A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.
Female parents, human or animal.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Interaction between a mother and child.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The posture of an individual lying face down.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.
Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.
The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.
An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Devices that babies can suck on when they are not feeding. The extra sucking can be comforting to the babies and pacify them. Pacifiers usually are used as a substitute for the thumb in babies who suck on their thumb or fingers almost constantly.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Methods of giving food to humans or animals.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The killing of infants at birth or soon after.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Performance of complex motor acts.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
A syndrome of persistent PULMONARY HYPERTENSION in the newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN) without demonstrable HEART DISEASES. This neonatal condition can be caused by severe pulmonary vasoconstriction (reactive type), hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle (hypertrophic type), or abnormally developed pulmonary arterioles (hypoplastic type). The newborn patient exhibits CYANOSIS and ACIDOSIS due to the persistence of fetal circulatory pattern of right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus (DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, PATENT) and at times a patent foramen ovale (FORAMEN OVALE, PATENT).
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Male parents, human or animal.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
An infant born at or after 42 weeks of gestation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

Alternate child care, history of hospitalization, and preschool child behavior. (1/4443)

BACKGROUND: With more single mothers entering the workforce due to welfare reform efforts, more hospitalized children from single-parent families will have experienced alternate child care arrangements where routine care is provided by adults other than the child's mother. OBJECTIVES: To investigate with secondary analysis of data whether experience with alternate child care has a moderating effect on the relationship between hospitalization and behavior of preschool children living in female-headed single-parent families. METHOD: A sample of 60 preterm and 61 full-term children who were 3, 4, or 5 years old was recruited for the larger longitudinal study. Behavior problems were measured with the Child Behavior Checklist. History of hospitalization and alternate child care arrangements were measured with the Life History Calendar. RESULTS: Preschool children who experienced hospitalization without alternate child care experience had more somatic complaints, but those with both hospital and alternate child care experience had fewer aggressive behaviors than other children. For children with a history of hospitalization, aggressive behaviors decreased as the proportion of the child's life in alternate child care increased. CONCLUSIONS: Experience with alternate child care may ameliorate some of the negative effects of hospitalization, and potentially other novel and negative experiences, for preschool children. This could be due to child care providing positive experiences with separation from the mother, a peer group with which to talk about the novel experience, or actual instruction about the novel experience.  (+info)

Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. (2/4443)

BACKGROUND: A short interval between pregnancies has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. Whether that association is due to confounding by other risk factors, such as maternal age, socioeconomic status, and reproductive history, is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the interpregnancy interval in relation to low birth weight, preterm birth, and small size for gestational age by analyzing data from the birth certificates of 173,205 singleton infants born alive to multiparous mothers in Utah from 1989 to 1996. RESULTS: Infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a previous live birth had the lowest risks of adverse perinatal outcomes; shorter and longer interpregnancy intervals were associated with higher risks. These associations persisted when the data were stratified according to and controlled for 16 biologic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. As compared with infants conceived 18 to 23 months after a live birth, infants conceived less than 6 months after a live birth had odds ratios of 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.6) for low birth weight, 1.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.5) for preterm birth, and 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 1.4) for small size for gestational age; infants conceived 120 months or more after a live birth had odds ratios of 2.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 2.4);1.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 1.7), and 1.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.0) for these three adverse outcomes, respectively, when we controlled for all 16 risk factors with logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal interpregnancy interval for preventing adverse perinatal outcomes is 18 to 23 months.  (+info)

The biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light. (3/4443)

Each year more than 250,000 infants in the United States are exposed to artificial lighting in hospital nurseries with little consideration given to environmental lighting cycles. Essential in determining whether environmental lighting cycles need to be considered in hospital nurseries is identifying when the infant's endogenous circadian clock becomes responsive to light. Using a non-human primate model of the developing human, we examined when the circadian clock, located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), becomes responsive to light. Preterm infant baboons of different ages were exposed to light (5,000 lux) at night, and then changes in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were assessed. After exposure to bright light at night, robust increases in SCN metabolic activity and gene expression were seen at ages that were equivalent to human infants at 24 weeks after conception. These data provide direct evidence that the biological clock of very premature primate infants is responsive to light.  (+info)

Leucine metabolism in preterm infants receiving parenteral nutrition with medium-chain compared with long-chain triacylglycerol emulsions. (4/4443)

BACKGROUND: Although medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) may be utilized more efficiently than long-chain triacylglycerols (LCTs), their effect on protein metabolism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to compare the effects of mixed MCT-LCT and pure LCT emulsions on leucine metabolism in preterm infants. DESIGN: Fourteen preterm [gestational age: 30+/-1 wk; birth weight: 1409+/-78 g (x +/- SE)] neonates were randomly assigned to receive, from the first day of life, either a 50:50 MCT-LCT (mixed MCT group; n = 7) or an LCT (LCT group; n = 7) lipid emulsion as part of an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic total parenteral nutrition program. On the fourth day, infants received intravenous feeding providing 3 g lipid, 15 g glucose, and 3 g amino acids kg(-1) x d(-1) and underwent 1) indirect calorimetry and 2) a primed, 2-h infusion of H13CO3Na to assess the recovery of 13C in breath, immediately followed by 3) a 3-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. RESULTS: The respiratory quotient tended to be slightly but not significantly higher in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (0.96+/-0.06 compared with 0.93+/-0.03). We did not detect a significant difference between the mixed MCT and LCT groups with regard to release of leucine from protein breakdown (B; 309+/-40 compared with 257+/-46 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and nonoxidative leucine disposal (NOLD; 296+/-36 compared with 285+/-49 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1)). In contrast, leucine oxidation was greater in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (113+/-10 compared with 67+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.007). Net leucine balance (NOLD - B) was less positive in the mixed MCT than in the LCT group (-14+/-9 compared with 28+/-10 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1); P = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Mixed MCTs may not be as effective as LCT-containing emulsions in promoting protein accretion in parenterally fed preterm neonates.  (+info)

Hyaline membrane disease, alkali, and intraventricular haemorrhage. (5/4443)

The relation between intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) and hyaline membrane disease (HMD) was studied in singletons that came to necropsy at Hammersmith Hospital over the years 1966-73. The incidence of IVH in singleton live births was 3-22/1000 and of HMD 4-44/1000. Although the high figures were partily due to the large number of low birthweight infants born at this hospital, the incidence of IVH in babies weighing 1001-1500 g was three times as great as that reported in the 1658 British Perinatal Mortality Survey. Most IVH deaths were in babies with HMD, but the higher frequency of IVH was not associated with any prolongation of survival time of babies who died with HMD as compared with the 1958 survey. IVH was seen frequently at gestations of up to 36 weeks in babies with HMD but was rare above 30 weeks' gestation in babies without HMD. This indicated that factors associated with HMD must cause most cases of IVH seen at gestations above 30 weeks. Comparison of clinical details in infants with HMD who died with or without IVH (at gestations of 30-37 weeks) showed no significant differences between the groups other than a high incidence of fits and greater use of alkali therapy in the babies with IVH. During the 12 hours when most alkali therapy was given, babies dying with IVD received a mean total alkali dosage of 10-21 mmol/kg and those dying without IVH 6-34 mmol/kg (P less than 0-001). There was no difference in severity of hypoxia or of metabolic acidosis between the 2 groups. Babies who died with HMD and germinal layer haemorrhage (GLH) without IVH had received significantly more alkali than those who died with HMD alone, whereas survivors of severe respiratory distress syndrome had received lower alkali doses than other groups. It is suggested that the greatly increased death rate from IVH in babies with HMD indicates some alteration of management of HMD (since 1958) as a causative factor. Liberal use of hypertonic alkali solutions is the common factor which distinguishes babies dying with GLH and IVH from other groups of babies with HMD. Although the causal nature of this association remains unproved, it seems justifiable to lrge caution in alkali usage.  (+info)

Early inhaled glucocorticoid therapy to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. (6/4443)

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of inhaled glucocorticoid therapy for asthma stimulated its use in infants to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We tested the hypothesis that early therapy with inhaled glucocorticoids would decrease the frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, multicenter trial of inhaled beclomethasone or placebo in 253 infants, 3 to 14 days old, born before 33 weeks of gestation and weighing 1250 g or less at birth, who required ventilation therapy. Beclomethasone was delivered in a decreasing dosage, from 40 to 5 microg per kilogram of body weight per day, for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 28 days of age. Secondary outcomes included bronchopulmonary dysplasia at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age, the need for systemic glucocorticoid therapy, the need for bronchodilator therapy, the duration of respiratory support, and death. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three infants received beclomethasone, and 130 received placebo. The frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was similar in the two groups: 43 percent in the beclomethasone group and 45 percent in the placebo group at 28 days of age, and 18 percent in the beclomethasone group and 20 percent in the placebo group at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. At 28 days of age, fewer infants in the beclomethasone group than in the placebo group were receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.0) and mechanical ventilation (relative risk, 0.8; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Early beclomethasone therapy did not prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia but was associated with lower rates of use of systemic glucocorticoid therapy and mechanical ventilation.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of low dose fentanyl infusion in preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease. (7/4443)

AIM: To evaluate the effects of low dose fentanyl infusion analgesia on behavioural and neuroendocrine stress response and short term outcome in premature infants ventilated for hyaline membrane disease. METHODS: Twenty seven ventilated preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive a mean fentanyl infusion of 1.1 (0.08 SE) micrograms/kg/h for 75 (5) hours, and 28 untreated infants were considered a control group. A behavioural sedation score was used to assess the infants' behaviour. Urinary metanephrine and the normetanephrine:creatinine molar ratio were determined at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Outcome data and ventilatory indexes were recorded for each infant. RESULTS: The fentanyl group showed significantly lower behavioural stress scores and O2 desaturations than controls and lower urinary concentrations of metanephrine and normetanephrine at 24, 48, 72 hours. The two groups showed no significant difference in ventilatory variables or short term outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A short course of low dose fentanyl infusion reduces behavioural sedation scores, O2 desaturations and neuroendocrine stress response in preterm ventilated infants.  (+info)

Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm infants. (8/4443)

AIM: To assess the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in preterm and term infants, given in a sequence of three doses beginning soon after birth. METHOD: The immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine was assessed in 176 preterm infants (< 35 weeks of gestation), immunised soon after birth, and compared with that in 46 term infants. Titres of hepatitis B antibodies were determined one to two months after the third vaccine. The significance of the differences between the term and preterm groups was determined using Student's t test. RESULTS: A similar proportion of infants in both preterm and term groups attained protective titres of hepatitis B antibodies (88.7% vs 93.4%, respectively; p = NS). However, the term infants had a higher geometric mean titre of antibodies after the third vaccine than did the preterm infants (701.2 (745.0) vs 469.1 (486.2) mU/ml, respectively; p < 0.03). CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine is effective in most preterm infants when given soon after birth. It may be advisable to determine the immune response at 12-24 months of age to booster the non-responders.  (+info)

Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors.
Background Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) is an important factor to consider in the care of late preterm infants (born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation). The literature suggests that SSC between preterm infants and their mothers facilitates breastfeeding. However, more studies are needed to explore potential dose-response effects between SSC and breastfeeding as well as studies that explicitly investigate SSC by fathers among late preterm infants. The aim was to investigate the duration of healthy late preterm infants SSC with the mother and father, respectively, during the first 48 h after birth and the associations with breastfeeding (exclusive/partial at discharged), clinical and demographic variables. Methods This was an observational cohort study in which parents to healthy late preterm infants, born between 34 5/7 and 36 6/7 completed weeks of gestation, recorded duration of SSC provided by mother and father, respectively. Demographic and clinical variables were retrieved from
This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed by a tactile discrimination task in the opposite hand. The results confirmed that habituation occurred for both shapes and both hands. Infants subsequently held the novel shape longer in the opposite hand. The results reveal that preterm infants are capable of intermanual transfer of shape information. In spite of the immaturity of the corpus callosum in preterm infants, its development seems to be sufficient to allow some transfer of information between both hands. ...
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OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between breastfeeding support and breastfeeding among late preterm (gestation 34-36 weeks) and term (gestation ≥37 weeks) infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the UK 2010 Infant Feeding Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of breastfeeding support with breastfeeding at 10 days and 6 weeks in late preterm and term infants. RESULTS: The study included 14,525 term and 579 late preterm infants. A total of 11,729 infants initiated breastfeeding (11,292 (81.1%) term, 437 (79.4%) late preterm infants, p=0.425). Of these, 9230 (84.3%) term and 365 (85.6%) late preterm infants were breastfeeding at 10 days (p=0.586); of these 7547 (82.0%) term and 281 (75.4%) late preterm infants were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks (p=0.012). Mothers who reported receiving contact details for breastfeeding support groups had a higher likelihood of breastfeeding late preterm (adjusted ORs, aOR 3.14, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.04) and term infants (aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.86
Many premature infants are resilient and surprise everyone by overcoming great odds. Expect that your infant can progress for several days but may then have a medical setback.. Premature infants are more likely than others to get an infection. And organs that have not had time to mature can cause a number of problems.. The more premature a newborn is, the greater is the babys risk of having medical problems.. Infants born at 23 to 26 weeks gestation are extremely underdeveloped and have a much higher risk of death or disability. Parents of these infants are likely to be faced with difficult medical decisions. Infants who have reached their 32nd week of development before birth are less at risk than those who are born earlier.. Babies born at 34 to almost 37 weeks gestation are called late preterm infants. Although they are not as likely to have as many problems as infants who are born earlier, they are at risk for breathing problems, high blood pressure in the lungs, and other short-term and ...
Other terms often used for prematurity are preterm and preemie. Many premature babies also weigh less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) and may be referred to as low birthweight (LBW).. Premature infants born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are often called late preterm or near-term infants. Late preterm infants are often much larger than very premature infants but may only be slightly smaller than full-term infants.. Late preterm babies usually appear healthy at birth but may have more difficulties adapting than full-term babies. Because of their smaller size, they may have trouble maintaining their body temperature. They often have difficulty with breastfeeding and bottle feeding, and may need to eat more frequently. They usually require more sleep and may even sleep through a feeding, which means they miss much-needed calories.. Late preterm infants may also have breathing difficulties, although these are often identified before the infants go home from the hospital. These infants are also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hierarchical maturation of innate immune defences in very preterm neonates. AU - Sharma, Ashish Arunkumar. AU - Jen, Roger. AU - Brant, Rollin. AU - Ladd, Mihoko. AU - Huang, Qing. AU - Skoll, Amanda. AU - Senger, Christof. AU - Turvey, Stuart E.. AU - Marr, Nico. AU - Lavoie, Pascal M.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: Preterm neonates are highly vulnerable to infection. Objectives: To investigate the developmental contribution of prematurity, chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids (ANS) on the maturation of neonatal microbial pathogen recognition responses. Methods: Using standardized protocols, we assayed multiple inflammatory cytokine responses (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-12/23p40) to three prototypic Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, i.e. TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide), TLR5 (flagellin) and TLR7/8 (R848), and to the non-TLR retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor agonist, in cord blood mononuclear cells from neonates born before 33 weeks of gestation ...
Our study used a VBM technique to investigate the regional distribution of GM and WM volume reductions and their relationship with cognitive outcome in a sample of preterm children with low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits. We demonstrated that preterm children at low risk are characterized by the presence of regional cortical GM volume reductions unilaterally in the parietal lobe and bilaterally in the temporal lobe, which correlated strongly with IQ. Preterm children also showed WM volume reductions that were concomitant with the GM loss in the parietal and temporal regions.. In contrast to previous studies of preterm children at high risk, which demonstrated decreases in total cerebral volumes,11,15,34,35 our preterm children had only reduced total GM volume. MRI studies reported abnormalities in several WM brain areas, including all lobes, associative tracts, and the corpus callosum, in preterm children and adolescents.36-38 Contrary to these findings, the absence of major WM impairment ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, ,1500 g) are at increased risk of cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed General Movement Assessment. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. ...
Preterm Infants: Transition to Home and Follow-up focuses on discharge management, transition to home and postdischarge issues for preterm infants and their families. The module emphasizes incorporating family-centered care principles into nursing practice to enhance parental confidence and competence. The module focuses on preterm infants, including infants discharged on medications, infants requiring short-term technological support (such as cardiorespiratory monitors and oxygen) and late preterm infants. Many late preterm infants are not admitted to the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) but are cared for in mother-baby units or low-risk nurseries. Nurses can use this module to learn and expand discharge planning skills. Approval Information This course was developed by the March of Dimes, which will provide the contact hours and process the continuing education tests. The March of Dimes is an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the New York State Nurses Association, an
Introduction: This article aimed to review the literatures on visual impairments and ocular changes in premature infants with low birth weight and gestational age.Methods: Five electronic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Ovid, and Scopus were searched. Original articles published until 2015 describing preterm infants were reviewed. Repetitive and derivative articles were excluded.Results: Out of 100 unique, potentially relevant articles, 42 studies that addressed and met the inclusion criteria were evaluated.Conclusion: Prematurity affects ocular structures (from anterior to posterior segment) and functions. Premature infants are at risk of myopization. Concerning the changes in premature infants, a significant increase is found in axial length, intraocular pressure, and central corneal thickness; moreover, high incidence of retinal changes is reported as a result of prematurity. On the other hand, visual acuity, tear, electroretinogram, and visual evoked potential responses
Aims: To determine in a case-control study possible associations between the development of acute renal failure in preterm newborns and therapeutic interventions, particularly drug treatments.. Methods: The study population was 172 preterm infants of ,38 weeks gestation; 71 had acute renal failure and 101 were controls closely matched for gestational age and birth weight. Maternal and neonatal information was collected for both groups through questionnaires and interviews. Routine data on renal variables were also collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.. Results: Very low birthweight infants were at high risk of acute renal failure (79% of cases were ,1500 g). However, the acute renal failure was transient. Mothers of infants with acute renal failure received more drugs during pregnancy and delivery (mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Of the possible therapeutic interventions, intubation, catheterisation, and phototherapy ...
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers filed the result that Nine trials met the inclusion criteria, eight compared vitamin A supplementation with a control (1291 infants), and one compared different regimens (120 infants). Compared to the control group, vitamin A appears to be beneficial in reducing death or oxygen requirement at one month of age (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01; NNTB 20, 95% CI 10 to 100; 1165 infants) and oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01; NNTB 13, 95% CI 7 to 100; 824 infants). A trend towards a reduction in death or oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age was also noted (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00; 1001 infants). Neurodevelopmental assessment of 88% of surviving infants in the largest trial showed no differences between the groups at 18 to 22 months of age, corrected for prematurity. The different dosage vitamin A ...
An accurate estimate of postconceptional age is required because features in the EEG vary with the age of the newborn. Postconceptional age is defined as gestational age (in weeks) plus the number of ... more
The incidence of preterm birth (at less than 32 weeks of gestation) is estimated at 1-2% of all live births. In Switzerland, over the last ten years, approximately 782 preterm infants per year have been born between 23 and 32 weeks of gestation. Owing to improved neonatal intensive care, the number of very preterm infants surviving into childhood is rising. Indeed, the survival of those extremely low birth weight infants has been increasing over the last decade, especially for the preterm infants born below 26 weeks of gestation. Premature infants are, however, extremely vulnerable to brain injury. Five to 10% of the survivors develop cerebral palsy, and 40-50% develop cognitive and behavioural deficits. Hence, brain injury and its consequences in preterm infants is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Another population at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment are the infants with congenital heart disease. These infants are known to have a wide range of developmental and neurological ...
where to buy Warm Winter clothing premature infants in UK there is nothing worse than seeing a premature infant girls little legs have a mottled pattern on them due to being too cold.Some tights are just not small enough or for premature babies because they are way too baggy on slender legs. for widest range of winter premature baby tights …Continue reading →. ...
where to buy Warm Winter clothing premature infants in UK there is nothing worse than seeing a premature infant girls little legs have a mottled pattern on them due to being too cold.Some tights are just not small enough or for premature babies because they are way too baggy on slender legs. for widest range of winter premature baby tights …Continue reading →. ...
This is the first in-depth study of initial experiences of parents of their very preterm baby and NICU. Results show that parents have difficulty remembering aspects of the birth and experience a rollercoaster of emotions during this time. Individual differences in emotions were most apparent between the birth and seeing their baby in NICU when parents were either nervous and fearful, or eager and excited. NICU was initially overpowering for parents, especially those who had not visited it previously or who saw their baby for the very first time there. However, being able to touch and hold the baby in NICU was important in triggering or strengthening the bond between parents and their baby. Parents who are anxious and avoidant of initial contact with the NICU or their baby are at risk of poor attachment and mental health26 therefore parents need help to overcome this. Interestingly, a few first-time parents appeared to be protected by their inexperience of a normal birth and reported ...
Overview Quick Details Type:blender for premature infant Brand Name:MSL Model Number:MSLGZ09 Product name:air oxygen blender for premature infant Feature:Durable Function:blender for premature infant Certificate:CE ISO Material:Muti Material Color:White Name:Neonate air oxygen blender for premature infant Application:P
With advances in medicine and medical technology, premature infants born as early as 24 weeks of gestation and with birth weight less than 1000 grams are surviving today. Preterms are born with immature biological systems. Given their biological vulnerabilities, preterm infants are at risk for a variety of health and developmental problems.. As a group, preterms show developmental delays in physical growth, motor skills, attention, social communicative skills, intelligence, language, academic performance, and later behavior problems. Furthermore, research indicates that preterms are difficult social partners for their parents.. Despite biological insults and relational difficulties, research also shows that the development of premature infants appears to be facilitated by sensitive and responsive parenting. Little attention, however, has been paid to understand the social risks faced by preterm infants.. The proposed research, therefore, is designed to:. ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The accurate identification of white matter injury in premature neonates is important for counseling parents and for targeting these high risk neonates for appropriate rehabilitation services. The objective of this study was to compare the diagnosis of white matter injury detected by serial MR imaging and ultrasonography of a contemporary cohort of premature neonates.. METHODS: Each of the 32 consecutively enrolled neonates was studied with MR imaging at a median postconceptional age of 31.9 weeks (range, 27.6-38.1 weeks) and again at a median postconceptional age of 36.5 weeks (range, 33.4-42.9 weeks) and with serial ultrasonography according to a clinical protocol. Because periventricular echogenicity shown on ultrasonograms evolves over time, both the highest grade of echogenicity and the grade of echogenicity shown on the last neonatal ultrasonogram were used in the analysis to determine the predictive values and correlation (Spearmans rho) of ultrasonography for ...
IMPORTANCE: Active perinatal care increases survival of extremely preterm infants; however, improved survival might be associated with increased disability among survivors.. OBJECTIVE: To determine neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm children at 2.5 years (corrected age).. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based prospective cohort of consecutive extremely preterm infants born before 27 weeks of gestation in Sweden between 2004 and 2007. Of 707 live-born infants, 491 (69%) survived to 2.5 years. Survivors were assessed and compared with singleton control infants who were born at term and matched by sex, ethnicity, and municipality. Assessments ended in February 2010 and comparison estimates were adjusted for demographic differences. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Cognitive, language, and motor development was assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition; Bayley-lll), which are standardized to mean (SD) scores of 100 (15). Clinical examination and ...
Chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in very premature infants has been associated with mechanical ventilation and relative adrenal insufficiency.. This multicenter clinical trial tested whether minimal ventilation decreases death or BPD. Infants with birth weight 501g to 1000g and mechanically ventilated before 12 hours were randomly assigned to minimal ventilation (partial pressure of carbon dioxide [PCO(2)] target ,52 mm Hg) or routine ventilation (PCO(2) target ,48 mm Hg) and a tapered dexamethasone course or saline placebo for 10 days, using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The primary outcome was death or BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Blood gases, ventilator settings, and FiO2 were recorded for 10 days; complications and outcomes were monitored to discharge.. The trial was terminated by the Steering Committee when the interim analysis for the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee showed a higher rate of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforations in the ...
The increasing survival rate of premature infants has led to an increase in long term ocular problems, such as ROP and its sequelae-refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia.4-22,30,31. Myopia is a common finding in premature infants, and its incidence increases with lower gestational age and the severity of ROP.15-25,28-33 Holmström et al8 pointed out that even in premature infants without ROP, the risk of myopia and anisometropia is higher than in full term infants: the overall incidence of myopia in their preterm babies was 8% at the corrected age of 6 months and 10% at 30 months. The rate of occurrence of myopia was higher in eyes with ROP than eyes without, and higher in the more premature infants.. Choi et al15 and Lue et al19 reported that in premature infants, myopia begins to appear at 6 months of age and increases in severity between ages 6 months and 3 years. Eyes with ROP are more susceptible to a dramatic change in refractive status after 6 months of age, with no further ...
When monitoring growth and development in the premature infant, physicians should make adjustments for the estimated due date. With minor exceptions, administration of immunizations is based on the chronologic age. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be delayed until the infant weighs 2,000 g (4 lb, 5 oz). Administration of influenza vaccine should be considered in infants with chronic medical problems, and the pneumococcal vaccine may be beneficial at age two in children with chronic problems, especially pulmonary disease. Premature infants should also be monitored to assure appropriate nutrition. Breast-fed infants should probably receive vitamin supplements during the first year. Supplemental iron should be initiated at two weeks to two months after birth and continued for 12 to 15 months. Office care includes screening for problems that occur more frequently in premature infants, especially vision and hearing problems. Because many of these infants require care from multiple medical
Cerebral MRI performed on preterm infants at term-equivalent 30 weeks gestational age (GA) is increasingly performed as part of standard clinical care. We evaluated safety of these early MRI procedures. We retrospectively collected data
After the Data Monitoring Committees review Infant Bacterial Therapeutics expands the enrollment criteria of The Connection Study to include 500 - 1000 gram birth weight premature infants. The Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) has performed a per protocol predefined safety and tolerability assessment of the first 300 patients included in the study. The review is now complete and the DMC has no objections to the continuation of the Connection Study and expansion of the enrolment criteria from 750 to 1000 grams to include 500 to 1000 gram birth weight premature infants. All participating hospitals will be informed immediately of this change. The possibility to recruit infants in the 500 to 749 gram interval adds a significant number of patients eligible for inclusion into the Connection Study. The DMC is an independent group of experts who monitor patient safety and treatment efficacy data while a clinical trial is ongoing.
Although it is likely that a larger sample would have improved the precision of the extreme centiles at low gestational ages, those that are close to the median would not be expected to change much.. Hence, the INTERGROWTH-21st Preterm Postnatal Growth Standards are a robust tool for monitoring the growth of more than 90% of preterm infants who are born at ≥32 weeks gestation. This is presently relevant because these preterm infants are now recognized to be at high risk of short- and long-term complications and because the increasing rate of preterm births observed in many countries (associated with infertility treatments) is mostly caused by an increase in moderate and late preterm births.39. The diagnosis of extrauterine growth restriction for preterm infants when they reach term-corrected age should, therefore, be reserved for those who fail to follow the growth patterns (ie, below 2 SDs or a given centile) of their preterm counterparts in these standards, rather than the growth patterns ...
Thermoregulation. Preterm infants are not able to maintain their body temperature without an external heat source. Initially, heat will be provided with an overhead warmer that responds to the babys temperature and provides adequate warmth to maintain a normal body temperature. The warmer provides easy access to the baby for necessary cares during the early, unstable period. When more stable, the baby will be moved into an incubator to maintain a warm environment. Most infants are able to move into an open crib at a weight of approximately 1,800 grams.. Nutrition. Initially, premature infants are given all the necessary fluid, calories, protein, sugar, and fat in their veins. When their condition stabilizes, a feeding tube into their stomachs can start. The amount of feeds starts at a very low level, and it is advanced slowly over 3 to 7 days to full feeds. At this point, the infant no longer needs fluids or nutrition into their veins. Once full feeds are achieved, anticipated rates of ...
Thermoregulation. Preterm infants are not able to maintain their body temperature without an external heat source. Initially, heat will be provided with an overhead warmer that responds to the babys temperature and provides adequate warmth to maintain a normal body temperature. The warmer provides easy access to the baby for necessary cares during the early, unstable period. When more stable, the baby will be moved into an incubator to maintain a warm environment. Most infants are able to move into an open crib at a weight of approximately 1,800 grams.. Nutrition. Initially, premature infants are given all the necessary fluid, calories, protein, sugar, and fat in their veins. When their condition stabilizes, a feeding tube into their stomachs can start. The amount of feeds starts at a very low level, and it is advanced slowly over 3 to 7 days to full feeds. At this point, the infant no longer needs fluids or nutrition into their veins. Once full feeds are achieved, anticipated rates of ...
Thermoregulation. Preterm infants are not able to maintain their body temperature without an external heat source. Initially, heat will be provided with an overhead warmer that responds to the babys temperature and provides adequate warmth to maintain a normal body temperature. The warmer provides easy access to the baby for necessary cares during the early, unstable period. When more stable, the baby will be moved into an incubator to maintain a warm environment. Most infants are able to move into an open crib at a weight of approximately 1,800 grams.. Nutrition. Initially, premature infants are given all the necessary fluid, calories, protein, sugar, and fat in their veins. When their condition stabilizes, a feeding tube into their stomachs can start. The amount of feeds starts at a very low level, and it is advanced slowly over 3 to 7 days to full feeds. At this point, the infant no longer needs fluids or nutrition into their veins. Once full feeds are achieved, anticipated rates of ...
The aim of this project was to standardise the data collection for very preterm infants, across 10 regions in Europe, for the total cohort of 22 + 0 to 31 + 6-week infants. One major issue was the heterogeneity of outcomes of pregnancy for very preterm births that should be considered separately in order to develop a logical system of reporting to facilitate both intra-national and international comparisons.9 For example, in the MOSAIC regions policies and practices for congenital anomalies screening and termination of pregnancies varied and some MOSAIC regions had a higher proportion of terminations of pregnancy for congenital anomalies in the very preterm births cohort: 17.6% in France and 14.7% in Italy. These different practices and their impact on the rates of termination of pregnancy have been explored elsewhere.10 We suggest that terminations of pregnancy for major congenital anomalies be reported separately and excluded from comparisons of pregnancy outcomes between countries to allow ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indices of glucose homeostasis in cord blood in term and preterm newborns. AU - Ahmad, Afzal. AU - Rukmini, M. S.. AU - Yadav, Charu. AU - Agarwal, Ashish. AU - Manjrekar, Poornima A.. AU - Hegde, Anupama. PY - 2016/9/1. Y1 - 2016/9/1. N2 - Objective: According to the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, intrauterine malnutrition has a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. This study was planned to determine the early alterations in indices of glucose homeostasis (glucose, insulin, and cortisol) in term and preterm newborns and the correlations of glucose, insulin, and cortisol levels with insulin resistance indices. Methods: A descriptive study comprising 35 term and 35 preterm newborns was carried out from December 2013 to June 2015. Venous cord blood was collected and plasma glucose was analyzed by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method in an auto analyzer. Serum insulin and cortisol levels were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Homeostasis model assessment of ...
Background and Objective: Due to its numerous health benefits, breast milk (BM) is recommended for preterm infants. Despite such recommendations, the rates of breastfeeding in preterm infants are lower than that in term infants. Quality improvement (QI) bundles increase breastfeeding in preterm infants, but their replication in neonatal intensive care units has had inconsistent outcomes.Methods: We used the Population or Problem, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes (PICO) framework to develop our search strategy, and searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception through January 15, 2021. Studies describing any active QI intervention to increase BM use in preterm infants were included. The primary outcome measure was the rate of any breastfeeding or exclusive mothers own milk (MOM) at discharge or during hospitalization.Results: Sixteen studies were eligible for inclusion and showed an acceptable risk of bias, and included 1 interrupted time series, study 3 controlled before-and
Purpose: : To study the natural history and the major risk factors of ROP among the infants in Taiwan. Methods: : A prospective natural history study of ROP was performed for all premature infants from June 2010 to July 2011 at our childrens hospital. Patients were screened with birth weight (BW) less than 1500 grams or gestational age (GA) less than 32 weeks or selected infants with BW more than 1500 grams or GA more than 32 weeks with an unstable clinical course, including those requiring cardiorespiratory support and who are believed to be high risk by their pediatrician. The incidence of advanced ROP, the need for laser, Bevacizumab, or vitrectomy treatment was documented. The associated risk factors for the development of ROP were recorded. Results: : We enrolled 223 premature infants, and 98 infants (44%) developed ROP. The mean gestational age (GA) was 29.2 ± 3.0 (range 28-36) weeks and the mean BW was 1247.0 ± 441.5 (range 700-2705) grams. The incidence of ROP among BW more and less ...
Preterm delivery (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In recent years the birth weight of premature babies has been found to be an important determinant of outcome, such that preterm birth is no longer defined solely by gestational age but also in terms of a birth weight below 2500 g. The main focus has been on preterm infants with a birth weight below 2000 g, who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality. The costs of neonatal care for infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestation (birth weight below 2000 g) rise exponentially as gestational age decreases and rise further with birth weights below 1000 g.1. Advances in neonatal practice have improved the chances of survival for preterm infants with a very low birth weight.2 However, low birthweight infants are still at a higher risk of neurodevelopmental morbidity than preterm infants with a higher birth weight and, as a group, incur notable social and healthcare ...
Extremely premature (birth weight < 1250 g) infants are at high risk for acquiring late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis, which are associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Own mothers milk contains protective (immune and trophic) biofactors which provide antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory functions, enhance intestinal microbiota, and promote intestinal maturation. Many of these biofactors are most highly concentrated in the milk expressed by mothers of extremely premature infants. However, since extremely premature infants do not receive oral milk feeds until 32 weeks post-conceptional age, they lack the potential benefit provided by milk (biofactor) exposure to oropharyngeal immunocompetent cells, and this deficiency could contribute to late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Therefore, oropharyngeal administration of own mothers milk may improve the health outcomes of these infants. To compare the effects of oropharyngeal
Healthy preterm infants who have reached a PMA of 60 weeks can be sent home on standard discharge criteria if the Anaesthetist and Surgeon agree. For term infants between 46-60 weeks PMA there is currently no consensus as to whether or not these infants need overnight apnoea monitoring. At RCH it is at the discretion of the Anaesthetist, in discussion with the Surgeon whether an infant of 46-60 weeks PMA warrants admission or an extended stay for post-operative apnoea monitoring. An extended period of stay allows the patient to receive post-operative apnoea monitoring in Day of Surgery for a shorter period than 12 hours. This enables the patient to have several sleep wake cycles while receiving apnoea monitoring. The Anaesthetist will then review the patient later in the day and determine to send the patient home if there have been no clinically significant apnoeas or other issues. Any infant who has had a clinically significant apnoea in the postoperative period should be admitted for overnight ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A hearing screening in very low birth weight preterm infants by auditory brainstem response. AU - Wu, J. L.. AU - Huang, C. C.. AU - Kao, C. C.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Background: ABR has been used as an objective, non-invasive tool to screen neonatal deafness. In this article, we evaluated the prevalence of deafness in VLBW preterm newborns by ABR, and attempted to search for a suitable failed/passed criterion. Methods: ABR screening test was performed in 88 VLBW preterm newborns. The infants whose threshold was ≤ 35dB nHL were classified as Group A; those whose threshold was ≤ 25dB nHL were classified as Group B. All of the newborns of either Group A or Group B received the successive ABR screening test and behavioral audiometry to confirm whether they have hearing impairment or not. Results: Fourteen newborns (16%) were included in Group A and 19 newborns (22%) in Group B. There were five newborns who belonged to Group B, but not to Group A; all of them were found ...
Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age,
TY - THES. T1 - Dysphonia in very preterm children: prevalence, presentation, influencing factors and response to treatment. AU - Reynolds, Mary Victoria. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - IntroductionDysphonia is a potential long-term outcome of extreme prematurity and has been linked with female gender, multiple intubations, extremely low birth weight, birth at ,27 weeks gestation, complicated intubation procedure and surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (Chapter 2). Dysphonia in extremely preterm children may be persistent (Chapter 3). The aforementioned risk factors may also be experienced following very preterm birth, yet systematic investigations of voice outcomes in very preterm children are lacking.AimsThis thesis presents the prevalence of dysphonia in very preterm children aged between 6 and 12 years old in Western Australia, with reference to a term-born comparison group recruited from the same community (Chapters 6 and 7). Demographic and medical data were abstracted from medical ...
BACKGROUND: Infections acquired in hospital are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. Several small trials have suggested that supplementing the enteral diet of very preterm infants with lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein processed from cows milk, prevents infections and associated complications. The aim of this large randomised controlled trial was to collect data to enhance the validity and applicability of the evidence from previous trials to inform practice. METHODS: In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, we recruited very preterm infants born before 32 weeks gestation in 37 UK hospitals and younger than 72 h at randomisation. Exclusion criteria were presence of a severe congenital anomaly, anticipated enteral fasting for longer than 14 days, or no realistic prospect of survival. Eligible infants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either enteral bovine lactoferrin (150 mg/kg per day; maximum 300 mg/day; lactoferrin group) or sucrose (same dose;
Objective: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a severe common complication of preterm birth with considerable short and long-term consequences. As more evidence is emerging that dysregulation of angiogenesis is implicated in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia as well as in fetal lung development, we assessed if preeclampsia is associated with development of BPD in very preterm neonates. Study design: A retrospective cohort study of 308 infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestation in 2011 and 2012. We performed association analysis with univariable and multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for confounders. Models were additionally adjusted for intermediates, to show how an association can be disguised by over adjusting. Main outcome measure: BPD was diagnosed at 36+0 weeks postmenstrual age and defined as the need for oxygen (FiO2 , 0.21) for at least 12 h per day, for more than 28 days before or at 36+0 weeks postmenstrual age, and classified as mild, moderate or severe. Results: ...
Acute kidney injury is a sudden loss of renal function that results in deterioration of the renals ability to excrete urine in sufficient quantity and adequate composition. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute kidney injury in preterm newborns. The study was conducted at the University Clinic of Pediatrics-Skopje. It was a clinical, epidemiological prospective study. In the period of two years, 40 preterm newborns hospitalized at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with documented kidney injury were analyzed. Medical data records of hospitalized preterm infants with kidney injury were processed. The material was statistically analyzed using methods of descriptive statistics. We evaluated 40 preterm newborns with documented acute kidney injury, who at the period of 2 years were treated in the ICU. The prevalence of kidney injury was 6.9%. Most of the involved preterm newborns were male (72%), and born at 32 to 37 weeks with low birth weight (58%). ...
BACKGROUND The respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in premature newborns has been etiologically correlated to immature lungs and specifically with surfactant deficiency. Exogenous administration of surfactant is nowadays considered to be the treatment of choice. In this paper we attempt a comparison of clinical results from the administration of natural Alveofact and synthetic Exosurf surfactants in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS The study subjects were 92 premature newborns who had been hospitalized in the Department of Neonatology, of the University of Crete. A total of 42 subjects received synthetic surfactant and 50 subjects received natural surfactant. The surfactant was administered in one to three doses, depending on respiratory support requirements. RESULTS The time of administration was a little longer for the natural surfactant group. The duration of mechanical ventilatory support, requiring oxygen, the duration of hospitalization and the percentage of
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IVH is one of the most common complications in premature infants, and can cause long-term disability, cerebral palsy, mental retardation, seizures, behavioral and cognitive impairment, and death [31,32]. Studies have shown that the immature antioxidant system of the preterm infant can cause damage to the endothelial cells and alter brain hemostasis, can increase the susceptibility to reactive oxygen species, and, finally, increase the risk for IVH [33-35], Furthermore, studies have shown that approximately one third of cerebral palsy cases and IVH occur in premature infants [36]. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta-analysis study was designed to investigate the effect of antenatal MgSO4 on IVH in premature infants.. The results of our study indicate that although MgSO4 had a protective effect on IVH, this effect is not statistically significant (pooled RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.63 to 1.03). Although studies have shown MgSO4 being used for the first time in obstetric practice, there is a ...
Change in facial expression over a fixed time after a noxious stimulus is the key measure used to calculate pain scores in preterm and newborn infants. We hypothesised that the latency of facial motor responses would be longer in the youngest premature infants and that behavioural scoring methods of pain may need to take this into account. One hundred and seventy-two clinically required heel lances were performed in 95 infants from 25 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Sixty-four percentage of the heel lances evoked a change in facial expression. Change in facial expression was observed in infants across the whole age range from 25 weeks PMA and the latency to the facial expression response ranged from 1 to 17s. Latency to facial expression change was dependent on the infants PMA at the time of the heel lance. Infants below 32 weeks PMA had a significantly longer latency to change in facial expression than older infants (54% increase in infants below 32 weeks; p | 0.001). Sleep state and presence of
BACKGROUND: Gaining a better understanding of the probability, timing and prediction of rehospitalisation amongst preterm babies could help improve outcomes. There is limited research addressing these topics amongst extremely and very preterm babies. In this context, unplanned rehospitalisations constitute an important, potentially modifiable adverse event. We aimed to establish the probability, time-distribution and predictability of unplanned rehospitalisation within 30 days of discharge in a population of French preterm babies. METHODS: This study used data from EPIPAGE 2, a population-based prospective study of French preterm babies. Only those babies discharged home alive and whose parents responded to the one-year survey were eligible for inclusion in our study. For Kaplan-Meier analysis, the outcome was unplanned rehospitalisation censored at 30 days. For predictive modelling, the outcome was binary, recording unplanned rehospitalisation within 30 days of discharge. Predictors included
OBJECTIVE: to assess pain in preterm newborns and to compare the neonatal and therapeutic variables with the total scores of the Neonatal Facial Coding System of preterm newborns submitted to arterial puncture exposed to music and 25% oral glucose. METHOD: a comparative study with 48 recordings of preterm newborns - Group 1, music (26); Group 2, glucose 25% (22) - individually analyzed by three trained nurses, after Kappa of at least 80%. RESULTS: the variables and the pain scores of the groups did not present statistical significance (p | 0.05) according to the Neonatal Facial Coding System. 80.8% of the preterm infants in Group 1 had a higher quantitative score |/= 3 in the neonatal variables (gender, type of delivery), and therapeutic variables (type of oxygen therapy, place of hospitalization, type of puncture). CONCLUSION: There was no difference when comparing the music and glucose 25% groups and the variables studied.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacological closure of symptomatic PDA in premature infants using indomethacin. AU - Ho, M. Y.. AU - Huang, F. Y.. AU - Kao, H. A.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - When left to right shunting through the ductus arteriosus is of a degree contributing to the cardiopulmonary problems in a premature infant, the condition is clinically termed symptomatic PDA. It is also generally agreed that symptomatic PDA if left untreated is a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Studies have also concluded that all infants with symptomatic PDA who are prematurely born and/or ventilator dependent should be considered candidates for ductal closure by either pharmacological or surgical mean. Over a period of approximately 2 1/2 years, 22 premature infants with symptomatic PDA have been treated here with powder form indomethacin. The one course success rate was 68%. Thereafter, in another 2 1/2 years, 33 cases were selected for whom a liquid form was used instead. The success ...
BACKGROUND The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very low birth weight infants can be used as an index of the quality of care in neonatal intensive care units as long as it is adjusted to reflect the infants risk profiles on admission to the unit, which may vary systematically from one institution to another. Adjustment for gestational, birth-related, and neonatological risk factors enables a fair comparison of IVH rates across neonatal intensive care units. METHODS Data on 1782 neonates born at less than 32 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 1500 g at birth were retrieved from the 26 744 anonymous data sets collected in the Peri- and Neonatal Survey of the German state of Saxony in the years 2001-2005. An analysis of 30 putative risk factors with stepwise logistic regression analysis enabled the construction of a specific risk predictor for severe (grade 3-4) IVH. Risk-adjusted institutional incidence rates were then calculated. RESULTS Five independent risk factors (low
Late preterm infants (born at 34-36 weeks gestation) have increasingly been regarded as at risk rather than Iow risk infants. The impact of neonatal morbidity and admission for neonatal care, on the longer term outcomes of LPls has not been fully explored. This thesis has sought to bridge an identified gap in the literature relating to this significant group of neonatal care graduates. The overall aim of this thesis was to consider the significant population of LPls who require admission for neonatal care. Firstly, maternal and perinatal risk factors and neonatal outcomes were considered through a descriptive analysis of neonatal data from the Neonatal Intensive Care Outcomes Research and Evaluation (NICORE) database. The second component of the thesis then considered specifically the early childhood development (cognition, language, motor development, physical health and growth) at three years of age of LPls who required neonatal Intensive Care (lC) compared with infants of the same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Late-Onset Sepsis on Energy Expenditure in Extremely Premature Infants. AU - Torine, Ilana J.. AU - Denne, Scott C.. AU - Wright-Coltart, Shirley. AU - Leitch, Catherine. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare total energy expenditure (TEE) in extremely premature infants during and after an episode of sepsis. We hypothesized that TEE in the sepsis group (SEP) would be higher during the septic period and higher than an age-matched control group (CTL). We further hypothesized that the TEE of the SEP group during the recovery period would be similar to that of the CTL group. The doubly labeled water method was used to determine TEE in both groups. Infant characteristics were as follows: SEP group, n = 10, gestation = 26 ± 1 wk, birth weight = 854 ± 218 g; CTL group, n = 10, gestation = 26 ± 1 wk, birth weight = 880 ± 158 g. TEE of the SEP group during the septic period was significantly greater than during the recovery period (96 ± 25 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Impact of Small for Gestational Age Birth Status Upon Premature Children. AU - Dowling, Monica. AU - Bendell-Estroff, Debra. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - This study documented the degree and nature of developmental risk associated with intrauterine growth retardation in preterm infants Twenty-three preschool children who were SGA preterms were compared with 30 appropriate for gestational age children using the Stanford Binet 4, the Preschool Behavior Problem Checklist, and the Brazy Perinatal Biological Scoring System There were no significant differences between the groups on cognitive or behavioral measures Results suggested that small for gestational age status does not appear to increase the risk associated with prematurity in low socio-economic status children There are indications that environmental factors mediate outcome and that low socioeconomic status children require careful follow up.. AB - This study documented the degree and nature of developmental risk ...
Review question We reviewed the evidence to see whether the addition of extra protein to human milk, compared with no additional protein, fed to preterm infants, improved growth, body fat, obesity, heart problems, high blood sugar, and brain development, without significant side effects.. Background Lack of adequate protein intake during the early stages of the preterm infants life can result in poor growth and development. Preterm infants need more protein than full term babies. Breast milk has numerous benefits for babies born preterm (before 37 weeks), but its protein content is variable, and may not meet the nutritional needs of the rapidly growing preterm infant. Therefore, to meet their higher protein needs, and to promote optimum health and long-term development, additional protein, in the form of a fortifier, may be added to expressed breast milk for preterm babies.. Study characteristics We found six randomised trials (trials in which each infant had an equal chance of being chosen to ...
Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most common surgical procedures performed on premature infants. Improved survival rates in the NICU have led to an increase in the incidence of premature infants with inguinal hernias. The NICU nurse, often the first to notice an inguinal hernia in a premature infant, should understand the etiology, basic pathophysiology, and nursing care for this condition.
Late Preterm Infants, those born between 34 0/7 weeks and 36 6/7 weeks, often appear outwardly similar to and are treated like full term infants. However, research has shown that they often have some of the same medical issues as early preterm infants, including feeding issues, breathing issues and developmental delays. In an effort to create a better system of care for the late preterm infant, the Oklahoma Infant Alliance has created a toolkit for health care providers and families, so both can have a better understanding of the unique needs and issues of the Late Preterm Infant. For more information or to order full copies of the toolkit visit the Oklahoma Infant Alliance.. ...
Background: Pressures arising from premature infant care specially hospitalized infant can affect infants quality of life and health by causing long term destructive effects on familys psychological and physical health. Aim:To investigate the effect of family participation on mothers general health and length of hospitalization of premature neonate. Methods: In this clinical trial 60 primiparous women and their premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units, were randomly allocated to family participation and control groups. In the experimental group, empowering family in order to particiapte in the infant fundamental care was implemented in the teaching and indepededant practicephases. Control group received routin care. Mothers general health was measured using Goldberg General Health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and Mann Whitney test using SPSS version 11/5 was done. Results: There was a significant difference between experimental group (21/18±8/95
Uncertainly prevails with regard to the use of inhalation or instillation steroids to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. The meta-analysis with sequential analysis was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of airway administration (inhalation or instillation) of corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL from their inceptions to February 2017. All published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of airway administration of corticosteroids (AACs) vs placebo or systemic corticosteroid in prematurity were included. All meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty five RCTs retrieved (n = 3249) were eligible for further analysis. Meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis corrected the 95% confidence intervals estimated a lower risk of the primary outcome of BPD (relative risk 0.71, adjusted 95% confidence interval 0.57-0.87) and death or BPD
Dilation and abnormal tortuosity of retinal vessels are the hallmarks of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature infants. The stages of ROP are defined by vessel appearance at the interface between the vascular and avascular retinal areas. Deregulated signaling pathways involving hypoxia-inducible factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are involved in the pathogenesis of ROP. VEGF-antagonists are increasingly being used as off-label medication to treat this condition, with some success. We present Baby SM (female), who was born prematurely at 24 weeks gestation in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit, and with a birth weight of 640 g. On screening at 35 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), she was noted to have ROP, which became severe by 37 weeks PMA. She received one dose of intravitreal VEGF antagonist (Bevacizumab), resulting in a decrease in vessel tortuosity and dilation. However, repeat imaging at 4 weeks showed a re-emergence of vessel tortuosity. We ...
Background Modern neonatal care has improved the survival rate of extremely preterm infants. These infants are at high risk of malnutrition and growth failure during 3-4 months of hospital care. The objectives of this study was to investigate nutritional intakes during hospitalization and explore associations between nutritional intakes, postnatal growth and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Perioperative nutrition in infants undergoing surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was also investigated.. Methods This is a population-based study of Swedish extremely preterm infants (,27 weeks) born during 2004-2007 (n=602). Detailed data on nutritional supply and anthropometric measurements during hospitalization were retrospectively retrieved from hospital records. Comprehensive data on cohort characteristics, neonatal morbidity and infant mortality were obtained from the Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS).. Results During the first 70 days of life, intakes of energy, protein and ...
At present, there are insufficient information about baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and factors that determine BRS in premature newborns. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between BRS and the characteristics that reflecting the intrauterine development (gestational age and birth weight), as well as postnatal development (postconception age and the actual weight of the child at the time of measurement). We examined 57 premature infants, who were divided into groups according to gestational age and postconception age as well as birth weight, and weight at the time of measurement. Continuous and noninvasive registration of peripheral blood pressure (BP) was performed in every child within 2-5 min under standard conditions using a Portapres (FMS) device. The results showed a close correlation of baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate and respiratory rate with gestational age, postconception age, birth weight and actual weight at the time of measurement premature newborns. An ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ventriculosubgaleal shunt in the treatment of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious hydrocephalus of premature infants. AU - Nagy, Andrea. AU - Bognar, Laszlo. AU - Pataki, Istvan. AU - Barta, Zoltan. AU - Novak, Laszlo. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics of ventriculosubgaleal shunts during the clinical course of posthemorrhagic and postinfectious hydrocephalus in the neonatal period. Patients and methods: The study comprised 102 premature babies in whom subgaleal shunt was consecutively inserted between 2006 and 2011. Seventy-two patients had posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (mean gestational age 27.3 ± 2.1 weeks, mean birth weight 1,036.9 ± 327.7 g, mean age at insertion 51.4 ± 56.2 days) and 30 patients were operated postinfectiously (27.5 ± 2.2 weeks, 1,064.7 g ± 310.7 g, 115.9 ± 47.8 days). Results: The mean survival of subgaleal shunts was 87.9 days for the posthemorrhagic group and 75.6 days for the ...
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can be transmitted through breast milk to neonates. Although healthy full-term infants rarely develop symptoms of CMV infection; premature or low-birth-weight infants can experience symptomatic infection that is occasionally severe. There is limited information on the long-term effects of postnatal CMV infection in premature infants, suggesting that these infants do not develop cognitive function delays or hearing loss, although those with intrapartum infection do. Readily available methods of treating breast milk to inactivate the CMV either diminish the immunologic and nutritive benefits of breast milk or incompletely inactivate the virus ...
Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Data were collected retrospectively from electronic records: Standardised Electronic Neonatal Database, Electronic Patient Record, Pathology (WinPath), and Blood Bank Electronic Database. The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre with around 5,500 deliveries and a neonatal unit admission of 750 infants per year. All inborn preterm infants of 23 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA) admitted to the neonatal unit from January 2006 to September 2012 were included. The primary outcomes were intra-ventricular haemorrhage, necrotising entero-colitis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and death before discharge. The secondary outcomes were receiving blood transfusion and
This study evaluated the consequences of late preterm birth on child growth in the first two years of life as compared to term deliveries in a population-based cohort from a middle-income country. Among the strengths of the study, besides sample size, are the low rates of refusal and loss to follow-up, and the prospective cohort design that allows assessment of temporal relationships.. A key limitation of the study is that most of the confounders studied were self-reported by mothers. Furthermore, in the analyses of late preterm birth and wasting at 12 and 24 months of age, the low number of children born late preterm that were wasted resulted in reduced precision.. Some methodological issues of this study are worthy of being discussed. First, some of the increase in morbidity among late preterm children may be attributable to observation and detection bias, because mothers and medical doctors may be more attentive to monitor symptoms and signs of medical complications and diseases in preterm ...
Compared with those born at term, preterm newborns are at an increased risk of short term disorders of the lung (bronchopulmonary dysplasia; BPD) and the brain (white matter damage; WMD), and of long term developmental and pulmonary dysfunctions. Although all of these adverse outcomes are associated with low gestational age, brain, but not lung, damage appears to be associated with the prematurity subgroup [spontaneous preterm labour and/or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) vs pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)]. Part of the association between brain damage and prematurity subgroup might be due to a differential exposure of members of these subgroups to perinatal infection/inflammation. There is a lack of studies evaluating the association of antenatal and perinatal risk factors with late childhood pulmonary dysfunction among those born during the second trimester. In this paper we discuss the complexities that paediatricians, perinatologists and perinatal epidemiologists face as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition enhances myelination in preterm newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage, but not recombinant Wnt3A. AU - Dohare, Preeti. AU - Cheng, Bokun. AU - Ahmed, Ehsan. AU - Yadala, Vivek. AU - Singla, Pranav. AU - Thomas, Sunisha. AU - Kayton, Robert. AU - Ungvari, Zoltan. AU - Ballabh, Praveen. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants results in reduced proliferation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), and survivors exhibit reduced myelination and neurological deficits. Wnt signaling regulates OPC maturation and myelination in a context dependent manner. Herein, we hypothesized that the occurrence of IVH would downregulate Wnt signaling, and that activating Wnt signaling by GSK-3β inhibition or Wnt3A recombinant human protein (rh-Wnt3A) treatment might promote maturation of OPCs, myelination of the white matter, and neurological recovery in premature rabbits with IVH. These ...
Structured observation of motor performance (SOMP-1) applied to preterm and full term infants who needed neonatal intensive care. A cross-sectional analysis of progress and quality of motor performanc ...
Introduction: Short-term outcomes of preterm infants refers to any preterm infants conditions after birth including medical diagnosis or morbidity, length of stay at the hospital, and readmission to hospital after discharge. A high number of preterm births were identified as the major case in the year of 2015 in a medical center at Banyumas Regency, Indonesia. However, limited evidence showed the preterm infants short-term outcomes in this medical center. This study was intended to investigate the short-term outcomes of preterm infants in a medical center, Banyumas Regency, Indonesia. ...
Researchers at the Duke University Medical Center and Nicholas School of the Environment looked at the microbes in 11 premature infants and found much less diversity than in full-term infants.. The babies guts were taken over by microbes we know are dangerous if they get into the blood, said senior author Patrick Seed, MD, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics at Duke. Even after the babies were no longer on antibiotics, healthier bacteria didnt appear in the babies very quickly. This may be one reason why premature babies are so vulnerable to infections.. All of the premature children were placed on antibiotic treatments after birth, which would wipe out some types of bacteria and yeast, but once they were off the antibiotics and taking food, the researchers expected to see more diversity of bacteria in the babies developing digestive systems than they found.. The findings were published in PLoS One open-access journal on December 8, 2011.. Five infants had blood infections while three ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preterm infants sympathetic arousal and associated behavioral responses to sound stimuli in the neonatal intensive care unit. AU - Salavitabar, Arash. AU - Doheny, Kim Kopenhaver. AU - Adkins, Cherie S.. AU - Susman, Elizabeth J.. AU - Palmer, Charles. AU - Storm, Hanne. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of skin conductance (SC) as a measure of autonomic arousal to sound stimuli in preterm infants. DESIGN: A pilot cross-sectional, correlations study. SUBJECTS: Eleven preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 31.6 weeks without anomalies or conditions associated with neurodevelopmental delay composed the sample. METHODS: On days 5-7 of life, the following infant responses were simultaneously recorded in response to naturally occurring sound stimuli in the NICU: real-time measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturations; sympathetic-mediated sweating via SC; and behavioral responses using the Newborn Individualized ...
Abstract. The majority of bone mineralization occurs during the third trimester of pregnancy and preterm infants are likely to have depleted stores. This puts them at greater risk of fractures. Heparin has been shown to cause osteopenia in adults though fractures are uncommon. There are no data that suggest an association between heparin and fractures in preterm neonates. This report presents the case of a preterm infant who was treated with unfractionated heparin for 3 weeks for an arterial thrombus. Post heparin X-rays demonstrated multiple fractures which did not exist prior to therapy. The temporal association between heparin therapy and fractures suggests that the combination of dose and duration of therapy is a potential risk factor. In preterm infants with already depleted bone mineral content, this could be an important therapeutic consideration.. ...
BackgroundVentilator-induced lung injury is considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Optimizing ventilator strategies may reduce respiratory morbidities in preterm infants. Permissive hypercapnia has been suggested to attenuate lung injury. We aimed to determine if a higher PCO2 target range results in less lung injury compared to the control target range and possibly reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) in tracheal aspirates (TA), which has not been addressed before.MethodsDuring a multicenter trial of permissive hypercapnia in extremely low birthweight infants (PHELBI), preterm infants (birthweight 400-1,000 g, gestational age 23 0/7-28 6/7 weeks) requiring mechanical ventilation within 24 h of birth were randomly assigned to a high PCO2 target or a control group. The high target group aimed at PCO2 values of 55-65, 60-70, and 65-75 mmHg and the control group at PCO2 values of 40-50, 45-55 and 50-60 mmHg on postnatal days 1-3
TY - JOUR. T1 - Auditory Exposure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. T2 - Room Type and Other Predictors. AU - Pineda, Roberta. AU - Durant, Polly. AU - Mathur, Amit. AU - Inder, Terrie. AU - Wallendorf, Michael. AU - Schlaggar, Bradley L.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - Objective To quantify early auditory exposures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and evaluate how these are related to medical and environmental factors. We hypothesized that there would be less auditory exposure in the NICU private room, compared with the open ward. Study design Preterm infants born at ≤ 28 weeks gestation (33 in the open ward, 25 in private rooms) had auditory exposure quantified at birth, 30 and 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), and term equivalent age using the Language Environmental Acquisition device. Results Meaningful language (P , .0001), the number of adult words (P , .0001), and electronic noise (P , .0001) increased across PMA. Silence increased (P = .0007) and noise decreased (P , ...
Lama Rimawi, MD (22 September 2006). "Premature Infant". Disease & Conditions Encyclopedia. Discovery Communications, LLC. ... whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather ... Adolescents face higher health risks than women who give birth at age 20 to 24 and their infants are at a higher risk for ... Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born. A woman is ...
Lantos, John D. (2016-11-13). "SUPPORTing Premature Infants". Pediatrics. 132 (6): e1661-e1663. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1292. ... infants were used as subjects to test the optimum levels of oxygenation to be used for proper care of premature infants in ... an infant under 4 weeks old) is viable. For research specifically on neonates, regulations differ based on whether the infant ... This experiment was determined to be in violation of federal regulations in that the parents of these infants were not informed ...
Premature infants 251-325...................................Newborn infants Including physiology, care, treatment, diseases 370 ...
Premature infants commonly require supplemental oxygen to treat complications of preterm birth. In this case prevention of ... Shennan, AT; Dunn, MS; Ohlsson, A; Lennox, K; Hoskins, EM (1988). "Abnormal pulmonary outcomes in premature infants: prediction ... Drack, AV (1998). "Preventing blindness in premature infants". New England Journal of Medicine. 338 (22): 1620-21. doi:10.1056/ ... common complications of prematurely born infants and its incidence has grown as the survival of extremely premature infants has ...
Glass HC, Costarino AT, Stayer SA, Brett CM, Cladis F, Davis PJ (June 2015). "Outcomes for extremely premature infants". ... "NIH Study Reveals Factors That Influence Premature Infant Survival, Disability" (Press release). NIH. April 16, 2008. Retrieved ... Another major factor is gender: male infants have a slightly higher risk of dying than female infants, for which various ... of infants survive a preterm birth long enough to be discharged from the hospital, usually months later. Most of these infants ...
Anderson GC, Marks EA, Wahlberg V (July 1986). "Kangaroo care for premature infants". Am J Nurs. 86 (7): 807-9. doi:10.2307/ ... p. 573, 791 - 793) Robles, M. (1995). Kangaroo care: The human incubator for the premature infant. University of Manitoba, ... "implications for understanding infant sleep development and the sudden infant death syndrome". Sleep. 16 (3): 263-82. doi: ... If the infant's mother had a caesarean birth, the father can hold their baby in skin-to-skin contact while the mother recovers ...
Severe liver disease; premature infants or full-term neonates. Pregnancy, lactation; severe cardiovascular disorders; asthma; ...
Her improvements in technology have not only improved the lives of premature infants, but she also seeks to help women who are ... Some of her research includes the collection of data regarding how inhaled Nitric Oxide can help premature infants who are ... Ballard, R. A. (October 4, 2007). "Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Premature Infants". The New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (14): ... Ballard studies ways to treat and prevent chronic lung disease in premature infants. ...
Bose, C.; D'ercole, A.; Lester, A.; Hunter, R.; Barrett, J. (1981). "Relactation by mothers of sick and premature infants". ... Hopkinson J, Schanler R, Garza C (1988). "Milk production by mothers of premature infants". Pediatrics. 81 (6): 815-20. doi: ... Newborn infants often produce some milk from their own breast tissue, known colloquially as witch's milk. In most species, ... A poor milk ejection reflex can be due to sore or cracked nipples, separation from the infant, a history of breast surgery, or ...
... premature infants, and fetuses in the last trimester of pregnancy. The doctors also observed patterns that resembled "sleep ... "Electroencephalography in premature and full-term infants. Developmental features and glossary". Neurophysiologie Clinique/ ... Interestingly, as preterm infants advance in gestational age, the more likely they are to display low frequency waves and trace ... Lindsley recorded the first electrical activity from the brain of an unborn infant when he noticed that an electrical recording ...
Blennow, M; Jonsson, B; Dahlström, A; Sarman, I; Bohlin, K; Robertson, B (Mar 31, 1999). "[Lung function in premature infants ... Verder, Henrik (1992). treatment of RDS in spontaneously breathing premature infants with surfactant administered intratracheal ... Early treatment of premature infants with RDS using the nasal CPAP and surfactant (INSURE) method is today considered the ... In 1989 he used this pioneering method to successfully treat the first premature infant with severe RDS. Verder is a ...
... new techniques for the care of premature infants; improved cancer treatments; bone banking and transplantation; laser ... infants, and children suffering from severe cardiopulmonary failure. The medical wing also has the largest dental facility in ...
"Renal development in the fetus and premature infant". Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 22 (2): 58-66. doi:10.1016/j.siny. ... The condition is frequently, but not always the result of a genetic disorder, and is more common in infants born to one or more ...
Inga Marian Warren, Author and Co-director, Family Infant Neurodevelopment Education Programme. For services to the Care of ... Premature Babies. Keith Charles Frederick Weed, President, Advertising Association. For services to the Advertising and ... Professor of Maternal and Infant Health, Sheffield Hallam University. For services to Higher Education and to Maternal and ... For services to Midwifery and Infant Feeding. (Huddersfield, West Yorkshire) John Romain. Co-founder, The NHS Spitfire Project ...
Pulmonary surfactant promotes lung development in premature infants; modifying the tidal volumes of mechanical ventilators ...
Premature infant pain profile: development and initial validation. The Clinical journal of pain, 12(1), 13-22. Johnston, C., ...
Infants that are premature, have hypoxemic ischemic encephalopathy, CNS infection, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, ... Pathophysiological Considerations of Extremely Premature Infant Brain Development". Developmental Neuroscience. 40 (5-6): 417- ... Most of the infants with BFNS develop normally but some neonates with it may later develop intellectual disability which ... Infants can exhibit stereotyped movements that may be hard to distinguish from seizure activity. Since many of these non- ...
Wilson MG, Mikity VG (April 1960). "A new form of respiratory disease in premature infants". Am J Dis Child. 99 (4): 489-99. ... Wilson-Mikity syndrome, a form of chronic lung disease (CLD) that exists only in premature infants, leads to progressive or ... These changes are diagnosed either directly upon birth or within the first month, as the premature infant requires mechanical ... If not enough oxygen is administered to the infant, the apnea continues and the infant is unable proper recovery. In contrast, ...
Shauna Taylor was 40 years old and a resident of Macclenny, Florida when she had an infant daughter born premature in late 2012 ... "Florida Mother Sentenced For Purposefully Poisoning Her Premature Infant". www.oxygen.com. Oxygen True Crime. Retrieved 12 July ... He divorced Shauna after the poisoning of their infant daughter. "The time that these poisonings occurred, I had been out of ... Shauna was arrested in Albany, New York, extradited to Florida and tried for the intentional 2013 poisoning of her infant ...
... carries diapers for premature babies, newborns, and infants. They have varieties for daytime and nighttime. They also ...
Nelson, J. D.; Peters, P. C. (July 1965). "Suprapubic Aspiration of Urine in Premature and Term Infants". Pediatrics. 36: 132- ... In infants, this can be ensured by checking that their diaper is dry. In all children, the bladder volume can be measured with ... In infants or young children with fever, laboratory analysis of the child's urine is needed to diagnose urinary tract infection ...
Manual for early infant male circumcision under local anaesthesia (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. 2010. Xin ZC, Choi ... YD, Rha KH, Choi HK (August 1997). "Somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with primary premature ejaculation". The ...
... feature in premature infants. It is the first sign in children and infants with rickets.[citation needed] Physical examination[ ... Craniotabes is softening or thinning of the skull in infants and children, which may be normally present in newborns. It is ... The majority of craniotabes occurs in term infants and can be a normal finding. Commonly, craniotabes results from the position ...
"Fatal sepsis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum in premature infant". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 35 (4): 1011-1012. ...
Menyuk, P., Liebergott, J. W., & Schultz, M. C. (2014). Early language development in full-term and premature infants. ... Patterns of early lexical and cognitive development in premature and full term infants. Journal of Speech, Language, and ... Menyuk, Paula; Brisk, Maria Estela (2005), "Infant Language Education", Language Development and Education, London: Palgrave ...
Smaller, premature infants are more susceptible to the reflex, with an observed occurrence in a child of 26 weeks gestation. It ... If the infant lost its balance, the reflex caused the infant to embrace its mother and regain its hold on the mother's body. ... May 5, 1963). "The Hand-Mouth Reflex of Babkin in Premature Infants". Pediatrics. 31 (5): 734-740. doi:10.1542/peds.31.5.734. ... The infant will begin to paddle and kick in a swimming motion. The reflex disappears between 4-6 months. Despite the infant ...
Reduce incidence of overdose in infants and premature babies. Improve imaging of radiographic techniques Criticism to ...
... expanded to include extremely premature infants". The Journal of Pediatrics. 119 (3): 417-23. doi:10.1016/s0022-3476(05)82056-6 ... With the infant lying supine, the examiner places one hand beneath the infant's elbow for support taking the infant's hand, the ... With infant lying supine, the examiner adjusts the infant's head to the midline and supports the infant's hand across the upper ... The infant is placed supine and the flexed lower extremity is brought to rest on the cot. The examiner supports the infant's ...
Mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury in premature infants. Semin Neonatol. 2002 Oct;7(5):353-60. PMID 12464497 [2] ( ...
... expanded to include extremely premature infants". The Journal of Pediatrics. 119 (3): 417-23. doi:10.1016/s0022-3476(05)82056-6 ...
Infants with microcephaly are born with either a normal or reduced head size.[10] Subsequently, the head fails to grow, while ... impaired or premature neurogenesis, the death of neural stem cells or neurons, or a combination of these factors.[58] Research ... "Microcephaly in infants and children: Etiology and evaluation". UpToDate. Retrieved 2019-08-02.. ... Diseases of the Fetus and Infant. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780323295376. . Archived from the original on 2017-10-27.. ...
... and premature birth (driven by decreased expression of histone deacetylase SIRT1).[11] ECFCs are thus thought to have a large ... A low number of ECFCs has been identified as a risk factor for infant diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia.[8] ECFCs can ... "Accelerated senescence of cord blood endothelial progenitor cells in premature neonates is driven by SIRT1 decreased ...
Premature obituaries. *Preventable causes of death. *Unusual deaths. *List of ways people dishonor the dead ...
Newborn premature infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanical ventilation is typically used as a short-term ... It is not clear if clonidine is safe or effective to be used as a sedative for preterm and full term infants who require ... For infants who require opioids for pain, the potential side effects of opioids include problems with feeding, gastric and ... Pain medicine such as opioids are sometimes used in adults and infants who require mechanical ventilation. For preterm or full ...
Grant WB (March 2002). "An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B ... "Cancer among infants". in Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney JG, Linet M, Tamra T, Young JL, Bunin GR (eds). Cancer Incidence and ... http://seer.cancer.gov/publications/childhood/infant.pdf. *↑ Karpozilos A, Pavlidis N (2004). "The treatment of cancer in Greek ...
After her death two years later, John ruled as regent for their infant daughter, Isabella II.[174] He participated in a ... his sister's marriage was to be arranged before his inevitable premature death from the disease. His regent, Raymond, chose ... On his deathbed Baldwin named Fulk, Melisende, and their infant son Baldwin III joint heirs. Fulk intended to revoke the ... In 1130 Bohemond II was killed raiding in Cilicia, leaving Alice with their infant daughter, Constance. Baldwin II denied Alice ...
Hereditary pseudo vitamin D deficiency rickets in a Pakistani infant. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1973, 48 (10): 814-6. ... Vitamin D for cancer prevention: valid assertion or premature anointment?. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007, 86 ... Vitamin D supplementation: Recommendations for Canadian mothers and infants. Canadian Paediatric Society. 2007-10-01 [2012-09- ...
Infant mortality[edit]. Another important indicator of health is the infant mortality rate, which is also either equal or ... Studies have found that more acculturated Latinas have higher rates of low birthweight, premature births, teenage pregnancy and ... and first week than that of infants born to non-Hispanic white, U.S.-born women.[22] In 2003, the national Hispanic infant ... Hispanic infant mortality is also less than NHWs with an average of 5.8 per 1000 births and 9.1 per 1000 births for non- ...
The incidence of neutropenia is greater in premature infants. Six to fifty-eight percent of preterm neonates are diagnosed with ... The disorder is seen up to 38% in infants that weigh less than 1000g, 13% in infants weighing less than 2500g, and 3% of term ... infants weighing more than 2500 g. Neutropenia is often temporary, affecting most newborns in only first few days after birth. ...
Premature obituaries. *Preventable causes of death. *Notable deaths by year. *Unusual deaths ...
... and it has been theorized that the reason human infants cannot form declarative memories is because they are still undergoing ... "Neurogenesis continues in the third trimester of pregnancy and is suppressed by premature birth". The Journal of Neuroscience ...
The role of vitamin E in infant nutrition has a long research history. From 1949 onward there were trials with premature ... Infants and young children have a higher risk of being below the deficiency threshold.[5] Cystic fibrosis and other fat ... Bell EF (July 1987). "History of vitamin E in infant nutrition". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 46 (1 Suppl): 183- ... In addition to the naturally occurring sources shown in the table,[49] certain ready-to-eat cereals, infant formulas, liquid ...
Premature obituaries. *Preventable causes of death. *Unusual deaths. *List of ways people dishonor the dead ...
Andrews, K.M.; Brouillette, D.B; Brouillette, R.T. (2008). "Mortality, Infant". Encyclopedia of Infant and Early Childhood ... It may be tied to one or more of the following processes: premature fetal endocrine activation, intrauterine inflammation, over ... Low birth weight constitutes as sixty to eighty percent of the infant mortality rate in developing countries. Infant mortality ... Low birth weight (LBW) is defined by the World Health Organization as a birth weight of an infant of 2,499 g (5 lb 8.1 oz) or ...
Infant and child psychology. *Adolescent psychology. *Youth development. *Young adult psychology. *Developmental psychology ...
... and inhibit irrelevant or premature responses, so that a strategic plan of action can be made and sustained. Reaction time to ... Cognitive development of infants. *Child development. *Positive youth development. *Young adult. *Adult development ...
... and it has been theorized that the reason human infants cannot form declarative memories is because they are still undergoing ... "Neurogenesis continues in the third trimester of pregnancy and is suppressed by premature birth". The Journal of Neuroscience ...
Victims ranged from prisoners to infants to Vestal Virgins whose stomach's were cut open, with a dull,stone knife and their ... premature burial. *immurement. *dismemberment. PhoeniciaEdit. The ancient Middle Eastern kingdom of Phoenicia practiced ...
In newborns and infants up to 6 weeks old, the disease may also be referred to as His bundle tachycardia or congenital JET. ...
It was formerly given to premature infants, but due to inadvertent toxicity in the form of hemolytic anemia and jaundice, it is ...
"Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective ...
She continued her early studies at Holy Infant Academy, a convent school run by Order of Saint Benedict. The old wooden ... which was originally denied as premature,[159][167] then granted on November 28.[163] ... Imelda continued her higher studies at Holy Infant Academy from 1938 to 1948, the year she graduated from high school. As a ... she moved to Holy Infant and stayed there until she graduated.[45] ...
These haze episodes have been linked to excess premature deaths, respiratory illness and cardiac disease. Infants and children ...
Extreme premature birth, very low birth weight, and extreme neglect, abuse, or social deprivation also increase the risk[121][ ... Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Philadelphia PA: Taylor & Francis Group. 10 (1): 51-59. doi:10.1080/ ...
A short cervix preterm is associated with a higher risk for premature delivery: At 24 weeks' gestation, a cervix length of less ... One randomized controlled trial, however, came to the result of a higher perinatal death rate of normally formed infants born ... There is no difference, however, in perinatal death or poor outcomes for infants. Below are useful terms on ultrasound: ... 1996). "The Length of the Cervix and the Risk of spontaneous Premature Delivery". New England Journal of Medicine. 334 (9): 567 ...
... (or Gillo) was also blamed for the condition of newborn infants who wasted away, and such infants were called Gillobrota ... haunts little children and she is to blame for occurrences of premature deaths (aōron). Sappho mentions her". (translated after ... The practice of baptizing infants was thought to offer protection against demon-snatching, and specifically against the gello, ... "bring the infant from the bedroom, as if about to devour him." Aspects of the superstitions about the gelloude may be followed ...
Globally, about 15 million infants were born before 37 weeks of gestation. Premature birth is the leading cause of death in ... The WHO suggests that any initial observations of the infant can be done while the infant remains close to the mother, saying ... If the infant's mother had a caesarean birth, the father can hold their baby in skin-to-skin contact while the mother recovers ... The infant's head and shoulders must go through a specific sequence of maneuvers in order to pass through the ring of the ...
... s premature and vulnerable infants during the study period, was rated one of the best in the country at saving these high-risk ... It achieved a 98.6 percent survival rate overall for its infant patients, this despite the fact that as a Level 3 NICU it also ... Royal Columbian Hospital was again ranked one of the top hospitals in the country in caring for infants in its NICU in the ... It hosts a maternal, infant, child/youth program with levels one to three obstetrical care (high risk obstetrics), levels one ...
... in some infants. According to Deer, a letter from Wakefield's lawyers to him dated 31 January 2005 said: "Dr Wakefield did not ... This concern arose originally because the company's business plan appears to depend on premature, scientifically unjustified ...
The child was premature, only weighing 3+1⁄2 pounds (1.6 kg), and required care in an infant incubator directly after birth. In ... The terms of the separation included that Cannon would receive $500,000 of the trust he would come into, with their infant ...
A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). ... A premature infant will have a lower birth weight than a full-term infant. Common signs of prematurity include:. *Abnormal ... A premature infants organs are not fully developed. The infant needs special care in a nursery until the organs have developed ... In very premature or sick infants, nutrition may be given through a vein until the baby is stable enough to receive all ...
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... premature infants in neonatal intensive-care units. Thirteen affected infants in these two hospitals developed clinically ... infant in both clusters. All affected infants received E-Ferol; some affected infants received up to 1 ml or more daily. Both ... Unusual Syndrome with Fatalities among Premature Infants: Association with a New Intravenous Vitamin E Product Since March 9, ... Eight infants have died. All affected infants had received parenteral nutrition therapy, in addition to other supportive ...
A case-control study was conducted in Alexandria on 68 premature children: 32 of them at the age of 2 and 36 at the age of ... Pattern of growth and development of premature children at the age of two and three years in Alexandria, Egypt [‎Part I]‎  ...
... Pediatr Res. 2010 Jan;67(1):1-8. doi: 10.1203/PDR. ... vessels and the restoration of normal CBF on the first day of life are potential strategies to prevent IVH in premature infants ...
308 Studies found for: Recruiting Studies , Infant, Premature, Diseases. Also searched for Disorders, Preterm infant, Pre-Term ...
CRP level in infants is elevated in the 48 hours following immunization. ... CRP level in infants is elevated in the 48 hours following immunization. - GreenMedInfo Summary ... Diseases : C-Reactive Protein : CK(3134) : AC(310), Premature Birth : CK(558) : AC(61), Vaccine-induced Toxicity : CK(2918) : ... STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study on 239 preterm infants at>or =2 months of age in the neonatal intensive care unit ...
Objectives To assess the risk of significant adverse events in premature infants receiving the novel 4-component group B ... Conclusions 4CMenB does not increase the risk of serious adverse events in hospitalised premature infants. This audit supports ... Results Complete questionnaires were returned for 133 premature infants (,35 weeks gestation) who received their first dose of ... For comparison, a historical cohort of premature infants receiving their primary immunisations without 4CMenB or paracetamol ...
Whereas the risk was doubled in the very premature/low birth weight, it was quadrupled in the extremely premature/low birth ... and psychiatric interventions be applied to prevent and minimize ADHD symptomatology in premature and low-birth-weight infants ... Very premature was defined as gestational age , 32 weeks, and very low birth weight was defined as , 3.3 lb, and extremely ... ADHD risk was confirmed to be higher in persons who were born very or extremely premature and/or were of very low or extremely ...
... premature infants (preemies) need all the recommended immunizations that full-term infants get. The one vaccine that your ... In full-term infants, it is usually given at birth. But this vaccine doesnt work as well in very small ... Top of the pageImmunizations for Premature InfantsOverviewStarting at 2 months after birth, ... Immunizations for Premature Infants. Overview. Starting at 2 months after birth, premature infants (preemies) need all the ...
Home ▸ Ages & Stages ▸ Newborn ▸ Newborn Challenges ▸ Breastfeeding your Premature Infant. Breastfeeding your Premature Infant ... SPIN: Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition from UC San Diego Health System. "The Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) ... Developmental Milestones for Premature Infants by Maureen Mulligan LaRossa, RN. Beyond Infancy: The Older Premature Child from ... The Premature Infant - A Mothers Perspective by Lenore Goldfarb. General (not breastfeeding related). ...
Home » Courses » Baby Beats and Breaths: Therapeutic Interventions for the Premature Infant with Cardiopulmonary Compromise ... Baby Beats and Breaths: Therapeutic Interventions for the Premature Infant with Cardiopulmonary Compromise. Holly Schifsky. ... This course will focus on the cardiopulmonary implications for the premature or medically-complex infant as related to ... She has worked within the NICU and NICU follow-up clinic to maximize patient and family outcomes for the most complex premature ...
Modest supplemental oxygen given to premature infants with moderate cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a potentially ... Many premature infants need supplemental oxygen soon after birth because their lungs are not sufficiently mature to efficiently ... Modest supplemental oxygen given to premature infants with moderate cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a potentially ... Oxygen Restrictions Can Be Eased for Premature Infants with Blinding Eye Disease ...
Simo Särkkä: Sensor data guides robots and helps with care of premature infants Published: 23.10.2019. ... For example, we have worked with Helsinki University Central Hospital to improve the care of premature infants. The hospital ... Simo Särkkä: Sensor data guides robots and helps with care of premature infants ... The data is used to produce models that allow doctors to react more quickly to any changes in the condition of premature babies ...
Premature , L-citrulline and Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia ... Clinical trial for Infant , Pulmonary Hypertension , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia , ... There have been no randomized clinical trials of any therapy in infants with BPD-PH. The standard care for the management of ... It is estimated that 8-42% of infants with BPD will develop pulmonary hypertension (PH). Moreover, it has been known since the ...
UNC Collaborative for Maternal and Infant Health aims to improve the health and well-being of women and families across North ... Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network on Infant Mortality (IM CoIIN). *The North Carolina Perinatal Health and ... Copyright © 2022 UNC Center for Maternal & Infant Health · All Rights Reserved · Website by Tomatillo Design ...
A History Of The Premature Infant Nursery In The Us ... A History Of The Premature Infant Nursery In The Us ...
"Premature Infants". Need more information?. Premature baby. Preterm labour is when you go in to labour before your pregnancy ... The booklet contains valuable information from research on breastfeeding premature infants, as well as experiences of other ... Some babies are premature, others are born with a condition that may make their life different in some ways, at least for a ... Breastfeeding your premature baby , Australian Breastfeeding Association. This article is based on our booklet Breastfeeding ...
Good News for Premature Infant Outcomes, But Have We Reached a Plateau? : ... but it provides a great snapshot of progress in care of extremely premature infants over the last couple decades. ... For infants 27 weeks or earlier, the rates were 0.69% of all births in 2014, compared to 0.74% in 2007. Advances in prevention ... The report focuses on outcomes of over 30,000 infants with very low birth weight (401-1500 grams) and gestational age (22-28 ...
ORCID: 0000-0001-9230-7656 (2011) A hybrid approach to brain extraction from premature infant MRI. In: SCIA 2011, Scandinavian ... This paper describes a novel automatic skull-stripping method for premature infant data. A skull-stripping approach involves ...
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Liu G, Wu H, Li Z. Respiratory viruses affecting premature infants. Minerva Pediatr 2017;69:458-9. DOI:10.23736/S0026-4946.17. ...
Premature infants are at an increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The roles of hypotension and hyperemia are ... N2 - Premature infants are at an increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The roles of hypotension and hyperemia ... AB - Premature infants are at an increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The roles of hypotension and hyperemia ... abstract = "Premature infants are at an increased risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The roles of hypotension and ...
Premature infants are at high risk of suffering from lifelong impairments, due in part to aberrant development of gut ... Premature infants are at high risk of suffering from lifelong impairments, due in part to aberrant development of gut ... Premature infants are at high risk of suffering from lifelong impairments, due in part to aberrant development of gut ... Premature infants are at high risk of suffering from lifelong impairments, due in part to aberrant development of gut ...
One was that such premature infants often suffer long-term health problems. The other was that pushing infant viability back ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) reported May 7 that with aggressive treatment a quarter of premature infants now ... Premature Infants Surviving At 22 Weeks-Not Good News to Everybody. 15 May 2015 ... The Times article doesnt consider whether refusing treatment necessary for a premature infants survival due to a present or ...
Rapid catch-up growth for premature infants, especially small for gestational age (SGA) infants, in early childhood has been ... premature infants.4 Hair et al reported that infants with a birth weight (BW) ≤1250 g fed an exclusive HM-based diet with early ... rapid catch-up growth for premature infants, especially small for gestational age (SGA) infants, in early childhood has been ... Premature small for gestational age infants fed an exclusive human milk-based diet achieve catch-up growth without metabolic ...
Acetaminophen Active Not Recruiting Phase 4 Trials for Postoperative pain / Infants, Premature / Opioids Use Treatment. Back to ...
Neto, M. T., Leal, E., Rodrigues, P., & Serelha, M. (2009). COHORT OF EXTREME PREMATURE NEWBORN INFANTS. Acta Paediatrica, 98. ... Neto, Maria Teresa ; Leal, E ; Rodrigues, P ; Serelha, M. / COHORT OF EXTREME PREMATURE NEWBORN INFANTS. In: Acta Paediatrica. ... COHORT OF EXTREME PREMATURE NEWBORN INFANTS. / Neto, Maria Teresa ; Leal, E; Rodrigues, P; Serelha, M. ... Neto, MT, Leal, E, Rodrigues, P & Serelha, M 2009, COHORT OF EXTREME PREMATURE NEWBORN INFANTS, Acta Paediatrica, vol. 98. ...
Education programs for parents of very premature infants may not be effective. ... Early interventions involving parents to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes of premature infants: a meta-analysis. Journal of ... Authors conclusion: there was no effect of the parent baby interaction programme on infant development at 2 years of corrected ... Randomized trial of a parenting intervention for very preterm infants: Outcome at 2 years. J Pediatr. 2009;155:488-94 ...
hypotension or pulmonary distress in premature infants. Based on a hCRH test, it has been shown that low cortisol levels were ... In previous studies, 11-beta hydroxylase activity has been assessed in premature infants by cortisol to 17-OHP ratio after an ... We did not confirm expected low serum cortisol concentrations in the more premature infants. On the contrary, we found inverse ... During the first days of life, extremely premature infants demonstrate adequate pituitary response to human corticotrophin- ...
  • Late preterm babies who are born between 35 and 37 weeks gestation may not look premature. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of this site is to promote the spread and implementation of kangaroo mother care as the standard method of care for all newborn babies, both premature and full term. (kellymom.com)
  • The hospital unit uses sensors to collect data on, for example, the breathing, oxygen saturation, and heart rate of premature babies. (aalto.fi)
  • The data is used to produce models that allow doctors to react more quickly to any changes in the condition of premature babies that require actions to be taken. (aalto.fi)
  • The fact that survival rates for premature babies are now nearing the midpoint of pregnancy attests to what medical research and technology have accomplished in the four decades since Harry Blackmun, author of the majority ruling in Roe v. Wade , opined that viability probably occurred at 28 weeks-six weeks later than some babies today are surviving outside the womb. (humanlifereview.com)
  • Of course premature babies may not get the immediate opportunity for this contact following birth, but these babies in the NICU greatly benefit from it later, called Kangaroo Mother Care, when stable enough to do so. (handtohold.org)
  • A study showed mothers who practiced Kangaroo Care at least six hours a day with their low birthweight infant showed significant increases in weight, length, and head circumstances in comparison to babies who did not have this contact. (handtohold.org)
  • The plaintiff notes in her complaint that originally, cow's milk-based products were believed to be good for the growth of premature, low-birth-weight babies. (legalexaminer.com)
  • Newer research, however, has confirmed that when fed to premature babies, it can increase the risk of NEC, which can contribute to ill health and death. (legalexaminer.com)
  • She points to a 1990 study on 926 preterm infants that found NEC was six to ten times more common in exclusively formula-fed babies than in those fed breast milk alone and three times more common in those who received formula plus breast milk. (legalexaminer.com)
  • Despite these and many other studies indicating that infant formula is not safe for premature infants, formula manufacturers have continued to advertise their products as appropriate for premature babies. (legalexaminer.com)
  • The significant increase in births of premature babies in Brazil, the leading cause of death up to 28 days old baby, has worried the different health professionals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Given this reality it was investigated how mothers and premature babies experience the hospitalization in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in a hospital interior of Rio Grande do Sul This is a qualitative research design with case studies multiple. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three premature babies born under 37 weeks and weighing less than 2,500 kg weight, of both genders, who required to remain in attendance at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between the first month of life, and their mothers participated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Your donation can ensure more babies survive premature birth and life-threatening complications! (supportstjosephs.org)
  • Preterm babies sleep more than full-term infants do but for shorter periods of time. (4obgyne.com)
  • Preterm babies lack the iron stores that full-term infants have at birth. (4obgyne.com)
  • Infant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), sometimes referred to as neonatal RDS, is most common in babies born prematurely. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Infant RDS tends to affect babies whose lungs have not fully developed before birth. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Infant RDS tends to develop in babies born prematurely, before their lungs have fully developed and have a liquid coating called surfactant. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to cluster analysis, the low birth weight and premature babies born to mothers who reported heightened depression symptoms during and after pregnancy had the worst motor outcomes. (news-medical.net)
  • Premature babies, boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. (medlineplus.gov)
  • According to iDream, college-educated African American women continue to deliver premature and low-birthweight babies at a disproportionately higher rate because of their cultural background. (ourweekly.com)
  • It primarily occurs in babies born .34 weeks gestation, although prematurely born infants can also suffer from it. (phassociation.org)
  • As new and advanced ways to take care of premature infants allowed these babies to survive, many of them developed a progressive eye disease called Retinopathy of Prematurity , or ROP, which can lead to blindness if left untreated. (eyecareproject.com)
  • Premature babies, birth defects, and other serious issues are handled by neonatologists. (drallencherer.net)
  • Premature babies, especially those born earliest, often have complicated medical problems. (alale.co)
  • Children at risk of suffering problems in their psychomotor development are: those exposed to toxins during pregnancy, premature babies, very low weight children, those who have suffered at birth or those who suffer from genetic defects. (cun.es)
  • A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the due date). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infants usually cannot coordinate sucking and swallowing before 34 weeks gestation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Premature birth (before 37 full weeks of gestation) leads to disturbance in the normal rate of growth. (who.int)
  • Premature infants are those born at less than 37 weeks gestation. (bundoo.com)
  • The disorder primarily affects premature infants who are born before 31 weeks of gestation and weigh less than 2.75 pounds. (utah.edu)
  • 30 weeks gestation) infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) refers to a patient who is beyond 37 weeks' gestation and has presented with rupture of membranes (ROM) prior to the onset of labor. (medscape.com)
  • Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is ROM prior to 37 weeks' gestation. (medscape.com)
  • Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at term is rupture of membranes prior to the onset of labor at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation. (medscape.com)
  • The study findings show that while antenatal and postnatal depression in mothers predicted the motor outcomes of newborns during the initial two months of life, stress observed in mothers during and after gestation did not forecast the motor ability of infants during this period. (news-medical.net)
  • This is typically seen as a reflection of birth events (delivery after 40 weeks gestation, meconium aspiration syndrome, infection such as Group B Streptococcus) or with congenital heart lesions, which the extra blood flow through the pulmonary circulation can stress the pulmonary blood vessels (premature closure of blood vessels, pulmonary venous abnormalities). (phassociation.org)
  • The study population consisted of all singleton live-born and stillborn infants delivered at 20 weeks of gestation during 1968-1985 to families residing in base family housing units at Camp Lejeune. (cdc.gov)
  • A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION . (bvsalud.org)
  • Modest supplemental oxygen given to premature infants with moderate cases of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a potentially blinding eye disorder, may not significantly improve ROP, but definitely does not make it worse, according to researchers funded by the Federal government's National Institutes of Health (NIH). (nih.gov)
  • December 8, 2003 - (adapted from an NEI news release)-The results of a clinical trial sponsored by the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, may help ophthalmologists better treat premature infants suffering from a blinding eye disease known as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). (utah.edu)
  • The Early Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ETROP) study results, published in the December issue of the Archives of Ophthalmology, demonstrated that certain premature infants who are at highest risk for developing vision loss from ROP, retained better vision when therapy was administered earlier in the course of the disease. (utah.edu)
  • Comparison of strategies for grading retinal images of premature infants for referral warranted retinopathy of prematurity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Like many premature infants, baby Valentina was diagnosed with Retinopathy of Prematurity. (eyecareproject.com)
  • The mother may be moved to a center that is set up to care for premature infants in a NICU. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prospective observational study on 239 preterm infants at>or =2 months of age in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • She has worked within the NICU and NICU follow-up clinic to maximize patient and family outcomes for the most complex premature and medically-fragile term infants. (educationresourcesinc.com)
  • She is the recipient of the National Association of Neonatal Therapists Clinical Excellence award in 2018, due to her clinical expertise and dedication to advancing the therapeutic interventions for NICU infants with cardiopulmonary conditions. (educationresourcesinc.com)
  • An exclusive human milk (HM)-based diet is designed for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (bmj.com)
  • VLBW premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and SGA children fed an exclusive HM-based diet in the NICU had acceptable growth at 1 and 2 years of age. (bmj.com)
  • Be sure the wrap is tight enough to feel the baby securely on the chest, but I do not recommend being completely hands-free until the infant is home healthy and safely from the NICU. (handtohold.org)
  • The successful transition from feeding tubes to breast or bottle is a developmental milestone for preterm infants and recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics as criteria for discharge from the NICU. (industryintel.com)
  • It was found that the experiences of hospitalization of the mother and baby in a NICU impairs the separation of the mother-infant dyad and the feelings experienced by mothers. (bvsalud.org)
  • RDS treatment usually begins with moving the infant to the neonatal intensive care unit, or NICU, where they receive continuous supervision and medical attention from specialists. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Utilising research-based and process-optimised innovations, as well as research reviews and the latest study summaries, Medela helps NICU staff and the parents make informed choices during infant feeding development. (medela.ca)
  • This includes making oral feeding a positive experience for the infant, parents and NICU personnel. (medela.ca)
  • Data from medical records of infants and preschool children, including feeding practices (breastfeeding, bottle feeding, feeding during sleep, introduction and frequency of sugar use), sociodemographic variables, prematurity and NICU admission were collected. (bvsalud.org)
  • Breastfeeding was not present in 66.7% of preterm infants (p=0.003) and 66.1% of infants admitted at NICU (p=0.011). (bvsalud.org)
  • Our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) provides care for critically ill and premature infants. (merithealthwomanshospital.com)
  • Therefore, it is recommended that such simulation devices be applied in NICU for pain management, especially when parents of infants refuse to be present during painful procedures. (thezaky.com)
  • They reviewed studies of children, adolescents, and adults that assessed ADHD diagnoses in relation to very or extremely premature births and/or very low or extremely low weight births against controls born near or at normal birth weight (≥ 5.5 lb) or near, at, or more than 37 weeks' gestational age. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • These skills include the ability of the infant to cough, produce audible phonation, oral motor skills, swallow skills, trunk facilitation, gestational age appropriate positioning/handling to support the emergence of gross motor skills for postural stability. (educationresourcesinc.com)
  • The report focuses on outcomes of over 30,000 infants with very low birth weight (401-1500 grams) and gestational age (22-28 weeks) born at, or transferred before 2 weeks of age to, one of 26 academic neonatal care centers. (aap.org)
  • One hundred eighty-six premature infants, with a gestational age (GA) range of 23-33 weeks, were monitored with umbilical artery catheters and transcranial Doppler insonation of middle cerebral artery flow velocity for 1-h sessions over the first week of life. (northwestern.edu)
  • Objective To compare postdischarge growth, adiposity and metabolic outcomes of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus small for gestational age (SGA) premature infants fed an exclusive human milk (HM)-based diet in the neonatal intensive care unit. (bmj.com)
  • Design Premature infants (birth weight ≤1250 g) fed an exclusive HM-based diet were examined at 12-15 months corrected gestational age (CGA) (visit 1) for anthropometrics, serum glucose and non-fasting insulin, and at 18-22 months CGA (visit 2) for body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (bmj.com)
  • Rapid catch-up growth for premature infants, especially small for gestational age (SGA) infants, in early childhood has been linked to metabolic disorders and central adiposity. (bmj.com)
  • The immunogenicity of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine was studied in 39 premature neonates, whose weights were 1,800-2,400 g and gestational ages 32-37 weeks. (who.int)
  • The best way to prevent infant RDS is to prevent premature birth, which takes place between 20 and 37 weeks of gestational age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In contrast, lower gestational age and birth weight infants belonging to mothers who did not experience high depressive symptoms perinatally did not demonstrate impaired motor outcomes. (news-medical.net)
  • Perinatal outcome variables included gestational hypertension, preterm births, low-birth-weight infants, small-for-gestational- age infants, and major malformations. (elsevier.com)
  • Among extremely premature newborns, how have maternal and neonatal care practices, neonatal morbidity, and neonatal mortality changed between 1993 and 2012? (aap.org)
  • Innara Health, the industry leader in feeding development for newborns and infants born prematurely is collaborating with Cardinal Health on the redesign of the NTrainer System. (industryintel.com)
  • Innara Health's NTrainer System is the only FDA-cleared medical device that focuses on improving a critical key pre-feeding skill in newborns and preterm infants known as non-nutritive suck (NNS). (industryintel.com)
  • However, in some infants, serum bilirubin levels may rise excessively, which can be cause for concern because unconjugated bilirubin is neurotoxic and can cause death in newborns and lifelong neurologic sequelae in infants who survive ( kernicterus ). (medscape.com)
  • A clinical study was made on 607 newborns of mothers with premature rupture of membrane (PROM group) and 5,775 newborns of mothers without ruptured membrane Baptist Hospital from January 1987 to December 1989. (e-cep.org)
  • Physicians and scientists began recognizing that premature or ill newborns required specialized care in the 1700s. (drallencherer.net)
  • Editorial Note: Premature neonates are reported to have a relative deficiency of vitamin E at birth, which has been associated with hemolytic anemia in premature infants (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the current numbers of VLBW infants born annually in the U.S., between 5,000-10,000 neonates will develop BPD each year. (centerwatch.com)
  • Here, we quantified these ecological processes in a spatiotemporally resolved 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data set of 60 extremely premature neonates using an established mathematical framework. (sdu.dk)
  • Pharmacokinetics of Linezolid in Neonates and Young Infants [abstract A-1409]. (nursingcenter.com)
  • From the archives of the AFIP: Lung disease in premature neonates: radiologic-pathologic correlation. (uams.edu)
  • Effect of weight and age on respiratory complexity in premature neonates. (uams.edu)
  • Work of Breathing in Premature Neonates: Noninvasive Neurally-Adjusted Ventilatory Assist versus Noninvasive Ventilation. (uams.edu)
  • Of the infants in the study with moderate ROP who received the supplemental oxygen, 41 percent progressed to severe ROP," said study chair Dale Phelps, MD, professor of Pediatrics and Ophthalmology at Children's Hospital at Strong at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. (nih.gov)
  • Evidencias en Pediatría" (Evidences in Pediatrics) is a journal published only for health professionals. (evidenciasenpediatria.es)
  • The journal Evidencias en Pediatría (EP / Evidences in Pediatrics) includes occasional references to some kind of free software. (evidenciasenpediatria.es)
  • The journal Evidencias en Pediatría (Evidences in Pediatrics) recognizes as inalienable the intellectual and moral rights of the authors concerning the content of their published manuscripts. (evidenciasenpediatria.es)
  • The journal Evidencias en Pediatría (EP / Evidences in Pediatrics) therefore, accepts that the authors could deposit, at institutional repositories or personal websites, an electronic copy of the revised and finally accepted version of the manuscript once it has been already published. (evidenciasenpediatria.es)
  • The property and rights of the published manuscripts, in its final format, are reserved to and are shared by the journal Evidencias en Pediatría (Evidences in Pediatrics) and the authors. (evidenciasenpediatria.es)
  • However, as one of the goals of Evidencias en Pediatría (EP / Evidences in Pediatrics) is the maximum spread and circulation of its articles among the scientific and professional community, it is permitted to download (from the website: www.evidenciasenpediatria.es) and file a copy of them for individual and private use and without any financial gain. (evidenciasenpediatria.es)
  • The plaintiff also notes that in 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a policy statement that all premature infants should be fed an exclusive human milk diet because of the risk of NEC associated with cow's milk formula. (legalexaminer.com)
  • The NTrainer is an advancement for oral feeding development as it fosters skills essential to the normal development of oral feeding for premature and newborn infants. (industryintel.com)
  • Population Pharmacokinetics of Cefepime in Newborn Infants [abstract 2263]. (nursingcenter.com)
  • The primary patients of neonatology are newborn infants who were born ill or became ill shortly after birth. (drallencherer.net)
  • Since March 9, 1984, CDC has received reports from two hospitals of clusters of an unusual illness occurring among low-birthweight (less than 1,500 grams), premature infants in neonatal intensive-care units. (cdc.gov)
  • All affected infants had received parenteral nutrition therapy, in addition to other supportive measures and therapeutic interventions common to the care of low-birthweight infants. (cdc.gov)
  • Up to now, there have been tight restrictions on the amount of oxygen low birthweight infants were permitted to have," said Carl Kupfer, MD, director of the National Eye Institute (NEI), which funded the study in collaboration with the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR). (nih.gov)
  • The median birthweight of the infants in the group of women who had given birth at least once before was 8.95 lbs., which is significantly greater than the average of 7.92 lbs. of those born to first time mothers. (injurylawyer-news.com)
  • UNC Collaborative for Maternal and Infant Health aims to improve the health and well-being of women and families across North Carolina through community partnerships, research and clinical care innovations, and developing new approaches to complex problems. (mombaby.org)
  • The National Council of Urban Indian Health (NCUIH) recently released an infographic showcasing data on infant and maternal health disparities in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. (ncuih.org)
  • Unfortunately, AI/AN communities throughout the country, including urban AI/AN communities, experience significant maternal and infant health disparities compared to the general population. (ncuih.org)
  • Over half of urban Indian organizations (UIOs) provide care for maternal health, infant health, prenatal, and/or family planning. (ncuih.org)
  • Cost, discrimination, and lack of cultural competency are all contributing factors to the stark infant and maternal health disparities among AI/ANs. (ncuih.org)
  • At least 23 of these clinics provide care for maternal health, infant health, prenatal, and/or family planning. (ncuih.org)
  • They also provide pediatric services and participate in maternal-child care programs such as WIC and the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting program (MIECHV). (ncuih.org)
  • NCUIH has engaged in extensive advocacy on behalf of AI/AN mothers and infants and for increased funding and support to the UIOs which provide maternal health, infant health, prenatal, and family planning services to AI/AN mothers and infants. (ncuih.org)
  • On March 9, 2022, NCUIH signed on to a letter to Congress led by the National Home Visiting Coalition in support of reauthorizing HRSA's Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program (MIECHV) and doubling the Tribal set-aside- which includes UIOs. (ncuih.org)
  • Raimondi highlighted that "over half of urban Indian health centers provide care for maternal health, infant health, prenatal, and/or family planning. (ncuih.org)
  • Background Maternal asthma has been reported to increase the risk of preeclampsia, preterm deliveries, and lower-birth-weight infants, but the mechanisms of this effect are not defined. (elsevier.com)
  • and higher frequency of sugar use and older infants, and maternal schooling corresponding to elementary school. (bvsalud.org)
  • While most women have a normal term pregnancy and deliver a normal infant, a safe and healthy pregnancy is not experienced by all women. (cdc.gov)
  • In other words, a premature birth is one that occurs before the start of the 37th week of pregnancy. (alale.co)
  • This can cause the cervix to open too soon in pregnancy, resulting in premature labor. (alale.co)
  • These findings demonstrate the significant impact of premature extrauterine exposure on brain function and suggest that prematurity can accelerate maturation of the visual and tactile sensory system in infants born very prematurely. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Participants in this study were 36 mothers of infants with corrected ages of 4 months to 12 months who were born prematurely. (e-chnr.org)
  • It is worth noting that while RDS is more common in infants born prematurely, it can develop in any infant. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The lack of improvement in outcomes for the past 3 decades has led to the widespread agreement that novel and effective therapies are desperately needed for infants with BPD-PH. (centerwatch.com)
  • Good News for Premature Infant Outcomes, But Have We Reached a Plateau? (aap.org)
  • An exclusive HM-based diet may improve long-term body composition and metabolic outcomes of premature infants with ≤1250 g birth weight, specifically SGA. (bmj.com)
  • However, if term MRI can predict neurodevelopmental outcomes accurately, the use of this expensive diagnostic procedure as part of standard care could be justified as it may select high risk infants for prolonged and intensive supportive care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. What is the prognostic accuracy (in terms of sensitivity and specificity) of white matter related abnormalities seen on term MRI for long-term developmental outcomes of infants born very preterm or with low birth weight? (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present prospective cohort study, Canadian researchers analyzed the association between prenatal and postnatal depression and stress in mothers and infant motor outcomes within two months of birth during the COVID-19 pandemic through an online survey. (news-medical.net)
  • For this Assignment, you will examine an infant case study to determine short-term developmental outcomes. (topnursingtutors.com)
  • Starting at 2 months after birth, premature infants (preemies) need all the recommended immunizations that full-term infants get. (uofmhealth.org)
  • In full-term infants, it is usually given at birth. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Preemies also have a higher risk than full-term infants for getting severe respiratory syncytial virus infection, especially if they have lung problems. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Although vitamin E is reported to have a therapeutic benefit in treating this form of hemolytic disease in premature infants and may have a role in preventing the development of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants requiring oxygen therapy, the benefit, risk, and dosage relationships are, at present, uncertain (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Phelps said there were side effects in some infants who received the supplemental oxygen, including a temporary worsening of their chronic lung disease. (nih.gov)
  • Shire, the biotech leader in rare diseases, announced that the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation for SHP607 for the prevention of chronic lung disease in extremely premature infants. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • There are no approved treatment options for chronic lung disease for premature infants, and we are aiming to change that. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • As a result of those discussions, Shire is in the process of developing a phase 2b/3 clinical trial SHP607 targeting a primary endpoint focused on chronic lung disease in extremely premature infants. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Hypertension is a chronic condition that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and other diseases that can result in premature death. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,000 live births was the lowest rate ever recorded for the risk of disease or premature mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • The infant is placed under a warmer or in a clear, heated box called an incubator, which controls the air temperature. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Currently, St. Joseph's is seeking donations to purchase 20 specialty-incubator bassinets, designed to keep premature and sick infants warm while protecting them from the threat of infection. (supportstjosephs.org)
  • When a baby is born premature, oftentimes they have to be placed in an incubator. (eyecareproject.com)
  • The first premature infant incubator station was created in Chicago by Joseph DeLee. (drallencherer.net)
  • No article was found for Infant, Premature, Diseases and IL11[original query] . (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors have long known that supplemental oxygen, while helping infants survive, might increase cases of ROP. (nih.gov)
  • The New England Journal of Medicine ( NEJM ) reported May 7 that with aggressive treatment a quarter of premature infants now born at 22 weeks (i.e., five months) survive. (humanlifereview.com)
  • Even as medicine is getting better at helping premature infants survive and thrive, these early arrivals often have initial challenges, one of which is called anemia of prematurity. (bundoo.com)
  • Infants who survive PPHN will need to be followed by pediatric subspecialists such as pulmonologists and cardiologists. (phassociation.org)
  • Many of the infants who survive PPHN will remain on some PH therapy upon discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit and will need to be managed by a PH specialist. (phassociation.org)
  • A premature infant's organs are not fully developed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Times article doesn't consider whether refusing treatment necessary for a premature infant's survival due to a present or anticipated "impairment" would in fact be discriminating on the basis of a pre-existing or a possible disability. (humanlifereview.com)
  • Kangaroo Care with a baby wrap carrier can be started once the premature baby is off of ventilator support with the approval of the infant's doctor and nurses. (handtohold.org)
  • Mothers of premature infants tend to increase their knowledge about their infant's requirements. (who.int)
  • For infants 27 weeks or earlier, the rates were 0.69% of all births in 2014, compared to 0.74% in 2007. (aap.org)
  • But not all the doctors quoted in the Times article supported attempts to save the lives of infants born at 22 weeks-the line where survival becomes questionable. (humanlifereview.com)
  • Methods: Serum cortisol and 17-OHP concentrations were measured in capillary blood deposited on blotter paper on day 3 post-natal age (Day 3) in infants less than 32 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). (scirp.org)
  • Baby Y was born extremely premature at 25.0 weeks, and as a result of being born so early she suffered from numerous breathing, neurological, speech, and other issues. (fuchsberg.com)
  • Sam was born 6 weeks premature, by Cesarean delivery. (topnursingtutors.com)
  • A premature birth is a birth that takes place more than three weeks before the baby is due. (alale.co)
  • There were no significant differences between cohorts in the proportion of infants with apnoea, bradycardia, desaturation and receiving respiratory support after vaccination. (bmj.com)
  • Liu G, Wu H, Li Z. Respiratory viruses affecting premature infants. (minervamedica.it)
  • Immediately after birth, placing the infant directly on mother's chest (dried off) promotes more stable temperatures, blood sugar levels, respiratory efforts, and breastfeeding success. (handtohold.org)
  • Poor air quality is linked to premature death, cancer, and long-term damage to respiratory and cardiovascular systems. (selfregional.org)
  • Respiratory mechanics during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation: a physical model and preterm infant study. (uams.edu)
  • Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants fed an exclusive HM-based diet had better growth than other HM-fed cohorts and had a low postnatal growth failure rate at discharge. (bmj.com)
  • For comparison, a historical cohort of premature infants receiving their primary immunisations without 4CMenB or paracetamol prophylaxis was used. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, we find similar trends in a cohort of 32 healthy term-born infants. (sdu.dk)
  • By applying these templates longitudinally to an independent cohort of very preterm infants (n = 10), we observe that the evoked response template magnitudes are significantly associated with age-related maturation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, in a cross-sectional study we show that the visual and tactile response template magnitudes differ between a cohort of infants who are age-matched at the time of study but who differ according to whether they are born during the very preterm or late preterm period (n = 10 and 8 respectively). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Developmental patterns of physiological response to a multisensory intervention in extremely premature and high-risk infants. (rush.edu)
  • White-Traut RC, Nelson MN, Silvestri JM, Patel M, Berbaum M, Gu GG, Rey PM. Developmental patterns of physiological response to a multisensory intervention in extremely premature and high-risk infants. (rush.edu)
  • The Supporting Premature Infant Nutrition (SPIN) program was developed to address the challenges of helping mothers produce sufficient breast milk for their premature infants, and to improve the manner in which neonatal intensive care unit (NICUs) support optimal nutrition and growth in their most vulnerable population of patients. (kellymom.com)
  • The present study was conducted to assess the effect of prematurity on the growth and development of premature children aged two and three years in Alexandria. (who.int)
  • A premature infant will have a lower birth weight than a full-term infant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ADHD risk was confirmed to be higher in persons who were born very or extremely premature and/or were of very low or extremely low birth weight, with an OR that was 3.04 higher than controls (95% CI, 2.19-4.21). (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Whereas the risk was doubled in the very premature/low birth weight, it was quadrupled in the extremely premature/low birth weight. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • In light of these findings, the researchers recommend that specific neonatal, pediatric, and psychiatric interventions be applied to prevent and minimize ADHD symptomatology in premature and low-birth-weight infants. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Nutritional Support of the Very Low Birth Weight Infant: Toolkit (December 2008) from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative. (kellymom.com)
  • Furman L, Minich N, Hack M. Correlates of lactation in mothers of very low birth weight infants . (kellymom.com)
  • This study shows that presence of moderate/severe WMA on MRI around term equivalent age can predict CP and motor function in very preterm or low-birth-weight infants with moderate sensitivity and specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, an estimated 90 percent of extremely low birth weight infants (those weighing less than 1,000 grams) receive one or more red blood cell transfusions, according to the journal Blood Reviews . (bundoo.com)
  • Two TIV doses are immunogenic and well tolerated in extremely low-birth-weight, premature infants 6 to 17 months old. (elsevier.com)
  • Generally speaking, women who have had more than one child are more likely to have larger infants, but the team noted that healthcare providers often significantly underestimate the birth weight of subsequent children. (injurylawyer-news.com)
  • Factors commonly associated with shoulder dystocia include high infant birth weight , prolonged labor, mothers who have given birth at least two times prior, breech delivery and premature birth. (injurylawyer-news.com)
  • Abused women are at a significantly higher risk of having intrauterine growth retardations and low-birth weight infants. (gacircleofhope.org)
  • Changes in lung volume and work of breathing: A comparison of two variable-flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure devices in very low birth weight infants. (uams.edu)
  • High-frequency oscillatory ventilation versus conventional mechanical ventilation for very-low-birth-weight infants. (uams.edu)
  • Clinical observations were made on 338 low birth weight infants, who were delivered at Pusan Wallace Memorial Baptist Hospital, during the 3 year periods from 1989 to 1991. (e-cep.org)
  • 2) Of all infants, 47.3% were in the birth weight range of 2251-2500. (e-cep.org)
  • Elective high-frequency oscillatory versus conventional ventilation in preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patients' data. (uams.edu)
  • In very premature or sick infants, nutrition may be given through a vein until the baby is stable enough to receive all nutrition through the stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thanks to strong donor support in the past, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center operates one of the Valley's most advanced nursery intensive care units, which serves as the first home for 800 to 1,000 infants annually. (supportstjosephs.org)
  • A study of Natives in UIO service areas found that while birth rates, in general, were lower in the urban Native population (12.8 and 16.5 per 1,000 population, respectively), premature birth rates for both urban and non-urban AI/AN were higher than those of all other races and ethnicities combined (12.3% of live births among AI/AI in urban areas and 10.9% among the general population in the same area). (ncuih.org)
  • The study suggests that the provision of quality medical care could eliminate the growth and developmental lag of premature children. (who.int)
  • Premature infants are at risk of developmental delay, and the actual developmental level corresponds to the degree of prematurity. (who.int)
  • Developmental delay in premature infants might be manifested as minor or major neurosensory deficit and impairment of intellectual or motor functions [6-8]. (who.int)
  • This study highlights the value of using a standardised multi-modal evoked-activity analysis approach to assess premature neurodevelopment, and will likely complement resting-state EEG and behavioural assessments in the study of the functional impact of developmental care interventions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Despite their importance to health, the ecological assembly and succession processes governing gut microbiome composition in premature infants remained incompletely understood. (sdu.dk)
  • Background: Influenza vaccine immunogenicity in premature infants is incompletely characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • Each infant received either a single vaccine or multiple vaccines on one day. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Abnormal elevation of CRP level occurred in 85% of infants administered multiple vaccines and up to 70% of those given a single vaccine. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Overall, 16% of infants had vaccine-associated cardiorespiratory events within 48 hours postimmunization. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Objectives To assess the risk of significant adverse events in premature infants receiving the novel 4-component group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) with their routine immunisations at 2 months of age. (bmj.com)
  • Immunogenicity and immunologic memory of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in premature infants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study is the first to describe both persistence of antibody and evidence for induction of immune memory using meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in preterm infants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in premature infants. (who.int)
  • Sanpavat S, Poovorawan Y, Chittinand S, Bhongsvej S, Thaithumyanon P. Immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in premature infants. (who.int)
  • Infants and kids not previously vaccinated all need two doses of any flu vaccine for protection. (webmd.com)
  • That is, persons who were born very/extreme premature and of very/extremely low weight were about 3 times more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than those who had term, normal-weight births. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • It's just a descriptive study (not to demean that, it involves some very well planned statistical analysis as well as cooperation among many clinical centers), but it provides a great snapshot of progress in care of extremely premature infants over the last couple decades. (aap.org)
  • These results suggest that the uniqueness of individual gut microbiota of extremely premature infants is largely due to stochastic assembly. (sdu.dk)
  • Our study addresses the ecological processes that result in the observed individuality of microbes in the gastrointestinal tract between extremely premature and term-born infants. (sdu.dk)
  • During the first days of life, extremely premature infants demonstrate adequate pituitary response to human corticotrophin-releasing hormone (hCRH) [7,8]. (scirp.org)
  • A later study found that an exclusive human milk diet was associated with significant benefits for extremely premature infants , including decreased NEC rates as well as a reduced risk of late-onset sepsis and mortality. (legalexaminer.com)
  • However, infants with extremely low blood counts may require blood transfusions. (bundoo.com)
  • The delivery of an extremely premature infant is a nutritional emergency. (medela.ca)
  • Schanler R.J., Lau, C., Hurst, N.M., & Smith, E.O. Randomized trial of donor human milk versus preterm formula as substitutes for mothers' own milk in the feeding of extremely premature infants. (medela.ca)
  • A premature baby may have a small, soft feeding tube placed through the nose or mouth into the stomach. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This dynamic intermediate-advanced course will elucidate the cardiopulmonary implications for the premature or medically-complex infant as related to physiological stability, evolving motor control, sensory stability, and transition to oral motor skills that support feeding. (educationresourcesinc.com)
  • NNS is often lacking or weak in preterm infants but critical for the safe transition from feeding tubes to breast or bottle. (industryintel.com)
  • Therefore, it is important to progress the infant to oral feeding as soon as possible. (medela.ca)
  • Preterm infants who practice non-nutritive sucking during enteral feeding have improved feeding tolerance, accelerated transition from enteral to oral feeding, increased weight gain and a reduced length of stay in hospital. (medela.ca)
  • In addition, the readiness of a preterm infant for oral feeding can be assessed to facilitate the transition at an optimal time. (medela.ca)
  • The International Code on the Marketing of breast milk substitutes is the very cornerstone of breastfeeding protection, promotion and support, and an integral part of infant and young feeding policie. (goldlearning.com)
  • In infants, feeding practices considered as high-risk caries factors have been associated with high sugar density (proportions greater than 50% of simple carbohydrates in 100g of foods such as sweets, soft drinks, sugar and honey), to the frequent ingestion of foods, prolonged and high-frequency breastfeeding, inadequate bottle feeding, with emphasis on nighttime use and with sweetened liquids [5]. (bvsalud.org)
  • In 2018, the World Health Assembly, through resolution WHA71.9 on infant and young child feeding, affirmed that "the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding contributes substantially to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals on nutrition and health and is a core element of qual. (bvsalud.org)
  • The infant was subsequently diagnosed with cerebral palsy and failure to thrive. (legalexaminer.com)
  • In term infants, clinical chorioamnionitis is highly associated with cerebral palsy. (cdc.gov)
  • In preterm infants, clinical chorioamnionitis is less strongly and consistently associated with cerebral palsy. (cdc.gov)
  • Prematurity can result in widespread neurodevelopmental impairment, with the impact of premature extrauterine exposure on brain function detectable in infancy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings indicate that infection has a major effect on the infant besides the already large issue of prematurity. (cdc.gov)
  • CRP level in infants is elevated in the 48 hours following immunization. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Premature infants weighed less (mean, 1.3-1.8 kg difference) at the time of immunization than FT infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Le Comité a noté les progrès accomplis en vue suite à l'isolement du poliovirus de référence MEF-1 towards the achievement of global, safe d'atteindre l'objectif d'une vaccination sûre au associé aux cas de paralysie immunization since its last meeting in 2002. (who.int)
  • The infants in the studyfell into two groups - those whose moderate ROP was complicated with dilated eye bloodvessels, and those whose blood vessels were not dilated. (nih.gov)
  • This finding needs to beconfirmed with additional research before we can recommend modest supplemental oxygen asa treatment for infants with moderate ROP without dilated blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • The lungs and blood vessels are normally developed in these infants, but the blood vessels themselves are constricted or narrowed. (phassociation.org)
  • With the high levels of oxygen in this devise, sometimes the blood vessels in these infants can grow a little abnormally. (eyecareproject.com)
  • ROP develops in about 14,000-16,000 infants each year who weigh less than 2 3/4 pounds (1250 grams) at birth. (nih.gov)
  • An intravenous vitamin E preparation, containing 25 mg/ml vitamin E, 9% polysorbate 80 and 1% polysorbate 20 in 2-ml vials (E-Ferol Aqueous SolutionR, distributed by O'Neal, Jones & Feldman, St. Louis, Missouri), was introduced in each hospital for addition to parenteral nutrition solutions approximately 1 month before the onset of illness in the first infant in both clusters. (cdc.gov)
  • Twenty six seriously ill or premature neonatal patients reciving parenteral nutrition with TNA were studied by analyzing anthropometric parameters, laboratory values, and complications. (e-cep.org)
  • Some premature births are multiple pregnancies, such as twins or triplets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The results mean that clinicians do not have to be as restrictive as they have been when giving supplemental oxygen to infants who have already developed moderate ROP. (nih.gov)
  • This is because doctors have been concerned about a possible adverse effect of supplemental oxygen on the eyes of infants with ROP. (nih.gov)
  • While the benefits and risks of supplemental oxygen must be individually considered for each infant, doctors need no longer worry that supplemental oxygen, as used in this study, will harm eyes with moderate ROP. (nih.gov)
  • Many premature infants need supplemental oxygen soon after birth because their lungs are not sufficiently mature to efficiently transfer oxygen into their bodies. (nih.gov)
  • If controlled amounts of supplemental oxygen could help prevent the progression of ROP, then infants could avoid this threat to their sight and consequently the invasive surgery for severe ROP, with its possible long-term side effects. (nih.gov)
  • Of the infants with moderate ROP who did not receive the supplemental oxygen, 48 percent progressed to severe ROP. (nih.gov)
  • Infants with PPHN will usually present within the first 24 hours of life with trouble breathing and low oxygen saturation levels. (phassociation.org)
  • Effect of Transcutaneous Electrode Temperature on Accuracy and Precision of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Measurements in the Preterm Infants. (uams.edu)
  • Along with providing sufficient warmth, the units ensured that the infants received oxygen. (drallencherer.net)
  • However, about 1,100-1,500 infants annually develop ROP that is severe enough to require surgical treatment. (nih.gov)
  • In preterm infants, severe hypotension refractory to both volume expansion and inotropic agents have been related to relative adrenal insufficiency [2]. (scirp.org)
  • In preterm infants, effective treatments are essential because severe and prolonged hypotension is associated with increased mortality and central nervous system morbidity [5,6]. (scirp.org)
  • Just as importantly, the study also established the value of an improved risk assessment model to more accurately identify those infants who are at the highest risk for developing severe vision loss from ROP. (utah.edu)
  • It is crucial that infants with severe ROP be identified early and be given timely treatment. (utah.edu)
  • Voriconazole serum concentrations in an infant treated for trichosporon beigelii infection. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Work-related stressors associated with increased levels of psychological symptoms included: exposure to cases involving the accidental death of infants, as well as stress associated with interacting with the families of the deceased and concerns about bringing home infection or illness. (cdc.gov)
  • A significant proportion of premature births occur due to infection, inflammation, or a combination of both, which develop in the mother's womb. (rambam.org.il)
  • Conclusions 4CMenB does not increase the risk of serious adverse events in hospitalised premature infants. (bmj.com)
  • The hypothesis is that oral L-citrulline will be well tolerated, without significant adverse effects in infants at high risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with BPD. (centerwatch.com)
  • Two (5%) premature and 8 (19%) FT infants had adverse events, primarily fever, within 72 hours after vaccination. (elsevier.com)
  • The purposes of this study were to assess the parenting stress in mothers of premature infants and stress related characteristics of mothers and infants. (e-chnr.org)
  • She continued to say, "despite desiring to do so, many urban Indian health clinics cannot expand their services to provide complete care for mothers and infants from conception to birth due to underfunding. (ncuih.org)
  • We hypothesized that geometric mean titers of influenza antibody would be lower in premature than in full-term (FT) (37 week) infants. (elsevier.com)
  • Design/Methods: In this prospective multicenter study, former premature and FT infants who were 6 to 17 months of age received 2 doses of TIV during the 2006-2007 or 2007-2008 influenza seasons. (elsevier.com)
  • A clinical study on influences of premature rupture of membranes in the newborn infant. (e-cep.org)
  • It is estimated that 8-42% of infants with BPD will develop pulmonary hypertension (PH). (centerwatch.com)
  • Inhaled nitric oxide increases urinary nitric oxide metabolites and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in premature infants: relationship to pulmonary outcome. (uams.edu)
  • In 1992, the New England Journal of Medicine published a studying saying "in contrast to Black infants in the general population, Black infants born to college-educated parents have higher mortality rates than similar White infants. (ourweekly.com)
  • Black infant mortality rates among college-educated mothers have been strongly linked to the high-stress lifestyles these women lead. (ourweekly.com)
  • High infant mortality rates existed as early as the late 1800s. (drallencherer.net)
  • The plaintiff notes that the defendants' marketing campaigns deceive parents into believing cow's milk products are safe for premature infants, that they are equal or even superior to breast milk, and that they are necessary for the proper growth and development of preterm infants. (legalexaminer.com)
  • We understand that caring for your premature infant or medically fragile child places exceptional demands on you as parents and we are here to help. (actionpotentialrehab.ca)
  • Combining serum 17-OHP and cortisol measurements during congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) screening programs on blood spots may be an easy-to-perform and efficient means to assess the 17-OHP/cortisol ratio in the blood sampling limited population of preterm infants. (scirp.org)
  • Most premature births occur in the late preterm stage. (alale.co)
  • Retrolental fibroplasia: efficacy of vitamin E in a double blind clinical study of preterm infants. (cdc.gov)
  • There have been no randomized clinical trials of any therapy in infants with BPD-PH. (centerwatch.com)
  • Prior to Shire adding SHP607 to its clinical development pipeline in 2013 when it acquired privately held Premacure AB, a Phase I clinical trial was conducted and its results showed that the levels of IGF-1 were increased to within physiological levels and that administration of the investigational protein to preterm infants. (drugdiscoverytrends.com)
  • Pro/con clinical debate: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation is better than conventional ventilation for premature infants. (uams.edu)
  • When premature labor develops and can't be stopped, the health care team will prepare for a high-risk birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The infant needs special care in a nursery until the organs have developed enough to keep the baby alive without medical support. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infants need special nursery care until they are able to breathe without extra support, eat by mouth, and maintain body temperature and body weight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, we have worked with Helsinki University Central Hospital to improve the care of premature infants. (aalto.fi)
  • Practicing Kangaroo Care when able is a wonderful way to benefit the baby on many levels while allowing the parent to bond with and partake in the care of their premature infant. (handtohold.org)
  • These infants tend to need follow-up care but go on to live healthy, regular lives. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Preterm delivery remains the most important single issue in perinatal care because 70% of all perinatal deaths and a similar proportion of perinatal illness occur in the preterm delivered infant. (cdc.gov)
  • UIOs provide a range of services such as primary care, behavioral health, traditional, and social services- including those for infants, children, and mothers. (ncuih.org)
  • For the most part, premature or ailing infants were not provided medical care. (drallencherer.net)