A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
Female parents, human or animal.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Interaction between a mother and child.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The killing of infants at birth or soon after.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Performance of complex motor acts.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Male parents, human or animal.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

Alternate child care, history of hospitalization, and preschool child behavior. (1/4443)

BACKGROUND: With more single mothers entering the workforce due to welfare reform efforts, more hospitalized children from single-parent families will have experienced alternate child care arrangements where routine care is provided by adults other than the child's mother. OBJECTIVES: To investigate with secondary analysis of data whether experience with alternate child care has a moderating effect on the relationship between hospitalization and behavior of preschool children living in female-headed single-parent families. METHOD: A sample of 60 preterm and 61 full-term children who were 3, 4, or 5 years old was recruited for the larger longitudinal study. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. History of hospitalization and alternate child care arrangements were measured with the Life History Calendar. RESULTS: Preschool children who experienced hospitalization without alternate child care experience had more somatic complaints, but those with both hospital and alternate child care experience had fewer aggressive behaviors than other children. For children with a history of hospitalization, aggressive behaviors decreased as the proportion of the child's life in alternate child care increased. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with alternate child care may ameliorate some of the negative effects of hospitalization, and potentially other novel and negative experiences, for preschool children. This could be due to child care providing positive experiences with separation from the mother, a peer group with which to talk about the novel experience, or actual instruction about the novel experience.  (+info)

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (2/4443)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

The biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light. (3/4443)

Each year more than 250,000 infants in the United States are exposed to artificial lighting in hospital nurseries with little consideration given to environmental lighting cycles. Essential in determining whether environmental lighting cycles need to be considered in hospital nurseries is identifying when the infant's endogenous circadian clock becomes responsive to light. Using a non-human primate model of the developing human, we examined when the circadian clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), becomes responsive to light. Preterm infant baboons of different ages were exposed to light (5,000 lux) at night, and then changes in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were assessed. After exposure to bright light at night, robust increases in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were seen at ages that were equivalent to human infants at 24 weeks after conception. These data provide direct evidence that the biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (4/4443)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (5/4443)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Early inhaled glucocorticoid therapy to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (6/4443)

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of inhaled glucocorticoid therapy for asthma stimulated its use in infants to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We tested the hypothesis that early therapy with inhaled glucocorticoids would decrease the frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, multicenter trial of inhaled beclomethasone or placebo in 253 infants, 3 to 14 days old, born before 33 weeks of gestation and weighing 1250 g or less at birth, who required ventilation therapy. Beclomethasone was delivered in a decreasing dosage, from 40 to 5 microg per kilogram of body weight per day, for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 28 days of age. Secondary outcomes included bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, the need for systemic glucocorticoid therapy, the need for bronchodilator therapy, the duration of respiratory support, and death. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three infants received beclomethasone, and 130 received placebo. The frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was similar in the two groups: 43 percent in the beclomethasone group and 45 percent in the placebo group at 28 days of age, and 18 percent in the beclomethasone group and 20 percent in the placebo group at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. At 28 days of age, fewer infants in the beclomethasone group than in the placebo group were receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.0) and mechanical ventilation (relative risk, 0.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Early beclomethasone therapy did not prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia but was associated with lower rates of use of systemic glucocorticoid therapy and mechanical ventilation.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of low dose fentanyl infusion in preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease. (7/4443)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of low dose fentanyl infusion analgesia on behavioural and neuroendocrine stress response and short term outcome in premature infants ventilated for hyaline membrane disease. METHODS: Twenty seven ventilated preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive a mean fentanyl infusion of 1.1 (0.08 SE) micrograms/kg/h for 75 (5) hours, and 28 untreated infants were considered a control group. A behavioural sedation score was used to assess the infants' behaviour. Urinary metanephrine and the normetanephrine:creatinine molar ratio were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Outcome data and ventilatory indexes were recorded for each infant. RESULTS: The fentanyl group showed significantly lower behavioural stress scores and O2 desaturations than controls and lower urinary concentrations of metanephrine and normetanephrine at 24, 48, 72 hours. The two groups showed no significant difference in ventilatory variables or short term outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A short course of low dose fentanyl infusion reduces behavioural sedation scores, O2 desaturations and neuroendocrine stress response in preterm ventilated infants.  (+info)

Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm infants. (8/4443)

AIM: To assess the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm and term infants, given in a sequence of three doses beginning soon after birth. METHOD: The immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine was assessed in 176 preterm infants (< 35 weeks of gestation), immunised soon after birth, and compared with that in 46 term infants. Titres of hepatitis B antibodies were determined one to two months after the third vaccine. The significance of the differences between the term and preterm groups was determined using Student's t test. RESULTS: A similar proportion of infants in both preterm and term groups attained protective titres of hepatitis B antibodies (88.7% vs 93.4%, respectively; p = NS). However, the term infants had a higher geometric mean titre of antibodies after the third vaccine than did the preterm infants (701.2 (745.0) vs 469.1 (486.2) mU/ml, respectively; p < 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in most preterm infants when given soon after birth. It may be advisable to determine the immune response at 12-24 months of age to booster the non-responders.  (+info)

Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors.
Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an important factor to consider in the care of late preterm infants (born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation). The literature suggests that SSC between preterm infants and their mothers facilitates breastfeeding. However, more studies are needed to explore potential dose-response effects between SSC and breastfeeding as well as studies that explicitly investigate SSC by fathers among late preterm infants. The aim was to investigate the duration of healthy late preterm infants SSC with the mother and father, respectively, during the first 48 h after birth and the associations with breastfeeding (exclusive/partial at discharged), clinical and demographic variables. Methods This was an observational cohort study in which parents to healthy late preterm infants, born between 34 5/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation, recorded duration of SSC provided by mother and father, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved from
This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed by a tactile discrimination task in the opposite hand. The results confirmed that habituation occurred for both shapes and both hands. Infants subsequently held the novel shape longer in the opposite hand. The results reveal that preterm infants are capable of intermanual transfer of shape information. In spite of the immaturity of the corpus callosum in preterm infants, its development seems to be sufficient to allow some transfer of information between both hands. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Many premature infants are resilient and surprise everyone by overcoming great odds. Expect that your infant can progress for several days but may then have a medical setback.. Premature infants are more likely than others to get an infection. And organs that have not had time to mature can cause a number of problems.. The more premature a newborn is, the greater is the babys risk of having medical problems.. Infants born at 23 to 26 weeks gestation are extremely underdeveloped and have a much higher risk of death or disability. Parents of these infants are likely to be faced with difficult medical decisions. Infants who have reached their 32nd week of development before birth are less at risk than those who are born earlier.. Babies born at 34 to almost 37 weeks gestation are called late preterm infants. Although they are not as likely to have as many problems as infants who are born earlier, they are at risk for breathing problems, high blood pressure in the lungs, and other short-term and ...
Other terms often used for prematurity are preterm and preemie. Many premature babies also weigh less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) and may be referred to as low birthweight (LBW).. Premature infants born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are often called late preterm or near-term infants. Late preterm infants are often much larger than very premature infants but may only be slightly smaller than full-term infants.. Late preterm babies usually appear healthy at birth but may have more difficulties adapting than full-term babies. Because of their smaller size, they may have trouble maintaining their body temperature. They often have difficulty with breastfeeding and bottle feeding, and may need to eat more frequently. They usually require more sleep and may even sleep through a feeding, which means they miss much-needed calories.. Late preterm infants may also have breathing difficulties, although these are often identified before the infants go home from the hospital. These infants are also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hierarchical maturation of innate immune defences in very preterm neonates. AU - Sharma, Ashish Arunkumar. AU - Jen, Roger. AU - Brant, Rollin. AU - Ladd, Mihoko. AU - Huang, Qing. AU - Skoll, Amanda. AU - Senger, Christof. AU - Turvey, Stuart E.. AU - Marr, Nico. AU - Lavoie, Pascal M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Preterm neonates are highly vulnerable to infection. Objectives: To investigate the developmental contribution of prematurity, chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on the maturation of neonatal microbial pathogen recognition responses. Methods: Using standardized protocols, we assayed multiple inflammatory cytokine responses (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12/23p40) to three prototypic Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, i.e. TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide), TLR5 (flagellin) and TLR7/8 (R848), and to the non-TLR retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor agonist, in cord blood mononuclear cells from neonates born before 33 weeks of gestation ...
Our study used a VBM technique to investigate the regional distribution of GM and WM volume reductions and their relationship with cognitive outcome in a sample of preterm children with low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits. We demonstrated that preterm children at low risk are characterized by the presence of regional cortical GM volume reductions unilaterally in the parietal lobe and bilaterally in the temporal lobe, which correlated strongly with IQ. Preterm children also showed WM volume reductions that were concomitant with the GM loss in the parietal and temporal regions.. In contrast to previous studies of preterm children at high risk, which demonstrated decreases in total cerebral volumes,11,15,34,35 our preterm children had only reduced total GM volume. MRI studies reported abnormalities in several WM brain areas, including all lobes, associative tracts, and the corpus callosum, in preterm children and adolescents.36-38 Contrary to these findings, the absence of major WM impairment ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, ,1500 g) are at increased risk of cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed General Movement Assessment. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. ...
Preterm Infants: Transition to Home and Follow-up focuses on discharge management, transition to home and postdischarge issues for preterm infants and their families. The module emphasizes incorporating family-centered care principles into nursing practice to enhance parental confidence and competence. The module focuses on preterm infants, including infants discharged on medications, infants requiring short-term technological support (such as cardiorespiratory monitors and oxygen) and late preterm infants. Many late preterm infants are not admitted to the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) but are cared for in mother-baby units or low-risk nurseries. Nurses can use this module to learn and expand discharge planning skills. Approval Information This course was developed by the March of Dimes, which will provide the contact hours and process the continuing education tests. The March of Dimes is an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the New York State Nurses Association, an
Introduction: This article aimed to review the literatures on visual impairments and ocular changes in premature infants with low birth weight and gestational age.Methods: Five electronic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Ovid, and Scopus were searched. Original articles published until 2015 describing preterm infants were reviewed. Repetitive and derivative articles were excluded.Results: Out of 100 unique, potentially relevant articles, 42 studies that addressed and met the inclusion criteria were evaluated.Conclusion: Prematurity affects ocular structures (from anterior to posterior segment) and functions. Premature infants are at risk of myopization. Concerning the changes in premature infants, a significant increase is found in axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness; moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. On the other hand, visual acuity, tear, electroretinogram, and visual evoked potential responses
Aims: To determine in a case-control study possible associations between the development of acute renal failure in preterm newborns and therapeutic interventions, particularly drug treatments.. Methods: The study population was 172 preterm infants of ,38 weeks gestation; 71 had acute renal failure and 101 were controls closely matched for gestational age and birth weight. Maternal and neonatal information was collected for both groups through questionnaires and interviews. Routine data on renal variables were also collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.. Results: Very low birthweight infants were at high risk of acute renal failure (79% of cases were ,1500 g). However, the acute renal failure was transient. Mothers of infants with acute renal failure received more drugs during pregnancy and delivery (mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Of the possible therapeutic interventions, intubation, catheterisation, and phototherapy ...
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers filed the result that Nine trials met the inclusion criteria, eight compared vitamin A supplementation with a control (1291 infants), and one compared different regimens (120 infants). Compared to the control group, vitamin A appears to be beneficial in reducing death or oxygen requirement at one month of age (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01; NNTB 20, 95% CI 10 to 100; 1165 infants) and oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01; NNTB 13, 95% CI 7 to 100; 824 infants). A trend towards a reduction in death or oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age was also noted (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00; 1001 infants). Neurodevelopmental assessment of 88% of surviving infants in the largest trial showed no differences between the groups at 18 to 22 months of age, corrected for prematurity. The different dosage vitamin A ...
An accurate estimate of postconceptional age is required because features in the EEG vary with the age of the newborn. Postconceptional age is defined as gestational age (in weeks) plus the number of ... more
The incidence of preterm birth (at less than 32 weeks of gestation) is estimated at 1-2% of all live births. In Switzerland, over the last ten years, approximately 782 preterm infants per year have been born between 23 and 32 weeks of gestation. Owing to improved neonatal intensive care, the number of very preterm infants surviving into childhood is rising. Indeed, the survival of those extremely low birth weight infants has been increasing over the last decade, especially for the preterm infants born below 26 weeks of gestation. Premature infants are, however, extremely vulnerable to brain injury. Five to 10% of the survivors develop cerebral palsy, and 40-50% develop cognitive and behavioural deficits. Hence, brain injury and its consequences in preterm infants is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Another population at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment are the infants with congenital heart disease. These infants are known to have a wide range of developmental and neurological ...
where to buy Warm Winter clothing premature infants in UK there is nothing worse than seeing a premature infant girls little legs have a mottled pattern on them due to being too cold.Some tights are just not small enough or for premature babies because they are way too baggy on slender legs. for widest range of winter premature baby tights …Continue reading →. ...
where to buy Warm Winter clothing premature infants in UK there is nothing worse than seeing a premature infant girls little legs have a mottled pattern on them due to being too cold.Some tights are just not small enough or for premature babies because they are way too baggy on slender legs. for widest range of winter premature baby tights …Continue reading →. ...
This is the first in-depth study of initial experiences of parents of their very preterm baby and NICU. Results show that parents have difficulty remembering aspects of the birth and experience a rollercoaster of emotions during this time. Individual differences in emotions were most apparent between the birth and seeing their baby in NICU when parents were either nervous and fearful, or eager and excited. NICU was initially overpowering for parents, especially those who had not visited it previously or who saw their baby for the very first time there. However, being able to touch and hold the baby in NICU was important in triggering or strengthening the bond between parents and their baby. Parents who are anxious and avoidant of initial contact with the NICU or their baby are at risk of poor attachment and mental health26 therefore parents need help to overcome this. Interestingly, a few first-time parents appeared to be protected by their inexperience of a normal birth and reported ...
With advances in medicine and medical technology, premature infants born as early as 24 weeks of gestation and with birth weight less than 1000 grams are surviving today. Preterms are born with immature biological systems. Given their biological vulnerabilities, preterm infants are at risk for a variety of health and developmental problems.. As a group, preterms show developmental delays in physical growth, motor skills, attention, social communicative skills, intelligence, language, academic performance, and later behavior problems. Furthermore, research indicates that preterms are difficult social partners for their parents.. Despite biological insults and relational difficulties, research also shows that the development of premature infants appears to be facilitated by sensitive and responsive parenting. Little attention, however, has been paid to understand the social risks faced by preterm infants.. The proposed research, therefore, is designed to:. ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The accurate identification of white matter injury in premature neonates is important for counseling parents and for targeting these high risk neonates for appropriate rehabilitation services. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnosis of white matter injury detected by serial MR imaging and ultrasonography of a contemporary cohort of premature neonates.. METHODS: Each of the 32 consecutively enrolled neonates was studied with MR imaging at a median postconceptional age of 31.9 weeks (range, 27.6-38.1 weeks) and again at a median postconceptional age of 36.5 weeks (range, 33.4-42.9 weeks) and with serial ultrasonography according to a clinical protocol. Because periventricular echogenicity shown on ultrasonograms evolves over time, both the highest grade of echogenicity and the grade of echogenicity shown on the last neonatal ultrasonogram were used in the analysis to determine the predictive values and correlation (Spearmans rho) of ultrasonography for ...
IMPORTANCE: Active perinatal care increases survival of extremely preterm infants; however, improved survival might be associated with increased disability among survivors.. OBJECTIVE: To determine neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm children at 2.5 years (corrected age).. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based prospective cohort of consecutive extremely preterm infants born before 27 weeks of gestation in Sweden between 2004 and 2007. Of 707 live-born infants, 491 (69%) survived to 2.5 years. Survivors were assessed and compared with singleton control infants who were born at term and matched by sex, ethnicity, and municipality. Assessments ended in February 2010 and comparison estimates were adjusted for demographic differences. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition; Bayley-lll), which are standardized to mean (SD) scores of 100 (15). Clinical examination and ...
Chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in very premature infants has been associated with mechanical ventilation and relative adrenal insufficiency.. This multicenter clinical trial tested whether minimal ventilation decreases death or BPD. Infants with birth weight 501g to 1000g and mechanically ventilated before 12 hours were randomly assigned to minimal ventilation (partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PCO(2)] target ,52 mm Hg) or routine ventilation (PCO(2) target ,48 mm Hg) and a tapered dexamethasone course or saline placebo for 10 days, using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The primary outcome was death or BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Blood gases, ventilator settings, and FiO2 were recorded for 10 days; complications and outcomes were monitored to discharge.. The trial was terminated by the Steering Committee when the interim analysis for the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee showed a higher rate of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforations in the ...
The increasing survival rate of premature infants has led to an increase in long term ocular problems, such as ROP and its sequelae-refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia.4-22,30,31. Myopia is a common finding in premature infants, and its incidence increases with lower gestational age and the severity of ROP.15-25,28-33 Holmström et al8 pointed out that even in premature infants without ROP, the risk of myopia and anisometropia is higher than in full term infants: the overall incidence of myopia in their preterm babies was 8% at the corrected age of 6 months and 10% at 30 months. The rate of occurrence of myopia was higher in eyes with ROP than eyes without, and higher in the more premature infants.. Choi et al15 and Lue et al19 reported that in premature infants, myopia begins to appear at 6 months of age and increases in severity between ages 6 months and 3 years. Eyes with ROP are more susceptible to a dramatic change in refractive status after 6 months of age, with no further ...
When monitoring growth and development in the premature infant, physicians should make adjustments for the estimated due date. With minor exceptions, administration of immunizations is based on the chronologic age. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be delayed until the infant weighs 2,000 g (4 lb, 5 oz). Administration of influenza vaccine should be considered in infants with chronic medical problems, and the pneumococcal vaccine may be beneficial at age two in children with chronic problems, especially pulmonary disease. Premature infants should also be monitored to assure appropriate nutrition. Breast-fed infants should probably receive vitamin supplements during the first year. Supplemental iron should be initiated at two weeks to two months after birth and continued for 12 to 15 months. Office care includes screening for problems that occur more frequently in premature infants, especially vision and hearing problems. Because many of these infants require care from multiple medical
Cerebral MRI performed on preterm infants at term-equivalent 30 weeks gestational age (GA) is increasingly performed as part of standard clinical care. We evaluated safety of these early MRI procedures. We retrospectively collected data
After the Data Monitoring Committees review Infant Bacterial Therapeutics expands the enrollment criteria of The Connection Study to include 500 - 1000 gram birth weight premature infants. The Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) has performed a per protocol predefined safety and tolerability assessment of the first 300 patients included in the study. The review is now complete and the DMC has no objections to the continuation of the Connection Study and expansion of the enrolment criteria from 750 to 1000 grams to include 500 to 1000 gram birth weight premature infants. All participating hospitals will be informed immediately of this change. The possibility to recruit infants in the 500 to 749 gram interval adds a significant number of patients eligible for inclusion into the Connection Study. The DMC is an independent group of experts who monitor patient safety and treatment efficacy data while a clinical trial is ongoing.
Although it is likely that a larger sample would have improved the precision of the extreme centiles at low gestational ages, those that are close to the median would not be expected to change much.. Hence, the INTERGROWTH-21st Preterm Postnatal Growth Standards are a robust tool for monitoring the growth of more than 90% of preterm infants who are born at ≥32 weeks gestation. This is presently relevant because these preterm infants are now recognized to be at high risk of short- and long-term complications and because the increasing rate of preterm births observed in many countries (associated with infertility treatments) is mostly caused by an increase in moderate and late preterm births.39. The diagnosis of extrauterine growth restriction for preterm infants when they reach term-corrected age should, therefore, be reserved for those who fail to follow the growth patterns (ie, below 2 SDs or a given centile) of their preterm counterparts in these standards, rather than the growth patterns ...
Thermoregulation. Preterm infants are not able to maintain their body temperature without an external heat source. Initially, heat will be provided with an overhead warmer that responds to the babys temperature and provides adequate warmth to maintain a normal body temperature. The warmer provides easy access to the baby for necessary cares during the early, unstable period. When more stable, the baby will be moved into an incubator to maintain a warm environment. Most infants are able to move into an open crib at a weight of approximately 1,800 grams.. Nutrition. Initially, premature infants are given all the necessary fluid, calories, protein, sugar, and fat in their veins. When their condition stabilizes, a feeding tube into their stomachs can start. The amount of feeds starts at a very low level, and it is advanced slowly over 3 to 7 days to full feeds. At this point, the infant no longer needs fluids or nutrition into their veins. Once full feeds are achieved, anticipated rates of ...
Thermoregulation. Preterm infants are not able to maintain their body temperature without an external heat source. Initially, heat will be provided with an overhead warmer that responds to the babys temperature and provides adequate warmth to maintain a normal body temperature. The warmer provides easy access to the baby for necessary cares during the early, unstable period. When more stable, the baby will be moved into an incubator to maintain a warm environment. Most infants are able to move into an open crib at a weight of approximately 1,800 grams.. Nutrition. Initially, premature infants are given all the necessary fluid, calories, protein, sugar, and fat in their veins. When their condition stabilizes, a feeding tube into their stomachs can start. The amount of feeds starts at a very low level, and it is advanced slowly over 3 to 7 days to full feeds. At this point, the infant no longer needs fluids or nutrition into their veins. Once full feeds are achieved, anticipated rates of ...
Thermoregulation. Preterm infants are not able to maintain their body temperature without an external heat source. Initially, heat will be provided with an overhead warmer that responds to the babys temperature and provides adequate warmth to maintain a normal body temperature. The warmer provides easy access to the baby for necessary cares during the early, unstable period. When more stable, the baby will be moved into an incubator to maintain a warm environment. Most infants are able to move into an open crib at a weight of approximately 1,800 grams.. Nutrition. Initially, premature infants are given all the necessary fluid, calories, protein, sugar, and fat in their veins. When their condition stabilizes, a feeding tube into their stomachs can start. The amount of feeds starts at a very low level, and it is advanced slowly over 3 to 7 days to full feeds. At this point, the infant no longer needs fluids or nutrition into their veins. Once full feeds are achieved, anticipated rates of ...
The aim of this project was to standardise the data collection for very preterm infants, across 10 regions in Europe, for the total cohort of 22 + 0 to 31 + 6-week infants. One major issue was the heterogeneity of outcomes of pregnancy for very preterm births that should be considered separately in order to develop a logical system of reporting to facilitate both intra-national and international comparisons.9 For example, in the MOSAIC regions policies and practices for congenital anomalies screening and termination of pregnancies varied and some MOSAIC regions had a higher proportion of terminations of pregnancy for congenital anomalies in the very preterm births cohort: 17.6% in France and 14.7% in Italy. These different practices and their impact on the rates of termination of pregnancy have been explored elsewhere.10 We suggest that terminations of pregnancy for major congenital anomalies be reported separately and excluded from comparisons of pregnancy outcomes between countries to allow ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indices of glucose homeostasis in cord blood in term and preterm newborns. AU - Ahmad, Afzal. AU - Rukmini, M. S.. AU - Yadav, Charu. AU - Agarwal, Ashish. AU - Manjrekar, Poornima A.. AU - Hegde, Anupama. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Objective: According to the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, intrauterine malnutrition has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. This study was planned to determine the early alterations in indices of glucose homeostasis (glucose, insulin, and cortisol) in term and preterm newborns and the correlations of glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels with insulin resistance indices. Methods: A descriptive study comprising 35 term and 35 preterm newborns was carried out from December 2013 to June 2015. Venous cord blood was collected and plasma glucose was analyzed by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method in an auto analyzer. Serum insulin and cortisol levels were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homeostasis model assessment of ...
Background and Objective: Due to its numerous health benefits, breast milk (BM) is recommended for preterm infants. Despite such recommendations, the rates of breastfeeding in preterm infants are lower than that in term infants. Quality improvement (QI) bundles increase breastfeeding in preterm infants, but their replication in neonatal intensive care units has had inconsistent outcomes.Methods: We used the Population or Problem, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes (PICO) framework to develop our search strategy, and searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception through January 15, 2021. Studies describing any active QI intervention to increase BM use in preterm infants were included. The primary outcome measure was the rate of any breastfeeding or exclusive mothers own milk (MOM) at discharge or during hospitalization.Results: Sixteen studies were eligible for inclusion and showed an acceptable risk of bias, and included 1 interrupted time series, study 3 controlled before-and
Purpose: : To study the natural history and the major risk factors of ROP among the infants in Taiwan. Methods: : A prospective natural history study of ROP was performed for all premature infants from June 2010 to July 2011 at our childrens hospital. Patients were screened with birth weight (BW) less than 1500 grams or gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks or selected infants with BW more than 1500 grams or GA more than 32 weeks with an unstable clinical course, including those requiring cardiorespiratory support and who are believed to be high risk by their pediatrician. The incidence of advanced ROP, the need for laser, Bevacizumab, or vitrectomy treatment was documented. The associated risk factors for the development of ROP were recorded. Results: : We enrolled 223 premature infants, and 98 infants (44%) developed ROP. The mean gestational age (GA) was 29.2 ± 3.0 (range 28-36) weeks and the mean BW was 1247.0 ± 441.5 (range 700-2705) grams. The incidence of ROP among BW more and less ...
Preterm delivery (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In recent years the birth weight of premature babies has been found to be an important determinant of outcome, such that preterm birth is no longer defined solely by gestational age but also in terms of a birth weight below 2500 g. The main focus has been on preterm infants with a birth weight below 2000 g, who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality. The costs of neonatal care for infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestation (birth weight below 2000 g) rise exponentially as gestational age decreases and rise further with birth weights below 1000 g.1. Advances in neonatal practice have improved the chances of survival for preterm infants with a very low birth weight.2 However, low birthweight infants are still at a higher risk of neurodevelopmental morbidity than preterm infants with a higher birth weight and, as a group, incur notable social and healthcare ...
Extremely premature (birth weight < 1250 g) infants are at high risk for acquiring late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, which are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Own mothers milk contains protective (immune and trophic) biofactors which provide antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory functions, enhance intestinal microbiota, and promote intestinal maturation. Many of these biofactors are most highly concentrated in the milk expressed by mothers of extremely premature infants. However, since extremely premature infants do not receive oral milk feeds until 32 weeks post-conceptional age, they lack the potential benefit provided by milk (biofactor) exposure to oropharyngeal immunocompetent cells, and this deficiency could contribute to late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Therefore, oropharyngeal administration of own mothers milk may improve the health outcomes of these infants. To compare the effects of oropharyngeal
Healthy preterm infants who have reached a PMA of 60 weeks can be sent home on standard discharge criteria if the Anaesthetist and Surgeon agree. For term infants between 46-60 weeks PMA there is currently no consensus as to whether or not these infants need overnight apnoea monitoring. At RCH it is at the discretion of the Anaesthetist, in discussion with the Surgeon whether an infant of 46-60 weeks PMA warrants admission or an extended stay for post-operative apnoea monitoring. An extended period of stay allows the patient to receive post-operative apnoea monitoring in Day of Surgery for a shorter period than 12 hours. This enables the patient to have several sleep wake cycles while receiving apnoea monitoring. The Anaesthetist will then review the patient later in the day and determine to send the patient home if there have been no clinically significant apnoeas or other issues. Any infant who has had a clinically significant apnoea in the postoperative period should be admitted for overnight ...
Extremely low birth weight premature infants who received breast milk shortly after birth, while still in intensive care units, had greater mental development scores at 30 months than did infants who were not fed breast milk, reported researchers in an NIH network.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A hearing screening in very low birth weight preterm infants by auditory brainstem response. AU - Wu, J. L.. AU - Huang, C. C.. AU - Kao, C. C.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Background: ABR has been used as an objective, non-invasive tool to screen neonatal deafness. In this article, we evaluated the prevalence of deafness in VLBW preterm newborns by ABR, and attempted to search for a suitable failed/passed criterion. Methods: ABR screening test was performed in 88 VLBW preterm newborns. The infants whose threshold was ≤ 35dB nHL were classified as Group A; those whose threshold was ≤ 25dB nHL were classified as Group B. All of the newborns of either Group A or Group B received the successive ABR screening test and behavioral audiometry to confirm whether they have hearing impairment or not. Results: Fourteen newborns (16%) were included in Group A and 19 newborns (22%) in Group B. There were five newborns who belonged to Group B, but not to Group A; all of them were found ...
Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age,
TY - THES. T1 - Dysphonia in very preterm children: prevalence, presentation, influencing factors and response to treatment. AU - Reynolds, Mary Victoria. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - IntroductionDysphonia is a potential long-term outcome of extreme prematurity and has been linked with female gender, multiple intubations, extremely low birth weight, birth at ,27 weeks gestation, complicated intubation procedure and surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (Chapter 2). Dysphonia in extremely preterm children may be persistent (Chapter 3). The aforementioned risk factors may also be experienced following very preterm birth, yet systematic investigations of voice outcomes in very preterm children are lacking.AimsThis thesis presents the prevalence of dysphonia in very preterm children aged between 6 and 12 years old in Western Australia, with reference to a term-born comparison group recruited from the same community (Chapters 6 and 7). Demographic and medical data were abstracted from medical ...
BACKGROUND: Infections acquired in hospital are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. Several small trials have suggested that supplementing the enteral diet of very preterm infants with lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein processed from cows milk, prevents infections and associated complications. The aim of this large randomised controlled trial was to collect data to enhance the validity and applicability of the evidence from previous trials to inform practice. METHODS: In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, we recruited very preterm infants born before 32 weeks gestation in 37 UK hospitals and younger than 72 h at randomisation. Exclusion criteria were presence of a severe congenital anomaly, anticipated enteral fasting for longer than 14 days, or no realistic prospect of survival. Eligible infants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either enteral bovine lactoferrin (150 mg/kg per day; maximum 300 mg/day; lactoferrin group) or sucrose (same dose;
Objective: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a severe common complication of preterm birth with considerable short and long-term consequences. As more evidence is emerging that dysregulation of angiogenesis is implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia as well as in fetal lung development, we assessed if preeclampsia is associated with development of BPD in very preterm neonates. Study design: A retrospective cohort study of 308 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestation in 2011 and 2012. We performed association analysis with univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Models were additionally adjusted for intermediates, to show how an association can be disguised by over adjusting. Main outcome measure: BPD was diagnosed at 36+0 weeks postmenstrual age and defined as the need for oxygen (FiO2 , 0.21) for at least 12 h per day, for more than 28 days before or at 36+0 weeks postmenstrual age, and classified as mild, moderate or severe. Results: ...
Acute kidney injury is a sudden loss of renal function that results in deterioration of the renals ability to excrete urine in sufficient quantity and adequate composition. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute kidney injury in preterm newborns. The study was conducted at the University Clinic of Pediatrics-Skopje. It was a clinical, epidemiological prospective study. In the period of two years, 40 preterm newborns hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with documented kidney injury were analyzed. Medical data records of hospitalized preterm infants with kidney injury were processed. The material was statistically analyzed using methods of descriptive statistics. We evaluated 40 preterm newborns with documented acute kidney injury, who at the period of 2 years were treated in the ICU. The prevalence of kidney injury was 6.9%. Most of the involved preterm newborns were male (72%), and born at 32 to 37 weeks with low birth weight (58%). ...
BACKGROUND The respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature newborns has been etiologically correlated to immature lungs and specifically with surfactant deficiency. Exogenous administration of surfactant is nowadays considered to be the treatment of choice. In this paper we attempt a comparison of clinical results from the administration of natural Alveofact and synthetic Exosurf surfactants in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS The study subjects were 92 premature newborns who had been hospitalized in the Department of Neonatology, of the University of Crete. A total of 42 subjects received synthetic surfactant and 50 subjects received natural surfactant. The surfactant was administered in one to three doses, depending on respiratory support requirements. RESULTS The time of administration was a little longer for the natural surfactant group. The duration of mechanical ventilatory support, requiring oxygen, the duration of hospitalization and the percentage of
Looking for online definition of Premature Babies in the Medical Dictionary? Premature Babies explanation free. What is Premature Babies? Meaning of Premature Babies medical term. What does Premature Babies mean?
IVH is one of the most common complications in premature infants, and can cause long-term disability, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, seizures, behavioral and cognitive impairment, and death [31,32]. Studies have shown that the immature antioxidant system of the preterm infant can cause damage to the endothelial cells and alter brain hemostasis, can increase the susceptibility to reactive oxygen species, and, finally, increase the risk for IVH [33-35], Furthermore, studies have shown that approximately one third of cerebral palsy cases and IVH occur in premature infants [36]. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis study was designed to investigate the effect of antenatal MgSO4 on IVH in premature infants.. The results of our study indicate that although MgSO4 had a protective effect on IVH, this effect is not statistically significant (pooled RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.03). Although studies have shown MgSO4 being used for the first time in obstetric practice, there is a ...
Change in facial expression over a fixed time after a noxious stimulus is the key measure used to calculate pain scores in preterm and newborn infants. We hypothesised that the latency of facial motor responses would be longer in the youngest premature infants and that behavioural scoring methods of pain may need to take this into account. One hundred and seventy-two clinically required heel lances were performed in 95 infants from 25 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Sixty-four percentage of the heel lances evoked a change in facial expression. Change in facial expression was observed in infants across the whole age range from 25 weeks PMA and the latency to the facial expression response ranged from 1 to 17s. Latency to facial expression change was dependent on the infants PMA at the time of the heel lance. Infants below 32 weeks PMA had a significantly longer latency to change in facial expression than older infants (54% increase in infants below 32 weeks; p | 0.001). Sleep state and presence of
BACKGROUND: Gaining a better understanding of the probability, timing and prediction of rehospitalisation amongst preterm babies could help improve outcomes. There is limited research addressing these topics amongst extremely and very preterm babies. In this context, unplanned rehospitalisations constitute an important, potentially modifiable adverse event. We aimed to establish the probability, time-distribution and predictability of unplanned rehospitalisation within 30 days of discharge in a population of French preterm babies. METHODS: This study used data from EPIPAGE 2, a population-based prospective study of French preterm babies. Only those babies discharged home alive and whose parents responded to the one-year survey were eligible for inclusion in our study. For Kaplan-Meier analysis, the outcome was unplanned rehospitalisation censored at 30 days. For predictive modelling, the outcome was binary, recording unplanned rehospitalisation within 30 days of discharge. Predictors included
OBJECTIVE: to assess pain in preterm newborns and to compare the neonatal and therapeutic variables with the total scores of the Neonatal Facial Coding System of preterm newborns submitted to arterial puncture exposed to music and 25% oral glucose. METHOD: a comparative study with 48 recordings of preterm newborns - Group 1, music (26); Group 2, glucose 25% (22) - individually analyzed by three trained nurses, after Kappa of at least 80%. RESULTS: the variables and the pain scores of the groups did not present statistical significance (p | 0.05) according to the Neonatal Facial Coding System. 80.8% of the preterm infants in Group 1 had a higher quantitative score |/= 3 in the neonatal variables (gender, type of delivery), and therapeutic variables (type of oxygen therapy, place of hospitalization, type of puncture). CONCLUSION: There was no difference when comparing the music and glucose 25% groups and the variables studied.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacological closure of symptomatic PDA in premature infants using indomethacin. AU - Ho, M. Y.. AU - Huang, F. Y.. AU - Kao, H. A.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - When left to right shunting through the ductus arteriosus is of a degree contributing to the cardiopulmonary problems in a premature infant, the condition is clinically termed symptomatic PDA. It is also generally agreed that symptomatic PDA if left untreated is a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Studies have also concluded that all infants with symptomatic PDA who are prematurely born and/or ventilator dependent should be considered candidates for ductal closure by either pharmacological or surgical mean. Over a period of approximately 2 1/2 years, 22 premature infants with symptomatic PDA have been treated here with powder form indomethacin. The one course success rate was 68%. Thereafter, in another 2 1/2 years, 33 cases were selected for whom a liquid form was used instead. The success ...
BACKGROUND The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very low birth weight infants can be used as an index of the quality of care in neonatal intensive care units as long as it is adjusted to reflect the infants risk profiles on admission to the unit, which may vary systematically from one institution to another. Adjustment for gestational, birth-related, and neonatological risk factors enables a fair comparison of IVH rates across neonatal intensive care units. METHODS Data on 1782 neonates born at less than 32 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 1500 g at birth were retrieved from the 26 744 anonymous data sets collected in the Peri- and Neonatal Survey of the German state of Saxony in the years 2001-2005. An analysis of 30 putative risk factors with stepwise logistic regression analysis enabled the construction of a specific risk predictor for severe (grade 3-4) IVH. Risk-adjusted institutional incidence rates were then calculated. RESULTS Five independent risk factors (low
Late preterm infants (born at 34-36 weeks gestation) have increasingly been regarded as at risk rather than Iow risk infants. The impact of neonatal morbidity and admission for neonatal care, on the longer term outcomes of LPls has not been fully explored. This thesis has sought to bridge an identified gap in the literature relating to this significant group of neonatal care graduates. The overall aim of this thesis was to consider the significant population of LPls who require admission for neonatal care. Firstly, maternal and perinatal risk factors and neonatal outcomes were considered through a descriptive analysis of neonatal data from the Neonatal Intensive Care Outcomes Research and Evaluation (NICORE) database. The second component of the thesis then considered specifically the early childhood development (cognition, language, motor development, physical health and growth) at three years of age of LPls who required neonatal Intensive Care (lC) compared with infants of the same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Late-Onset Sepsis on Energy Expenditure in Extremely Premature Infants. AU - Torine, Ilana J.. AU - Denne, Scott C.. AU - Wright-Coltart, Shirley. AU - Leitch, Catherine. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare total energy expenditure (TEE) in extremely premature infants during and after an episode of sepsis. We hypothesized that TEE in the sepsis group (SEP) would be higher during the septic period and higher than an age-matched control group (CTL). We further hypothesized that the TEE of the SEP group during the recovery period would be similar to that of the CTL group. The doubly labeled water method was used to determine TEE in both groups. Infant characteristics were as follows: SEP group, n = 10, gestation = 26 ± 1 wk, birth weight = 854 ± 218 g; CTL group, n = 10, gestation = 26 ± 1 wk, birth weight = 880 ± 158 g. TEE of the SEP group during the septic period was significantly greater than during the recovery period (96 ± 25 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Impact of Small for Gestational Age Birth Status Upon Premature Children. AU - Dowling, Monica. AU - Bendell-Estroff, Debra. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - This study documented the degree and nature of developmental risk associated with intrauterine growth retardation in preterm infants Twenty-three preschool children who were SGA preterms were compared with 30 appropriate for gestational age children using the Stanford Binet 4, the Preschool Behavior Problem Checklist, and the Brazy Perinatal Biological Scoring System There were no significant differences between the groups on cognitive or behavioral measures Results suggested that small for gestational age status does not appear to increase the risk associated with prematurity in low socio-economic status children There are indications that environmental factors mediate outcome and that low socioeconomic status children require careful follow up.. AB - This study documented the degree and nature of developmental risk ...
Review question We reviewed the evidence to see whether the addition of extra protein to human milk, compared with no additional protein, fed to preterm infants, improved growth, body fat, obesity, heart problems, high blood sugar, and brain development, without significant side effects.. Background Lack of adequate protein intake during the early stages of the preterm infants life can result in poor growth and development. Preterm infants need more protein than full term babies. Breast milk has numerous benefits for babies born preterm (before 37 weeks), but its protein content is variable, and may not meet the nutritional needs of the rapidly growing preterm infant. Therefore, to meet their higher protein needs, and to promote optimum health and long-term development, additional protein, in the form of a fortifier, may be added to expressed breast milk for preterm babies.. Study characteristics We found six randomised trials (trials in which each infant had an equal chance of being chosen to ...
Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on premature infants. Improved survival rates in the NICU have led to an increase in the incidence of premature infants with inguinal hernias. The NICU nurse, often the first to notice an inguinal hernia in a premature infant, should understand the etiology, basic pathophysiology, and nursing care for this condition.
Late Preterm Infants, those born between 34 0/7 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks, often appear outwardly similar to and are treated like full term infants. However, research has shown that they often have some of the same medical issues as early preterm infants, including feeding issues, breathing issues and developmental delays. In an effort to create a better system of care for the late preterm infant, the Oklahoma Infant Alliance has created a toolkit for health care providers and families, so both can have a better understanding of the unique needs and issues of the Late Preterm Infant. For more information or to order full copies of the toolkit visit the Oklahoma Infant Alliance.. ...
Background: Pressures arising from premature infant care specially hospitalized infant can affect infants quality of life and health by causing long term destructive effects on familys psychological and physical health. Aim:To investigate the effect of family participation on mothers general health and length of hospitalization of premature neonate. Methods: In this clinical trial 60 primiparous women and their premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units, were randomly allocated to family participation and control groups. In the experimental group, empowering family in order to particiapte in the infant fundamental care was implemented in the teaching and indepededant practicephases. Control group received routin care. Mothers general health was measured using Goldberg General Health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and Mann Whitney test using SPSS version 11/5 was done. Results: There was a significant difference between experimental group (21/18±8/95
Uncertainly prevails with regard to the use of inhalation or instillation steroids to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. The meta-analysis with sequential analysis was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of airway administration (inhalation or instillation) of corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL from their inceptions to February 2017. All published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of airway administration of corticosteroids (AACs) vs placebo or systemic corticosteroid in prematurity were included. All meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty five RCTs retrieved (n = 3249) were eligible for further analysis. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis corrected the 95% confidence intervals estimated a lower risk of the primary outcome of BPD (relative risk 0.71, adjusted 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.87) and death or BPD
Dilation and abnormal tortuosity of retinal vessels are the hallmarks of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. The stages of ROP are defined by vessel appearance at the interface between the vascular and avascular retinal areas. Deregulated signaling pathways involving hypoxia-inducible factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the pathogenesis of ROP. VEGF-antagonists are increasingly being used as off-label medication to treat this condition, with some success. We present Baby SM (female), who was born prematurely at 24 weeks gestation in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit, and with a birth weight of 640 g. On screening at 35 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), she was noted to have ROP, which became severe by 37 weeks PMA. She received one dose of intravitreal VEGF antagonist (Bevacizumab), resulting in a decrease in vessel tortuosity and dilation. However, repeat imaging at 4 weeks showed a re-emergence of vessel tortuosity. We ...
Background Modern neonatal care has improved the survival rate of extremely preterm infants. These infants are at high risk of malnutrition and growth failure during 3-4 months of hospital care. The objectives of this study was to investigate nutritional intakes during hospitalization and explore associations between nutritional intakes, postnatal growth and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Perioperative nutrition in infants undergoing surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also investigated.. Methods This is a population-based study of Swedish extremely preterm infants (,27 weeks) born during 2004-2007 (n=602). Detailed data on nutritional supply and anthropometric measurements during hospitalization were retrospectively retrieved from hospital records. Comprehensive data on cohort characteristics, neonatal morbidity and infant mortality were obtained from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS).. Results During the first 70 days of life, intakes of energy, protein and ...
At present, there are insufficient information about baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and factors that determine BRS in premature newborns. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between BRS and the characteristics that reflecting the intrauterine development (gestational age and birth weight), as well as postnatal development (postconception age and the actual weight of the child at the time of measurement). We examined 57 premature infants, who were divided into groups according to gestational age and postconception age as well as birth weight, and weight at the time of measurement. Continuous and noninvasive registration of peripheral blood pressure (BP) was performed in every child within 2-5 min under standard conditions using a Portapres (FMS) device. The results showed a close correlation of baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate and respiratory rate with gestational age, postconception age, birth weight and actual weight at the time of measurement premature newborns. An ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ventriculosubgaleal shunt in the treatment of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious hydrocephalus of premature infants. AU - Nagy, Andrea. AU - Bognar, Laszlo. AU - Pataki, Istvan. AU - Barta, Zoltan. AU - Novak, Laszlo. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics of ventriculosubgaleal shunts during the clinical course of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious hydrocephalus in the neonatal period. Patients and methods: The study comprised 102 premature babies in whom subgaleal shunt was consecutively inserted between 2006 and 2011. Seventy-two patients had posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (mean gestational age 27.3 ± 2.1 weeks, mean birth weight 1,036.9 ± 327.7 g, mean age at insertion 51.4 ± 56.2 days) and 30 patients were operated postinfectiously (27.5 ± 2.2 weeks, 1,064.7 g ± 310.7 g, 115.9 ± 47.8 days). Results: The mean survival of subgaleal shunts was 87.9 days for the posthemorrhagic group and 75.6 days for the ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can be transmitted through breast milk to neonates. Although healthy full-term infants rarely develop symptoms of CMV infection; premature or low-birth-weight infants can experience symptomatic infection that is occasionally severe. There is limited information on the long-term effects of postnatal CMV infection in premature infants, suggesting that these infants do not develop cognitive function delays or hearing loss, although those with intrapartum infection do. Readily available methods of treating breast milk to inactivate the CMV either diminish the immunologic and nutritive benefits of breast milk or incompletely inactivate the virus ...
Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Data were collected retrospectively from electronic records: Standardised Electronic Neonatal Database, Electronic Patient Record, Pathology (WinPath), and Blood Bank Electronic Database. The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre with around 5,500 deliveries and a neonatal unit admission of 750 infants per year. All inborn preterm infants of 23 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA) admitted to the neonatal unit from January 2006 to September 2012 were included. The primary outcomes were intra-ventricular haemorrhage, necrotising entero-colitis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and death before discharge. The secondary outcomes were receiving blood transfusion and
This study evaluated the consequences of late preterm birth on child growth in the first two years of life as compared to term deliveries in a population-based cohort from a middle-income country. Among the strengths of the study, besides sample size, are the low rates of refusal and loss to follow-up, and the prospective cohort design that allows assessment of temporal relationships.. A key limitation of the study is that most of the confounders studied were self-reported by mothers. Furthermore, in the analyses of late preterm birth and wasting at 12 and 24 months of age, the low number of children born late preterm that were wasted resulted in reduced precision.. Some methodological issues of this study are worthy of being discussed. First, some of the increase in morbidity among late preterm children may be attributable to observation and detection bias, because mothers and medical doctors may be more attentive to monitor symptoms and signs of medical complications and diseases in preterm ...
Compared with those born at term, preterm newborns are at an increased risk of short term disorders of the lung (bronchopulmonary dysplasia; BPD) and the brain (white matter damage; WMD), and of long term developmental and pulmonary dysfunctions. Although all of these adverse outcomes are associated with low gestational age, brain, but not lung, damage appears to be associated with the prematurity subgroup [spontaneous preterm labour and/or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) vs pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)]. Part of the association between brain damage and prematurity subgroup might be due to a differential exposure of members of these subgroups to perinatal infection/inflammation. There is a lack of studies evaluating the association of antenatal and perinatal risk factors with late childhood pulmonary dysfunction among those born during the second trimester. In this paper we discuss the complexities that paediatricians, perinatologists and perinatal epidemiologists face as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition enhances myelination in preterm newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage, but not recombinant Wnt3A. AU - Dohare, Preeti. AU - Cheng, Bokun. AU - Ahmed, Ehsan. AU - Yadala, Vivek. AU - Singla, Pranav. AU - Thomas, Sunisha. AU - Kayton, Robert. AU - Ungvari, Zoltan. AU - Ballabh, Praveen. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants results in reduced proliferation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), and survivors exhibit reduced myelination and neurological deficits. Wnt signaling regulates OPC maturation and myelination in a context dependent manner. Herein, we hypothesized that the occurrence of IVH would downregulate Wnt signaling, and that activating Wnt signaling by GSK-3β inhibition or Wnt3A recombinant human protein (rh-Wnt3A) treatment might promote maturation of OPCs, myelination of the white matter, and neurological recovery in premature rabbits with IVH. These ...
Structured observation of motor performance (SOMP-1) applied to preterm and full term infants who needed neonatal intensive care. A cross-sectional analysis of progress and quality of motor performanc ...
Introduction: Short-term outcomes of preterm infants refers to any preterm infants conditions after birth including medical diagnosis or morbidity, length of stay at the hospital, and readmission to hospital after discharge. A high number of preterm births were identified as the major case in the year of 2015 in a medical center at Banyumas Regency, Indonesia. However, limited evidence showed the preterm infants short-term outcomes in this medical center. This study was intended to investigate the short-term outcomes of preterm infants in a medical center, Banyumas Regency, Indonesia. ...
Researchers at the Duke University Medical Center and Nicholas School of the Environment looked at the microbes in 11 premature infants and found much less diversity than in full-term infants.. The babies guts were taken over by microbes we know are dangerous if they get into the blood, said senior author Patrick Seed, MD, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics at Duke. Even after the babies were no longer on antibiotics, healthier bacteria didnt appear in the babies very quickly. This may be one reason why premature babies are so vulnerable to infections.. All of the premature children were placed on antibiotic treatments after birth, which would wipe out some types of bacteria and yeast, but once they were off the antibiotics and taking food, the researchers expected to see more diversity of bacteria in the babies developing digestive systems than they found.. The findings were published in PLoS One open-access journal on December 8, 2011.. Five infants had blood infections while three ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preterm infants sympathetic arousal and associated behavioral responses to sound stimuli in the neonatal intensive care unit. AU - Salavitabar, Arash. AU - Doheny, Kim Kopenhaver. AU - Adkins, Cherie S.. AU - Susman, Elizabeth J.. AU - Palmer, Charles. AU - Storm, Hanne. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of skin conductance (SC) as a measure of autonomic arousal to sound stimuli in preterm infants. DESIGN: A pilot cross-sectional, correlations study. SUBJECTS: Eleven preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 31.6 weeks without anomalies or conditions associated with neurodevelopmental delay composed the sample. METHODS: On days 5-7 of life, the following infant responses were simultaneously recorded in response to naturally occurring sound stimuli in the NICU: real-time measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturations; sympathetic-mediated sweating via SC; and behavioral responses using the Newborn Individualized ...
Abstract. The majority of bone mineralization occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy and preterm infants are likely to have depleted stores. This puts them at greater risk of fractures. Heparin has been shown to cause osteopenia in adults though fractures are uncommon. There are no data that suggest an association between heparin and fractures in preterm neonates. This report presents the case of a preterm infant who was treated with unfractionated heparin for 3 weeks for an arterial thrombus. Post heparin X-rays demonstrated multiple fractures which did not exist prior to therapy. The temporal association between heparin therapy and fractures suggests that the combination of dose and duration of therapy is a potential risk factor. In preterm infants with already depleted bone mineral content, this could be an important therapeutic consideration.. ...
BackgroundVentilator-induced lung injury is considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Optimizing ventilator strategies may reduce respiratory morbidities in preterm infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been suggested to attenuate lung injury. We aimed to determine if a higher PCO2 target range results in less lung injury compared to the control target range and possibly reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) in tracheal aspirates (TA), which has not been addressed before.MethodsDuring a multicenter trial of permissive hypercapnia in extremely low birthweight infants (PHELBI), preterm infants (birthweight 400-1,000 g, gestational age 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks) requiring mechanical ventilation within 24 h of birth were randomly assigned to a high PCO2 target or a control group. The high target group aimed at PCO2 values of 55-65, 60-70, and 65-75 mmHg and the control group at PCO2 values of 40-50, 45-55 and 50-60 mmHg on postnatal days 1-3
TY - JOUR. T1 - Auditory Exposure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. T2 - Room Type and Other Predictors. AU - Pineda, Roberta. AU - Durant, Polly. AU - Mathur, Amit. AU - Inder, Terrie. AU - Wallendorf, Michael. AU - Schlaggar, Bradley L.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Objective To quantify early auditory exposures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and evaluate how these are related to medical and environmental factors. We hypothesized that there would be less auditory exposure in the NICU private room, compared with the open ward. Study design Preterm infants born at ≤ 28 weeks gestation (33 in the open ward, 25 in private rooms) had auditory exposure quantified at birth, 30 and 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), and term equivalent age using the Language Environmental Acquisition device. Results Meaningful language (P , .0001), the number of adult words (P , .0001), and electronic noise (P , .0001) increased across PMA. Silence increased (P = .0007) and noise decreased (P , ...
... whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather ... "Premature Infant". Disease & Conditions Encyclopedia. Discovery Communications, LLC. Archived from the original on 19 January ... The terms preterm and postterm have largely replaced earlier terms of premature and postmature. Preterm and postterm are ... "Definition of Premature birth". Medicine.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2008.. ...
... infants were used as subjects to test the optimum levels of oxygenation to be used for proper care of premature infants in ... "SUPPORTing Premature Infants". Pediatrics. 132 (6): e1661-e1663. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1292. ISSN 0031-4005. PMC 3838531. PMID ... For research specifically on neonates, regulations differ based on whether the infant has certain viability, certain ... hospitals.[16] This experiment was determined to be in violation of federal regulations in that the parents of these infants ...
Lama Rimawi, MD (22 September 2006). "Premature Infant". Disease & Conditions Encyclopedia. Discovery Communications, LLC. ... whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather ... Developing infants cannot produce DHA efficiently, and must receive this vital nutrient from the woman through the placenta ... Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born. A woman is ...
... it is particularly common in premature infants or those of very low birth weight.[8] The cause of IVH in premature infants, ... Volpe, Joseph J. (1989). "Intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infant?current concepts. Part I". Annals of Neurology. ... Irrigation and Fibrinolytic Therapy for Premature Infants with Posthemorrhagic Ventricular Dilatation: Developmental Outcome at ... Grades III and IV are the most serious and may result in long-term brain injury to the infant. After a grade III or IV IVH, ...
Kangaroo care is well-studied and has shown clear benefits to premature and ill infants. Not all parents find breastfeeding in ... 1969). Effects of handling on the subsequent development of premature infants. Developmental Psychology, 1(6). 765-768. " ... Parental rhythms (walking, heartbeat, etc.) can have balancing and soothing effects on infants. Infants are "humanized" earlier ... None of the babywearing positions require infants to lie supine while being carried. Infants can even be worn while they sleep ...
Premature infantsEdit. Premature infants are those born at 37 weeks after conception or earlier. They are subject to numerous ... Female singing voices are also more effective at soothing premature infants. Despite being born premature, infants show a ... and visual stimulation that helps aid in premature infant development. The combination of music and MMS helps premature infants ... Singing lullabies therapeutically can promote relaxation and decrease heart rate in premature infants. By calming premature ...
Bose, C.; D'ercole, A.; Lester, A.; Hunter, R.; Barrett, J. (1981). "Relactation by mothers of sick and premature infants". ... "Milk production by mothers of premature infants". Pediatrics. 81 (6): 815-20. PMID 3368280. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... Newborn infants often produce some witch's milk. Galactorrhea is milk production unrelated to nursing. It can occur in males ... A poor milk ejection reflex can be due to sore or cracked nipples, separation from the infant, a history of breast surgery, or ...
"Effect of domperidone on the QTc interval in premature infants". Journal of Perinatology. 30 (1): 50-3. doi:10.1038/jp.2009.96 ... Possible central toxicity in infants[edit]. In Britain a legal case involved the death of two children of a mother whose three ... EMPOWER Study Collaborative Group) (2017). "Enhancing human milk production with Domperidone in mothers of preterm infants". ... In neonates and infants, QT prolongation is controversial and uncertain.[46][47] ...
The problem of premature and congenitally ill infants is not a new one. As early as the 17th and 18th centuries, there were ... A premature infant weighing 992 grams (35 ounces), intubated and requiring mechanical ventilation in the neonatal intensive- ... Baker, J. P. (2000). "The incubator and the medical discovery of the premature infant". Journal of perinatology : official ... Before the industrial revolution, premature and ill infants were born and cared for at home and either lived or died without ...
Only one case of Impossible Syndrome has been reported; the infant was premature and stillborn. The inheritance of Impossible ... are required to have an infant with the disorder. Fraser FC, Jequier S, Chen MF (1989). "Chondrodysplasia, situs inversus ...
"Premature Infant". Disease & Conditions Encyclopedia. Discovery Communications, LLC. Archived from the original on 19 January ... whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather ... "Definition of Premature birth". Medicine.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2008.. ... Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born.[48] ...
Premature infants 251-325...................................Newborn infants Including physiology, care, treatment, diseases 370 ...
Hallman, M (Apr 2012). "Premature birth and diseases in premature infants: common genetic background?". The Journal of Maternal ... This is thought to be due to a rise in low birth weight of infants and the increased survival rate of these infants. The ... Multiple-birth infants are also more likely than single-birth infants to have CP.[53] They are also more likely to be born with ... An infant with CP may not be able to suck, swallow or chew.[27] Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in children with CP.[16] ...
M F Epstein, Nursing the premature infant: what kind of sheet? Lancet, 1984, 1(8369), 174. 16. S B Roberts, J Savage and A ... While it is now accepted that infants perceive pain in the same way as adults [27], we are not aware of any research into how ... It is intended that the results of the research are able to be used for technical marketing of merino-based infant bedding and ... 4.1.2 Studies related to bedding and apparel for infants There are a few published studies that examined the effect of ...
The NSAID indomethacin can increase serum aminoglycoside levels in premature infants.[2] Contrast mediums such as ioversol ... In general, amikacin should be avoided in infants.[20] Infants also tend to have a larger volume of distribution due to their ... In infants, amikacin is normally found at 10-20% of plasma levels in the spinal fluid, but the amount reaches 50% in cases of ...
Toddler and Premature Infant sizes were also introduced. In 1973, P&G developed elasticized single and double gussets around ...
"Renal development in the fetus and premature infant". Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 22 (2): 58-66. doi:10.1016/j.siny. ... The condition is frequently, but not always the result of a genetic disorder, and is more common in infants born to one or more ...
Premature infants commonly require supplemental oxygen to treat complications of preterm birth. In this case prevention of ... Shennan, AT; Dunn, MS; Ohlsson, A; Lennox, K; Hoskins, EM (1988). "Abnormal pulmonary outcomes in premature infants: prediction ... Drack, AV (1998). "Preventing blindness in premature infants". New England Journal of Medicine. 338 (22): 1620-1. doi:10.1056/ ... common complications of prematurely born infants and its incidence has grown as the survival of extremely premature infants has ...
Anderson GC, Marks EA, Wahlberg V (July 1986). "Kangaroo care for premature infants". Am J Nurs. 86 (7): 807-9. doi:10.2307/ ... p. 573, 791 - 793) Robles, M. (1995). Kangaroo care: The human incubator for the premature infant. University of Manitoba, ... "implications for understanding infant sleep development and the sudden infant death syndrome". Sleep. 16 (3): 263-82. doi: ... If the infant's mother had a caesarean birth, the father can hold their baby in skin-to-skin contact while the mother recovers ...
Infant. Premature (26-28 weeks). 59-125 ng/dL. 2.047-4.337 nmol/L. 5-16 ng/dL. 0.173-0.555 nmol/L ... Premature (31-35 weeks). 37-198 ng/dL. 1.284-6.871 nmol/L. 5-22 ng/dL. 0.173-0.763 nmol/L ... In the first weeks of life for male infants, testosterone levels rise. The levels remain in a pubertal range for a few months, ... This is associated with increased nurturing behavior and better outcomes for the infant[63]. ...
"Mineral excretion following furosemide compared with bumetanide therapy in premature infants". Pediatr. Nephrol. 9 (2): 159-62 ...
Fatal neonatal infections by GBS are more frequent among premature infants.[4][18][22] ... Infectious Diseases of the Fetus and Newborn Infant (7th ed.). Elsevier. pp. 419-469. ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3.. ... GBS LOD affects infants from 7 days to 3 months of age and is more likely to cause bacteremia or meningitis. LOD can be ... Infants can be infected during passage through the birth canal, nevertheless newborns that acquire GBS through this route can ...
Her infant brother, Patrick, died two days after his premature birth in 1963. Caroline lived with her parents in Georgetown, ...
... premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung function, doctors frequently place infants at risk ... Hypoxia is a common complication of preterm birth in newborn infants. Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, ... Hypoxia can cause premature birth, and injure the liver, among other deleterious effects. ...
Nicotine also increases the risk for miscarriages and premature births or infant mortality. There has been a link from smoking ... The growth rate of an embryo and infant can be reflected as the weight per gestational age, and is often given as the weight ... Women under 16 and over 35 have a higher risk of preterm labor (premature baby), and this risk increases for women in poverty, ... There is a risk of Down syndrome for infants born to those aged over 40 years. Young teenaged mothers (younger than 16) and ...
"Fatal sepsis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum in premature infant". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 35 (4): 1011-1012. ...
Severe liver disease; premature infants or full-term neonates. Pregnancy, lactation; severe cardiovascular disorders; asthma; ...
Her improvements in technology have not only improved the lives of premature infants, but she also seeks to help women who are ... Some of her research includes the collection of data regarding how inhaled Nitric Oxide can help premature infants who are ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ballard, R. A. (October 4, 2007). "Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants". The New ... Ballard studies ways to treat and prevent chronic lung disease in premature infants. ...
In premature babies, this leads to infant respiratory distress syndrome. The term uses combining forms of atel- + ectasis, from ...
Trigonocephaly is a result from the premature closure of the metopic suture.[10][11] Using Virchow's law again to predict the ... Craniosynostosis is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses ... Child with premature closure (craniosynostosis) of the lambdoid suture. Notice the swelling on the right side of the head. ... This is a term sometimes used to describe the premature closure of the coronal suture plus any other suture, like the lambdoid ...
When she was four years old her grandmother took her to see an infant that had recently died. Upon seeing the dead child's face ... Fulton loved his work and research, it eventually led to his premature death, as he acquired an unknown disease during one of ...
He was one of the smallest premature births in New Jersey to survive. He also holds the record as one of the world's smallest ... 2009 Infant heading home after underweight birth, The Times of Trenton, August 16, 2007 - accessed July 11, 2009 The Tiniest ...
Umbilical cord blood is obtained when a mother donates her infant's umbilical cord and placenta after birth. Cord blood has a ... Results have been promising; however, as of 2009[update] it was premature to speculate whether these experiments will lead to ...
While a minimal amount of thyroid hormones are found in breast milk, the amount does not influence infant plasma thyroid levels ... and premature birth.[20] ... was not found to cause any adverse events to the infant or ...
Necrosis: the (premature) death of cells, caused by external factors such as infection, toxin or trauma. Necrotic cells send ... Less commonly, and seen usually in infants, are teratomas and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors.[65] Germ cell tumors, ...
... consanguineous parents possess a high risk of premature birth and producing underweight and undersized infants.[75] Viable ... Among mothers who experience stillbirths and early infant deaths, those that are inbreeding have a significantly higher chance ... "Consanguinity and recurrence risk of stillbirth and infant death". American Journal of Public Health. 89 (4): 517-23. doi ...
Rothenberg AB, Berdon WE, Woodard JC, Cowles RA (December 2007). "Hypervitaminosis A-induced premature closure of epiphyses ( ... Abnormal softening of the skull bone (craniotabes-infants and children). *Blurred vision ...
A visually impaired infant may jabber and imitate words sooner than a sighted child, but may show delay when combining words to ... premature birth, or trauma among others.[7] These cases are known as cortical visual impairment.[7] Screening for vision ... The language and social development of a child or infant can be very delayed by the inability to see the world around them. ... For a visually impaired infant, recognition of a parent's voice will be noticed at approximately two months old, but a smile ...
Other types of lung function tests are available for infants and unconscious persons. ... due to the premature closure of airway in expiration, just not in the same proportion as FEV1 (for instance, both FEV1 and FVC ...
"Mineral excretion following furosemide compared with bumetanide therapy in premature infants". Pediatr. Nephrol. 9 (2): 159-62 ...
This test can be used to diagnose lactose intolerance in infants, for whom other forms of testing are risky or impractical.[40] ... Developmental lactose intolerance may occur in premature babies and usually improves over a short period of time.[1] Congenital ... If the stools are acidic, the infant is intolerant to lactose.[41] Stool pH in lactose intolerance is less than 5.5. ... This form of lactose intolerance can occur in both infants and lactase persistent adults and is generally reversible.[29] It ...
... is a teratogen; there is about a 20-35% risk for congenital defects in infants exposed to the drug in utero, and ... Isotretinoin may stop long bone growth in young people who are still growing.[7] Premature epiphyseal closure can occur in ... Generally though, premature epiphyseal closure seems to be primarily related to: *high doses of isotretinoin beyond the ... Other rare side effects include hyperostosis, and premature epiphyseal closure, have been reported to be persistent. ...
Research upon adolescents who as infants had been highly apprehensive, vigilant, and fearful finds that their nucleus accumbens ... "The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation". Translational Andrology and Urology. 5 (4): 434-449. doi:10.21037/tau. ...
Infants may feed poorly, vomit, sleep more, or show signs of jaundice. In older children, new onset urinary incontinence (loss ... A kidney infection during pregnancy may result in premature birth or pre-eclampsia (a state of high blood pressure and kidney ...
The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the ... especially in very premature infants, where the blood supply is limited due to immature development of the capillaries, so ... Increasing amounts of milk by 30 to 40 mL/kg is safe in infant who are born weighing very little[clarify].[13] Not beginning ... Ziegler EE, Carlson SJ (March 2009). "Early nutrition of very low birth weight infants". J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. 22 (3 ...
It asserts the human rights of infants born after a failed attempt to induce abortion. A "born-alive infant" is specified as a ... As of 2006[update], the youngest child to survive a premature birth in the United States was a girl born at Kapiolani Medical ... The Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002 ("BAIPA") was enacted August 5, 2002 by an Act of Congress and signed into law by ... "House Report 107-186 - BORN-ALIVE INFANTS PROTECTION ACT OF 2001". Retrieved 25 January 2017.. ...
Percy did not care about the condition of this premature infant and left with Claire, Mary's stepsister, for a lurid affair.[47 ... "infant Frankenstein."[37] David Lindsay's "The Bridal Ornament", published in The Rover, 12 June 1844, mentioned "the maker of ...
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant's history. The death ... Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong ... Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome ( ... More specifically, infants born to smokers weigh on average 200 grams less than infants born to women who do not smoke. The ...
Other patents included a portable lighting system and an incubator for premature infants. His engine-driven generator was ...
... and premature infants, may be at higher risk for adverse events.[3] In severely ill people with inflammatory bowel disease, a ... evidence for the potential of probiotics to lower the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality in premature infants. One ... Bifidobacteria were first isolated from a breast-fed infant by Henry Tissier, who also worked at the Pasteur Institute. The ... AlFaleh K. & Anabrees J., 2014, "Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants." Cochrane Database ...
Christiansen DM (February 2017). "Posttraumatic stress disorder in parents following infant death: A systematic review". ... "The reliability and criterion validity of the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment: a new diagnostic instrument for ... and the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment.[122] ... Premature ejaculation. *Sexual anhedonia. *Pain *Nonorganic ...
If it can be determined without a doubt that an infant died prior to birth, as indicated by skin blisters, an unusually soft ... Premature obituaries. *Preventable causes of death. *Notable deaths by year. *Unusual deaths ... If there is even the slightest hope that the infant is viable, CPR should be initiated; some jurisdictions maintain that life- ... saving efforts should be attempted on all infants to assure parents that all possible actions were performed to save their ...
Like all NSAIDs, ketorolac can cause premature constriction of the ductus arteriosus in the infant if taken by the mother ... "A review of perioperative anesthesia and analgesia for infants: updates and trends to watch". F1000Research. 6: 120. doi ...
... with this dosage being doubled for premature infants, dark-skinned infants and children, children who reside in areas of ... In this regime, the daily dose of cholecalciferol is 1,000 IU for newborns, 1,000 to 5,000 IU for 1- to 12-months old infants, ... "Vitamin D supplementation: Recommendations for Canadian mothers and infants". Canadian Paediatric Society. Retrieved 2017-12-14 ...
... and premature birth: premature infants are those born after the stage of viability but prior to 37 weeks." Stedman's Medical ... With great advances in recent years in the ability to keep very premature babies alive, this definition is in need of revision ... "Although the term abortion is generic and implies a premature termination of pregnancy for any reason, the lay public better ... A]n operation or other procedure to terminate pregnancy before the fetus is viable" or "[T]he premature termination of ...
A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... A premature infant will have a lower birth weight than a full-term infant. Common signs of prematurity include:. *Abnormal ... A premature infants organs are not fully developed. The infant needs special care in a nursery until the organs have developed ... In very premature or sick infants, nutrition may be given through a vein until the baby is stable enough to receive all ...
Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium and phosphorus needed to form strong bones. While in the womb, ... Most premature infants born before 30 weeks have some degree of osteopenia, but will not have any physical symptoms. ... Most very premature infants have limited physical activity. This may also contribute to weak bones. ...
Most premature infants will do the same and then some. Your premature infant may be easily disturbed by too much light, sound, ... The Sick Premature Infant. Many premature infants are resilient and surprise everyone by overcoming great odds. Expect that ... which is more common among premature infants than full-term infants.. *Feedings. Your infant probably will come home on a ... Your infants "age". Age is both a measure of time and a marker of development. Unlike with a full-term infant, a premature ...
We read with great interest the paper of Järvenpää et al1 about milk protein quantity and quality in the term infant and we ... In the discussion, referring to their previous study in preterm infants,2 they concluded that their results show a positive ... The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. ... 3 showing that the ability to metabolize a high threonine intake is impaired in preterm infants as compared with term infants. ...
... to match the high rates of nutrient deposition achieved by infants in u ... Premature infants have greater nutritional needs in the neonatal period than at any other time of their life. The nutrient ... See Parenteral nutrition in premature infants.). Issues related to enteral nutrition in the premature infant are reviewed ... Premature infants often are unable to attain this rate. As an example, in a study of 1660 premature infants with birth weight ≤ ...
Relactation by mothers of sick and premature infants.. Bose CL, DErcole AJ, Lester AG, Hunter RS, Barrett JR. ... We conclude that relactation frequently is possible and may offer the mother of a sick or premature infant who desires to ... All mothers produced milk; three completely nourished their infants and two others provided at least half of their infants ... Each suckled her infant at regular feeding intervals. Prior to milk production, formula was provided during suckling through an ...
Caffeine dominant and perks up premature infants. PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News volume 622, page1(2011)Cite this article ... Caffeine dominant and perks up premature infants. Pharmacoecon. Outcomes News 622, 1 (2011). https://doi.org/10.2165/00151234- ...
Children who are born more than three months premature have double the expected rate of autism at age two as full-term children ... One in 10 extremely premature infants tested positive for autism. * Premature birth cuts crucial brain development, nutritional ... However, the fact that more premature infants are surviving than in the past may have also contributed to autism rates, he said ... Overall, about one in 10 of the extremely premature infants who did not have other health problems (including cerebral palsy, ...
What is premature birth? Pregnancy normally lasts about 40 weeks. A baby born 3 or more weeks early is premature... ... Most premature infants will do the same and then some. Your premature infant may be easily disturbed by too much light, sound, ... The Sick Premature Infant. Many premature infants are resilient and surprise everyone by overcoming great odds. Expect that ... which is more common among premature infants than full-term infants.. * Feedings. Your infant probably will come home on a ...
The new method, which was developed at UCSF, offers valuable and time-sensitive insights into which infants are at greatest ... Expanded newborn screening could save premature infants lives Novel screening method predicts health complications earlier, ... Expanded newborn screening could save premature infants lives. University of California - San Francisco ... In a newborn, these molecules may originate from the mothers bloodstream or be generated by the infant and can be used to ...
In this article results of first Russian study on premature infants body composition in association with trend of their ... Evaluation of Premature Infants Nutritional Status by Air Plethysmography: First Russian Prospective Study. * ... Less levels of fat-free mass and increased percentage of fat were found in premature infants. The negative association between ... In this article results of first Russian study on premature infants body composition in association with trend of their ...
The mean GA of infants who had any ROP was weeks and the mean BW was grams. The mean GA of infants who did not have ROP was ... especially in extremely premature infants [1]. The survival rates of extremely premature infants have been increased with the ... female infants. The mean BW in groups 1 and 2 was and , respectively (. ). The mean GA in groups 1 and 2 was weeks and weeks, ... the incidence of ROP is rising with the improvement of the survival rates of extremely premature infants [5, 6]. These infants ...
Focuses on the most common physiologic problems seen in premature infants after birth. Addresses incidence, pathophysiology, ... Focuses on the most common physiologic problems seen in premature infants after birth. Addresses incidence, pathophysiology, ... Focuses on the most common physiologic problems seen in premature infants after birth. Addresses incidence, pathophysiology, ...
Parenting the premature infant: balancing vulnerability and quality of life.. Eiser C1, Eiser JR, Mayhew AG, Gibson AT. ... Mothers of PT infants report more physical health and behavioural difficulties than mothers of FT infants, but specific ... Among PT infants, the degree of prematurity predicted child difficulties, but was not consistently related to mothers well- ... Mothers of 126 full-term (FT) and 91 pre-term (PT) infants during the childs second year of life completed measures of their ...
These births are much less common in Europe, and in Ireland and Finland only one in eighteen babies is premature. ... infant mortality rate is higher than in most European countries, according to a government report issued November 3. In the U.S ... Premature births are the main reason that the U.S. ... Premature Births Worsen U.S. Infant Mortality Rate. By Anna ... Premature births are the main reason that the U.S. infant mortality rate is higher than in most European countries, according ...
A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature, that is, born before complete maturity. Learn more about this ... About premature infants Premature infants born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are often called late preterm or near-term ... Late preterm infants are often much larger than very premature infants but may only be slightly smaller than full-term infants. ... Premature infants are at increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and should be sleeping on their back before ...
Relactation by Mothers of Sick and Premature Infants. Carl L. Bose, A. Joseph DErcole, Agnes G. Lester, Rosemary S. Hunter, ... Relactation by Mothers of Sick and Premature Infants. Carl L. Bose, A. Joseph DErcole, Agnes G. Lester, Rosemary S. Hunter, ... Relactation by Mothers of Sick and Premature Infants. Carl L. Bose, A. Joseph DErcole, Agnes G. Lester, Rosemary S. Hunter and ... Relactation by Mothers of Sick and Premature Infants Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from American Academy ...
The research indicates that premature babies benefit from being exposed to adult talk as early as possible. ... Infants Hospital of Rhode Island and The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University has been published in the Feb. 10, ... Study shows that premature infants benefit from adult talk Research by Women & Infants neonatologists published in Pediatrics ... Historically, very premature infants are at increased risk of language delay. The study now identifies an easy to implement and ...
NIRS Monitoring in Premature Infants. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Premature infants without diagnosed brain injuries. FDNIRS-DCS measures will be performed up to once a day if clinically ... Premature infants who developed germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage. FDNIRS-DCS measures will be performed up to once a ... Brain injury in premature infants: a complex amalgam of destructive and developmental disturbances. Lancet Neurol. 2009 Jan;8(1 ...
Gestational age has long been the factor most commonly used to predict whether an extremely low-birth-weight infant survives ... Developmental problems commonly affecting extremely premature infants include cerebral palsy, mental impairment, vision ... Gestational age has long been the factor most commonly used to predict whether an extremely low-birth-weight infant survives ... The researchers found that an infant s chances of survival without disability were enhanced if they were of older gestational ...
RDS affects about one percent of infants born in the United States and is the leading cause of death among premature babies. ... A discovery by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies might explain why some premature infants fail to respond ... To encourage the lungs to develop faster and produce the surfactant, doctors treat many expecting mothers and premature infants ... Salk Breathes New Life Into Fight Against Primary Killer Of Premature Infants. by editor ...
for Premature Infants. October 27-29, 2010. Bethesda, Maryland Conference Home. Final Statement. Program & Abstracts , PDF. ... Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island. Providence, Rhode Island. Robin H. Steinhorn, M.D.. Chief. Division of Neonatology ...
for Premature Infants. October 27-29, 2010. Bethesda, Maryland. Conference Home. Final Statement. Program & Abstracts , PDF. ...
Previous research has shown that mothers give a newborn baby a gift of germs that help to kick-start the infants immune system ... Research Provides Clues to Improving Immunity in Premature Infants. by Kathy Jones on April 21, 2014 at 7:32 PM Child Health ... Previous research has shown that mothers give a newborn baby a gift of germs that help to kick-start the infants immune system ... Gut Microbes from Healthy Infants Prevent Food Allergy What Causes Childhood Cancer in Community Perspective? Mutation in ...
In extremely premature babies, one of the risk factor is undeveloped lungs that are too fragile to handle even the gentlest ... Parents of Premature Babies are More Worried About Their Childs Lives. Parents of very premature babies are more worried about ... Artificial Placenta may Improve Survival Rates in Premature Infants. by Bidita Debnath on April 30, 2016 at 12:53 AM Child ... Simple Raisin Test Can Predict Learning Disabilities in Premature Babies. Most of the premature babies would have a tendency to ...
... term infants (5), and preterm infants (17, 19), and from a survey of gut microbes from premature infants in a companion study ( ... We conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based survey of fecal samples collected daily during the first 3 wk of life of a premature infant ... 2010) Intestinal microbial ecology in premature infants assessed with non-culture-based techniques. J Pediatr 156:20-25. ... Strain-resolved community genomic analysis of gut microbial colonization in a premature infant. Michael J. Morowitz, Vincent J ...
Were happy to answer any questions. You can e-mail us at [email protected], call 619-543-3759, or use the form below to send us a message.
Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition in the NICU. Working together to optimize premature infant nutrition. ... premature infant nutrition requires a team based approach to solve the nutritional crisis that faces the premature infant. A ... The science of human milk feeding in the NICU is revealing immense benefits to the premature infant. Optimizing nutrition in ... He is the Nutrition Medical Director of the Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) Program. Additionally, he is a current ...
It describes the early work determining the energy requirements of the preterm infant, the evolution of the use of human milk ... This article reviews the historical development of feeding the premature infant in the 20th century. ... Infant Food / history*. Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature*. Parenteral Nutrition ... This article reviews the historical development of feeding the premature infant in the 20th century. It describes the early ...
Premature infants are found to develop mental problems later in life. They are less likely to marry, have children, and be ... Earlier, premature infants were able to survive very rarely, mos of them were dying. Nowadays, science is powerful enough to ... However, premature infants were found to develop lots of problems with communication, socializing, and personal life. ... Infants can be properly carried in hospitals and developed physically, but this research looks at these babies when they are ...
  • Late preterm babies who are born between 35 and 37 weeks gestation may not look premature. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Very premature babies lose much more phosphorus in their urine than do babies that are born full-term. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doctors and nurses often call premature babies "preemies. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Premature babies who are moved to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are watched closely for infections and changes in breathing and heart rate. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Most premature babies don't develop serious disabilities. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Most premature babies who are born between 32 and 37 weeks do well after birth. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Premature babies are not often awake for more than brief periods. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Premature babies get sick more easily than full-term infants. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is more common among premature babies. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Twenty-six percent of babies born extremely premature had cognitive impairment, according to the study. (cnn.com)
  • Today, thanks to medical advances, we are seeing these premature babies at age nine, or as teenagers, with emotional and behavioral symptoms similar to autism. (cnn.com)
  • These births are much less common in Europe, and in Ireland and Finland only one in eighteen babies is premature. (empowher.com)
  • Survival rates for premature babies however, were as good or better than most European countries. (empowher.com)
  • Slightly fewer than 12% of all babies are premature. (childrensnational.org)
  • Twins and other multiples are about six times more likely to be premature than single birth babies. (childrensnational.org)
  • Many premature babies also weigh less than 2,500 grams (5 lbs 8 oz) and may be referred to as low birthweight (LBW). (childrensnational.org)
  • Premature babies are born before their bodies and organ systems have completely matured. (childrensnational.org)
  • Very premature babies, those born before 28 weeks, are especially vulnerable. (childrensnational.org)
  • The research indicates that premature babies benefit from being exposed to adult talk as early as possible. (eurekalert.org)
  • RDS affects about one percent of infants born in the United States and is the leading cause of death among premature babies. (redorbit.com)
  • But antibiotics, used to fend off infection, may paradoxically interrupt a newborn's own immune responses, leaving already-vulnerable premature babies more susceptible to dangerous pathogens. (medindia.net)
  • Through an artificial placenta that mimics the womb, researchers at the University of Michigan are working to improve survival rates in the tiniest, most premature babies in a groundbreaking way. (medindia.net)
  • An extracorporeal artificial placenta may help survive extremely premature babies with the greatest risks of disability or death. (medindia.net)
  • The ultimate goal of nearly a decade of sustained work: for an artificial placenta to help extremely premature babies with the greatest risks of disability or death continue critical organ development outside of their mother's womb. (medindia.net)
  • Despite significant advances in the treatment of prematurity, the risk of death and long-term disability remains high for extremely premature infants born before 24 weeks - these babies' tiny bodies simply are not prepared for life outside the womb. (medindia.net)
  • One of the gravest risks for extremely premature babies is undeveloped lungs that are too fragile to handle even the gentlest ventilation techniques," says George Mychaliska, M.D., the principle investigator and director of the U-M's Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment Center. (medindia.net)
  • Although many of our current therapies are life-saving, they are not designed for premature babies and are often ineffective or contribute to complications," he adds. (medindia.net)
  • The next step would be to determine if the milestones would justify preliminary clinical trials in extremely premature babies. (medindia.net)
  • Parents of very premature babies are more worried about their grown-up child's lives than parents whose babies are born in full term, says a study. (medindia.net)
  • An imbalance of certain gut microbes appears to be the underlying cause of a frequently fatal intestinal illness in premature babies. (medindia.net)
  • Infants can be properly carried in hospitals and developed physically, but this research looks at these babies when they are adults and found that they have a plenty of mental problems. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Babies were divided into groups: 1822 born between 23 and 27 weeks of gestation, 2805 between 28 and 30 weeks, 7424 between 31 and 33 weeks, 33000 born between 34 and 36 weeks, the rest of infants were born 37 weeks or later. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Premature babies were 10% less likely to properly finish school study, 10% less likely to finish college, 20% less likely to have a high salary and income, 20% more likely to qualify for Social Security benefits, 20% less likely to leave homes, marry, and become parents. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Researchers mention that these premature babies that were examined did not develop any physical disability later in life, they were just as healthy as their peers born on time. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This research is both positive and negative because it says that premature babies develop social problems later in life, but at the same time these babies are physically as healthy as their peers. (emaxhealth.com)
  • One in 90 very-low-birth-weight infants develop sepsis, and it can kill up to 50% of the babies born between 22 and 24 weeks that develop the infection. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • He said more research is needed to "refine the approach" to early onset sepsis risk assessment in premature babies. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • The purpose of this site is to promote the spread and implementation of kangaroo mother care as the standard method of care for all newborn babies, both premature and full term. (kellymom.com)
  • Babies who are born before 31 weeks gestation have a higher risk of thinking, language and movement problems throughout their lives, so being able to better predict which infants will face certain developmental problems is important so they get the best early interventions possible," said Steven P Miller from The Hospital for Sick Children in Canada. (indianexpress.com)
  • These germs are the most common cause of in-hospital bloodstream infections in premature babies, causing up to 50 percent of infections," Sherman said. (muhealth.org)
  • Our study shows that it can modify germs in the bowel of infants, and those germs can protect premature babies from staph infections. (muhealth.org)
  • A watchdog group has revealed that the Department of Health and Human Services is marginalizing its own ethics body for pointing out that its controversial study of premature babies failed to disclose foreseeable risks of blindness, neurological damage and death to babies. (christianpost.com)
  • They described it as a program offering assistance and encouragement to premature babies and their families. (christianpost.com)
  • There are a number of vital substances that babies normally have access to in the womb but which are drastically reduced in the event of premature birth. (healthcanal.com)
  • CINCINNATI--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Pampers, the brand trusted to be the #1 choice of U.S. hospitals i for more than 40 years, is proud to continue its heritage of supporting the happy, healthy development of babies with the innovation of Pampers® Preemie Swaddlers™ - diapers designed to support the development of premature infants weighing less than 4 pounds by protecting their sleep. (businesswire.com)
  • NEW YORK - The lead investigators on a large study of the effects of oxygen levels on extremely premature babies failed to inform the infants' parents that the risks of participating could involve increased chances of blindness or death, the federal Department of Health and Human Services has warned in a letter. (bostonglobe.com)
  • The research team is the first to confirm differences in the fibrous structure of the 10 tracts between healthy, full-term infant brains and those of premature babies. (healthcanal.com)
  • We already have studies underway using our DTT segmentation methodology to measure the effectiveness of early neuroprotective interventions, such as the use of breast milk or skin-to-skin contact while premature babies are in intensive care. (healthcanal.com)
  • Apart from the lungs, premature babies are at significant risk of having other, less well-developed organs. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is another common defect of the lungs, particularly to the birth of extremely low birth weight premature babies. (lovetoknow.com)
  • The aim of neonatal intensive therapy is to support the functioning of the immature organs of extremely premature babies in such a way that the development may proceed as if taking place in the mother's womb. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Initial tests with the EEGs of premature babies have shown that the cluster centers correlate with pathologies, (i.e., preterm infants with similar pathologies are close to each other in Euclidean space). (fraunhofer.de)
  • Hospitals use a range of approaches to minimize the duration of premature babies' breathing pauses -- placing them on their stomach, forcing air into the lungs with a facemask and giving caffeine to stimulate the brain -- but none is perfect and each carries other risks. (brightsurf.com)
  • While most premature babies eventually grow out of their breathing problems, it can take weeks to months before their respiratory systems develop sufficiently to allow them to breathe on their own at all times. (brightsurf.com)
  • Definitely, appropriately fortified breast milk is the feeding of choice for these premature, low-birth-weight babies," says University of Toronto nutritional sciences professor Deborah O'Connor, lead author of a study by Canadian, U.S., U.K. and Chilean researchers in the October Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Nevertheless, the development of premature babies fed human milk fortified in-hospital at least until term-corrected age (the day they should have been born) was comparable to or better than that of premature babies fed premature infant formula. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics has advised since 1998 that fortified breast milk is appropriate for premature babies in hospital, says O'Connor. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Repeated courses of a corticosteroid called betamethasone , which is indicated for improving the survival of unborn premature babies, can increase the risks of cerebral palsy in those children. (isteroids.com)
  • Parents of such babies can take comfort in the fact that being a premature infant does not necessarily mean a child will spend his or her entire life dealing with serious medical problems. (premature-babies.co.uk)
  • There are a number of breathing issues common among premature babies. (premature-babies.co.uk)
  • Can premature babies be affected by heart problems? (premature-babies.co.uk)
  • Like PDA, premature babies outgrow the risk of bleeding on the brain as their bodies more fully develop. (premature-babies.co.uk)
  • A condition known as necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one that some premature babies have to deal with. (premature-babies.co.uk)
  • Premature babies have a decreased ability to eliminate propylene glycol, thus they may be at increased risk for adverse effects (eg, serious heart, kidney, or breathing problems). (empr.com)
  • Because of a lack of power and medical equipment, doctors found that Kangaroo Care was a promising and inexpensive way to help premature babies survive. (liveaction.org)
  • Dr. Vohr concluded, "Our study demonstrates the powerful impact of parents visiting and talking to their infants in the NICU on their developmental outcomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aim 3: Test the sensitivity of FDNIRS-DCS measured cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in predicting developmental outcomes in infants with GM-IVH and PHH. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We will assess neurodevelopmental outcomes in all enrolled infants at 5-7, 10-12, and 22-24 months corrected age and correlate with FDNIRS-DCS measurements of CBF and CMRO2, and related quantities with neurodevelopmental outcomes at approximately 5-7, 10-12, and 22-24 months corrected age. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers examined which factors, aside from gestational age, influenced the outcomes for extremely low-birth-weight infants. (webwire.com)
  • Mychaliska, who has been referred to as Michigan's "fetus fixer" for his renowned fetal intervention work, has been leading research to improve outcomes for premature infants. (medindia.net)
  • But an analysis published Friday in JAMA Network Open found many infants receive antibiotics without evidence of an infection, which can put them at risk for a host of adverse health outcomes, including acquiring antimicrobial-resistant infections, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis or death. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • Settle M, Francis K. Does the Infant-Driven Feeding Method Positively Impact Preterm Infant Feeding Outcomes? (harvard.edu)
  • Woythaler M. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of the late preterm infant. (harvard.edu)
  • In the letter, the office stated that the consent form should have explained that "there is significant evidence from past research indicating that the oxygen provided to an infant can have an important effect on many outcomes including whether the infant becomes blind, develops a serious brain injury, or even possibly whether the infant dies. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Evidence that massage for preterm infants is of benefit for developmental outcomes is weak and does not warrant wider use of preterm infant massage. (cochrane.org)
  • From left: Kimberly Nichols, Vivek Lal, M.D., Donna Purvis, Anthony Patterson The University of Alabama at Birmingham Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit created the Golden Week program to improve outcomes for infants born prematurely at 28 weeks' gestation or earlier. (uab.edu)
  • The UAB RNICU and core committee are currently looking at short-term and long-term outcomes of the program in relation to an infant's health in order to continue the advancement of care for preterm infants. (uab.edu)
  • The infants were delivered in academic centers with the availability of comprehensive obstetrical management and neonatal care, the authors note, and there was an increased adherence to care practices associated with improved neonatal outcomes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We compared infant outcomes after PDA ligation at CC and NCC. (arctichealth.org)
  • A recently released NIH study identified several factors that influenced the outcomes of these infants. (nih.gov)
  • pulmonary outcomes in preterm infants. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In a newborn, these molecules may originate from the mother's bloodstream or be generated by the infant and can be used to assess whether the body is functioning normally. (eurekalert.org)
  • A major teaching affiliate of The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University for obstetrics, gynecology and newborn pediatrics, as well as a number of specialized programs in women's medicine, Women & Infants is the eighth largest stand-alone obstetrical service in the country with nearly 8,400 deliveries per year. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dr. Morowitz's research focuses on Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC), a mysterious disorder of intestinal inflammation in premature newborn infants. (chp.edu)
  • What it is, is a disorder of intestinal inflammation in premature newborn infants, typically within the first month of life. (chp.edu)
  • 11 12 Newborn infants operate with relatively fast heart rates and have limited capabilities to respond to increases in both preload and afterload. (bmj.com)
  • Knowledge of gestational age is essential for the appropriate medical management of both the pregnancy and the newborn infant as gestational age serves as a proxy measure for the extent of fetal development and the fetus's readiness for birth. (jrank.org)
  • Alterations in its composition have been correlated with chronic disorders, such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease in adults, and may be associated with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. (pnas.org)
  • The cost of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. (harvard.edu)
  • Much of his work is actually focused on necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, but he has also actually broadened his studies into studies of the microbiome in older children within the pediatric ICU. (chp.edu)
  • The nutritional goal for premature infants is to achieve rates of growth and nutrient accretion that match those achieved by infants of similar gestational age in utero, while avoiding complications that can be caused by nutritional therapies. (uptodate.com)
  • Infants with gestational age (GA) less than 28 weeks have particularly more risk for the development of ROP in developed countries [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • New Haven, Conn. Gestational age has long been the factor most commonly used to predict whether an extremely low-birth-weight infant survives and thrives, but four additional factors that can help predict a preemie s outcome have been identified by the National Institutes of Health Neonatal Research Network, of which Yale is a member. (webwire.com)
  • The researchers found that an infant s chances of survival without disability were enhanced if they were of older gestational age, their mothers had been given antenatal steroids, they were female, they were singletons rather than part of a multiple birth and they had higher birth weight. (webwire.com)
  • The incidence and outcome of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection were studied in 98 infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age. (nih.gov)
  • The study evaluated 34,636 infants born at 22-28 weeks gestational age and 401 to 1500 grams birth weight at 26 NRN centers between 1993 and 2012. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome (previously called hyaline membrane disease). (childrensnational.org)
  • A discovery by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies might explain why some premature infants fail to respond to existing treatments for a deadly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and offers clues for new ways to treat the breathing disorder. (redorbit.com)
  • This gives us an entirely new avenue for explaining and treating RDS and other respiratory problems that occur in infants. (redorbit.com)
  • In some cases, however, infants fail to respond to the steroid treatment, and die from the respiratory syndrome, which suggests that some other biological mechanism might be at work. (redorbit.com)
  • Evaluating the efficacy of Seattle-PAP for the respiratory support of premature neonates: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (harvard.edu)
  • Extubation Success in Premature Infants With Respiratory Dis. (lww.com)
  • Low doses of inhaled nitric oxide can decrease the risk of chronic lung disease and death by nearly one-fourth in premature infants who have respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), report researchers from the University of Chicago in the Nov. 27, 2003, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine. (innovations-report.com)
  • Respiratory distress syndrome, the need for assisted ventilation, severe respiratory insufficiency, and death were significantly more common among infected than among noninfected infants. (nih.gov)
  • Lagos - A high potency drug, Bovine Lipid Extract Surfactant (BLES), capable of accelerating the treatment of pre-mature infants suffering Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome at birth, is now available in Nigerian healthcare system. (vanguardngr.com)
  • She was gradually weaned to room air and was started on a feeding protocol for preterm infants together with total parenteral nutrition through a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) when she suddenly deteriorated and developed respiratory distress associated with signs of shock, requiring support from a high-setting mechanical ventilation as well as an inotropic support. (bmj.com)
  • Respiratory problems are a common complication in the premature infant, and as a result, oxygen therapy is usually necessary. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a condition common in premature infants. (lovetoknow.com)
  • An infant can also develop respiratory distress syndrome, due to increased pressure exerted on the lungs. (lovetoknow.com)
  • The condition occurs because -- in infants whose systems not yet fully formed -- the respiratory system ignores or cannot use the body's signals to breathe. (brightsurf.com)
  • We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima, Peru in infants with a birth weight ≤ 1,500 g followed from birth hospital discharge up to 1 year of age to determine the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations. (ajtmh.org)
  • The incidence of RSV respiratory infections that required emergency management or hospitalization is high among pre-mature infants in Lima. (ajtmh.org)
  • To evaluate the initial doses of surfactant administered to preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The mother may be moved to a center that is set up to care for premature infants in a NICU. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, even in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), premature infants did not receive adequate nutrition to successfully grow at a rate equivalent to the reference standard for fetal growth. (uptodate.com)
  • Our earlier study identified that extremely premature infants vocalize (make sounds) eight weeks before their mother's due date and vocalize more when their mothers are present in the NICU than when they are cared for by NICU staff," explained Dr. Vohr. (eurekalert.org)
  • The follow-up of these infants has revealed that the adult word count to which infants are exposed in the NICU at 32 and 36 weeks predicts their language and cognitive scores at 18 months. (eurekalert.org)
  • The science of human milk feeding in the NICU is revealing immense benefits to the premature infant. (medelabreastfeedingus.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether early (before NICU discharge) or late (55-60 weeks post-menstrual age) inguinal hernia repair is safer for premature infants who have an inguinal hernia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Human milk feeding rates for preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) at discharge lag behind breastfeeding rates for term infants reflecting a gap between maternal intention and success in producing adequate milk for the preterm infant. (ucsd.edu)
  • Crowdfunding to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Burnley providing medical care of new born infants especially those ill or premature. (justgiving.com)
  • Al (2009) Measuring preterm cumulative stressor's within the NICU: The neonatal infant stressor scale. (businesswire.com)
  • These results provide an important observational background for probiotic use in a NICU setting, and describe the clinical, physiological, and microbiome-associated improvements in preterm infants associated with B. infantis EVC001 feeding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Unlike infants born at full-term, premature infants have extended stays in the hospital environment of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), increased exposure to associated clinical protocols including antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors, parenteral nutrition, and limited access to human milk, all of which dramatically shapes gut microbiome composition ( 4 , 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Late preterm infants are often much larger than very premature infants but may only be slightly smaller than full-term infants. (childrensnational.org)
  • Because it can relax constricted blood vessels, it has been used in infants with pulmonary hypertension, a life-threatening disease in full-term infants. (innovations-report.com)
  • Because premature infants may miss some of the third trimester, they have a greater need for protein, certain fats, vitamins and minerals than full-term infants. (meadjohnson.com)
  • The HCSP recommends a vaccination schedule beginning at the age of 8 weeks postnatal, including, as for full-term infants, two injections at 2-month intervals of vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae B type, whooping cough and hepatitis B. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is recommended at 2, 3 and 4 months of life. (centerwatch.com)
  • To investigate the incidence and the severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks of gestation in southeastern Turkey. (hindawi.com)
  • Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an important cause of vision loss in children, especially in extremely premature infants [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Modest supplemental oxygen given to premature infants with moderate cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a potentially blinding eye disorder, may not significantly improve ROP, but definitely does not make it worse, according to researchers funded by the Federal government's National Institutes of Health (NIH). (nih.gov)
  • Another serious condition attributed to use of oxygen therapy in the premature infant is retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). (lovetoknow.com)
  • Severe health problems in infants who survived more than 12 hours included infection, severe necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe intracranial hemorrhage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia, and severe retinopathy of prematurity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • One devastating side effect, however, is the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), whereupon oxygen administration to the infant suppresses the expression of essential growth factors that promote the development of retinal blood vessels, resulting in blindness. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Rationale: Benefits of identifying risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants include providing prognostic information, identifying infants likely to benefit from preventive strategies, and stratifying infants for clinical trial enrollment. (rti.org)
  • This, plus the need for longer and more aggressive mechanical ventilation, can explain the association between patent ductus arteriosus and an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely premature infants. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants. (portlandpress.com)
  • Although rates of most serious health problems declined, bronchopulmonary dysplasia increased between 2009 and 2012 for infants born at 26-27 weeks but did not change significantly for infants born at 22-25 or 28 weeks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For the NeoNatal Intensive Care unit at the Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto, big data tools have proven valuable to allow doctors to monitor the vital signs of premature infants around the clock. (eweek.com)
  • The survival rates of extremely premature infants have been increased with the improvement in the neonatal intensive care technologies and increased availability of healthcare services in recent years [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2009, Women & Infants opened the country's largest, single-family room neonatal intensive care unit. (eurekalert.org)
  • In an accompanying editorial, Dr. Matthew Bizzarro, medical director of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Yale University School of Medicine, wrote that the analysis' findings and other studies seem to show clinicians aren't identifying and treating premature infants at high risk for developing sepsis accurately. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • The Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) program was developed to address the challenges of helping mothers produce sufficient breast milk for their premature infants, and to improve the manner in which neonatal intensive care unit (NICUs) support optimal nutrition and growth in their most vulnerable population of patients. (kellymom.com)
  • The researchers studied the immune systems of 120 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care units at MU Women's and Children's Hospital and the University of Southern California Children's Hospital Los Angeles between July 2009 and January 2012. (muhealth.org)
  • Between October 1998 and October 2001, 207 infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Chicago Children s Hospital were enrolled in this study. (innovations-report.com)
  • To analyze the use of online information on health/illness by relatives of premature infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. (scielo.br)
  • Exploratory, qualitative study conducted at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from a University Hospital in the state capital of southern Brazil, with 33 relatives of hospitalized premature infants. (scielo.br)
  • Mead Johnson's research and collaboration with neonatal intensive care units continues to result in feeding regimens and clinical nutrition products that provide premature infants with the support required to have the best start in life. (meadjohnson.com)
  • It has been argued that infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units are subject both to a highly stressful environment - continuous, high-intensity noise and bright light - and to a lack of the tactile stimulation that they would otherwise experience in the womb or in general mothering care. (cochrane.org)
  • The Golden Week program developed by UAB's Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit was recently recognized nationally for its standardized set of practices for premature infants, providing them with quality care in their first week of life. (uab.edu)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the harm racism causes to infants, children, adolescents, and their families. (aappublications.org)
  • Research led by a team at Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island and The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University has been published in the February 10, 2014 online edition of Pediatrics , the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. (eurekalert.org)
  • A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infants usually cannot coordinate sucking and swallowing before 34 weeks gestation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As an example, in a study of 1660 premature infants with birth weight ≤1500 g at discharge, most infants born below 29 weeks gestation had not reached the median birth weight of the reference fetus at the same postmenstrual age [ 7 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • In the new study, which was conducted by a team led by Karl Kuban of the Boston University Medical Center and Boston Medical Center, 26 percent of children who were born extremely premature (27 weeks gestation or less, as opposed to a full-term of 37 weeks or more) had cognitive impairment, 11 percent had cerebral palsy, 3 percent had problems with vision, and 2 percent had hearing impairment. (cnn.com)
  • A retrospective chart review was performed for infants born before 28 weeks of gestation. (hindawi.com)
  • The goal of the study was to test the association of the amount of talking that a baby was exposed to at what would have been 32 and 36 weeks gestation if a baby had been born full term, using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd Edition (Bayley - III) cognitive and language scores. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here, we document strain-level genomic divergence during the first 3 wk of life within the fecal microbiota of an infant born at 28-wk gestation. (pnas.org)
  • A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION. (harvard.edu)
  • Methods: We assessed infants of 23-30 weeks' gestation born in 17 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and enrolled in the Neonatal Research Network Benchmarking Trial from 2000-2004. (rti.org)
  • The infant, born at 29 weeks' gestation and weighing 1,400 grams (about 3 pounds), had developed signs and symptoms initially consistent with necrotizing enterocolitis approximately 1 week after birth. (cdc.gov)
  • The premature infants in this study averaged 27 weeks gestation (full term is 38-40 weeks) and weighed an average of 1,000 grams (2.2 pounds). (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers tested the device on 15 premature infants who were born after 23 to 34 weeks of gestation, and who were experiencing breathing pauses and low oxygen. (brightsurf.com)
  • The Golden Week core committee at UAB developed a standardized set of orders to establish consistency among care for premature infants born at 28 weeks' gestation or less. (uab.edu)
  • These two different types of low birthweight infants-those pre-term and those small for their duration of gestation- were recognized to reflect distinct medical problems, and as a result, more specific labels were needed to refer to each type of birth according to its birth-weight, duration of gestation, and birthweight for gestation. (jrank.org)
  • 37 weeks gestation age, accounts for over 1 in 10 live births in the United States and is associated with an immature gastrointestinal tract, diminished gut barrier function, and underdeveloped immune function leading to increased morbidity and mortality compared to term infants ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Advancements in the care of premature infants have led to increased survival of these infants, and family physicians frequently provide care to these infants following their discharge from the hospital. (aafp.org)
  • After hospital discharge, most of the infants received unfortified breast milk. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Overall survival increased most significantly in infants born at 23-24 weeks, but survival without major health problems identified prior to hospital discharge increased most in infants 25-28 weeks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Overall survival to discharge increased between 2009 and 2012 for infants born at 23 weeks (27 percent to 33 percent) and for infants born at 24 weeks (63 percent to 65 percent), with smaller relative increases in survival for infants born at 25 and 27 weeks, and no change for infants born at 22, 26 and 28 weeks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Survival to discharge without major health problems increased approximately two percent per year for infants born at 25-28 weeks, with no change for infants born at 22-24 weeks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To evaluate whether there is a preferable mode of advancing feedings in premature infants, 50 infants with birth weights of less than 1500 g were randomized into two groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These patients all weighed 1500 g or less at birth, and were born during a period of transition from liberal to restricted oxygen therapy for premature infants. (bmj.com)
  • Some premature births are multiple pregnancies, such as twins or triplets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Premature births are the main reason that the U.S. infant mortality rate is higher than in most European countries, according to a government report issued November 3. (empowher.com)
  • In the U.S. one in eight births is premature. (empowher.com)
  • The report said that premature births are the main reason the U.S. ranks number 30 in the world in infant mortality. (empowher.com)
  • What are the reasons for so many premature births? (empowher.com)
  • Labor was induced in almost 16 percent of premature births in 2006, an increase of about 8 percent from 1991. (empowher.com)
  • Cesarean sections were performed in 36 percent of premature births, up from 25 percent in !991, according to MacDorman. (empowher.com)
  • Overall, the rate of premature births is rising, mainly due to the large numbers of multiple births in recent years. (childrensnational.org)
  • The rate of premature single births is also slightly increasing each year. (childrensnational.org)
  • We are developing analytical software as an integral component of a multifunctional monitoring system for premature births in the sub-project "Diagnostic support system for the maturation process of the brain in premature births," as part of the BMWi's Tenecor project. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Infants delivered between the thirty-seventh and forty-first week of pregnancy are typically referred to as "term" or "mature" births. (jrank.org)
  • Preterm" or "premature" birth is defined as delivery before the thirty-seventh week of pregnancy and "postterm" or "postmature" births are those occurring at forty-two weeks and beyond. (jrank.org)
  • It became apparent, however, that not all low birthweight infants were born preterm and that not all preterm births were low birthweight. (jrank.org)
  • Many low birthweight infants are term births that are small in size due to growth-related complications. (jrank.org)
  • Twenty or 30 years ago, the survival rate of a baby born premature was much less than it is now,' he said. (cnn.com)
  • In developing countries, the incidence of ROP is rising with the improvement of the survival rates of extremely premature infants [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Through the Golden Week program, we have standardized care that infants receive during their first week of life, ultimately improving their survival rates. (uab.edu)
  • A study of extremely preterm infants born at U.S academic medical centers over the last 20 years found changes in maternal and infant care practices, resulting in modest increases in survival and reductions in several neonatal complications. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This study is the first comprehensive NRN review to evaluate 20 years of changes in care practices, major health problems and survival of extremely premature infants," says Stoll. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our analysis shows that survival of extremely premature infants and survival without major health problems have improved over 20 years," says Stoll. (medicalxpress.com)
  • One of our most important new findings is a significant increase in survival without major neonatal health problems for infants born at 25-28 weeks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To read about the study, visit the Study Reveals Multiple Factors That Influence Premature Infant Survival . (nih.gov)
  • Advances in medical care have improved the survival of very low birth weight premature infants but at the same time have also led to an increased number of surviving infants with reduced cerebral growth and long-term neurodevelopmental motor, cognitive, and social morbidities. (harvard.edu)
  • Infants are assessed for survival and chronic lung disease until day 28 after birth, and again at 36 postmenstrual weeks. (bioportfolio.com)
  • But we expect that a premature baby will not have any more complications by age two. (cnn.com)
  • Learn how optimal human milk nutrition can minimize complications in premature infants. (medelabreastfeedingus.com)
  • These complications - known as intraventricular hemorrhage (bleeding into the ventricles, the fluid spaces within the brain) and periventricular leukomalacia (damage to the brain tissue near the ventricles) - are the primary cause of serious long-term brain damage in premature infants and are associated with the subsequent development of cerebral palsy and mental retardation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Although nitric oxide did not reduce the risk of all neurologic complications, only 12 percent of the infants who received it suffered a severe brain hemorrhage or tissue damage, compared to 24 percent of those who did not. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our preliminary results show that by returning IGF-I levels to those normally observed during pregnancy we can prevent the condition, and probably also other complications that can affect premature infants. (healthcanal.com)
  • The review of 20-year trends in maternal/neonatal care, complications and mortality among extremely preterm infants was conducted by the Neonatal Research Network (NRN), a consortium of US academic medical centers sponsored by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Up to now, there have been tight restrictions on the amount of oxygen low birthweight infants were permitted to have," said Carl Kupfer, MD, director of the National Eye Institute (NEI), which funded the study in collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR). (nih.gov)
  • Every day, physicians and new parents must struggle with the type of care to provide extremely low birthweight infants, the smallest, most delicate category of preterm infants. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in care of preterm infants over the 20 years included an increase in antenatal corticosteroid use, an increase in cesarean delivery and a decrease in delivery room intubation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In this article results of first Russian study on premature infants body composition in association with trend of their physical development within the first month and according to way of feeding. (mendeley.com)
  • Dietary supplements thought to have probiotic effects have been reported to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and all-cause mortality in preterm infants ( 4 ), although there are concerns that the safety of the products has not been adequately documented ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • He is the Nutrition Medical Director of the Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) Program. (medelabreastfeedingus.com)
  • Among PT infants, the degree of prematurity predicted child difficulties, but was not consistently related to mothers' well-being. (nih.gov)
  • The gut microbiome of preterm infants was typified by a high abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and/or Staphylococcaceae , and multivariate modeling identified the probiotic intervention, rather than degree of prematurity, day of life, or other clinical interventions, as the primary source of change in the gut microbiome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Researchers at MU's School of Medicine and Sinclair School of Nursing found that a manufactured form of lactoferrin, a naturally occurring protein in breast milk, can help protect premature infants from a type of staph infection. (muhealth.org)
  • Inhaled nitric oxide gives neonatologists a simple and effective tool to help protect premature infants," says Michael Schreiber, M.D., associate professor of pediatrics at the University of Chicago and director of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Overall, about one in 10 of the extremely premature infants who did not have other health problems (including cerebral palsy, mental impairment, or vision or hearing problems) tested positive for autism at age two. (cnn.com)
  • However, when the researchers excluded all children with cerebral palsy or other health problems, 10 percent of the extremely premature children tested positive for autism. (cnn.com)
  • Aim 1: Determine post-natal cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism trajectories in GM-IVH and PHH neonates with respect to normal controls and differences between PHH infants and infants affected by hydrocephalus due to other pathologies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Developmental problems commonly affecting extremely premature infants include cerebral palsy, mental impairment, vision impairment and hearing loss. (webwire.com)
  • PVL is the most common form of brain injury in premature infants and results in cerebral palsy in 60 percent to 100 percent of those who live to adulthood. (innovations-report.com)
  • Preterm infants have an increased risk of developmental delay, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, sensory impairment, learning and school-related problems, and other disabilities. (jrank.org)
  • A premature infant will have a lower birth weight than a full-term infant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Importance of nutrition in development, with special reference to feeding low-birth-weight infants. (uptodate.com)
  • The low birth weight infant. (uptodate.com)
  • Germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) occurs in 45% of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) premature infants, often leading to long-term neurodevelopmental impairments (NDI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It describes the early work determining the energy requirements of the preterm infant, the evolution of the use of human milk and its fortification for these infants, the development of special formulas for very-low-birth-weight infants and the various techniques/methods utilized including total parenteral nutrition. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although very-low-birth-weight premature infants are at higher risk of early-onset infection compared with term-born infants, we found an overall rate of antibiotic initiation that was an order of magnitude higher than the actual incidence of infection," the study concluded. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • Providers administered antibiotics to 78% of very-low-birth-weight infants within 3 days of birth and 87% of infants with extremely low birth weight, defined as being under 2.2 pounds. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • More than a quarter of very-low-birth-weight infants and more than one-third of extremely-low-birth-weight infants were exposed to antibiotics for more than five days, which is considered prolonged. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • In 2001, 8% of the 4.6 million infant stays nationwide were for pre-term birth or low birth weight, according to a 2017 study published in the journal Pediatrics . (modernhealthcare.com)
  • Nutritional Support of the Very Low Birth Weight Infant: Toolkit (December 2008) from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. (kellymom.com)
  • Furman L, Minich N, Hack M. Correlates of lactation in mothers of very low birth weight infants . (kellymom.com)
  • Nutritional Support of the Very Low Birth Weight Infant (February 2005) from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, by David Durand MD, William Rhine MD, Jane Morton MD, David Wirtshafter MD, Nancy E. Wight MD, IBCLC. (kellymom.com)
  • Starting in mid‐2007 we designed a collaborative nutrition health care team to improve the nutrition of very low birth weight infants (VLBW). (ucsd.edu)
  • Our study found that giving very-low-birth-weight premature infants a manufactured form of lactoferrin can virtually eliminate the germ that causes a staph infection known as staphylococcus epidermidis. (muhealth.org)
  • Early Intervention for Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants: What Can We Achieve? (rti.org)
  • The researchers identified 40,364 very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants who survived at least one day, including 12,947 extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Among very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants, the use of supplemental donor milk compared with formula did not improve neurodevelopment at 18 months, according to a study appearing in the November 8 issue of JAMA. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The study tested a detailed approach to measuring brain structure in extremely low birth weight infants at term-equivalent age by comparing their diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) scans to those of healthy, full-term newborns. (healthcanal.com)
  • As massage seems to both decrease stress and provide tactile stimulation, it has been recommended as an intervention to promote growth and development of preterm and low-birth weight infants. (cochrane.org)
  • Premature infants fed breast milk made developmental gains equal to or greater than those fed formula specially designed for low-birth-weight infants, an international study finds. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Infant Health and Development Program was a collaborative, randomized, longitudinal, multisite clinical trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of comprehensive early intervention in reducing the developmental and health problems of low birth weight, premature infants. (umich.edu)
  • The study sample of infants was stratified by birth weight (2,000 grams or less, 2,001-2,500 grams) and randomized to the Intervention Group or the Follow-Up Group. (umich.edu)
  • A 2016 study published in the journal Nature Microbiology found evidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria residing in the gut of premature infants that has raised calls for shorter courses of antibiotic treatment and limiting the number of antibiotics given to premature infants. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • Lack of oxygen to the brain is the most common form of brain injury in premature infants, resulting in damage to the white matter. (indianexpress.com)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins have dispelled the widespread belief among obstetricians that, in premature infants, brain injury results from a lack of oxygen, also called hypoxia, when, in fact, infection plays a larger role. (innovations-report.com)
  • Infection plays a much larger role than lack of oxygen in brain injury among premature infants," said high-risk obstetrician Ernest Graham, M.D., an assistant professor at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and lead author of the study, presented at the 24th annual meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine and set for publication in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology online Oct. 25. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results mean that clinicians do not have to be as restrictive as they have been when giving supplemental oxygen to infants who have already developed moderate ROP. (nih.gov)
  • This is because doctors have been concerned about a possible adverse effect of supplemental oxygen on the eyes of infants with ROP. (nih.gov)
  • While the benefits and risks of supplemental oxygen must be individually considered for each infant, doctors need no longer worry that supplemental oxygen, as used in this study, will harm eyes with moderate ROP. (nih.gov)
  • Many premature infants need supplemental oxygen soon after birth because their lungs are not sufficiently mature to efficiently transfer oxygen into their bodies. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors have long known that supplemental oxygen, while helping infants survive, might increase cases of ROP. (nih.gov)
  • If controlled amounts of supplemental oxygen could help prevent the progression of ROP, then infants could avoid this threat to their sight and consequently the invasive surgery for severe ROP, with its possible long-term side effects. (nih.gov)
  • Beginning within a few hours of birth and continuing for one week, the infants received - through the ventilator - either oxygen plus inhaled nitric oxide, or oxygen alone. (innovations-report.com)
  • Eighty-five percent of the 105 infants in the nitric oxide group survived, compared to 78 percent of the 102 infants who received oxygen alone. (innovations-report.com)
  • what is the appropriate amount of oxygen an essential therapy for fragile premature infants? (ahrp.org)
  • the infants in the government-sponsored SUPPORT research protocol were extremely low weight premature infants who were randomized to be maintained at either high oxygen saturation SOP2 (91-95%) or low (85-89%) oxygen saturation. (ahrp.org)
  • The most disturbing fact that has emerged about the neonatal SUPPORT trial design is that the pulse oximeter readings relied upon by treating neonatologists to determine the infants' need for supplementary oxygen, was intentionally altered to give either false high or false low SOP2 values. (ahrp.org)
  • Consider the risks for these premature infants-if given too much oxygen, they will likely become blind, if given too little oxygen, they are likely to die. (ahrp.org)
  • The neonatologists treating the infants during the experiment were given wrong information upon which they relied to make life and death decisions about what level of oxygen to deliver to these critically ill infants. (ahrp.org)
  • None of the infants in the SUPPORT experiment received standard care by a fully informed neonatologist who would be provided accurate information from the pulse oximeter which allows the neonatologist to then select from a full range of oxygen saturations the best level to maintain the neonate-depending whether the treating physician thought blindness or death was a greater risk for the particular infant. (ahrp.org)
  • I can understand why-I might agree to the research if told I would have a harmless pad on my infants' body but not if the neonatologist was going to treat my critically ill infant based on false oxygen readings. (ahrp.org)
  • The experiment confirmed the long known increased risk of death in infants consigned to the restricted low oxygen group but its unknown if the false information given the neonatologist further increased their risk of death even more than just getting to low an oxygen level. (ahrp.org)
  • Richard B. Marchase, vice president for research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, said that a similar group of infants born around the same time who did not participate in the study actually died at higher rates than those in the low-oxygen group. (bostonglobe.com)
  • The risk the study did mention was of abrasion of the infants' skin by an oxygen monitoring device. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Oxygen therapy is highly beneficial to the immediate post-birth problems a premature infant will experience. (lovetoknow.com)
  • The administration of oxygen, by means of artificial ventilation, or simple inhalation through a nasal tube, can mean the difference between the life and death of the infant. (lovetoknow.com)
  • BPD is typically diagnosed when a premature infant still requires oxygen therapy after 28 days. (lovetoknow.com)
  • It is not clear what causes this serious condition, however, because an infant with BPD is likely to require oxygen therapy via mechanical ventilation. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Many infants are born with this condition, before oxygen therapy has even been used. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Oxygen therapy for the treatment of premature infants has been practiced since the late 1800's, when the first incubators were introduced. (lovetoknow.com)
  • When informed of the benefits and risks associated with oxygen therapy, the dilemma faced is whether to risk a precious infant having organ, brain or tissue damage, versus the risk of retinal damage or blindness. (lovetoknow.com)
  • The importance in all cases is that parents are adequately informed of the longterm effects of oxygen therapy in infants, so that decisions regarding treatment can be made with informed choice. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Compounding the danger, premature newborns' lungs are not fully developed, and therefore do not have much oxygen in reserve. (brightsurf.com)
  • As premature infants often have under-developed lungs, oxygen is administered following birth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Shockingly in 2018, we have very low little understanding of why some infants and not others develop this problem, which can be life-threatening. (chp.edu)
  • Tang, R. , Yao, X. and Shi, L. (2018) The Effects of Colostrum on Gastrointestinal Function and Related Diseases in Premature Infants: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (scirp.org)
  • See 'Nutritional composition of human milk and preterm formula for the premature infant' and 'Human milk feeding and fortification of human milk for premature infants' . (uptodate.com)
  • It is found that preterm infants fed by fortified human milk have a more optimal body composition (less body fat levels) than infants fed by formula. (mendeley.com)
  • The found consistent patterns confirm the necessity of supplying preterm infants with human milk for more adequate formation of plastic processes. (mendeley.com)
  • Describe the diverse benefits of human milk for premature infants. (medelabreastfeedingus.com)
  • Benchmark measures of human milk intake were compared between VLBW infants before and after the formation of the team. (ucsd.edu)
  • The study confirmed previous findings that premature infants grow more slowly on human milk than on nutrient-enriched premature formula, she says. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In the study, 64 percent of infants who received standard therapy died or developed chronic lung disease, compared to only 49 percent of those who received standard therapy plus inhaled nitric oxide. (innovations-report.com)
  • Nitric oxide did not rescue the sickest infants," Schreiber says, "but it was able to limit the extent of lung disease in many newborns at risk, preventing the lung damage that can cause lifelong illness. (innovations-report.com)
  • In these cases, the infant may need to be fed breast milk or infant formula using a nasogastric tube or orogastric tube until they develop the ability to feed orally. (meadjohnson.com)
  • The study compared the growth and development of 463 premature infants under four pounds at birth in the U.S., the U.K. and Chile who, based on their hospitals' existing practices, were fed either breast milk (which was pumped, then mixed with additional nutrients in-hospital) or nutrient-enriched formulas or a combination of the two. (bio-medicine.org)
  • in temporal trend analyses, there were no differences over time for VLBW or ELBW infants. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Over time, a small but significant decrease was seen in the rate of prolonged antibiotic duration for VLBW infants but not for ELBW infants. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 61.1 and 84.8 percent of centers started antibiotic therapy for more than 75 percent of VLBW and ELBW infants, respectively. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There was also variation across centers in the proportion of VLBW and ELBW infants administered prolonged antibiotics , from 0 to 80.4 percent and from 0 to 92 percent, respectively. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The variability in exposure rates across centers, however, suggests that neonatal antimicrobial stewardship efforts are warranted to optimize antibiotic use for VLBW and ELBW infants ," the authors write. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In infants, early assembly of the gut microbiota has been linked to development of innate immune responses and terminal differentiation of intestinal structures ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • More than 61% of the centers studied started antibiotic therapy for more than three-quarters of infants who weighed less than 3.3 pounds at birth. (modernhealthcare.com)
  • HealthDay)-Most premature infants receive empirical antibiotic therapy, according to a study published online May 25 in JAMA Network Open . (medicalxpress.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that histamine-2 receptor (H2-) blockers alter colonic bacterial colonization by analyzing and comparing the fecal microbiota in premature infants with and without H2-blocker therapy using sensitive molecular biological techniques. (ovid.com)
  • This is a randomized clinical trial comparing early versus late repair in premature infants with an inguinal hernia (IH) to determine which approach may be safer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • With a better understanding of these special nutritional needs, Mead Johnson continues to enhance its science-based pediatric clinical nutrition products that help provide premature infants with the best start in life. (meadjohnson.com)
  • Growth is one yardstick of a premature baby's progress but developmental markers such as visual, motor and cognitive skills are also important," says O'Connor, director of clinical dietetics at The Hospital for Sick Children. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Importantly, we found that infants fed B. infantis EVC001 exhibited diminished enteric inflammation, even when other clinical variables were accounted for using multivariate modeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Relactation by mothers of sick and premature infants. (nih.gov)
  • Mothers of 126 full-term (FT) and 91 pre-term (PT) infants during the child's second year of life completed measures of their own and the child's quality of life and behavioural difficulties. (nih.gov)
  • The two groups of mothers showed no differences on the parenting measure, but those in the PT compared with the FT group described their infant as having lower QOL and more behavioural and mood problems, and rated their own well-being as less satisfactory. (nih.gov)
  • Mothers of PT infants report more physical health and behavioural difficulties than mothers of FT infants, but specific parenting styles can contribute to child difficulties and QOL in both infants and their mothers. (nih.gov)
  • To encourage the lungs to develop faster and produce the surfactant, doctors treat many expecting mothers and premature infants with glucocorticoids, steroid drugs that speed maturation of surfactant-producing cells, known as type 2 pneumocytes. (redorbit.com)
  • Combining hand techniques with electric pumping increases the caloric content of milk in mothers of preterm infants by J Morton, RJ Wong, et al. (kellymom.com)
  • To systematically evaluate the effects of colostrum intervention on gas-trointestinal function and related diseases in premature infants. (scirp.org)
  • A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EBSCO, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, CBMDISC, CNKI, Wan Fang and VIP databases on the effects of colostrum and oral intervention on gastrointestinal function and related diseases in premature infants. (scirp.org)
  • Colostrums oral intervention can effectively reduce the incidence of nosocomial infection in premature infants. (scirp.org)
  • However, due to different intervention measures, frequency and duration of studies, the effects of colostrum intervention on gastrointestinal function and related diseases in premature infants are different. (scirp.org)
  • Among these challenges, the immature digestive systems of premature infants alter the absorption and tolerance of nutrients. (meadjohnson.com)
  • Mead Johnson continues to investigate ideal forms of protein, carbohydrates and fats to feed infants with immature digestive systems. (meadjohnson.com)
  • These alterations in fecal microbiota may predispose the vulnerable immature gut to necrotizing enterocolitis and suggest prudence in the use of H2-blockers in the premature infant. (ovid.com)
  • However, due to the immature digestive system of premature infants, most of them adopt nasal feeding or total parenteral nutrition to support life. (scirp.org)
  • The study, published in Nature Pediatric Research by scientists at the UCSF California Preterm Birth Initiative (PTBI-CA), assessed the records of 9,639 preterm infants who experienced mortality or at least one complication or mortality. (eurekalert.org)
  • Amarie, an infant born prematurely, is enrolled in a Children's research study that seeks to understand how preterm birth affects the cerebellum. (childrensnational.org)
  • At the same time, we must focus on reducing the high rates of preterm birth, with approximately 450,000 infants born prematurely in the United States each year. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The percent of infants from a multiple birth increased from 18 percent in 1993 to 27 percent in 1998, with no further increase during the study period. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Preterm infants needing patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation are transferred to a pediatric cardiac center (CC) unless the operation can be done locally by a pediatric surgeon at a non-cardiac center (NCC). (arctichealth.org)
  • The disease occurs because the infants' lungs are not yet fully developed at birth and lack a slippery substance called surfactant, which is necessary for the lungs to inflate with air. (redorbit.com)
  • Premature infants have greater nutritional needs in the neonatal period than at any other time of their life. (uptodate.com)
  • three completely nourished their infants and two others provided at least half of their infants' nutritional needs. (nih.gov)
  • Although meeting the nutritional needs of premature infants, feeding intolerance, necrotizing enter colitis and other diseases are easy to occur. (scirp.org)
  • In the discussion, referring to their previous study in preterm infants, 2 they concluded that their results show a positive correlation between the plasma threonine concentration and the threonine intake but they cannot support our data 3 showing that the ability to metabolize a high threonine intake is impaired in preterm infants as compared with term infants. (aappublications.org)
  • Premature infants born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are often called late preterm or near-term infants. (childrensnational.org)
  • Any ROP was significantly associated with BW and GA. Extremely premature infants with lower GA were found to be more likely to develop type 1 ROP. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we aimed to determine the incidence and the severity of ROP in extremely premature infants in southeast part of Turkey. (hindawi.com)
  • An extracorporeal artificial placenta at the institution has kept five extremely premature lambs alive for a week. (medindia.net)
  • By recapitulating normal fetal physiology to recreate the intrauterine environment, the artificial placenta holds the promise of normal growth and development outside the womb for extremely premature infants until they are ready for postnatal life. (medindia.net)
  • Extremely low weight premature infants have an approximately 20% mortality rate -if treated with the best current practice. (ahrp.org)
  • The Daily Signal reported in June about the government-backed study called "SUPPORT," which was conducted from 2006 to 2009 on 1,316 extremely premature infants at 23 academic institutions under the NIH, which is part of the HHS. (christianpost.com)
  • Fortunately, that coupling exists even in extremely young infants. (brightsurf.com)
  • Moreover, the health-care costs associated with an extremely small baby or early birth are more than ten times greater than those of normal weight infants. (jrank.org)
  • Most premature infants born before 30 weeks have some degree of osteopenia, but will not have any physical symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A baby born 3 or more weeks early is premature. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • group 2 included infants of GAs less than 28 weeks and over 25 weeks. (hindawi.com)
  • A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature, that is, born before complete maturity. (childrensnational.org)
  • 4. Protein degradation was higher than average in infants who were losing weight at the time of the balance study, lower in infants who were gaining weight and higher in those who died within 2 weeks of the analysis. (portlandpress.com)
  • There is some relationship, and so older infants that are maybe late preterm tend to have the problem earlier, maybe around 10 to 14 days of life, but the smallest, quote on quote micro premies tend to develop the problem around three to four weeks of life. (chp.edu)
  • These infants are born in the 22nd through the 25th week of pregnancy-far earlier than the 40 weeks of a full term pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Infants born prematurely risk developing the condition ROP, which can result in blindness. (healthcanal.com)
  • Late preterm infants may also have breathing difficulties, although these are often identified before the infants go home from the hospital. (childrensnational.org)
  • Late preterm infants should be seen by a care provider within the first one or two days after going home from the hospital. (childrensnational.org)