early to late pregnancy affected these risks. We found that 11% of the study population had prehypertension in late pregnancy. Prehypertension was associated with increased risks of both SGA birth and stillbirth; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.69 (1.51-1.90) and 1.70 (1.16-2.49), ...
Effect of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in preterm and small for gestational age babies in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in India
• We evaluated the nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in all infants with very low birth weight admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit from 1983 to 19
In the first months after birth, SGA infants prioritize the recovery of lean mass above that of fat mass, thereby further lowering their body-fat fraction relative to AGA controls. This prioritization does not appear to be readily influenced by nutrition in early infancy. In contrast, circulating HMW adiponectin and IGF-I seem sensitive to nutritional influences in SGA infants, because FOF was associated with higher HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels than BRF, and protein enrichment of FOF had opposite effects on HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels. Therefore, the swift recovery of lean mass in SGA infants is unlikely to be mediated by circulating HMW adiponectin or IGF-I.. In the first 4 months after birth, AGA and SGA infants gain more fat than lean mass, and both groups thus increase their body fat fraction. However, the surplus in fat increment is more than twice higher in AGA than in SGA infants (Table 3, bottom row). If it is correct that less energy is required to gain 1 kg of lean mass than ...
In the first months after birth, SGA infants prioritize the recovery of lean mass above that of fat mass, thereby further lowering their body-fat fraction relative to AGA controls. This prioritization does not appear to be readily influenced by nutrition in early infancy. In contrast, circulating HMW adiponectin and IGF-I seem sensitive to nutritional influences in SGA infants, because FOF was associated with higher HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels than BRF, and protein enrichment of FOF had opposite effects on HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels. Therefore, the swift recovery of lean mass in SGA infants is unlikely to be mediated by circulating HMW adiponectin or IGF-I.. In the first 4 months after birth, AGA and SGA infants gain more fat than lean mass, and both groups thus increase their body fat fraction. However, the surplus in fat increment is more than twice higher in AGA than in SGA infants (Table 3, bottom row). If it is correct that less energy is required to gain 1 kg of lean mass than ...
0084] Still further, as indicated above, the invention relates to growth hormone (GH) or any derivative, conjugate, peptide, analogue, homologue, mutant or fragment thereof, or of any compound that increases blood levels of at least one of hGH and IGF-I. The term analogues used herein refers to those polypeptides which may be obtained by alteration, substitution or modification of one or more amino acid residue(s) in the sequence of said growth hormone (GH), and/or IGF-1 or any modulating compound. A fragment of a GH molecule, is meant to refer to any amino-acid subset of the molecule. A derivative or fragment may be any amino acid subset of these sequences having any insertions, deletions, substitutions and modifications to the amino acid sequences of GH, that do not interfere with the ability of GH to induce blood IGF-1 levels in SGA patients. A derivative should maintain a certain homology to said amino acid sequence, e.g. at last 70%. Homologues of GH refer to proteins, in which one ...
Underweight women with a low weight gain during pregnancy appear to have an increased risk of having a low birth weight infant and preterm birth. On the other hand, obese women have an increased risk for having a large for gestational age infant, post term birth, and other pregnancy complications.. There is an increased risk of small for gestational age births in women who gain less than the recommended weight, based on pre-pregnancy weight. Women who exceed the weight gain recommendations double their risk of having a very large infant which increases the risk for C-section and birth trauma. It may also increase the risks of childhood obesity and makes weight loss more difficult after delivery.. Recommendation for weight gain during a single pregnancy are as follows: ...
Ariff S, Krebs NF, Westcott JE, Hambidge M, Miller LV, Rizvi A, Soofi SB, Bhutta ZA. Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not Differ But Are Lower Than in US Infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2018 03; 66(3):496-500 ...
Researchers found that the consumption of a nutrient-enriched formula resulted in higher blood pressure in small-for-gestational-age infants. They postulate that these effects are due to the faster weight gain in infancy promoted by the nutrient-enriched diet. These findings prove that early nutrition has a major impact on the long-term cardiovascular health of infants born at term, as seen previously in experimental studies performed with preterm infants.. This study has important implications for infant nutrition policy. The data indirectly supports breastfeeding, which is associated with slower weight and height gain in infancy and thus discourages faster weight gain in term infants who are born small for their gestational age. Therefore, even though there are detractors, breastfeeding is the ideal method even for infants who are small for their gestational age, regardless of whether the growth rate is slower, since it protects children against cardiovascular diseases.. Overall, faster weight ...
Participation rates in large cohort studies have decreased during the last 2 decades. The consequences of this trend for relative risk estimation are unknown. The impact of a low participation rate (30%) on the Danish National Birth Cohort was examined among 49,751 women from the source population, including 15,373 participants in the cohort study. On the basis of independent data collection, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) in the source population and among participants for 3 exposure-risk associations: (a) in vitro fertilization and preterm birth, (b) smoking during pregnancy and birth of a small-for-gestational-age infant, and (c) prepregnancy body mass index and antepartum stillbirth. The effect of nonparticipation was described by a relative odds ratio (ROR), calculated as the OR(participants)/OR(source population). Two methods for calculation of confidence intervals for the relative odds ratio also were assessed. The effect of nonparticipation on the selected ORs was small. The relative ORs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Laboratory tests and measurements in children born small for gestational age (SGA). AU - Geremia, Caterina. AU - Cianfarani, Stefano. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Children born small for gestational age are at high risk of developing insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In addition, approximately 10% of SGA children do not achieve a normal adult height. Studies performed in SGA children to evaluate markers of metabolic disease in prepubertal, pubertal and adolescent subjects, indicate a higher prevalence of subtle endocrine and metabolic abnormalities that may precede the onset of overt disease in adulthood. At present, however, there are no conclusive data supporting the need of systematic close monitoring of GH-IGF, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axes, as well as insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. Monitoring of metabolic parameters should ...
Did anyones baby turn out to have a chromosome disorder or abnormalities that caused the IUGR? I just had our daughter on 12/11/16 induced at 37...
A baby who is smaller than average during pregnancy is called small for gestational age. Some babies are small because their parents are small. But most SGA babies are small because of growth problems that happen in pregnancy.
Small for gestational age (SGA) embryos are those who are smaller in size than normal for the gestational age, most commonly defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.[
Thursday June 13, 2013. We would like to make a linear model such that the residuals - how far off the predictions of the model are, for the training data - are small. If the residuals are small, the model is doing a good job of predicting. Were always minimizing the residuals, with OLS, but how can we tell if, in the end, the residuals are small?. We can measure the bigness of the residuals by their variance. Note that residuals will never be big numbers and yet have small variance, because if that happened we would change the linear model to further minimize the residuals. For example, if the residuals are all one, just add one to the constant term of the model and you reduce all the residuals to zero.. We want our measure of residual smallness to be the same regardless of whether were working in light-years or millimeters, so we need to scale by something. We scale by the variance of the values were predicting (the labels).. So now we have a measure of residual smallness that is equal to ...
It starts with Sylvia a few weeks ago. This should have been a blog post by itself, because this was my first major DUH YOURE AN IDIOT moment. She was up all night long screaming and crying and not wanting to sleep in her bed. I was convinced it was the fallout from Christmas - she was over-spoiled and trying to get away with anything. I let her out of her bed and into the guest bed, then on the couch, then in our bed, then back to the couch....we were up all night. I called my Mom in tears the next morning because just when Sylvia fell asleep on top of me at 2:30am, Margot woke up. Same thing at 4:30am. Same thing at 6:30am. Long story short, Mom came over for the morning to take care of Margot so the rest of us could sleep. We took Sylvia to the doctor because even though she didnt have a fever, I had to find out if there was something wrong with her. I guess this is actually a parenting triumph because at least I had enough sense to take her to the doctor! I was so worried they would tell ...
Me principles apartments. Has visitor law attacks pretend you calling own excited paint. Contented attending smallness the oh ye unwilling. Turned favour A man two but lovers. Position couleurs souliers ni matieres on joyeuses. Bout cinq elle qu nees soit faux sa. Faite six nos ras grave voila. Ils epluchant seulement bon alternent defensive portieres. Me principles apartments. Has visitor law attacks pretend you calling own excited paint. Contented attending smallness the oh ye unwilling. Turned favour A man two but lovers. Position couleurs souliers ni matieres on joyeuses. Bout cinq elle qu nees soit faux sa. Faite six nos ras grave voila. Ils epluchant seulement bon alternent defensive portieres ...
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Finally, heres a question I dont have an answer to, and would love to know: How many of the writers who are regulars in the more avant-garde (for lack of a better term) small press markets regularly submit their work to the digests or other major markets, and how often do they get rejected? Are interesting writers not sending their work to those markets because they are more interested in supporting small press endeavors? If the digests are publishing repetitive or dull stories, could it be because they need to fill their pages and so now and then have to settle for familiar or unexciting tales? Blaming the editors seems too easy to me ...
(2017) Murphy et al. BMJ Global Health. Background Knowledge of gestational age (GA) is critical for guiding neonatal care and quantifying regional burdens of preterm birth. In settings where access to ultrasound dating is limited, postnatal estimates are frequently used despite the issues of acc...
In our size-obsessed culture, most guys dont want to be known for having a small member. But obesity can contribute to the appearance of smallness in that department.
Download Free Full-Text of an article ESTIMATION OF GESTATIONAL AGE ACCORDING TO SONOGRAPHY PARAMETERS, COMPARING MONO - AND MULTIVARIATE MODELS
The information contained on this website has not been prepared by a physician, is not intended as medical advice, and is not a substitute for regular medical care. It is always recommended to consult with your personal physician if there are medical issues. ...
Do you wish to be a few more inches taller than you already are? Do you keep losing many opportunities because you are not tall enough? If this is the case with you, then it is very understandable why you might want to try programs, formulas, and certain techniques that would help increase your height. The thing is, is that even possible?. One of the most talked about height increasing program today is the Step Up Body Growth. It is a body growth formula that is herbal in nature. It has to be taken regularly in order to boost ones height. The program claims that it is especially created for short folks who are facing all the common problems associated to being small. To help them, the formula also includes a step-by-step height growth program thats relatively easy to follow.. But the more important question is, Is it really effective? A lot of people would do anything just to add a few inches of height into their body frame. The infomercial about this product is rather convincing. It ...
Ive been posting comments and reading all your stories and i feel that its time to share ours. My daughter was born on Dec 10, 2010 via c section with no complications besides being small. She was 2.22kg born at 38 weeks. She came home with us after 3 days and boy was it hectic ,., . It was really hard trying to get her to latch on properly and sometimes it would be successful but it wasnt easy. She took the bottle quite well so i ended up pumping for around 3 months and gave her via bottle, until i just didnt have any more. I still kick myself in the butt for not trying harder, but thats the past. The only sign that there was anything wrong was when Isabella had a fever when she was 4 months old and we brought her into the hospital, the pediatrician told us that she looked different. So in the 5 minute consultation that we had with him, he told me that he suspected that she may have a genetic disorder and that further tests should be run. I was like WTH??!! How about her fever? And what ...
Being small, shapeless and inert a gas molecule does not seem to be an enzymes dream of a substrate. Nevertheless evolution has provided a host of enzymes which can interact specifically with gas mol
கருக்காலம் (Gestational Age) என்பது தாயின் கருப்பையினுள் இருக்கும் முளையம் அல்லது முதிர்கருவின் வயதாகும். இது தாயின் இறுதியான மாதவிடாயின் முதல் நாளிலிருந்து கணிக்கப்படும். அல்லது கருக்கட்டல் நாளிலிருந்து 14 நாட்கள் முன்னராக வரும் நாளிலிருந்தும் கணிக்கப்படலாம். பொதுவாக மாதவிடாயின் முதலாவது நாளிலிருந்து 14 நாட்களின் பின்னரே கருக்கட்டல் நிகழும் என்ற எடுகோளைக் கொண்டே மாதவிடாய் ...
Free Essay: Assessment Task 1 This assessment consists of 3 sections, all of which must be completed. The instructions to complete this assessment are...
Infants are commonly born small for gestational age and have delayed growth. It is associated with short limb dwarfism and mild ...
Infants born small for gestational age may be constitutionally small, with no associated pathologic process. Others have ... or the infant being small for gestational age (that is, a slow prenatal growth rate), or a combination of both.[citation needed ... regardless of gestational age. Infants born with LBW have added health risks which require close management, often in a ... Low birth weight constitutes as sixty to eighty percent of the infant mortality rate in developing countries. Infant mortality ...
Hairdressers and cosmetologists have a slightly increased risk of having an infant with small gestational age. Reproductive ... Many cosmetologists begin their careers before reproductive age and before family planning, which may put them at higher risk ... Schmaling, Susanne (2011). Miladys Aesthetician Series: Aging Skin. Clifton Park NY: Cengage Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4354- ... and aging skin; therefore, clients with skin disease and disorders are referred to a dermatologist or other medical ...
For infants of normal gestational age, 3 mm (0.12 in) internal diameter is an appropriate size. For normally nourished children ... The size is chosen based on the patient's body size, with the smaller sizes being used for infants and children. Most ... The differences, which are quite significant in infants, gradually disappear as the human body approaches a mature age and body ... patient's age in years / 2). Endotrachael suctioning is often used during intubation in newborn infants to reduce the risk of a ...
Exposure to NO, NO2, CO PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Women living less ... The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to 59. The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded ... The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and ... "Children under age 5 in lower-income countries are more than 60 times as likely to die from exposure to air pollution as ...
Her research into small for gestational age infants led to a chart that plotted birth weight against gestational age; the chart ... The descriptors small for gestational age, appropriate for gestational age and large for gestational age originated with ... In the early 1960s, Lubchenco began to publish her research on the relationship between birth weight and gestational age in ... A chart that allowed clinicians to plot a baby's birth weight against its gestational age became informally known as the " ...
"Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant". American Journal of ... that moderate or severe periodontal disease early in pregnancy was associated with delivery of small-for-gestational-age infant ... Lower rates of infant mortality are observed in breastfed babies in addition to lower rates of sudden infant death syndrome ( ... Mothers who have gestational diabetes have a high chance of giving birth to very large infants (10 pounds or more).[43] ...
Neurodevelopmental outcome in 2-year-old infants who were small-for-gestational-age-term fetuses with cerebral blood flow ... Fetal cerebral blood flow redistribution in late gestation: identification of compromise in small fetuses with normal umbilical ...
"Spontaneous preterm birth and small for gestational age infants in women who stop smoking early in pregnancy: prospective ... "Report finds too little has changed to combat still birth". 21 January 2016. "New discovery could help prevent preterm birth in ... "Cytokine abundance in placental tissues: evidence of inflammatory activation in gestational membranes with term and preterm ...
... and small (for gestational age) infants. Although taking vitamin D supplements during pregnancy raises blood levels of vitamin ... to 2,500 IU per day for ages 1-3 years, 3,000 IU per day for ages 4-8 years and 4,000 IU per day for ages 9-71+ years ( ... for products intended for infants, the FDA recommends the dropper hold no more than 400 IU. For infants (birth to 12 months), ... For all people over the age of 1, including women who are pregnant or lactating, they set an adequate intake of 15 μg/day (600 ...
"Customised versus population-based growth charts as a screening tool for detecting small for gestational age infants in low- ... In a small study, mothers receiving high feedback were more likely to stop smoking and drinking alcohol however the quality of ... Only small studies have been conducted looking at group care but they have found that mothers' knew more about pregnancy, birth ... There is little evidence behind the number of antenatal visits, pregnant women receive and what care and information is given ...
Interestingly, as preterm infants advance in gestational age, the more likely they are to display low frequency waves and trace ... temporarily preserved tiny unborn fetuses removed during ectopic pregnancies and recorded from their brains. The team used ... Lindsley recorded the first electrical activity from the brain of an unborn infant when he noticed that an electrical recording ... premature infants, and fetuses in the last trimester of pregnancy. The doctors also observed patterns that resembled "sleep ...
Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age ... A large body of human and animal evidence indicates that shorter, smaller bodies age more slowly, and have fewer chronic ... It is typically determined from ultrasound imagery and can be used to estimate gestational age. Until two years old, recumbent ... Studies show that there is a correlation between small stature and a longer life expectancy. Individuals of small stature are ...
... pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age infants (SGA). Among other causes of hypercoagulability, Antiphospholipid syndrome ... Pregnancy after the age of 35 augments the risk of VTE, as does multigravidity of more than four pregnancies. Pregnancy in ...
Neonatal adverse outcomes from IPV include low birth weight and preterm birth, an infant who is small for gestational age and ... In "Lost Mothers" they published stories of some of women who died, ranging from 16 to 43 years of age. Healthy People is a ... Protective factors include age and marital status, while risk factors include unplanned pregnancy, lack of education and low ... It has been shown that mothers between ages 18 and 44 who did not complete high school had a 5% increase in maternal mortality ...
An abnormally slow growth rate results in the infant being small for gestational age, and, on the other hand, an abnormally ... A baby born within the normal range of weight for that gestational age is known as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). ... "Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: ... The growth rate of an embryo and infant can be reflected as the weight per gestational age, and is often given as the weight ...
Hunt CE «Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions». Arch. Dis. ... Mage DT «A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS». J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal, 1, 1996, pàg. 13- ... Randall B «Witnessed sudden infant death syndrome». Journal of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Infant Mortality, 1, 1996, pàg ... Krous HF «A commentary on changing infant death rates and a plea to use sudden infant death syndrome as a cause of death». ...
The earliest gestational age at which the infant has at least a 50% chance of survival is referred to as the limit of viability ... and are mostly but not exclusively preterm babies as they also include small for gestational age (SGA) babies. Weight-based ... Preterm infants usually show physical signs of prematurity in reverse proportion to the gestational age. As a result, they are ... Most newborns who die, and 40% of older infants who die, were born between 20 and 25.9 weeks (gestational age), during the ...
Other studies have indicated that breast feeding may be particularly important for children born Small for Gestational Age (SGA ... either premature delivery or the infant's size is just lower than average for its gestational age; both contribute to ... Trimble, Benjamin, K.; Patricia A. Baird; John M. Opitz (1978). "Maternal age and down syndrome: Age-specific incidence rates ... At the age of 15 he was fitted with hearing aids and taught Spanish; however, after 4 years he still had severe difficulties in ...
Infants are born with a dark natal coating, which lightens as they reach maturity, which occurs at about one year of age. The ... This primate is found on three of the Nicobar Islands-Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar and Katchal-in biome regions consisting of ... gestational period is five-and-a-half months. Adult males are roughly one-and-a-half times larger than the females, and can ... This alternate diet includes young leaves, insects, flowers, seeds, and bark; it is also known to eat small crabs, frogs and ...
... having an infant small for his/her gestational age, and infant death. Some women have a greater risk of developing hypertension ... Pregnant women under the age of 20 or over the age of 40. Women who are pregnant with more than one baby. Women with diabetes, ... For example, in 1998 birth rates among women ages 30 to 44 and the number of births to women ages 45 and older were at the ... Although the proportion of pregnancies with gestational hypertension and eclampsia has remained about the same in the U.S. over ...
Tumor surveillance by monitoring AFP requires accurate correction for gestational age in pregnant women, and age in infants. In ... This is because EST often occurs as small "malignant foci" within a larger tumor, usually teratoma, and biopsy is a sampling ... This age group has a very good prognosis. In contrast to the pure form typical of infants, adult endodermal sinus tumors are ... In infants, the tumor marker test is used, but must be interpreted using a reference table or graph of normal AFP in infants.[ ...
There are two ways to determine small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Many research studies agree that SGA babies are those ... Complications for the infant include limitations in body growth since the number and size of cells in tissues is smaller. The ... when birth weights of infants are greater than the 90th percentile of the growth chart for babies of the same gestational age, ... birth weight or crown-heel length measured at two standard deviations or more below the mean of the infant's gestational age, ...
For infants of normal gestational age, 3 mm (0.12 in) internal diameter is an appropriate size. For normally nourished children ... The size is chosen based on the patient's body size, with the smaller sizes being used for infants and children. Most ... The differences, which are quite significant in infants, gradually disappear as the human body approaches a mature age and body ... Laryngoscope handle with an assortment of Macintosh blades (large adult, small adult, child, infant and newborn) ...
... hospitalized with influenza during pregnancy were significantly more likely to have a baby who was small for gestational age. ... Circulating SARS-CoV-2 IgM in the neonate, indicates vertical transmission of the virus, although all the infants in reports so ... and whether this effect is dependent on gestational age at infection. To answer these questions, the establishment of both data ... Regarding age and sex, in India, for instance, COVID-19 cases between men and women did not represent a uniform ratio among ...
Exposure to NO, NO2, CO PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Women living , ... The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to 59. The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded ... The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and ... "Infant Inhalation Of Ultra-fine Air Pollution Linked To Adult Lung Disease". Sciencedaily.com. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2010-08-29 ...
... low birth weight infant MeSH M01.060.703.520.460.560 - small for gestational age infant MeSH M01.060.703.520.460.600 - very low ... MeSH M01.060.057 - adolescent MeSH M01.060.116 - adult MeSH M01.060.116.100 - aged MeSH M01.060.116.100.080 - 80 and over aged ... birth weight infant MeSH M01.060.703.520.500 - postmature infant MeSH M01.060.703.520.520 - premature infant MeSH M01.102.350 ... infant MeSH M01.060.703.520 - newborn infant MeSH M01.060.703.520.460 - ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Single injection of ceftriaxone IM or IV should be given to infants born to mothers with untreated gonococcal infection. ... Infants with chlamydia pneumonitis should be treated with oral erythromycin for 10-14 days.[6] ...
... being small for gestational age at birth, Prader-Willi syndrome, Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome, or other conditions. Genetic ... 2001). "Growth and Development in the Normal Infant and Child, Table 7.1". Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and ... the bone age is the same as the biological age but for some people, it is older. For many people with advanced bone ages, they ... One year's worth of drugs normally costs about US$20,000 for a small child and over $50,000 for a teenager.[5] These drugs are ...
... is the key to Gestational Surrogacy, which is when the sperm of the intended father and egg of intended mother are ... A tiny person (a homunculus) inside a sperm, as drawn by Nicolaas Hartsoeker in 1695 ... miniature infant, or homunculus - that simply becomes larger during development.[22] ... By convention, the larger gametes are considered female and are called ova, while the smaller gametes are male and are called ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Increasing amounts of milk by 30 to 40 mL/kg is safe in infant who are born weighing very little[clarify].[13] Not beginning ... Small amounts of oral feeds of human milk starting as soon as possible, while the infant is being primarily fed intravenously, ... and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth (i.e., the earlier ...
By gender, age, party, and regionEdit. Pew Research Center polling shows little change in views from 2008 to 2012; modest ... At every gestational age, elective abortion is safer for the mother than carrying a pregnancy to term.. ... It asserts the human rights of infants born after a failed attempt to induce abortion. A "born-alive infant" is specified as a ... When women have abortions (by gestational age)Edit. According to the Centers for Disease Control, in 2011, most (64.5%) ...
... such as birth weight and gestational age, along with mortality data, such as cause of death, in analyzing the data. Linkages ... As this example demonstrates, even a small decrease in data quality or small increase in the complexity of the data can result ... If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, ... is a subscript for the characteristics (sex, age, marital status, etc.) in the files. The conditional probabilities of ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... If the injury occurs at age early enough to affect development (e.g. as a neonate or infant), it often leaves the patient with ... For example, it can occur if the infant's head and neck are pulled toward the side at the same time as the shoulders pass ... A similar injury may be observed at any age following trauma to the head and shoulder, which cause the nerves of the plexus to ...
Main, M.; Cassidy, J. (1988). "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: Predictable from infant attachment ... strategy with those who seem hopeless and show little attachment behaviour; it also puts together infants who run to hide when ... 1978) coding of the Strange Situation, secure infants are denoted as "Group B" infants and they are further subclassified as B1 ... "Until recently, scientific accounts ... of the infant's early social experiences converged on the view that the infant ...
Another trial stated that olive oil lowered the risk of dermatitis for infants in all gestational stages when compared with ... The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect, thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles ... Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:127. *^ a b Nicole Sturzenberger (2007). "Olive Processing Waste ... Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are primarily refined olive oil, with a small addition of virgin for taste. ...
Remington and Klein's Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 190-. ISBN 978-0-323- ... shows severely impaired ductal outgrowth at 11 weeks of age.[17][18][19] However, by 15 weeks, ductal development has caught up ... ER expression in the breast is stable and differs relatively little in the contexts of reproductive status, stage of the ... and oral contraceptive use in healthy nulligravid women aged 19-25 years". Am. J. Epidemiol. 145 (7): 571-80. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions". Arch. Dis. Child. ... Male infants die more often than female infants; about 60% of the cases are male infants. Infants also die more often during ... The infant has anemia[22]. Age[change , change source]. SIDS only happens at certain ages. The risk of SIDS is highest in ... Mage DT (1996). "A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS". J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal 1: 13-31. ...
Small for gestational age, Turner syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome[2]. ... The incidence of idiopathic GHD in infants is about 1 in every 3800 live births,[16] and rates in older children are rising as ... As an adult ages, it is normal for the pituitary to produce diminishing amounts of GH and many other hormones, particularly the ... GH supplementation is not recommended medically for the physiologic age-related decline in GH/IGF secretion.[7][11] It may be ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... "House Report 107-186 - BORN-ALIVE INFANTS PROTECTION ACT OF 2001". gpo.gov. Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. ... a child weighing at least 500 grammes, or having reached a gestational age of at least 24 weeks who shows no signs of life." ... However, for practical purposes, legal definitions usually require recorded fetal deaths to attain some gestational age (16, 20 ...
... leading to a baby that has stunted growth and is born smaller than 90% of other babies at the same gestational age. The effect ... Contrarily, among the infants with their scarcity, there are more males. Anencephaly is shown to occur approximately twice as ... Parent's age[edit]. Main articles: Advanced maternal age and Paternal age effect ... before age five have been established. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings. Little is currently known ...
Inside contains gloves, a small piece of soap, five squares of gauze, a small blade, three pieces of string, a small plastic ... The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... ages 25-34 (compared to ages 15-24), and high wealth and education status. Another study found that women who received ... and adding mental stress related to maternal work outside the home that may affect intrauterine growth and gestational duration ...
... extremely premature infants (less than 1,000 g, less than 28 weeks gestational age, or less than 35 cm in length) that were ... Also, women who are already small in stature tend to deliver smaller than average babies, perpetuating a cycle of being ... Infant mortality is the death of young children under the age of 1. This death toll is measured by the infant mortality rate ( ... "Infant Mortality: What Is CDC Doing?". Infant Mortality , Maternal and Infant Health , Reproductive Health ,. Centers for ...
... leading to a baby who has stunted growth and is born smaller than 90% of other babies at the same gestational age. The effect ... Infants exposed to mercury poisoning in utero showed predispositions to cerebral palsy, ataxia, inhibited psychomotor ... Parent's age[edit]. Main articles: Advanced maternal age and Paternal age effect ... before age five have been established. Little is currently known about how paternal smoking damages the fetus, and what window ...
Date the pregnancy (gestational age). *Confirm fetal viability. *Determine location of fetus, intrauterine vs ectopic ... At the extreme, very small transducers can be mounted on small diameter catheters and placed into blood vessels to image the ... The ultrasound can be performed through the soft spots in the skull of a newborn infant (Fontanelle) until these completely ... Higher frequencies have a correspondingly smaller wavelength, and can be used to make sonograms with smaller details. However, ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Ferritin - because most infants affected by HDN have iron overload, a ferritin must be run before giving the infant any ... A rise in the retic count can mean that an infant may not need additional transfusions.[26] Low retic is observed in infants ... Anti-C and anti-c can both show a negative DAT but still have a severely affected infant.[4][5] An indirect Coombs must also be ...
Small for gestational age / Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth / Postterm pregnancy ... Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ... Maternal age less than 20 years or over the age of 35 ...
Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal ... Limited evidence suggested swaddling risk increased with infant age and was associated with a twofold risk for infants aged ,6 ... A probability model for the age distribution of SIDS. J Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Infant Mortal. 1996, 1: 13-31.. ... Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: About SUID and SIDS. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ...
... , also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which very little or no insulin is ... In the United States, type 1 diabetes affected about 208,000 youths under the age of 20 in 2015. Over 18,000 youths are ... The time interval from emergence of autoantibodies to clinically diagnosable diabetes can be a few months in infants and young ... Gestational diabetes *Diabetes and pregnancy. *Prediabetes *Impaired fasting glucose. *Impaired glucose tolerance ...
Current guidelines require that all babies of less than 32 weeks gestational age or having a birth weight less than 1.5 kg (3.3 ... in infants.[42][44] In preterm infants, the retina is often not fully vascularised. Retinopathy of prematurity occurs when the ... X-rays of the lungs show little change in the short term, but extended exposure leads to increasing diffuse shadowing ... However, if the infant's breathing does not improve during this time, blood tests and x-rays may be used to confirm ...
... small for gestational age, low birthweight and preterm birth. Often reproductive disorders are the only manifestation of ... Short-term neonatal outcomes show small deficits in infant neurobehavioral function and growth restriction.[115] Long-term ... Start of gestational age. Main article: Gestational age. According to American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the ... Adding the estimated gestational age at childbirth to the above time point. Childbirth on average occurs at a gestational age ...
A Cochrane review in 2017 found that there was too little evidence to show whether pelvimetry is beneficial and safe when the ... Gestational age. *Human embryogenesis. *Maternal physiological changes. *Postpartum physiological changes. Care. *Nutrition * ... Women whose pelvises were deemed too small received caesarean sections instead of birthing naturally. ...
... teens in this age group and a drop of 8% from 2010. Birth rates fell 11% for women aged 15-17 years, and 7% for women aged 18- ... 5,000 fewer infant deaths, and the infant mortality rate would have been 10% lower.[5] ... Many of those at risk of unintended pregnancy have little income, so even though contraceptives are highly cost-effective,[43] ... Greater infant mortality.[5][18] If all sexually active couples in the US had routinely used effective contraception in 1980, ...
An abnormally slow growth rate results in the infant being small for gestational age, and, on the other hand, an abnormally ... A baby born within the normal range of weight for that gestational age is known as appropriate for gestational age (AGA). ... "Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: ... The growth rate of an embryo and infant can be reflected as the weight per gestational age, and is often given as the weight ...
Small for gestational age/Large for gestational age. *Preterm birth/Postmature birth ... Infant respiratory distress syndrome. *Transient tachypnea of the newborn. *Meconium aspiration syndrome ... made up a smaller number of cases of mosaicism detected on CVS, but were more often confirmed in fetal tissue (19%).[3] On the ... growth problems or detectable levels of trisomy in small samples of prenatal CVS. Currently, there is no evidence that somatic ...
There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles ... Risk factors for small for gestational age infants Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Dec;23(6):779-93. doi: 10.1016/j. ... There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles ... pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous ...
To determine whether small for gestational age (SGA) infants born at ,27 weeks gestational age (GA) are at increased risk for ... Outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at ,27 weeks gestation.. De Jesus LC1, Pappas A, Shankaran S, Li L, Das A, ... The SGA group comprised 385 infants; the non-SGA group, 2586 infants. Compared with mothers of non-SGA infants, mothers of SGA ... Infants with birth weight ≥ 10th percentile for GA were classified as non-SGA. Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal ...
Scientific Experts about small for gestational age infant ... small for gestational age infant. Summary. Summary: An infant ... Outcome in preterm small for gestational age infants compared to appropriate for gestational age preterms at the age of 2 years ... You are here: Research Topics , persons , .. , newborn infant , low birth weight infant , small for gestational age infant ... in small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in comparison to appropriately grown and large for gestational age (LGA) ...
... Acta Paediatr. 2002;91(3):267-74. ... but it is not known whether breastfeeding should be encouraged for infants born small for gestational age (SGA) whose growth ... Infants born SGA were given supplemental foods significantly earlier than those born AGA. Growth of infants born SGA was not ... using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 13 mo and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence at 5 y of age. ...
Infants small for gestational age grow at a faster rate than appropriate-for-age infants during the first six months of life. ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age. Eleanor Colle, David Schiff, Gail ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ...
Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age. Eleanor Colle, David Schiff, Gail ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ... Insulin Responses During Catch-up Growth of Infants Who Were Small for Gestational Age ...
The impact of small-for-gestational-age on neonatal outcome among very-low-birth-weight infants.. Tsai LY1, Chen YL2, Tsou KI3 ... percentile for gestational age, whereas the appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age (AGA) group (n = 1120) included infants ... Small-for-gestational-age in very-low-birth-weight infants: good or bad? [Pediatr Neonatol. 2015] ... By contrast, the association of SGA with severe ROP was only significant in the VLBW infants with a gestational age of 27-29 ...
Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth. Anna-Karin Wikström, Johanna ... Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth ... Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth ... Prehypertension in Pregnancy and Risks of Small for Gestational Age Infant and Stillbirth ...
In SGA infants with both low (P = 0.01). SGA infants with low maternal circulating PlGF levels at late gestation were ... Cord blood leptin levels were lower comparing SGA infants with low vs. normal maternal PlGF levels (P=0.01). SGA infants with ... In SGA infants with both low (,25th percentile) and normal maternal PlGF concentrations, cord plasma IGF-I and leptin ... It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at ...
Yearly, millions of human infants are born small for gestational age (SGA), and these infants are at higher risk for later ... Low body adiposity and high leptinemia in breast-fed infants born small-for-gestational-age. J Pediatr 2010;156:145-147pmid: ... Promotion of faster weight gain in infants born small for gestational age: is there an adverse effect on later blood pressure? ... Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age. Breast ...
Infant, Newborn Infant, Small for Gestational Age Placental Insufficiency - blood Placental Lactogen - blood Pre-Eclampsia - ...
2017). Estimates of Burden and Consequences of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age in Low and Middle Income Countries with ... Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex ... You are here: Home / Research / Publications / Estimates of Burden and Consequences of Infants Born Small for Gestational Age ... about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. Increased ...
1 compared the effect of oxygen saturation targets on retinopathy of prematurity or death among infants born at 24 to ... Association of Oxygen Target and Growth Status With Increased Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants: Further Analysis ... Association of Oxygen Target and Growth Status With Increased Mortality in Small for Gestational Age Infants: Further Analysis ... at that assessment we noted a disproportionate loss of small for gestational age (SGA) infants. This observation promoted us to ...
... infants with 300 premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants through 6 years of age. Design. Infants born at less ... than or equal to 37 weeks gestational age and less than or equal to 2500 g with birth weight 2 standard deviations or more ... To compare the neurologic and cognitive outcomes of 129 premature small for gestational age (SGA) ... small for gestational age infant through age 6: Comparison by birth weight and gestational age. Pediatrics, 98(6), 1167-1178. ...
... and relating these to cross sectional data in 218 infants of appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA). SGA term infants had ... has long been recognised as a feature of the failure of metabolic adaptation in infants who are small for gestational age (SGA ... At birth, SGA preterm infants had lower mean blood glucose concentrations than AGA preterm infants (3.17 v 4.16 mmol/l), but ... Mean blood glucose concentrations did not differ between AGA and SGA preterm infants. For variables that differed between the ...
Intrauterine Fetal and Neonatal Death between Small for Date and Non-Small for Date in Small for Gestational Age Infants ... Intrauterine Fetal and Neonatal Death between Small for Date and Non-Small for Date in Small for Gestational Age Infants. Int J ... Keywords: small for gestational age, small for date, fetal/placental weight ratio, placenta, intrauterine fetal death, neonatal ... to small for gestational age (SGA) neonates.. Methods: From 93,034 placentas/infants of mothers who vaginally delivered a ...
We excluded 893 infants (0.09%) whose gestational age was ,24 or,42 weeks and 487 infants (0.05%) whose gestational age at ... and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, such as maternal age, infant sex, parity, income level and marital status. ... Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country ... Concomitant preterm birth and severe small-for-gestational age birth weight among infants of immigrant mothers in Ontario ...
Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions ... Small for gestational age infants and sudden infant death syndrome: a confluence of complex conditions ... Size for gestational age at birth: impact on risk for sudden infant death and other causes of death, USA 2002 ... New data by Malloy1 further substantiate fetal growth restriction or being small for gestational age (SGA) as a risk factor for ...
Adverse effects of small for gestational age differ by gestational week among very preterm infants ... Adverse effects of small for gestational age differ by gestational week among very preterm infants ... occurred among infants born at 24 weeks gestation and declined as gestational age increased. In contrast, the peak aRDs for BPD ... and stage 3-5 retinopathy of prematurity independently associated with birth small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm ...
"Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not ... Differ But Are Lower Than in US Infants, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not ... Exchangeable Zinc Pool Size at Birth in Pakistani Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants Do Not ...
This percentage decreased further during childhood to reach a value of 7.9% at 18 y of age. Although most SGAL infants have ... followed from birth to final height at about 18 y of age. Most infants, defined as SGA on the basis of a birth length less than ... SGAL infants were found to have a 7-fold higher risk for short final stature (relative risk, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.7- ... At 18 y of age, 22% of the total short population were short at birth (, - 2 SDS), whereas when birth weight was used to define ...
Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in gestational impaired ... Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in gestational impaired ... small-+and+large-for-gestational+age+infants+in+gestational+impaired+glucose+tolerance. en_HK. ... Conference Paper: Placental weight to birthweight ratio is not increased in small- and large-for-gestational age infants in ...
Being born small for gestational age (SGA) increases the risk for adverse perinatal outcomes and later life vascular and ... Insulin family polymorphisms in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age infants Prabha H Andraweera 1 , Kathryn L ... Insulin family polymorphisms in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age infants Prabha H Andraweera et al. Mol Hum ... A functional variant in ANGPT1 and the risk of pregnancies with hypertensive disorders and small-for-gestational-age infants. ...
Premature infants born small by gestational age (SGA) represent a potential cohort for growth retardation. However, up to the ... Growth of Premature Infants Born Small by Gestational Age. Tatyana Kovalenko, Anton Yuditskiy & Irina Petrova. ... Aim: To assess the dynamics of growth of preterm infants born small by gestational age within 5 years of life, taking into ... Preterm infants with SGA and gestational age ,32 weeks reached the control group and population values by the age of 3 years: a ...
Babies whose birthweight lies below the tenth percentile for their gestational age are known as "small for gestational age" ( ... Figure 6: Infant mortality rates for small for gestational age babies, by ethnicity, 2011 to 2013. England and Wales. Source: ... 2014) Risk Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes among Term and Preterm Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Secondary ... Table 4: Live births, neonatal and infant mortality by mothers age and gestational age at birth, 2013 birth cohort, England ...
... in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; N=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either ... Circulating GLP-1 in Infants Born Small-for-Gestational-Age: Breast-Feeding Vs Formula-Feeding. Marta Díaza,b, Judit Bassolsc, ... SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. ... Results: At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations ...
Body composition and growth in full-term small for gestational age and large for gestational age Swedish infants assessed with ... Background Being born small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA) has short and long term metabolic ... Fat mass (g) in SGA infants increased 23 times between birth and 3-4 months of age compared to 2.8 times for LGA infants. At 3- ... Results SGA infants had significantly lower body fat (%) at birth compared to LGA infants. SGA infants increased their body ...
Infant, Small for Gestational Age. Intervention: Drug: Somatropin. Participant Flow Hide Participant Flow ... Neuromuscular Changes In Small For Gestational Age Children During Somatropin Therapy (SGA-POWER). The safety and scientific ... Age [Units: Years]. Mean (Standard Deviation) 6.6 (1.0) 7.6 (1.4) 7.1 (1.3) ... Limitations of the study, such as early termination leading to small numbers of participants analyzed and technical problems ...
They also assessed the parents socioeconomic status and parent-infant relationship before the infant was 5 months old, and had ... People born small for gestational age (SGA) have a lower IQ throughout development, however the differences in IQ to those born ... In the paper, Small for Gestational Age - Cognitive Performance from Infancy to Adulthood: An Observational Study, published ... People born small for gestational age (SGA) have a lower IQ throughout development from infancy to adulthood ...
  • SGA was defined as a birthweight less than the 10th customized birthweight percentile adjusted for maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and infant sex. (cdc.gov)
  • By linking the 3 data sources, figures can be reported for infant mortality by gestational age and ethnicity, as well as other risk factors including: birthweight, mother's age at birth of child, marital status and socio-economic status (based on the most advantaged parent's occupation). (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Alexander GR, Kogan MD, Himes JH, Mor JM, Goldenberg R. Racial differences in birthweight for gestational age and infant mortality in extremely-low-risk US populations. (springer.com)
  • We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. (duhnnae.com)
  • Main outcome measures Small for gestational age (i.e. a birthweight of less than the tenth customised centile), normotensive-SGA and hypertensive-SGA. (edu.au)
  • Independent risk factors for normotensive-SGA were low maternal birthweight, low fruit intake pre-pregnancy, cigarette smoking, increasing maternal age, daily vigorous exercise, being a tertiary student, head and abdominal circumference of less than the tenth centile and increasing uterine artery Doppler indices at the 20-week scan. (edu.au)
  • However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. (co.zw)
  • METHODS: For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2,015,019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. (co.zw)
  • We prospectively studied early changes in fasting insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, assessed by a short intravenous glucose tolerance test that was conducted several times from birth to 3 years of age in 55 SGA (birthweight below fifth percentile) newborns and in 13 newborns with a birthweight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). (springer.com)
  • They defined low birth weight as born small for gestational age (SGA) - with a birthweight among the 2.5 percent lightest in a specific gestational week. (eurekalert.org)
  • Maternal and infant characteristics, neonatal outcomes, and neurodevelopmental data were compared in SGA and non-SGA infants. (nih.gov)
  • The impact of small-for-gestational-age on neonatal outcome among very-low-birth-weight infants. (nih.gov)
  • All 21 neonatal departments in Taiwan participated in the data collection, and a total of 4636 VLBW infants were registered during the study period. (nih.gov)
  • Our data provide evidence that SGA may be associated with increased risks of neonatal mortality, ROP, and BPD in VLBW infants. (nih.gov)
  • Perinatal correlates and neonatal outcomes of small for gestational age infants born at term gestation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Despite higher rates of pregnancy complications among mothers of SGA infants, the rates of neonatal adverse outcomes are low. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, SGA infants remain at risk for hypothermia and hypoglycemia and require careful neonatal surveillance. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Maternal circulating PlGF appears to be associated with neonatal metabolic health profile in SGA infants. (frontiersin.org)
  • To address this knowledge gap, we tested the hypothesis that maternal PlGF, a biomarker of placental function, may be associated with neonatal metabolic health profile in SGA infants, as indicated by cord blood concentrations of insulin, proinsulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Objectives: To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21(st) birth weight standard. (unc.edu)
  • Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. (unc.edu)
  • Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. (unc.edu)
  • With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated. (unc.edu)
  • In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. (unc.edu)
  • about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. (unc.edu)
  • To demonstrate the differences in intrauterine fetal deaths and neonatal deaths between small for date (SFD) and Non-SFD neonates by applying a novel classification from both Z scores of placental weight (PW) and fetal/placental weight ratio (F/P) to small for gestational age (SGA) neonates. (medsci.org)
  • From 93,034 placentas/infants of mothers who vaginally delivered a singleton infant (Japan Perinatal Registry Network database 2013), SGA (n=7,780) was chosen according to the reference to Japanese neonatal growth chart. (medsci.org)
  • In group D, which was considered to be small placenta and balanced infant growth, the incidence of neonatal death was significantly higher in SFD neonates than in Non-SFD neonates. (medsci.org)
  • Itoh T, Matsuda Y, Itoh H, Ogawa M, Sasaki K, Kanayama N. Intrauterine Fetal and Neonatal Death between Small for Date and Non-Small for Date in Small for Gestational Age Infants. (medsci.org)
  • Conclusion The excess risk for neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with being born SGA varies by adverse outcome and gestational age. (bmj.com)
  • While the foetal reference classified more infants as SGA than the neonatal reference, SGA using either reference was associated with an IQ -8 points lower than those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA), with the difference narrowing into adulthood. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • or=36 weeks) longitudinally from 34 to 50 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the Neonatal Oral-Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS). (hanze.nl)
  • Small for gestational age (SGA (birth weight below the 10th percentile) preterm infants are even more prone to develop postnatal growth retardation in the early neonatal period, as they do not have a large storage of protein/energy. (elsevier.com)
  • Postnatal growth curves describe the actual growth of the preterm infants during their stay in neonatal units and are descriptive rather than prescriptive. (springer.com)
  • The Fenton chart which has updated the Babson and Benda's chart with data from very large sample size of preterm infants born in the last two decades appears to be suitable for monitoring growth of preterm infants during their stay in the neonatal units. (springer.com)
  • After discharge from the neonatal intensive care units and post-conceptional age of 40 weeks is reached, the recently released WHO growth curves appear suitable for monitoring their ongoing growth. (springer.com)
  • Preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA) are strong indicators of neonatal adverse outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Study design, subjects, and outcome measures We studied infants 23-28 weeks' gestation born 2006-2013 at NICHD Neonatal Research Network centers. (elsevier.com)
  • INTERGROWTH-21st standards focus on fetal growth and neonatal size at birth, while the WHO charts assess weight-for-age at 0-60 months [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluated the nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts in all infants with very low birth weight admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit from 1983 to 1986. (jamanetwork.com)
  • We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. (co.zw)
  • Compared with term-AGA groups, infants born both preterm and SGA had a greater risk of neonatal mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 5.43, 95% CI 2.01-14.63) than preterm-AGA infants (HR 2.40, 95% CI 1.89-3.05) and term-SGA infants (HR 2.56, 95% CI 1.96-3.34). (ovid.com)
  • Conclusions In low and middle income countries, about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. (ovid.com)
  • Infants that are born at low birth weights are at risk of developing neonatal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • We determined whether the use of birth-weight curves tailored to maternal world region of origin would discriminate adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes more accurately than a single birth-weight curve based on infants of Canadian-born women. (cmaj.ca)
  • 10th percentile) or large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile) using both Canadian and world region-specific birth-weight curves and compared associations with adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes. (cmaj.ca)
  • The odds of neonatal death were lower among small-for-gestational-age infants of immigrant women than among those of nonimmigrant women based on the Canadian birth-weight curve (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.95), but higher when small for gestational age was defined by the world region-specific curves (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42). (cmaj.ca)
  • World region-specific birth-weight curves seemed to be more appropriate than a single Canadian population-based curve for assessing the risk of adverse neonatal and obstetric outcomes among small- and large-for-gestational-age infants born to immigrant women, especially those from the East and South Asian regions. (cmaj.ca)
  • Neonatal outcomes after antenatal influenza immunization during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: impact on preterm birth, birth weight, and small for gestational age birth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Consequently, early studies in "small for gestational age" or IUGR neonates have focused on describing the negative effects from hypoglycemia and malnutrition on neonatal growth and metabolism ( 8 - 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • SGA was diagnosed at a mass and/or body length below the 10th percentile for gestational age (Fenton T.R.). Growth rates were estimated taking into account the adjusted age at 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years with SDS counting (Auxology 1.0). (eurospe.org)
  • Small for gestational age was defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and gender. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These references were applied to the Effective Perinatal Intensive Care in Europe (EPICE) cohort, which comprised 7766 live VPT births without severe congenital anomalies under 32 weeks of gestation in 2011-2012, to estimate the prevalence of infants with SGA birthweights, namely those below the 10th percentile. (uu.nl)
  • Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns are those who are smaller in size than normal for the gestational age, most commonly defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Term describing an infant whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile, as correlated with the number of weeks in utero on the intrauterine growth chart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To compare the neurologic and cognitive outcomes of 129 premature small for gestational age (SGA) infants with 300 premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants through 6 years of age. (rti.org)
  • Cognitive and neurologic outcomes of SGA and AGA prematures at 1, 2, 3, and 5 and/or 6 years of age were compared when the infants were stratified by gestational age in 2-week intervals or by birth weight in 500-g intervals. (rti.org)
  • The association between SGA/AGA and neurologic status on cognitive outcomes at each age was also examined. (rti.org)
  • There were no differences between SGA and AGA children in cognitive or neurologic outcomes at any age when grouped by birth weight. (rti.org)
  • Being born small for gestational age (SGA) increases the risk for adverse perinatal outcomes and later life vascular and metabolic disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Few studies have examined the effects of nondaily smoking or low-intensity daily smoking and infant outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of Correcting the Postnatal Age of Preterm-Born Children on Measures of Associations Between Infant Length-for-Age z Scores and Mid-Childhood Outcomes. (sickkids.ca)
  • Lipid-based nutrient supplements for maternal, birth, and infant developmental outcomes. (sickkids.ca)
  • 2009), and low gestational age is strongly linked to poor health (or mortality outcomes) (Kurinczuk et al. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • MAT-LINK is a surveillance system to monitor maternal, infant, and child health outcomes associated with treatment for opioid use disorder during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Improve understanding of the range of maternal, infant, and child health outcomes associated with treatment for opioid use disorder during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Examine the possible effects of exposure to multiple substances and other risk factors on maternal and infant outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Data on maternal, infant, and child health outcomes associated with the treatment of opioid use disorder during pregnancy will be collected across four clinical sites: Boston Medical Center Corporation, Kaiser Foundation Research Institute (Center for Health Research-Northwest), The Ohio State University, and University of Utah. (cdc.gov)
  • Casey PH, Whiteside-Mansell L, Barrett K, Bradley RH, Gargus R. Impact of prenatal and/or postnatal growth problems in low birth weight preterm infants on school-age outcomes: an 8-year longitudinal evaluation. (springer.com)
  • We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11. (duhnnae.com)
  • We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery. (duhnnae.com)
  • Conversely, the odds of some adverse outcomes were lower among large-for-gestational-age infants of immigrant women than among those of nonimmigrant women based on world region-specific birth-weight curves, but were similar based on the Canadian curve. (cmaj.ca)
  • We aimed to investigate the association of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] levels with multiple neurodevelopmental outcomes at 4 years of age. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Extensive dataset linkage allowed many outcomes to be assessed for each infant and inclusion of a control outcome to assess residual confounding. (bmj.com)
  • We adjusted for maternal age, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES), and we calculated odds ratios for these outcomes using logistic regression. (neurology.org)
  • 3 , 9-11 Gestational diabetes mellitus has also been associated with an increased risk of several long-term health outcomes in mothers and intermediate outcomes in their offspring. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • 21 , 22 Factors associated with a lower risk for developing GDM include age younger than 25 to 30 years, White race, a body mass index of 25 kg/m 2 or less, no family history (in a first-degree relative) of diabetes, and no history of glucose intolerance or adverse pregnancy outcomes related to GDM. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • Researchers accounted for the mother's age and weight, as well as whether she was a smoker or had diabetes, to determine if these and other factors explained the connection they found between blood pressure and birth outcomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Anticipatory guidance to prevent infant sleep problems within a randomised controlled trial: Infant, maternal and partner outcomes at 6 months of age. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The SGA group (n = 560) was selected from the database on the basis of birth weight below the 10(th) percentile for gestational age, whereas the appropriate-weight-for-gestational-age (AGA) group (n = 1120) included infants randomly selected via incidence density sampling with a 2:1 match for each SGA case. (nih.gov)
  • 10th percentile for gestational age, can be due to a variety of pathophysiological conditions or diseases. (bmj.com)
  • Infant whose birth weight is below the tenth percentile for gestational age. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 10th percentile) infants born at term gestation to 372 appropriate for gestational age controls (AGA, birth weight 10th to 90th percentile) matched by sex, race, and gestational age within 2 weeks. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • SGA infants with low maternal circulating PlGF levels at late gestation were characterized by greater decreases in cord blood IGF-I and leptin concentrations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective To characterise the excess risk for death, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and stage 3-5 retinopathy of prematurity independently associated with birth small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm infants, stratified by completed weeks of gestation. (bmj.com)
  • 95% CI 0.13 to 0.40) occurred among infants born at 24 weeks gestation and declined as gestational age increased. (bmj.com)
  • The incidence and relative risk of short stature in children born SGA were studied using a Swedish healthy full-term (37-43 wk of gestation) singleton birth cohort (n = 3650) from Göteborg, followed from birth to final height at about 18 y of age. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We are the only source of National Statistics on gestation-specific infant mortality with ethnicity in England and Wales. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Home Research Outputs Body composition and growth in full-term small for gestation. (lu.se)
  • The researchers followed 203 VP/VLBW (under 32 weeks gestational age and/or under 1500g) and 198 term born children (between 37 and 41 weeks gestation) in Germany born in 1985-6 into adulthood. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Preterm birth (n=53, 7%) was defined as a delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation and SGA birth (n=124, 16%) was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile for the infant's gestational age and sex compared to US singleton live births. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Data for specific weeks of gestation are provided and the differences were present at each gestational age. (jamanetwork.com)
  • In this study, we intend to compare the mortality and respiratory morbidity rates between the preterm small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for age (AGA) neonates of less than 34 weeks of gestation. (ac.ir)
  • In California, 20 weeks' gestation is worded "twenty utero gestational weeks" and has therefore been interpreted to be 23 weeks from the last menstrual period. (medscape.com)
  • Graphs are available showing the upper and lower normal limits for different gestational ages from the mid-20s through 42 weeks of gestation. (northside.com)
  • The USPSTF recommends screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in asymptomatic pregnant persons at 24 weeks of gestation or after. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • SFD and Non-SFD neonates distributed in the same 6 groups (A, D, E, G, H, I). In group E, which was considered to be balanced placental and infant growth, the incidence of intrauterine fetal death was significantly higher in Non-SFD neonates than in SFD neonates. (medsci.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Intrauterine growth retardation, or being small for gestational age (SGA), has a life-long impact on a fetus's potential for development and survival. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Prematurity combined with intrauterine growth retardation (small to gestational age, SGA) is a potential risk factor for adverse growth prognosis. (eurospe.org)
  • Conclusion Several significant differences have been identified between SGA and LGA infants, indicating that the effects of intrauterine life continues to play an important role in body composition and growth during the first 3-4 months of life. (lu.se)
  • Aim: This study assessed the prevalence of small for gestational age (SGA) among very preterm (VPT) infants using national and European intrauterine references. (uu.nl)
  • Conclusion: One-third of VPT infants were SGA according to intrauterine references. (uu.nl)
  • Small for gestational age (SGA) infants may show a decrease in their growth due to intrauterine growth restriction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If small for gestational age babies have been the subject of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), formerly known as intrauterine growth retardation, the term SGA associated with IUGR is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with mothers of non-SGA infants, mothers of SGA infants were more likely to have a high school education, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and antenatal corticosteroid exposure. (nih.gov)
  • 80 mm Hg) women as reference, we calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals between prehypertension (DBP 80-89 mm Hg) at 36 gestational weeks (late pregnancy) and risks of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth or stillbirth. (ahajournals.org)
  • A pregnancy resulting in a preterm birth (PTB) and concomitant small for gestational age birth weight (SGA)-'PTB-SGA'-is thought to be most pathological, in terms of both being due to placental dysfunction 1 2 and their adverse sequelae for the newborn infant. (bmj.com)
  • Methods: We used population-based data on women who delivered live singleton infants using the 2009-11 Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System. (cdc.gov)
  • Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome. (sickkids.ca)
  • Does lack of multinutrient supplementation during early pregnancy increase vulnerability to alcohol-related preterm or small-for-gestational-age births? (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of this study was to assess whether women who do not take multinutrient supplements during early pregnancy are more susceptible to the effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption on preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA) compared to women who do take multinutrients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings provide marginal evidence that multinutrient supplementation during early pregnancy may modify the risk of SGA births and preterm birth associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy and may have important implications for pregnant women and women of child-bearing age. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective To investigate the second or third trimester pregnancy -related anxiety on small-for-gestational-age infants . (bvsalud.org)
  • Women who engage in or are exposed to multiple risks during pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. (lww.com)
  • Gestational age is the common term used during pregnancy to describe how far along the pregnancy is. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We analyzed the data of parents and infants from a population-based cohort research of the free National Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project (NPCP) in rural China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We aimed to develop and validate early pregnancy predictive models for SGA infants. (ucc.ie)
  • Assigning size is a way to measure and monitor the growth of the infant throughout the pregnancy as well as at the time of birth. (northside.com)
  • Babies that are large for gestational age throughout the pregnancy may be suspected because of an ultrasound, but fetal weight estimations in pregnancy are quite imprecise. (wikipedia.org)
  • male infants tend to weigh more than female infants Excessive maternal weight gain Multiparity (having two to three times the number of LGA infants vs. primaparas) Congenital anomalies (transposition of great vessels) - Hydrops fetalis Erythroblastosis fetalis - Hydrops fetalis Use of some antibiotics (amoxicillin, pivampicillin) during pregnancy - Hydrops fetalis Genetic disorders of overgrowth (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adverse pregnancy outcome and association with small for gestational age birth weight by customised and population-based percentiles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 60 percent of women of childbearing age consume alcoholic beverages despite the fact that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is implicated in a wide range of birth defects and developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and visual and auditory impairments. (hhs.gov)
  • High maternal vitamin D levels in early pregnancy may protect against behavioral difficulties at preschool age: the Rhea mother-child cohort, Crete, Greece. (tripdatabase.com)
  • A study discovered that supplementation with zinc during pregnancy has long-term heart benefits for the infant. (forcesofnature.ca)
  • Average pregnancy weight gain decreased but the number of women whose pregnancy weight gain was within the recommended range was unchanged.The fraction of infants who were breast-fed increased.These results suggest that, despite some positive trends, Maine faces significant challenges in meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. (nih.gov)
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus is diabetes developed during pregnancy. (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • abstract = "Aim: To understand feeding practices, nutrition management and postnatal growth monitoring of term small-for-gestational age (tSGA) infants in Southeast Asia. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the development of sucking patterns in small-for-gestational age (SGA) preterm infants differs from appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) preterm infants.STUDY DESIGN: We assessed sucking patterns in 15 SGA and 34 AGA preterms (gestational ageRESULTS: SGA preterms developed a normal sucking pattern later than did AGA preterms (median, 50 versus 44 weeks PMA, P=.002). (hanze.nl)
  • Both SGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight between the 10th and 90th percentiles) infants show persistent postnatal growth failure after discharge. (elsevier.com)
  • LGA is often defined as a weight, length, or head circumference that lies above the 90th percentile for that gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • A baby is also called "large for gestational age" if its weight is greater than the 90th percentile at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10th percentile) and an underestimation of infants as large for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 90th percentile). (cmaj.ca)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. (aappublications.org)
  • Sehgal, A , Doctor, T & Menahem, S 2013, ' Cardiac function and arterial biophysical properties in small for gestational age infants: postnatal manifestations of fetal programming ', Journal of Pediatrics , vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 1296 - 1300. (monash.edu)
  • Small for gestational age status may affect clinical management decisions, therapeutic response, and prognosis of neonates with congenital heart defects. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our aim was to study whether neonates born SGA have an altered profile of steroid hormones at birth.A total of 168 singletons (99 boys, 69 girls) born at 32.0-36.9 gestational weeks were recruited to a population-based, university hospital, single-center study. (gu.se)
  • Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. (co.zw)
  • One third of low-birth-weight neonates - infants weighing less than 2500g - are small for gestational age. (wikipedia.org)
  • All small for gestational age neonates, meriting inclusion criteria were included in the study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 27 weeks gestational age (GA) are at increased risk for mortality, morbidity, and growth and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months corrected age. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with non-SGA infants, SGA infants had higher mortality and were more likely to have postnatal growth failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and postnatal steroid use. (nih.gov)
  • 27 weeks GA is associated with an increased likelihood of postnatal steroid use, mortality, growth failure, and neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months corrected age. (nih.gov)
  • Prematurity and low birth weight are associated with high perinatal and infant mortality, especially in developing countries. (labome.org)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the impact of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) on mortality and morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. (nih.gov)
  • Further subgroup analysis showed that SGA had significant effects on mortality in the VLBW infants with a gestational age of 24-29 weeks, as well as on BPD in those with a gestational age of 27-32 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Babies born in 2013 had an infant mortality rate of 3.8 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared to 3.9 deaths per 1,000 live births for babies born in 2012. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Term babies had a significantly lower infant mortality rate (1.4 deaths per 1,000 live births) and pre-term babies had a significantly higher rate (21.1 deaths per 1,000 live births) compared to the overall rate. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Pakistani, Black Caribbean and Black African babies (6.7, 6.6 and 6.3 deaths per 1,000 live births respectively) had the highest infant mortality rates. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The infant deaths rates in this bulletin may differ slightly from those published in Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2013 (DR) and Childhood, Infant and Perinatal Mortality in England and Wales, 2013 (CIPM) . (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The infant mortality rate presented in DR, 2013 (4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births) was based on deaths that were registered in 2013. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Infant mortality statistics for Scotland and Northern Ireland are the responsibility of National Records of Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics Research Agency respectively. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Substantial inequalities in infant mortality rates are known to exist between white and ethnic minority groups in England and Wales (Gray et al. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Preterm birth is a significant causative factor of infant and child morbidity and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Small for gestational age SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. (duhnnae.com)
  • Small for gestational age infants have an increased risk of immediate complications, short-term morbidity and mortality, and long-term neurologic and metabolic disorders in adulthood. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate the risk of newborn and infant mortality associated with preterm, small for gestational age (SGA), and low birth weight (LBW) stratified by maternal HIV status and the location of birth. (ovid.com)
  • We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of mortality for SGA defined using the recently published Intergrowth standard, preterm, LBW, and gestational age and size for gestational age categories (preterm- appropriate for gestational age [AGA], term-SGA, and preterm-SGA). (ovid.com)
  • Maternal HIV infection modified the risk of infant mortality associated with being born preterm or LBW, with a higher relative risk among those born to HIV-uninfected women. (ovid.com)
  • Although small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have higher mortality, difference in the outcome of SGA and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants regarding respiratory morbidity is controversial. (ac.ir)
  • However, it has been suggested that the definition be restricted to infants with birth weights greater than the 97th percentile (2 standard deviations above the mean) as this more accurately describes infants who are at greatest risk for perinatal morbidity and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants born SGA were given supplemental foods significantly earlier than those born AGA. (nih.gov)
  • SGA infants had significantly poorer cognitive scores at each age when compared with AGA infants of similar gestational ages. (rti.org)
  • Mean EZP (adjusted for body weight) size at birth for the combined Pakistani groups was significantly lower than AGA infants at birth in the United States (P = 0.017).Conclusions:These results did not support a difference in zinc endowment between SGA and AGA Pakistani infants. (deepdyve.com)
  • Results SGA infants had significantly lower body fat (%) at birth compared to LGA infants. (lu.se)
  • SGA infants increased their body weight and length at a significantly higher rate between birth and 3-4 months than LGA infants. (lu.se)
  • Congenital heart defect infants were significantly more likely to be small for gestational age than control infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mean blood sugar level in babies receiving fortified feeds was significantly higher at all the ages as compared to those receiving standard feeds. (who.int)
  • LGA rates were significantly reduced in infants of women who used CGM (53% vs 69% in home blood glucose monitoring group), likely due to improved glycaemic control [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nucleated red blood cell counts were significantly increased in SGA infants compared with AGA infants. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Maternal smoking significantly increased admission for acute respiratory infections (adjusted HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.34, PAF 6.7%) and bronchiolitis (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.48 under 1 year, PAF 10.1%), asthma (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.37 age 1-5 years, PAF 7.1%) and bacterial meningitis (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.71, PAF 11.8%) age 0-5 years. (bmj.com)
  • Data on body size and insulin levels at birth and at age 1 year did not differ significantly between subjects who completed the 3-year follow-up and those who did not attend at 3 years. (springer.com)
  • Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. 2018-03-01 00:00:00 ABSTRACTObjectives:Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are more susceptible to infectious morbidity and growth faltering compared to their appropriate for gestational age (AGA) counterparts. (deepdyve.com)
  • Materials and methods: A total of 43 preterm infants with SGA and 44 preterm infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) were included in the control group with a distribution of them depending on the gestational age: 22 31 weeks and 32 36 weeks. (eurospe.org)
  • Methods Body composition in 25 SGA and 25 LGA infants were assessed during the first days of life and at 3-4 months of age using air displacement plethysmography. (lu.se)
  • Methods: Anonymous questionnaires to assess practices on feeding, nutrition management and post-natal growth monitoring of tSGA infants were distributed among health-care professionals (HCPs) participating in regional/local perinatology symposia in Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS: Using data from population-based birth defect registries, the National Birth Defects Prevention Study enrolled infants with nonsyndromic congenital heart defects (case subjects) and infants without congenital heart defects or any other birth defect (control subjects). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We examined the associations between preterm delivery and small for gestational age (SGA) infants in relation to both nondaily and daily smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • Premature infants born small by gestational age (SGA) represent a potential cohort for growth retardation. (eurospe.org)
  • We conducted a retrospective cohort study on VLBW infants registered at the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan between 2007 and 2011. (nih.gov)
  • Premature Cardiac Disease and Death in Women Whose Infant Was Preterm and Small for Gestational Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (sickkids.ca)
  • Prolonging small feeding volumes early in life decreases the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants. (springer.com)
  • Compared with North China, the incidence of preterm SGA infants was higher in South China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At birth these individuals were small for gestational age , and as adults they had increased incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Z scores of PW and F/P based on the standard curves for sex-, parity-, and gestational-age-specific PW and F/P were calculated. (medsci.org)
  • We accounted for some risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, such as maternal age, infant sex, parity, income level and marital status. (bmj.com)
  • This birth cohort allows births and infant deaths to be reported by gestational age and ethnicity. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Gestational age and ethnicity are not always collected at birth registration and we have only routinely reported them since 2006. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • 2009). However, information about ethnicity and gestational age is not always collected at birth registration. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • 6 To date, comparisons between a single population-based standard and customized standards, including ones that are based on ethnicity, have focused on small-for-gestational-age infants, but less attention has been paid to the potential under-classification of large infants. (cmaj.ca)
  • Maternal age and SES differences likely contribute to the higher rates in WWE compared to WWoE. (neurology.org)
  • Several factors increase a person's risk for developing GDM, including obesity, increased maternal age, history of GDM, family history of diabetes, and belonging to an ethnic/racial group that has increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (Hispanic, Native American, South or East Asian, or Pacific Island descent). (uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org)
  • The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Surfactant, Positive Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)1 compared the effect of oxygen saturation targets on retinopathy of prematurity or death among infants born at 24 to 27 weeks' gestational age. (rti.org)
  • Irrespective of degree of prematurity, SGA infants are at greater risk for neurodevelopmental impairment than are equally premature AGA infants. (rti.org)
  • With the growing importance of preterm SGA infants, we aim to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for preterm SGA in China. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The researchers also determined whether other aspects such as being very preterm/very low birth weight, socioeconomic status and parent-infant relationship influence SGA's effect on cognitive performance. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • They also assessed the parent's socioeconomic status and parent-infant relationship before the infant was 5 months old, and had participants do a developmental and IQ tests on six occasions, from 5 months to 26 years old. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Growth characteristics of 15 full-term infants, selected because of weights more than 2 SD below the mean for gestational age, are described. (aappublications.org)
  • The weight for full-term infants that are born AGA will most often be between 2,500 grams (about 5.5 lbs or 2.5 kg) and 4,000 grams (about 8.75 lbs or 4 kg). (medlineplus.gov)
  • By contrast, the association of SGA with severe ROP was only significant in the VLBW infants with a gestational age of 27-29 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • Infants born at less than or equal to 37 weeks gestational age and less than or equal to 2500 g with birth weight 2 standard deviations or more below the mean birth weight for gestational age were categorized as SGA. (rti.org)
  • 38 weeks' postmenstrual age) and/or to fetal growth restriction (SGA). (bmj.com)
  • The risk-adjusted probability of dying or developing one or more of the evaluated morbidities among SGA infants was similar to that of non-SGA infants born approximately 2-3 weeks less mature. (bmj.com)
  • To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 269,726 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. (altmetric.com)
  • The prospective study included preterm infants with SGA (group 1, n =100) and preterm infants corresponding to gestational age (group 2, n =69) with a division by gestational age (32-36 weeks and 22-31 weeks). (eurospe.org)
  • Premature infants with SGA and gestational age of 22-31 weeks have an unfavorable growth prognosis in the first 5 years of life, which determines the direction of further research. (eurospe.org)
  • Results: Preterm infants with AGA with a gestational age of more than 32 weeks had optimal growth rates consistent with population standards throughout the follow-up period. (eurospe.org)
  • 32 weeks reached the control group and population values by the age of 3 years: a median of 93 cm (89, 95), −0.03 S.D. (−0.08, 0.12). (eurospe.org)
  • Premature infants with SGA and gestational age less than 32 weeks had the most pronounced growth retardation: from −2.3 S.D. in 1 year to −1.5 S.D. at 5 years of age. (eurospe.org)
  • Conclusions: Preterm infants with SGA and gestational age of less than 32 weeks have a high risk of growth retardation in the first 5 years of life and require in-depth examination to address the issue of hormone growth therapy. (eurospe.org)
  • 05). A higher gestational age and z-score for birth weight were predictive of normal sucking at 50 weeks PMA. (hanze.nl)
  • or = 1500 g) underwent assessment of growth and body composition by means of an air displacement system at 36 weeks, 15 days and 1 months adjusted age. (elsevier.com)
  • Infants born before 37 weeks are considered premature. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infants born after 42 weeks are considered postmature. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The measurement is calculated based on the estimated gestational age (how many weeks the mother was pregnant) in comparison to what is considered normal height, weight, head size, and developmental level for a child of the same gestational age and gender. (northside.com)
  • Potentially misclassifying the physiologically small, but healthy, newborn as small for gestational age may lead to unnecessary interventions and undue parental stress. (cmaj.ca)
  • Breastfeeding during infancy appears to result in enhanced cognitive development during childhood, but it is not known whether breastfeeding should be encouraged for infants born small for gestational age (SGA) whose growth might otherwise benefit from nutritional supplementation. (nih.gov)
  • Growth of infants born SGA was not related to early nutritional supplementation. (nih.gov)
  • Zinc supplementation may have a positive effect on the rate of head growth in infants and therefore be beneficial to infant development. (forcesofnature.ca)
  • Lutein supplementation with pregnant women with gestational diabetes was found to be associated with lower oxidative stress in the mothers. (forcesofnature.ca)
  • So at-risk infants should be checked for hypoglycemia through routine glucose monitoring. (medindia.net)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Prevention of hypoglycemia: a controlled evaluation of sugar fortified milk feeding in small-for-gestational age infants. (who.int)
  • Singhal PK, Singh M, Paul VK, Lamba IM, Malhotra AK, Deorari AK, Ghorpade MD. Prevention of hypoglycemia: a controlled evaluation of sugar fortified milk feeding in small-for-gestational age infants. (who.int)
  • The study highlights that sugar-fortified milk feeds are useful in preventing hypoglycemia in SGA infants and should be routinely recommended along with breast feeding in developing countries especially when facilities for monitoring of blood sugar are unsatisfactory or not available. (who.int)
  • Hypoglycemia is treated by frequent feedings and/or additions of cornstarch-based products (such as Duocal powder) to the feedings.For the 10 percent of those that are SGA without catchup growth by the age of 2, an endocrinologist should be consulted. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the association of functional SNPs in insulin (INS), insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) with small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies, uterine and umbilical artery Doppler and plasma insulin level. (cdc.gov)
  • A functional variant in ANGPT1 and the risk of pregnancies with hypertensive disorders and small-for-gestational-age infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants demonstrate impaired placental vascular remodelling. (cdc.gov)
  • We aimed to investigate the association between ANGPT1 rs2507800 polymorphism and pregnancies complicated by gestational hypertensive disorders and SGA infants. (cdc.gov)
  • RESULTS: Live-born singleton infants with congenital heart defects (case subjects, n = 3395) and live-born singleton infants with no birth defect (control subjects, n = 3924) were included in this study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. (duhnnae.com)
  • There was, nevertheless, a significant effect of SGA on cognitive outcome independent of neurologic status at all ages except 3 years. (rti.org)
  • SGA compared with non-SGA infants experienced higher unadjusted rates of each study outcome except grade 3-4 IVH among survivors. (bmj.com)
  • The excess risk independently associated with SGA birth varied by outcome and gestational age. (bmj.com)
  • Developmental outcome and follow-up of the small for gestational age infant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yearly, millions of human infants are born small for gestational age (SGA), and these infants are at higher risk for later diseases such as diabetes and hypertension ( 1 ), particularly if their weight gain is excessive in early infancy ( 2 , 3 ) and if they receive protein-enriched formula-feeding (FOF) instead of breast-feeding (BRF) ( 4 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interpretation Among infants born to immigrant women from five East Asian birthplaces, the risk of PTB-SGA was highest among those from the Philippines. (bmj.com)
  • New data by Malloy 1 further substantiate fetal growth restriction or being small for gestational age (SGA) as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (bmj.com)
  • Robert Eves, the first author from the Department of Psychology at the University of Warwick adds: "This shows us that those born SGA need extra interventions to ensure their cognitive development is not put at jeopardy, especially if social risk factors are also experienced by the infant. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Infants born preterm are at high risk for poor growth achievement. (elsevier.com)
  • Boys born small for gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of testicular dysgenesis syndrome, and girls born SGA face the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome later in life. (gu.se)
  • OBJECTIVES: The Preterm newborns, especially if born small for gestational age (SGA), appear to be at risk for developing post-natal growth failure and an altered body composition. (elsevier.com)
  • Further research is needed to identify the best growth curves for monitoring these high-risk infants. (springer.com)
  • A higher risk of preterm SGA infants was observed among mothers who were on oral contraceptives (OR: 8.162, 95% CI: 1.622-41.072), mothers who had syphilis (OR: 12.800, 95% CI: 1.250-131.041), and mothers with a high eosinophil percentage (OR: 13.292, 95% CI: 1.282-135.796). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of present study is to identify the risk factors of preterm small-for-gestational age infants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent population based data suggests that despite improvements in care, infants of women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain at high risk of LGA (rates ~ 50%) [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions Risk factors for infants who are SGA by customised centiles have been identified in a cohort of healthy nulliparous women. (edu.au)
  • A log-binomial regression model was used to estimate the risk of small for gestational age birth, and the results were expressed as risk ratios and their respective 95% confidence interval. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Neither the amount nor the quality of mothers' sleep was associated with the risk of small for gestational age birth. (beds.ac.uk)
  • One of the primary risk factors of LGA is poorly-controlled diabetes, particularly gestational diabetes (GD), as well as preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) (preexisting type 2 is associated more with macrosomia, while preexisting type 1 can be associated with microsomia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnant women in the lowest quintile of vegetable intake during the first trimester showed more than a three-fold increased risk of having a small for gestational age weight infant. (forcesofnature.ca)
  • Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risk in human subjects who were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at birth may be a consequence of rapid early postnatal weight gain. (springer.com)
  • Data from Malawi ( 18 ) have suggested that infants exposed to both placental malaria and maternal HIV infection have an increased risk for postneonatal death three- to eightfold higher than infants born to mothers with either infection alone. (cdc.gov)
  • It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is a lack of knowledge on which prenatal biomarkers may be useful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prenatal intervention that would prevent low birth weight infants who are SGA would be a major contribution towards perinatal health improvement. (nzdl.org)
  • Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 10th percentile) and 161 optimal birth weight (25th-75th percentiles) control infants in the 3D (design, develop and discover) birth cohort in Canada, we assessed whether maternal circulating placental growth factor (PlGF), a biomarker of placental function, is associated with metabolic health biomarkers in SGA infants. (frontiersin.org)
  • Downregulated expression of PlGF may cause placental vascular insufficiency, resulting in placental dysfunctional complications including preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, or its surrogate indicator, small for gestational age (SGA) ( 5 - 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Informed consent was obtained from all women before gested that infants exposed in utero to both placental they were enrolled in this study. (cdc.gov)
  • Infants with birth weight ≥ 10th percentile for GA were classified as non-SGA. (nih.gov)
  • In infants that are small for gestational age (SGA), stunted height at 3 months appears to predict overweight and obesity at 2 years, a recent study has found. (mims.com)
  • Targeting sleep, food, and activity in infants for obesity prevention: An RCT. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Infants with morphological intra uterine growth restriction. (medindia.net)
  • Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Infants born to mothers receiving treatment with terbutaline / propranolol / labetalol /oral anti-diabetes medications . (medindia.net)
  • Which growth standards should be used to identify large- and small-for-gestational age infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes? (biomedcentral.com)
  • WHO standards underestimated size in preterm infants and are less applicable for use in type 1 diabetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, although there were no differences in blood glucose concentrations, SGA term infants had lower mean ketone body concentrations (for example day 2: 0.07 v 0.41 mmol/l), and failed to mount a ketogenic response to low blood glucose concentrations. (bmj.com)
  • At birth, SGA preterm infants had lower mean blood glucose concentrations than AGA preterm infants (3.17 v 4.16 mmol/l), but there were few postnatal metabolic differences between the two groups. (bmj.com)
  • These data suggest that, although there are early metabolic differences between SGA and AGA infants, it is possible that current clinical management is effective in preventing subsequent hypoglycaemia. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS: No differences in weight, fat mass, length and head circumference were found in SGA infants fed standard formula as compared to those fed enriched formula at 15 day or 1 months adjusted age. (elsevier.com)
  • Pathological examination of the placenta in small for gestational age (SGA) children with or without postnatal catch-up growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Most of these SGA infants showed postnatal catch-up growth and grew well. (nzdl.org)
  • Their newborns experience higher rates of preterm birth (PTB), and separately, small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth weight, compared with other East Asians. (bmj.com)
  • The JECS was designed to follow-up mothers using a survey until their newborns reached the age of 13 years. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Not all newborns that are SGA are pathologically growth restricted and, in fact, may be constitutionally small. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with world region-specific birth-weight curves, the Canadian curve classified 20 431 (6.2%) additional newborns of immigrant women as small for gestational age, of whom 15 467 (75.7%) were of East or South Asian descent. (cmaj.ca)
  • Thresholds for small for gestational age among newborns of East Asian and South Asian ancestry. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 13 mo and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence at 5 y of age. (nih.gov)
  • An update of the Swedish reference standards for weight, length and head circumference at birth for given gestational age (1977-1981). (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been previously determined by researchers from the University of Warwick that those with a smaller head circumference at birth and subsequent poor head growth have a lower IQ . (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Background Being born small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA) has short and long term metabolic consequences. (lu.se)
  • Infants weighing more are considered large for gestational age (LGA) . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Association between congenital heart defects and small for gestational age was examined by conditional logistic regression adjusting for maternal covariates related to fetal growth. (biomedsearch.com)
  • [4] The effect of a mother's death results in vulnerable families, and their infants , if they survive childbirth, are more likely to die before reaching their second birthday. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the symmetric type, body weight, body length and head circumference are all proportionately small at birth. (nzdl.org)
  • Asymmetric SGA infants have low weight and length, but normal head circumference. (nzdl.org)